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Sample records for alcohol problems compared

  1. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  2. Summary of results of a comparative study of alcohol problems and solutions: Spain and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Dinis, M C; Lowe, L

    1992-06-01

    This study explores through a mail questionnaire alcohol problems and solutions in Spain and Portugal including: drunk-driving, treatment services and prevention, economic issues, alcohol consumption, cultural aspects, and supply of alcoholic beverages. Consumption of alcohol in both countries is lower for men and women with college educations. Marital status has minimal effects on the consumption level of men and women in Spain and of men in Portugal. For Portuguese married women, consumption is higher. Too many bars and feasts are primary cultural adjuncts contributing to alcohol problems. PMID:1612818

  3. The Comparative Impacts of Risk and Protective Factors on Alcohol-Related Problems in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durkin, Keith F.; Blackston, Amber; Dowd, Sabrina; Franz, Shalleigh; Eagle, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories…

  4. Local policies to tackle a national problem: Comparative qualitative case studies of an English local authority alcohol availability intervention.

    PubMed

    Egan, Matt; Brennan, Alan; Buykx, Penny; De Vocht, Frank; Gavens, Lucy; Grace, Daniel; Halliday, Emma; Hickman, Matthew; Holt, Vivien; Mooney, John D; Lock, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Cumulative impact policies (CIPs) are widely used in UK local government to help regulate alcohol markets in localities characterised by high density of outlets and high rates of alcohol related harms. CIPs have been advocated as a means of protecting health by controlling or limiting alcohol availability. We use a comparative qualitative case study approach (n=5 English local government authorities, 48 participants) to assess how CIPs vary across different localities, what they are intended to achieve, and the implications for local-level alcohol availability. We found that the case study CIPs varied greatly in terms of aims, health focus and scale of implementation. However, they shared some common functions around influencing the types and managerial practices of alcohol outlets in specific neighbourhoods without reducing outlet density. The assumption that this will lead to alcohol harm-reduction needs to be quantitatively tested.

  5. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  6. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  7. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  8. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient ... and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often found together. This pairing can be big trouble for the trauma survivor and his or ...

  9. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  10. Alcohol and Kids: Facing Our Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue on alcohol use among children and adolescents. Describes scope of the problem, claiming that alcohol is the most consumed drug among children and youth. Discusses possible progression in alcohol use, parents' reactions to their children using alcohol or other drugs, and effects of the media and advertising on…

  11. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  12. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  13. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  14. Community Providers’ Views of Alcohol Problems and Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gassman, Ruth A.; Weisner, Constance

    2013-01-01

    This study contrasts community health and social service providers’ views on alcohol vs. other drug abuse. A probability sample of 457 social work and other providers from a county’s public and private medical and mental health clinics, welfare and criminal justice systems, and substance abuse programs, as well as clergy, private therapists, and physicians were interviewed. For both alcohol and drug problems, providers thought only of severe dysfunctions, which suggest that less severe forms of these problems may evade detection. In addition, drug problems were viewed as more harmful than alcohol problems, which may result in providers minimizing alcohol problems. PMID:23565054

  15. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  16. Sports Participation and Problem Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Darren; DePadilla, Lara; Thompson, Nancy J.; Kushner, Howard I.; Windle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports participation, though offering numerous developmental benefits for youths, has been associated with adolescent alcohol use. Differences also exist between men/boys and women/girls in both sports participation and patterns of alcohol-related behaviors, but there are few longitudinal investigations of this relationship. Purpose This study investigated the relationship between school-based sports participation and alcohol-related behaviors using data from a multiwave national study of adolescent men/boys and women/girls. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, collected between 1994 and 2001, were analyzed in 2009 (n = 8271). Latent growth modeling, accommodating the complex sampling design, was applied to examine whether participation in school-based sports was associated with initial levels and change in problem alcohol use over three waves of data collection. Results After taking into account time-invariant covariates including demographics and other predictors of alcohol use, greater involvement in sports during adolescence was associated with faster average acceleration in problem alcohol use over time among youths who took part in only sports. The findings suggest, however, that the relationship between sports participation and problem alcohol use depends on participation in sports in combination with other activities, but it does not differ between men/boys and women/girls. Conclusions Sports may represent an important and efficient context for selective interventions to prevent problem alcohol use and negative consequences of alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:20409498

  17. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  18. Managing alcohol problems and risky drinking.

    PubMed

    Babor, T F; Aguirre-Molina, M; Marlatt, G A; Clayton, R

    1999-01-01

    While overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related automobile deaths have declined, rates of alcohol dependence, liver cirrhosis, and alcohol-related problems remain high among adults, and binge drinking continues as a major health risk for high school and college students. Some individual-level downstream interventions have been evaluated with sufficient rigor to recommend widespread dissemination, and widened availability of new pharmacotherapies could further increase effectiveness. Midstream population-based programs, such as screening and brief interventions in hospitals and managed care organizations, may have greater public health impact than tertiary treatment because of early identification and low cost. Upstream programs and policies that place limits on alcohol availability (e.g., higher legal purchasing age) have the greatest potential to reduce morbidity and mortality at the least cost to society. PMID:10724728

  19. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol Treating Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... offers treatment options The new publication, Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help , complements the information ...

  20. How Should Alcohol Problems Be Conceptualized? Causal Indicators Within the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Chen, Ting-Huei; Vergés, Alvaro; Bollen, Kenneth A; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-related problems have traditionally been conceptualized and measured by an effect indicator model. That is, it is generally assumed that observed indicators of alcohol problems are caused by a latent variable. However, there are reasons to think that this construct is more accurately conceptualized as including at least some causal indicators, in which observed indicators cause the latent variable. The present study examined the measurement model of a well-known alcohol consequences questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Participants were 703 students from a large public university in the Northeast mandated to an alcohol intervention. We conducted a zero tetrad test to examine a measurement model consisting solely of effect indicators and a model with both causal and effect indicators. Overall, the results suggested the hybrid model fit the data better than a model with only effect indicators. These findings have implications regarding the theoretical underpinnings of alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26589725

  1. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  2. Screening for Alcohol Problems Among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that the authors judged to be the most favorable based on prior empirical comparative studies. Results Forty-four percent of colleges reported use of at least 1 formal alcohol screening tool and nearly all of these used a tool appropriate for college students. However, less than half of the 44% of colleges that used a screening tool used 1 of the 4 most favorable tools. Conclusions Continued efforts are needed to encourage colleges to use the most effective available screening tools to identify alcohol-related problems that require intervention among students. PMID:21500052

  3. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  4. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  5. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  6. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  7. Industrial Alcoholism Programs: The Problem, The Program, The Professional

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Lawrence M.

    1976-01-01

    Alcoholism, as a national health problem, is receiving increasingly more attention from private industry as well as from federal and local government. The author addresses himself to the problem of alcoholism in industry and reviews the historical development of industrial alcoholism programs. He concludes with suggestions for the community…

  8. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  9. Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... plans for individuals without health insurance. An Ongoing Process Overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing ... overcoming problem drinking. Relapse Is Part of the Process Relapse is common among people who overcome alcohol ...

  10. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  11. RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN VICTIMS OF PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Jaquier, Véronique; Tennen, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of alcohol problems and disorders among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV), factors related to current alcohol use are understudied. We examined current risk factors for alcohol problems among 143 substance-using, IPV-exposed women recruited from an urban community from 2007-2010. PTSD symptom severity was associated with alcohol-related problems and a positive alcohol screen; physical IPV severity was related to alcohol dependence. Posthoc analyses revealed that PTSD symptom severity mediated relationships between physical IPV severity and hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking. Focusing on managing PTSD symptoms and physical IPV in community-based interventions may halt the progression from alcohol use to dependence. PMID:22360665

  12. TEMPERAMENT AND BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS AMONG INFANTS IN ALCOHOLIC FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    EDWARDS, ELLEN PETERSON; LEONARD, KENNETH E.; EIDEN, RINA DAS

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between paternal alcoholism and 12-month infant temperament and 18-month behavior problems. The role of associated parental psychopathology and maternal drinking in exacerbating risk for maladaptive behavioral outcomes was also examined. Participants were 213 families (102 control families, 94 paternal alcoholic families, and 17 families with alcoholic fathers and heavy drinking mothers) who were assessed when their child was 12 months old and reassessed again when their child was 18 months old. Infants of alcoholics displayed marginally more stubborn/persistent temperaments at 12 months of age, but significantly more internalizing problems at 18 months. Analyses suggested that internalizing problems in the infants of alcoholics could be attributed to the paternal depression concomitant with paternal alcoholism. In addition, an interaction was observed, indicating that paternal alcohol problems predicted 18-month externalizing problems among families with low maternal depression, but not among families with high maternal depression. Children of depressed mothers exhibited uniformly higher externalizing scores, but were not further impacted by paternal alcohol problems. However, children of nondepressed mothers were adversely affected by fathers’ drinking as reflected by higher externalizing behavior scores. The results highlight the necessity of addressing the overall contextual risks that occur with paternal alcoholism in studies of the development of children in alcoholic families. PMID:19436770

  13. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  14. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  15. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  16. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of…

  17. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  18. Characterizing Subjective Responses to Alcohol among Adolescent Problem Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Monti, Peter M.; Ray, Lara; Treloar, Hayley R.; Reynolds, Elizabeth K.; Ramirez, Jason; Chun, Thomas; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Justus, Alicia; Tidey, Jennifer; Blanchard, Alexander; Magill, Molly

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of alcoholism emphasize the acute reinforcing properties of alcohol as chief determinants of drinking, and animal research suggests adolescents are uniquely sensitive to these effects. Human studies of these phenomena, however, are virtually nonexistent. We used ecological momentary assessment methods to capture adolescents' subjective responses to alcohol in real time in their natural environments. Adolescent participants were 22 problem drinkers, ages 15 to 19 years (M = 18.3, SD = 0.09; 55% female; 55% alcohol dependent). Participants consumed alcohol on 38% of days during a one-week monitoring period, with an average of 5 drinks per occasion. Momentary data revealed that adolescents experience decreased stimulation and increased sedation and ‘high’ across the ascending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Notably, greater craving predicted higher volumes of subsequent alcohol consumption during the episode, whereas greater ‘high’ attenuated use. To test for developmental differences in these effects, we pooled these data with data from a similarly ascertained sample of 36 adult heavy drinkers, ages 24 to 64 years (M = 38.1, SD = 11.8; 50% female; 61% alcohol dependent). Adolescents were more sensitive to the stimulant effects of alcohol than adults. This study provides novel data on how adolescent problem drinkers experience alcohol in their natural contexts and illustrates how these effects, which appear to differ from adult problem drinkers, confer liability for future drinking. PMID:24661164

  19. The morning after: alcohol misuse and employment problems.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Sindelar, Jody L; Fang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich, recent, and nationally representative longitudinal survey specifically designed to examine alcohol use and associated problems, we investigate the effects of alcohol misuse on a series of understudied and perhaps less common employment problems. Such problems include being fired or laid off from a job, sustained unemployment, and conflicts with a supervisor and/or co-worker. After controlling for time-invariant omitted variables via fixed effects estimation, we find evidence that three measures of alcohol misuse are significantly related to employment problems. The results offer new information on the potential adverse labor market effects of alcohol misuse and shed light on potential mechanisms through which alcohol misuse may impact intensive labor supply and/or wages. PMID:22162875

  20. Treating alcohol problems with couple therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-05-01

    Couple therapy for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs) results in less drinking and greater relationship stability and satisfaction in both men and women with AUDs. The theoretical tenets, treatment methods, and research evidence for Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) are summarized. The application of ABCT is illustrated through the treatment of a 42-year-old woman with an AUD and her 56-year-old husband. During 12 sessions over a 6-month period, the woman attained abstinence from alcohol and learned cognitive and behavioral coping skills to deal with drinking antecedents. Her husband learned to support her abstinence by stopping drinking himself, helping her cope with drinking urges, and reinforcing her successes. The couple increased positive pleasurable activities that did not involve alcohol and improved their communication skills. Challenges in the treatment included her ambivalence about abstaining, their complicated work and travel schedules, and other life stressors. PMID:22504611

  1. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  2. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  3. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  4. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  5. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  6. Comparative study on dermatoglyphics in alcoholic patients.

    PubMed

    Devcić, Sanja; Mihanović, Mate; Milicić, Jasna; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Silić, Ante

    2009-12-01

    According to the world's prevalence rate, alcoholism is in the third place after heart and blood vessel diseases and malignant tumors. With the development of neuroscience, the causes of alcoholism's biological etiologic sources are still being studied. Considering that dermatoglyphics are highly determined by heritage, we contemplated the possibilities of their discrimination in alcoholic patients in relation to phenotypically healthy subjects. We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative dermatoglyphics properties of 100 alcoholic patients without psychiatric comorbidity, who have been cured in the Psychiatric Hospital Sveti Ivan two or more times, and those of 100 phenotypically healthy men. Through the t-test we evaluated the heterogeneity of the examined groups. Results showed a statistically significant difference on five examined variables. In the calculation of fluctuating asymmetry measure, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlation of values of the right and the left hand on the tested variables, beside one. Chi-square tests showed that there is no relation between the dermatoglyphic qualitative properties of alcoholic patients and those of the examinees from the comparison group. Despite the indisputable genetic role in the genesis of alcoholism, the analysis of the dermatoglyphics carried out in our study did not show any etiological connection between the results of the test on dermatoglyphics and the appearance of alcoholism.

  7. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  8. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  9. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol.

  10. Alcohol Use Problems and Sexual Risk Among Young Adult African American Mothers.

    PubMed

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented high levels of alcohol use and sexual risk among young mothers. We examined parenting satisfaction and self-efficacy in relation to alcohol use problems and sexual risk among 346 young African American women enrolled in an HIV prevention trial, 41 % (n = 141) of whom were mothers. Among mothers, greater parenting satisfaction was associated with a reduced likelihood of problematic alcohol use, having multiple sex partners, and testing positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. Relative to non-parenting women, mothers reported lower condom use. Compared to non-parenting women, mothers with the highest parenting satisfaction reported fewer alcohol use problems; mothers with the lowest parenting satisfaction reported lower condom use and were more likely to have multiple partners and test positive for T. vaginalis. Parenting self-efficacy was not associated with the outcomes examined. Future research investigating relationships between parenting satisfaction, alcohol use and sexual risk may be useful for improving multiple maternal health outcomes. PMID:26499334

  11. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  12. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  13. Comparing liquid-fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs lass to produce than 'Lcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references, 6 tables

  14. Childhood Mental Ability and Adult Alcohol Intake and Alcohol Problems: The 1970 British Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J.; Schoon, Ingrid; Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Gale, Catharine R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the potential relation of mental ability test scores at age 10 years with alcohol problems and alcohol intake at age 30 years. Methods. We used data from a prospective observational study involving 8170 members of a birth cohort from Great Britain born in 1970. Data included mental ability scores at age 10 years and responses to inquiries about alcohol intake and problems at age 30 years. Results. After adjustment for potential mediating and confounding factors, cohort members with higher childhood mental ability scores had an increased prevalence of problem drinking in adulthood. This association was stronger among women (odds ratio [OR]1 SD increase in ability = 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16, 1.64) than men (OR1 SD increase in ability = 1.17; CI = 1.04, 1.28; P for interaction = .004). Childhood mental ability was also related to a higher average intake of alcohol and to drinking more frequently. Again, these gradients were stronger among women than among men. Conclusions. In this large-scale cohort study, higher childhood mental ability was related to alcohol problems and higher alcohol intake in adult life. These unexpected results warrant examination in other studies. PMID:18235070

  15. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  16. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  17. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  18. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  19. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  20. [Alcohol and drug problems in the Third World].

    PubMed

    Mork, T

    1991-06-10

    The paper reviews recent development in abuse of alcohol, narcotics and psychotropic substances in developing countries. There has been a marked increase in production and sale of alcoholic beverages, and alcohol abuse has spread to new groups of the population. This has led to serious social and health problems in many developing countries. There has also been a substantial increase in abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in some developing countries. The illicit production and traffic in narcotic drugs have resulted in more crime and corruption, and in some countries to terrorism and economic and political destabilization. The paper also summarizes activities undertaken within the UN-system in the field of alcohol and drug abuse.

  1. Comparing distributions of alcohol consumption: empirical probability plots.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Tan, E S; Knibbe, R A

    1990-06-01

    Parametric approaches to the problem of the distribution of alcohol consumption have not been very successful. In this article, it is shown that regulatory in distribution can be studied without making assumptions about a distribution model underlying the data. For this purpose, a method is used with which distributions are compared graphically in so-called probability plots. It appears that, up to a proper linear transformation on a logarithmic scale, a surprisingly large regularity over time can be observed between distributions taken from Dutch samples in 1970, 1981 and 1985. Equally, distributions from male and female sub-samples do not appear to differ up to a linear shift. The finding of a relative equality in distributional form is in accordance with the Ledermann model. However, the difference with the Ledermann's model is that no assumptions about the exact shape of the distributions are being made.

  2. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  3. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  4. A Profile of Clients Entering Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbiner, Richard

    Large numbers of clients entering publicly-funded substance abuse treatment facilities cite problems with alcohol as one reason for seeking treatment. This report presents the results of a secondary analysis of the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) data set. It profiles the treatment experiences of three study groups that…

  5. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  6. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  7. Comparative performance study of spark ignition engines burning alcohols, gasoline, and alcohol-gasoline blends

    SciTech Connect

    Desoky, A.A.; Rabie, L.H.

    1983-12-01

    In recent years it has been clear that the reserves of oil, from which petrol is refined, are becoming limited. In order to conserve these stocks of oil, and to minimize motoring costs as the price of dwindling oil resources escalates, it's obviously desirable to improve the thermal efficiency of the spark ignition engine. There are also obvious benefits to be obtained from making spark ignition engines run efficiently on alternative fuel, (non-crude based fuel). It has been claimed that hydrogen is an ideal fuel for the internal combustion engine it certainly causes little pollution, but is difficult to store, high in price, and difficult to burn efficiently in the engine without it knocking and backfiring. These problems arise because of the very wide flammability limits and the very high flame velocity of hydrogen. Alcohols used an additive or substitute for gasoline could immediately help to solve both energy and pollution problems. An experimental tests were carried out at Mansoura University Laboratories using a small single cylinder SIE, fully instrumented to measure the engine performance. The engine was fueled with pure methonol, pure ethonol, gasoline methanol blends and gasaline ethanol blends. The results showed that in principle, from kechnological aspects it's possible to use alcohols as a gasoline extender or as alcohol's gasoline, blends for automobiles. With regard to energy consumptions alcohols and alcohols gasoline blends lead to interesting results. The fuel economy benefits of using alcohols gasoline blends was found to be interesting in the part throltle operation.

  8. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  9. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  10. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  11. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  12. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  13. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  14. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  15. Patterns of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Predict Sexual Risk Taking Among Non-Problem Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Norris, Jeanette; Kiekel, Preston A.; Morrison, Diane M.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Zawacki, Tina; Jaczques-Tiura, Angela J.; Abdallah, Devon Alizsa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Although alcohol consumption and sexual risk taking are associated, not everyone who drinks alcohol engages in risky sexual behavior. The purposes of the present study were to identify patterns of alcohol use behaviors and alcohol expectancies among women who are non–problem drinkers and to examine how these patterns are associated with indices of sexual risk. Method: Data from 758 non–problem drinking women who have sex with men and were not in committed relationships were analyzed using latent profile analysis to determine patterns of alcohol use and alcohol-related expectancies. Results: Of the four patterns observed, three classes had similar alcohol-related expectancies but differed with respect to drinking behavior (moderate drinking, regular heavy episodes, and frequent heavy episodes), and the fourth class consisted of moderate drinkers with low expectancies (low expectancies). Results revealed that those in the frequent heavy episodes class had the greatest number of sexual partners in the past year and drank the most alcohol before having sex compared with the other women. Both the regular and frequent heavy episodes classes reported greater likelihood of having unprotected sex in the future, more positive beliefs about casual sex, and greater subjective intoxication before having sex than women in the moderate drinking or low expectancies classes. Women in the low expectancies class reported less positive beliefs about condoms than those in the moderate drinking and regular heavy episodes classes. Conclusions: Results suggest that different patterns of expectancies and drinking behaviors are associated with different indices of sexual risk taking and highlight the importance of individually tailored programs for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23384370

  16. [The problems of struggle with alcoholism in works of Pirogov congresses].

    PubMed

    Yegorisheva, I V

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates that the Pirogov Society considered prevalence of alcoholism in Russia as an important social problem. The Pirogov congresses discussed such issues as impact of alcohol on human organism, principles of organization of struggle with alcoholism and its treatment and the role of physicians in the struggle with alcoholism as well.

  17. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  18. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  19. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  20. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  1. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  2. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  3. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  5. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  6. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  7. Alcohol drinking problems among New York City residents after the September 11 terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, D; Galea, S; Ahern, J; Rudenstine, S; Resnick, H; Kilpatrick, D; Crum, R M

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in alcohol use in New York City in the months after the September 11 terrorist attacks; thus far there have been no studies documenting changes in drinking problems. In 2002, a random digit dial phone survey was conducted of residents of New York City. This study provided us with estimates of the prevalence of alcohol drinking problems among residents of New York City 6 months after September 11 compared with the 6 months before September 11. Among 1,570 adults, the prevalence of drinking problems was 3.7% in the 6 months before September 11 and 4.2% in the 6 months after September 11. The incidence of drinking problems among those without drinking problems before September 11 was 2.2%. Persons with incident drinking problems were more likely than those without to report symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (17.4% vs. 0.4% in those without drinking problems and 1.4% in nondrinkers), and depression (23.5% vs 5.6% vs. 4.9%, respectively) after September 11. After a disaster, a link between drinking problems and posttraumatic stress disorder or depression should be assessed.

  8. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  9. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  10. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  11. Problem-solving deficits in alcoholics: evidence from the California Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Nixon, S J; Moreland, V J

    1993-11-01

    In an attempt to clarify the nature of the problem-solving deficits exhibited by chronic alcoholics, the California Card Sorting Test (CCST) and other measures of abstraction and problem solving were administered to 23 alcoholics and 16 nonalcoholic controls, equated for age, education and vocabulary. On the CCST, the alcoholics exhibited three types of deficits which appeared to be relatively independent. First, the alcoholics generated and identified fewer correct concepts than controls, although they executed concepts normally when cued by the examiner. Second, the alcoholics made more perseverative sorting responses and perseverative verbal explanations for their sorting behavior than did controls. Third, alcoholics provided less complete verbal explanations of the concepts that they correctly generated or identified. The differential importance of these factors on various measures of problem solving may help to explain the varied patterns of inefficient problem solving exhibited by alcoholics.

  12. Non-response bias and hazardous alcohol use in relation to previous alcohol-related hospitalization: comparing survey responses with population data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether alcohol-related hospitalization predicts survey non-response, and evaluates whether this missing data result in biased estimates of the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use and abstinence. Methods Registry data on alcohol-related hospitalizations during the preceding ten years were linked to two representative surveys. Population data corresponding to the surveys were derived from the Stockholm County registry. The alcohol-related hospitalization rates for survey responders were compared with the population data, and corresponding rates for non-responders were based on the differences between the two estimates. The proportions with hazardous alcohol use and abstinence were calculated separately for previously hospitalized and non-hospitalized responders, and non-responders were assumed to be similar to responders in this respect. Results Persons with previous alcohol-related admissions were more likely currently to abstain from alcohol (RR=1.58, p<.001) or to have hazardous alcohol use (RR=2.06, p<.001). Alternatively, they were more than twice as likely to have become non-responders. Adjusting for this skewed non-response, i.e., the underrepresentation of hazardous users and abstainers among the hospitalized, made little difference to the estimated rates of hazardous use and abstinence in total. During the ten-year period 1.7% of the population were hospitalized. Conclusions Few people receive alcohol-related hospital care and it remains unclear whether this group’s underrepresentation in surveys is generalizable to other groups, such as hazardous users. While people with severe alcohol problems – i.e. a history of alcohol-related hospitalizations – are less likely to respond to population surveys, this particular bias is not likely to alter prevalence estimates of hazardous use. PMID:23497679

  13. Working with Alcoholic Families in a Child Welfare Agency: The Problem of Underdiagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Social Service agencies have been reluctant to focus on alcoholism as an issue in treating client and family problems, although there are 48 million alcoholics in the U.S., and 7 million of them are under age 18. Reasons for the reluctance to focus on alcoholism include lack of knowledge, poor prognosis, nihilism, denial, social workers' fears of…

  14. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  15. Contingency Management in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Steven L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three case studies demonstrated excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents could be reduced by self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures. Behavioral interventions resulted in complete abstinence for a male with 10 years of excessive alcohol abuse. However, alcohol abuse increased markedly for two females once intervention procedures…

  16. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  17. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  18. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11 y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement “I want to work with drinkers,” and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  19. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" Past Issues / ... is Director of the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A renowned expert on how ...

  20. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  1. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  2. Application of local policy to prevent alcohol problems: experiences from a community trial.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Reynolds, R I

    1997-06-01

    Alcohol policy conventionally has been established at the national or regional, state and provincial levels. Alcohol policy at any level is not actually limited to the regulation and control of alcohol production, wholesale distribution, and retail sales. There are a number of alternatives for setting alcohol policies within a local community. Building upon existing national and state/provincial laws, policy makers at the community level can set priorities for allocating resources and enforcing laws related to drinking and driving, underage alcohol sales, alcohol serving practices of bars and restaurants and geographical density of alcohol outlets in the community. This paper concludes from the Community Trials Project that policies established at the local level can reduce alcohol problems. PMID:9231451

  3. Temporal Trends and Changing Racial/ethnic Disparities in Alcohol Problems: Results from the 2000 to 2010 National Alcohol Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; Mulia, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Background Economic conditions and drinking norms have been in considerable flux over the past 10 years. Accordingly, research is needed to evaluate both overall trends in alcohol problems during this period and whether changes within racial/ethnic groups have affected racial/ethnic disparities. Methods We used 3 cross-sectional waves of National Alcohol Survey data (2000, 2005, and 2010) to examine a) temporal trends in alcohol dependence and consequences overall and by race/ethnicity, and b) the effects of temporal changes on racial/ethnic disparities. Analyses involved bivariate tests and multivariate negative binomial regressions testing the effects of race/ethnicity, survey year, and their interaction on problem measures. Results Both women and men overall showed significant increases in dependence symptoms in 2010 (vs. 2000); women also reported increases in alcohol-related consequences in 2010 (vs. 2000). (Problem rates were equivalent across 2005 and 2000.) However, increases in problems were most dramatic among Whites, and dependence symptoms actually decreased among Latinos of both genders in 2010. Consequently, the long-standing disparity in dependence between Latino and White men was substantially reduced in 2010. Post-hoc analyses suggested that changes in drinking norms at least partially drove increased problem rates among Whites. Conclusions Results constitute an important contribution to the literature on racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol problems. Findings are not inconsistent with the macroeconomic literature suggesting increases in alcohol problems during economic recession, but the pattern of effects across race/ethnicity and findings regarding norms together suggest, at the least, a revised understanding of how recessions affect drinking patterns and problems. PMID:24319623

  4. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  5. The association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use in adolescents: the problem behavior model.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Weng, Chih-Chi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to a) evaluate the association between Internet addiction and problematic alcohol use; b) based on problem behavior theory, explore whether Internet addiction, as well as problematic alcohol use, correlated with the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors among adolescents. A total of 2,114 high school students (1,204 male and 910 female) were recruited to complete the questionnaire assessing Internet addiction, problematic alcohol use, and associated psychosocial variables. The result revealed that Internet addiction was associated with problematic alcohol use. Besides, the psychosocial proneness of problem behaviors is associated with Internet addiction as well as problematic alcohol use in adolescents. These results suggest Internet addiction might be included in the organization of problem behavior theory, and it is suggested that prevention and intervention can best be carried out when grouped with other problem behaviors.

  6. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  7. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  8. Comprehensive Alcohol Education: A New Approach to an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Kouba, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This is a program model for responsible decision-making on alcohol use. The intent is to encourage a philosophy about alcoholic beverages using a consistent example of moderate use. Moral implications are left to the individual. Drinking is not viewed as proof of adulthood, virility, or social acceptibility. (Author/BEF)

  9. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  10. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  11. Buffering the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on child behavior.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; McKelvey, Lorraine M; Pemberton, Joy R; Mesman, Glenn R; Holmes, Khiela J; Bradley, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Our objective was to examine how mothers' warmth can protect children from the negative effects of maternal alcohol problems on children's externalizing behavior and, alternately, how harsh parenting can exacerbate the problem. We used data from 1,563 families eligible for Early Head Start and assessed when children were age 5 and again at age 11. We examined whether mothers' warmth or harsh parenting at age 5 moderated the effect of maternal alcohol problems on children's behavior problems at age 11. Results indicated that mothers' symptoms of alcohol problems when children were age 5 predicted greater externalizing behavior problems (aggression and rule breaking) when children were age 11. Aggression and rule-breaking behaviors, externalizing behaviors commonly associated with maternal alcohol problems, were lessened when mothers were warm and did not engage in harsh parenting techniques. Our findings highlight the importance of positive parenting techniques in high-risk families. PMID:26374937

  12. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems Across Hispanic National Groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. METHOD: 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis shows no association between acculturation and problems among men or women. Birthplace is a risk factor for social problems among both genders. Among men, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans are more likely to report social problems than Cuban Americans. Other risk factors for men are unemployment, a higher volume of drinking, and a higher frequency of binge drinking. Among women, Mexican American origin and binge drinking are also risk factors for reporting problems. CONCLUSIONS: U.S.-born Hispanics may experience stress and other detrimental effects to health because of their minority status, which may increase the likelihood of more drinking and the development of alcohol-related problems.

  13. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms. PMID:25602606

  14. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms.

  15. Adults with a family history of alcohol related problems are more impulsive on measures of response initiation and response inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Richard, Dawn M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found individuals with family histories of alcohol use disorders are more impulsive on some but not all laboratory behavioral measures, suggesting deficits on specific forms of impulse control. However, drawing conclusions is tenuous because these different measures have not been administered together in the same group of participants. Methods In the present study, we compared healthy 21–35 year old adults with family histories of alcohol related problems (FHAP+) or without such histories (FHAP−) on behavioral measures of response inhibition, response initiation, and consequence sensitivity impulsivity. FHAP+ (n=36) and FHAP− (n=36) participants were compared on performance on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT, response initiation), GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm (GoStop, response inhibition), Two Choice Impulsivity Paradigm (TCIP, consequence sensitivity) and Single Key Impulsivity Paradigm (SKIP, consequence sensitivity). Results FHAP+ individuals were more impulsive on the IMT and GoStop but not on the TCIP or SKIP. Conclusions These results suggest that response initiation and response inhibition impulsivity are increased in individuals with family histories of alcohol related problems despite not having alcohol or drug use disorders themselves. In contrast, increased consequence sensitivity impulsivity may be associated with additional risk factors such as more severe family histories of alcohol use disorders, or it may be increased as a consequence of heavy drug or alcohol use. PMID:21376480

  16. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed.

  17. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  18. Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Jessica R; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from 3 distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol (RDEA). The sample included 207 heavy-drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises 2 factors: 1 factor that reflects participants' levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants' maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation toward alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women.

  19. Program planning, evaluation, and the problem of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Selig, A L

    1975-01-01

    Rational program planning and evaluation has been suggested as a necessary skill. First, a conceptual framework for planning and evaluation was presented and discussed, using the example of preventing alcoholism and providing services and rehabilitation for alcoholics. Second, a case study was presented, which is similar to that used by many professionals in their efforts to plan programs. Finally, some of the marked limitations of the case study were pointed out, when it was projected upon the conceptual framework. PMID:1109258

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Alcohol Problems in Interethnic and Intra-ethnic Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing number of interethnic marriages in the U.S., few studies have examined intimate partner violence (IPV) in interethnic couples. This article examined past-year occurrences of IPV across interethnic and intra-ethnic couples and tested correlates of IPV specifically in interethnic couples. Data were from a national survey of couples 18 years of age and older from the 48 contiguous states. Interethnic couples (n = 116) included partners from different ethnic backgrounds, including black-white, Hispanic-white, and black-Hispanic couples. White (n = 555), black (n = 358), and Hispanic (n = 527) intra-ethnic couples included partners with the same ethnicity. Data analyses were prevalence rates and logistic regressions. The analyses showed that interethnic couples were comparatively younger and had shorter relationships than intra-ethnic white, black, and Hispanic couples. Male partners in interethnic couples had higher rates of binge drinking and alcohol problems compared to male partners in intra-ethnic couples. Past year prevalence rates for any occurrence of IPV and acts of severe IPV were higher for interethnic couples relative to intra-ethnic couples. Most occurrences of IPV for interethnic couples were mutual. Factors predicting IPV among interethnic couples included marital status, couples’ age, male alcohol problems, and female impulsivity. Mounting evidence points to interethnic couples as a high risk group for IPV. Interethnic couples may be at greater risk for IPV because of their younger age, binge drinking and alcohol problems. Future research could build on this study by examining cohort effects and regional differences in IPV for interethnic couples, and the risk for IPV across interethnic couples of different ethnic compositions. PMID:22203625

  1. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  2. Changes in Alcohol Availability, Price and Alcohol-related Problems and the Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: What Happened in Southern and Northern Sweden?†

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems follow the same pattern of changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and by an increase in Swedish travellers’ import quotas, and to study whether the results obtained for southern and northern Sweden follow the predictions of Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Methods: Analysis was carried out on a sample from the  Swedish general population from southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indices such as impaired self-control/dependent behaviour and extrinsic problems for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed in terms of sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level. Results: Although there were no huge changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various subpopulations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. In the northern site, the increase in alcohol consumption among men also showed an increase in alcohol-related problems. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution. Conclusions: Analysis confirmed that alcohol-related problems, according to the two indices used, followed a similar pattern to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. A version of Skog's theory applied on alcohol-related problems could not confirm that alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population. PMID:20739440

  3. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders).

  4. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  5. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  6. Decoding of nonverbal language in alcoholism: A perception or a labeling problem?

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Petit, Géraldine; Rolin, Heidi; Ermer, Elsa; Campanella, Salvatore; Verbanck, Paul; Maurage, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol-dependent patients have difficulty recognizing social cues such as emotional facial expressions, prosody, and postures. However, most researchers describing these difficulties rely on labeling tasks. It therefore remains difficult to disentangle genuine emotion-decoding problems from emotion-labeling impairments. In the present study, 35 recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were compared with 35 matched controls on four emotion-pairing tasks to explore the distinction between labeling and perceptual abilities. First, 2 tasks were used to assess emotion-labeling ability (labeling task) and working memory (necessary to process emotional stimuli; control matching task). Next, 2 experimental pairing tasks were used to explore unimodal, Face-face or voice-voice) and cross-modal, Face-voice or voice-face) matching abilities in the absence of any labeling requirement. Patients had difficulty accurately processing voices in unimodal tasks and correctly matching emotional stimuli in cross-modal tasks. Specifically, they did not correctly identify neutral stimuli in unimodal or cross-modal tasks and did not correctly identify fear in cross-modal tasks. Reaction times were also slower in these patients. However, accuracy and reaction time (RT) differences between patients and controls were accounted for by including anxiety and depression scores as covariates in the model. These results suggest that emotion-decoding difficulties observed in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients are not due to a specific emotion-labeling impairment, but rather involve perceptual difficulties or later integrative processing steps in the brain. Future studies should directly compare depressed or nondepressed alcohol-dependent patients with depressive patients to disentangle the influences of these highly comorbid disorders on nonverbal language perception. PMID:26820495

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  8. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  9. Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems in a University Student Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Peter F.; Haque, Arshaud; Swisher-McClure, Sam; Helmkamp, James

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to determine whether a university student health center (SHC) is a feasible location to introduce a campus-based screening and brief intervention (SBI) program for alcohol and (2) to determine whether the patients seen in the SHC differ in terms of the prevalence and severity of alcohol-related problems compared…

  10. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  12. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  13. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  14. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  15. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  16. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  17. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  18. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  19. Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

  20. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  1. Lessons from the Field: Profiling State Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to profiling statewide alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems and policies. Profiles of this sort capture the complexity of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse indicators at the local level, incorporating data from a range of disciplines and making it possible to design data-driven interventions. The…

  2. Brief report: Affluence and college alcohol problems: the relevance of parent- and child-reported indicators of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Huang, Jason L; Kepler, Dawn M

    2013-10-01

    A mediational model predicting alcohol problems was tested in a sample of college students (n = 130) and their parents (n = 115). The indirect effect of substance-use coping and the age of onset of alcohol use were examined in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol problems. Findings indicated that parent-reported SES was associated with increased alcohol problems; the age of onset of alcohol use partially mediated this relationship. Substance-use coping was not a significant mediator in the model. Student-reported SES was not associated with alcohol problems. Implications for examining social status in relation to college drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:24011105

  3. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. Second report.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption is significant and, in many countries, public health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol represent a substantial health, social and economic burden. Reduction of the alcohol-attributable burden is becoming a priority area for international public health. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced through the implementation of proven alcohol strategies, including at a global level. This report of a WHO Expert Committee reviews the health and social consequences of alcohol consumption and disease burden attributable to alcohol in the context of alcohol-related harm and recent trends in alcohol consumption worldwide. Based on the reviews of available evidence, including the latest data on the contribution of alcohol consumption to the global disease burden, the Committee makes several recommendations emphasizing WHO's role in coordinating a global response, and the need for global action to reduce alcohol-related harm through effective mechanisms of international action and country support. The Committee recommends a range of strategies and policy options that have a sound evidence base and global relevance for reducing alcohol-related harm, emphasizing that their adaptation and implementation at the national and sub-national levels should take into account specific cultural and legal contexts and the local configuration of alcohol problems. The Committee also recommends that WHO should support governments, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, in developing, implementing and evaluating national and sub-national evidence-based policies, action plans and programmes. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations have significant implications for future developments in this area.

  4. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  5. Comparative studies on the alcohol types presence in Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation using Sasad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansa, R.; Mansuit, H.; Sipaut, C. S.; Yee, C. F.; Yasir, S. M.

    2016-06-01

    Alternative fuel sources such as biofuels are needed in order to overcome environmental problem caused by fossil fuel consumption. Currently, most biofuel are produced from land based crops and there is a possibility that marine biomass such as macroalgae can be an alternative source for biofuel production. The carbohydrate in macroalgae can be broken down into simple sugar through thermo-chemical hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute-acid hydrolysis was believed to be the most available and affordable method. However, the process may release inhibitors which would affect alcohol yield from fermentation. Thus, this work was aimed at investigating if it is possible to avoid this critical pre-treatment step in macroalgae fermentation process by using Sasad, a local Sabahan fermentation agent and to compare the yield with rice wine fermentation. This work hoped to determine and compare the alcohol content from Gracilaria sp. and rice fermentation with Sasad. Rice fermentation was found containing ethanol and 2 - methyl - 1 - propanol. Fermentation of Gracilaria sp. had shown the positive presence of 3 - methyl - 1 - butanol. It was found that Sasad can be used as a fermentation agent for bioalcohol production from Gracilaria sp. without the need for a pretreatment step. However further investigations are needed to determine if pre-treatment would increase the yield of alcohol.

  6. Drinkers and Bettors: Investigating the Complementarity of Alcohol Consumption and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100 percent increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities. PMID:18430523

  7. Effects of ALDH2∗2 on alcohol problem trajectories of Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Myers, Mark G; Liang, Tiebing; Wall, Tamara L

    2014-02-01

    The variant aldehyde dehydrogenase allele, ALDH2∗2, consistently has been associated with protection against alcohol dependence, but the mechanism underlying this process is not known. This study examined growth trajectories of alcohol consumption (frequency, average quantity, binge drinking, maximum drinks) and problems over the college years and then tested whether the ALDH2 genotype mediated or moderated the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Asian American college students (N = 433) reported on their drinking behavior in their first year of college and then annually for 3 consecutive years. Alcohol consumption and problems increased over the college years for both those with and without ALDH2∗2, but having an ALDH2∗2 allele was associated with less of an increase in problems over time. A mediation model was supported, with ALDH2∗2 group differences in problems fully accounted for by differences in frequency of binge drinking. Findings also supported a moderation hypothesis: All four alcohol consumption variables were significant predictors of subsequent alcohol problems, but these relationships were not as strong in those with ALDH2∗2 as in those without ALDH2∗2. Our findings suggest that the interplay between ALDH2∗2 and drinking-related problems is complex, involving both mediation and moderation processes that reduce the likelihood of developing problems via reduction of heavy drinking as well as by altering the relationship between alcohol consumption and problems. Results of this longitudinal study provide evidence that what seems like a relatively straightforward effect of a diminished ability to metabolize alcohol on drinking behavior is actually dependent on behavior and developmental stage. PMID:24661165

  8. Emotion Differentiation and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Mediating Role of Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Clarke, C. Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems (Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, & Fiore, 2004; Wiers et al., 2007). This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 to 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

  9. Performance of screening instruments for alcohol problems in the ER: a comparison of Mexican-Americans and Mexicans in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cherpitel, C J; Borges, G

    2000-11-01

    The performance of standard screening instruments and alternate measures against ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision) and DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th revision) criteria for alcohol dependence and separately for harmful drinking/abuse were compared between probability samples of 1511 emergency room (ER) patients from three hospitals in Pachuca, Mexico, and 586 Mexican-American ER patients in Santa Clara County, California. Sensitivity was highest for the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), TWEAK, and Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS) for alcohol dependence; sensitivity was highest for holding five or more drinks for harmful drinking/abuse in both samples. All instruments performed better for alcohol dependence than for abuse/harmful drinking. Arrests for drinking and driving performed better in Santa Clara than in Pachuca, while a positive Breathalyzer reading and reporting drinking prior to the event performed better in Pachuca; both were significantly more sensitive among the injured compared to the noninjured in Pachuca. The data suggest that instrument performance may be similar between those in Pachuca and those in the low acculturation group in Santa Clara, relative to those scoring higher on acculturation. While standard screening instruments appear to work reasonably well in both samples for alcohol dependence, variation across gender, injury, and acculturation subgroups suggests attention should be given to choosing the "best" instrument. PMID:11097199

  10. The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  12. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler–mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in 4th grade. There was a direct association between fathers' alcohol symptoms and bullying of peers, as well as indirect association via toddler–mother attachment security. Multiple group models indicated that the direct association between parents' alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for boys but not girls. The association between maternal alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for secure but not insecure boys or secure/insecure girls. The association between fathers' alcohol symptoms and bullying was significant for insecure boys but not secure boys or secure/insecure girls. PMID:20419575

  13. ALCOHOL OXIDATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alco...

  14. SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS - COMPARING DIFFERENT CATALYTIC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids is one of the most desirable chemical transformations in organic synthesis as these products are important precursors and intermediates for many drugs, vitamins and fragrances. Numerous methods are available for alc...

  15. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  16. Alcohol and Drugs in Schools: Teachers' Reactions to the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Willert, H. Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Although schools are places for learning and growth, they are also places where students engage in alcohol and drug use. This study showed that most teachers were aware of drugs in their schools, but did not regard drug use as an interference in their own classrooms. Many teachers were knowledgeable about their schools' drug policy, but did not…

  17. The management of alcohol-related problems in general practice in north India.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Malhotra, A K

    1988-07-01

    Twenty-seven general medical practitioners (GPs) were administered WHO semi-structured schedule enquiring "The Management of Alcohol-Related Problems in General Practice". Majority of the GPs had some involvement in each one of the specified alcohol-related problems. The involvement in alcohol and health education had been modest. Involvement in the control and regulatory activities was minimal. None of them felt that they had any role in the development of health and alcohol policy. Treatment response lo three typical situations appeared to be quite appropriate. To regulate production, to market less potent drinks at cheaper rates, to organize public health education programme through mass media were the suggestions made by them. It is suggested that GPs can and should be encouraged in leadership roles in policy decisions regarding the delivery of services, control and regulation of alcohol and research.

  18. Alcohol and Other Drugs on Campus: The Scope of the Problem. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread health problem on college and university campuses in the United States is high-risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Recent reports confirm that the nation's campuses continue to encounter significant consequences as a result of this problem. This "Infofacts/Resources" offers an overview of the problem and highlights effective…

  19. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  20. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  1. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans.

    PubMed

    Allen, John P; Crawford, Eric F; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use.

  2. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  3. Detecting alcohol abuse: traditional blood alcohol markers compared to ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) measurement in hair.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Büchner, Mara; Rothe, Michael; Gapert, René; Herre, Sieglinde; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Tsokos, Michael; Kienast, Thorsten; Heinz, Andreas; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol abuse is a common problem in society; however, the technical capabilities of evaluating individual alcohol consumption using objective biomarkers are rather limited at present. In recent years research has focused on alcohol markers using hair analysis but data on performance and reliable cut-off values are still lacking. In this study 169 candidates were tested to compare traditional biomarkers, such as carbohydrate-deficient-transferrin (CDT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase and the mean corpuscular volume of the erythrocytes, with alcohol markers detectable in hair such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study revealed that EtG, GGT and CDT showed the best results, demonstrating areas under the curve calculated from receiver operating characteristics of 0.941, 0.943 and 0.899 respectively. The lowest false-negative and false-positive rates were obtained by using a combined interpretation system for hair EtG and FAEEs. All markers demonstrated only low to moderate correlations. Optimum cut-off values for differentiation between social and chronic excessive drinking calculated for hair EtG and FAEEs were 28 pg/mg and 0.675 ng/mg, respectively. The critical values published in the "Consensus on Alcohol Markers 2012" by the Society of Hair Testing were confirmed.

  4. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    PubMed

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  5. Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…

  6. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  7. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  8. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  9. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  10. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  11. [Risky alcohol drinking surveyed at a GP unit. Secondary prevention of alcohol problems in primary care patients].

    PubMed

    Eriksson, G; Spak, F; Andersson, C

    2000-03-01

    This article describes an implementation of secondary prevention of alcohol abuse at a GP unit in southern Gothenburg, Sweden. During several periods between 1994 and 1996, screening for alcohol problems was performed using either AUDIT or a 4-item instrument called SWAG. In one part of the study, screening was simultaneously carried out using gamma-GT and MCV. The main object of screening efforts was to stimulate interest for alcohol-related conditions, and this goal was reached. The staff was trained in treatment techniques such as motivational interviewing (MI), bio-feedback using gamma-GT and delivery of concise information. Simple methods to determine level of motivation were used for treatment stratification. Some doctors reported that they had insufficient time for adequate MI treatment, and therefore a condensed model was sometimes used. A nurse-staffed treatment unit was started and successfully promoted work with alcohol problem. Attempts were made to spread these methods to other GP units in the region and this was partially successful, although support from the central primary care administration was not secured.

  12. Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Problems among College Students Treated in a University Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, James C.; Hungerford, Daniel W.; Williams, Janet M.; Manley, William G.; Furbee, Paul M.; Horn, Kimberly A.; Pollock, Daniel A.

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluated a protocol to screen and provide brief interventions for alcohol problems to college students treated at a university hospital emergency department (ED). Of 2,372 drinkers they approached, 87% gave informed consent. Of those, 54% screened positive for alcohol problems (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score [less…

  13. Drinking Reasons and Alcohol Problems by Work Venue among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. Method In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. Results All identified reasons except for confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol’s sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs’ vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking. PMID:25594829

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  17. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  18. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  19. Comparing media and family predictors of alcohol use: a cohort study of US adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A; McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Worth, Keilah A; Gerrard, Meg

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare media/marketing exposures and family factors in predicting adolescent alcohol use. Design Cohort study. Setting Confidential telephone survey of adolescents in their homes. Participants Representative sample of 6522 US adolescents, aged 10–14 years at baseline and surveyed four times over 2 years. Primary outcome measure Time to alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking were assessed with two survival models. Predictors were movie alcohol exposure (MAE), ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise and characteristics of the family (parental alcohol use, home availability of alcohol and parenting). Covariates included sociodemographics, peer drinking and personality factors. Results Over the study period, the prevalence of adolescent ever use and binge drinking increased from 11% to 25% and from 4% to 13%, respectively. At baseline, the median estimated MAE from a population of 532 movies was 4.5 h and 11% owned alcohol-branded merchandise at time 2. Parental alcohol use (greater than or equal to weekly) was reported by 23% and 29% of adolescents could obtain alcohol from home. Peer drinking, MAE, alcohol-branded merchandise, age and rebelliousness were associated with both alcohol onset and progression to binge drinking. The adjusted hazard ratios for alcohol onset and binge drinking transition for high versus low MAE exposure were 2.13 (95% CI 1.76 to 2.57) and 1.63 (1.20 to 2.21), respectively, and MAE accounted for 28% and 20% of these transitions, respectively. Characteristics of the family were associated with alcohol onset but not with progression. Conclusion The results suggest that family focused interventions would have a larger impact on alcohol onset while limiting media and marketing exposure could help prevent both onset and progression. PMID:22349939

  20. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls.

  1. Alcohol and the U.S.-Canada border: trade disputes and border traffic problems.

    PubMed

    Room, R; West, P

    1998-01-01

    The public health interest in trade and in cross-border traffic of alcoholic beverages is considered in general terms. Within this framework, three specific issues in U.S.-Canada trade and borders are discussed: cross-border drinking and driving in both directions, particularly by youth; smuggling from the U.S. to Canada; and the "beer wars" and other U.S.-Canada trade disputes involving alcoholic beverages. While problems can be alleviated on each of these fronts, it is concluded that an important step internationally would be to establish that, because of the problems they entail, alcoholic beverages should be exempt from trade agreements, or else provision should be made for the public health interest to be represented in negotiations and dispute resolution involving alcoholic beverage controls. PMID:9581431

  2. EXTENT AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL USE AND ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS IN NORTH INDIA*

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Sarbjit; Malhotra, Anil

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY A structured questionnaire was verbally administered individually to a random sample of the general population, 18 years of age and older, of rural and urban Chandigarh and of two villages in Jullundur district, Punjab. Out of a total of 1031 respondents, 23.7 percent were current users, 16.0 percent admitted of alcohol use in the past but were not current users, and 60.3 percent had never had alcoholic beverages. 19.0 percent of Chandigarh urban sample, 31.4 percent of Chandigarh rural sample and 45.9 percent of Jullundur rucal sample were current users. These findings have been discussed in terms of various socio-demographic variables PMID:22058493

  3. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals.

  4. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  5. Research on alcohol problems from the perspective of changes--1940 to 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Straus, R

    1988-01-01

    The nature of alcohol problems, knowledge about alcohol use and abuse, and public perceptions and responses have all undergone substantial change during the past half-century. This paper traces some interrelationships between changes in alcohol-specific knowledge and behavior and other relevant social forces. The importance of change in the derivation, utilization, and interpretation of this knowledge is emphasized. Special emphasis is also placed on changes that make the integration of research between the biological and behavioral sciences desirable and necessary. PMID:3141968

  6. The impact of clinical experience with alcoholics on Brazilian nursing students' attitudes toward alcoholism and associated problems.

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Divane

    2013-01-01

    This quasiexperimental study assessed the impact of a clinical experience involving alcoholics on nursing students' attitudes. The study participants were 195 students at a large university-based nursing school in Brazil. They were divided into experimental and control groups. Individuals in the experimental group (n = 56) participated in 6 weeks of a clinical practicum at a specialized treatment service for addiction, during a course in psychiatric nursing. In the same period, the control group (n = 144) participated in a 6-week clinical practicum at a specialized mental health service that did not treat people with addiction. At the end of the theoretical course and clinical practica, both groups completed an attitude measurement scale. Data analysis, using analysis of variance, indicated a statistically significant difference in the overall score on the attitude scale between the experimental and control groups (p = .04), indicating that the experimental group participants' have more positive attitudes, perceptions, opinions, and feelings toward alcoholic individuals and working and relating to these patients. In conclusion, educational interventions that include clinical experience with alcoholics may be an effective teaching strategy that contributes to better skill preparation and more comfortable feelings for nurses intervening in problems related to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs.

  7. Latino Immigrants’ Biological Parents’ Histories Of Substance Use Problems In Their Country Of Origin Predict Their Pre- And Post-Immigration Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Blackson, Timothy C.; De La Rosa, Mario; Sanchez, Mariana; Li, Tan

    2014-01-01

    Background No studies to date have assessed whether recent young adult (ages 18–34) Latino immigrants’ biological parents’ histories of substance use problems (BPHSUP) in their country of origin predict their alcohol use problems at pre- and post-immigration to the United States (U.S.). Methods BPHSUP in their country of origin was assessed via interviews conducted by bilingual Latino researchers with recent Latino immigrants primarily from Cuba, Central and South America recruited through respondent driven sampling at the time of their immigration to southeastern U.S. Three-waves of data were collected to document Latino immigrants’ severity of alcohol use problems at pre-immigration and two annual post-immigration follow-up assessments. BPHSUP +/− status was used as a predictor of Latinos’ (N=452; 45.8% female, 54.2% male) Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores at pre- and post-immigration with age, education and income as covariates as wells as odds ratios for AUDIT classifications of hazardous use, harmful use and dependence. Results BPHSUP+ status predicted Latino immigrants’ higher AUDIT scores pre- and post-immigration by gender (p<.01) compared to Latino immigrants of BPHSUP− status controlling for age, education and income. BPHSUP+ status predicted odds ratios of 3.45 and 2.91 for alcohol dependence AUDIT classification for men and women respectively (T3). Conclusions This study documents that BPHSUP +/− status in their country of origin predict their young adult Latino offspring’s severity of alcohol use problems pre-and post-immigration. These results may inform (1) community-based health care providers to screen recent young adult Latino immigrants for their BPHSUP+/− status and severity of alcohol use problems to redirect trajectories away from alcohol use disorders toward more normative post-immigration outcomes through culturally relevant prevention services and (2) future research advantages of differential

  8. Parental Monitoring Affects the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, while depressed mood, peer substance use and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Methods Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. Conclusions This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems, and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink. PMID:25023093

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  10. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  11. DUI/DWAI Offenders Compared to Clients Seen in an Outpatient Alcohol-Treatment Facility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Michele A.

    1987-01-01

    Examined client records to compare 50 subjects admitted to a drinking-driver program and 50 subjects admitted to an outpatient alcohol treatment clinic. Highly significant differences were found between groups on 10 of 12 drinking indices, suggesting that clients referred for alcohol-related traffic offenses represent a population different from…

  12. Maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems: a fixed effects regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Ystrom, Eivind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Torgersen, Leila

    2015-10-01

    Using data from the longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, the aims of the current study were to examine associations between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems, taking both observed and unobserved confounding factors into account by employing fixed effects regression models. Postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use (defined as drinking alcohol 4 or more times a week, or drinking 7 units or more per alcohol use episode) and toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed when the toddlers were aged 18 and 36 months. Maternal psychopathology, civil status and negative life events last year were included as time-variant covariates. Maternal heavy alcohol use was associated with toddler internalizing and externalizing behavior problems (p < 0.001) in the population when examined with generalized estimating equation models. The associations disappeared when observed and unobserved sources of confounding were taken into account in the fixed effects models [(p = 0.909 for externalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.021), p = 0.928 for internalizing behaviors (b = 0.002, SE = 0.023)], with an even further reduction of the estimates with the inclusion of time-variant confounders. No causal effect was found between postnatal maternal heavy alcohol use and toddler behavior problems. Increased levels of behavior problems among toddlers of heavy drinking mothers should therefore be attributed to other adverse characteristics associated with these mothers, toddlers and families. This should be taken into account when interventions aimed at at-risk families identified by maternal heavy alcohol use are planned and conducted.

  13. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  14. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  15. Nutritional assessment in alcoholic patients. Its relationship with alcoholic intake, feeding habits, organic complications and social problems.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, F; Pérez-Manzano, J L; Milena, A; González-Reimers, E; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Martínez-Riera, A; Alemán-Valls, M R; de la Vega-Prieto, M J

    2000-06-01

    To establish their ability to predict malnutrition, irregular feeding, alcoholic intake, derangement of social and familial links and organic complications (liver cirrhosis) were assessed in 181 hospitalized male alcoholic. BMI was under 18.5 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, between 18.5-20 kg/m(2) in 8.9%, 20-25 kg/m(2) in 42%, 25-30 kg/m(2) in 32.2% and over 30 kg/m(2) in 8.2% of patients. Malnutrition was related to the intensity of ethanol intake, development of social or familial problems, irregularity of feeding habits and cirrhosis with ascites. Irregularity of feeding habits was also related to heavy drinking and to social or familial derangement. By logistic regression analysis, the only variables which independently predict malnutrition were irregular feeding habits and liver cirrhosis with ascites. In a second step, irregular feeding was dependent on social or familial troubles and daily intake of ethanol. So, malnutrition related to alcoholism seems multifactorial in its pathogenesis.

  16. Behavioral teratology of alcoholic beverages compared to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Abel, E L; Dintcheff, B A; Bush, R

    1981-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with beer, wine, whiskey, or ethanol (3 g/kg/day), twice daily, while control animals received an isocaloric solution. All animals were pair-fed to ethanol-treated animals. At birth, offspring were fostered to surrogate nondrug-treated dams. Congeners present in beverage alcohol did not exacerbate the effects of ethanol exposure. Ethanol-treated animals were less responsive than controls to a challenge dose of ethanol. Beer- and whiskey-treated animals were also less responsive than controls to ethanol challenge, but did not differ from ethanol-treated animals. Group differeces in Rotarod behavior, ambulation, rearing, or defecation in the activity box, activity wheel running, spontaneous alternation, and brain DNA, RNA, and protein content were not significant. Although beer-treated males performed better on the Rotarod than controls, beer-treated males did not differ significantly from controls on any other task.

  17. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  18. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth.

  19. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  20. The Public Stigma of Problem Gambling: Its Nature and Relative Intensity Compared to Other Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M; Nuske, Elaine

    2016-09-01

    Problem gambling attracts considerable public stigma, with deleterious effects on mental health and use of healthcare services amongst those affected. However, no research has examined the extent of stigma towards problem gambling within the general population. This study aimed to examine the stigma-related dimensions of problem gambling as perceived by the general public compared to other health conditions, and determine whether the publicly perceived dimensions of problem gambling predict its stigmatisation. A sample of 2000 Australian adults was surveyed, weighted to be representative of the state population by gender, age and location. Based on vignettes, the online survey measured perceived origin, peril, concealability, course and disruptiveness of problem gambling and four other health conditions, and desired social distance from each. Problem gambling was perceived as caused mainly by stressful life circumstances, and highly disruptive, recoverable and noticeable, but not particularly perilous. Respondents stigmatised problem gambling more than sub-clinical distress and recreational gambling, but less than alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia. Predictors of stronger stigma towards problem gambling were perceptions it is caused by bad character, is perilous, non-recoverable, disruptive and noticeable, but not due to stressful life circumstances, genetic/inherited problem, or chemical imbalance in the brain. This new foundational knowledge can advance understanding and reduction of problem gambling stigma through countering inaccurate perceptions that problem gambling is caused by bad character, that people with gambling problems are likely to be violent to other people, and that people cannot recover from problem gambling. PMID:26487344

  1. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  2. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  3. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  4. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  5. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  6. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  7. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  8. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  9. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  10. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  11. Mindfulness and Alcohol Problems in College Students: The Mediating Effects of Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Noonan, Marleah; Wells, Stephanie Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems in college students, as well as the role of stress as a mediator in this relationship. Participants: Participants were 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale,…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  13. A trial of the use of psychodrama for women with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Loughlin, N

    1992-01-01

    Psychodrama is a method of group psychotherapy in which the subject can be helped to explore the psychological dimensions of his or her problems through the enactment of conflict situations. This study aimed to investigate the perceived effectiveness of psychodrama in the treatment of women with alcohol problems. A group of six women undertaking psychodrama in a centre in Northern Ireland were surveyed by questionnaire and participant observation. It was found that psychodrama was perceived as being useful by the four subjects who had a better education and were demonstrably more verbally expressive and extroverted. Alcohol problems need to be understood and treated in the social context in which they develop and thrive; psychodrama enpowers problem drinkers to explore their unique social context.

  14. A Qualitative Investigation of Barriers to Entry into Couples Treatment for Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Wetle, Terrie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to evaluate barriers to entry into couples treatment for alcohol problems. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Patients were recruited from (1) treatment for primary substance use disorders, (2) treatment for psychiatric disorders (other than substance use disorders), and (3) court-mandated outpatient domestic violence programs. Mental health experts were recruited based on expertise in (1) couples treatment, (2) alcohol treatment, and (3) couples treatment for alcohol problems. Patients (N=57) met criteria for hazardous drinking, and were in committed romantic relationships. Partners (N=19) and mental health experts (N=12) also completed interviews. Interviews were analyzed using accepted qualitative strategies. Barriers to treatment entry were identified at the patient, partner, and couple level. Barriers identified included psychological barriers, alcohol illness factors, treatment preferences and beliefs, and interpersonal factors. Although many barriers are similar to those previously identified in individual alcohol treatment, barriers unique to couples treatment provide guidance for next directions for dissemination. PMID:21831561

  15. Comparative exergy analysis of direct alcohol fuel cells using fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Teresa J.; Raso, Miguel A.; Navarro, Emilio; Sánchez-de-la-Blanca, Emilia

    Within the last years there has been increasing interest in direct liquid fuel cells as power sources for portable devices and, in the future, power plants for electric vehicles and other transport media as ships will join those applications. Methanol is considerably more convenient and easy to use than gaseous hydrogen and a considerable work is devoted to the development of direct methanol fuel cells. But ethanol has much lower toxicity and from an ecological viewpoint ethanol is exceptional among all other types of fuel as is the only chemical fuel in renewable supply. The aim of this study is to investigate the possibility of using direct alcohol fuel cells fed with alcohol mixtures. For this purpose, a comparative exergy analysis of a direct alcohol fuel cell fed with alcohol mixtures against the same fuel cell fed with single alcohols is performed. The exergetic efficiency and the exergy loss and destruction are calculated and compared in each case. When alcohol mixtures are fed to the fuel cell, the contribution of each fuel to the fuel cell performance is weighted attending to their relative proportion in the aqueous solution. The optimum alcohol composition for methanol/ethanol mixtures has been determined.

  16. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  17. An altered neural response to reward may contribute to alcohol problems among late adolescents with an evening chronotype

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2013-01-01

    Evening chronotypes not only differ from morning-types in their sleep and circadian timing, but they are prone to problematic outcomes involving reward function, including affective disturbance, sensation seeking, and substance involvement. We explored the neural mechanisms underlying these chronotype differences by comparing the neural response to reward in morning- and evening-types. Using a monetary reward fMRI paradigm, we compared the neural response to reward in 13 morning-types and 21 evening-types (all 20 y/o males). Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses focused on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral striatum (VS), comparing the chronotype groups in these ROIs during anticipation and outcome conditions, and adjusting for time of scan. Chronotype groups were also compared on measures of sensation-seeking, substance involvement, and sleep quality. Evening-types reported significantly greater levels of alcohol dependence and worse sleep quality. Furthermore, evening-types showed an altered neural response to reward relative to morning-types, specifically, reduced mPFC reactivity during reward anticipation and increased VS reactivity during win outcome. In turn, less activation in the mPFC region in response to reward was associated with greater alcohol consumption, while increased activation in the VS in response to reward was associated with more symptoms of alcohol dependence. Increased reward-related problems among evening-types may be accompanied by altered neural responses to reward. PMID:24144507

  18. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  19. Comparing Problem Gamblers with Moderate-Risk Gamblers in a Sample of University Students

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Kairouz, Sylvia; Nadeau, Louise; Robillard, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims In an effort to provide further empirical evidence of meaningful differences, this study explores, in a student population, the distinctions in gambling behavioral patterns and specific associated problems of two levels of gambling severity by comparing problem gamblers (PG) and moderate-risk gamblers (MR) as defined by the score on the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI; MR: 3-7; PG: 8 and more). Methods The study sample included 2,139 undergraduate students (male = 800, mean age = 22.6) who completed the PGSI and questionnaires on associated problems. Results Results show that problem gamblers engage massively and more diversely in gambling activities, more often and in a greater variety of locations, than moderate-risk gamblers. In addition, important differences have been observed between moderate-risk and problem gamblers in terms of expenditures and accumulated debt. In regards to the associated problems, compared to moderate-risk gamblers, problem gamblers had an increased reported psychological distress, daily smoking, and possible alcohol dependence. Discussion and Conclusions The severity of gambling and associated problems found in problem gamblers is significantly different from moderate-risk gamblers, when examined in a student population, to reiterate caution against the amalgamation of these groups in future research. PMID:26014673

  20. African-American women in an alcohol intervention group: addressing personal and political problems.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, C F

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a qualitative study in which African-American women met in a small group to discuss alcohol and drug problems. The goal was to expand the range of services available by creating an alternative intervention which provided a simultaneous focus on both the personal and the sociopolitical needs of Black women. Results suggest that the dual focus on individual and social issues, and the opportunity to simultaneously address racism, sexism, and classism in an African-American women-only alcohol recovery group was helpful.

  1. Striatal dysfunction marks preexisting risk and medial prefrontal dysfunction is related to problem drinking in children of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Background Parental alcoholism substantially raises risk for offspring alcoholism, an effect thought to be mediated by a dysregulation in impulse control. Adult alcoholics have alterations in the frontostriatal system involved in regulating impulsive responses. However, it remains controversial whether these alterations reflect pre-existing traits predisposing to problem alcohol use, or are secondary to alcohol involvement. Methods Sixty-one 16 to 22 year olds were tested using a go/no-go task during functional MRI. Forty-one had at least one parent with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD; FH+) and 20 had no parent with AUD (FH−). Two FH+ subgroups were created to disentangle alcohol involvement from preexisting risk: the FH+ control (n=20) group had low alcohol problems, differing from the FH− group only by family history. The FH+ problem group (n=21) had high alcohol problems. Results The ventral caudate deactivated during successful inhibition in the FH− but not the FH+ groups, regardless of problem alcohol involvement. Regression analyses showed that ventral caudate deactivation was related to fewer externalizing problems as well as family history. Orbital and left medial prefrontal regions were deactivated in both the FH− and FH+ control groups but not the FH+ problem group. Activation in these regions was associated with alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in ventral striatal function in youth at risk for AUD, which may lead to inappropriate motivational responding; and suggest that with alcohol use, the prefrontal “control” mechanism loses efficiency, further dysregulating the frontostriatal motivational circuitry. PMID:20416863

  2. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population.

  3. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  4. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women.

  5. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  6. Web Based Treatment of Alcohol Problems Among Rural Women: Results of a Randomized Pilot Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that six million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The world wide web has the potential to overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a web based self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision-making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11), and their baseline AUDIT score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cutoff for problem drinking. At 3-month follow-up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking, however, there were no significant differences between them. PMID:18823000

  7. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  8. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  9. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  10. Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

  11. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  12. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer. PMID:27721531

  13. Case Problems for Problem-Based Pedagogical Approaches: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada; Dass, Susan

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of 51 case problems used in five problem-based pedagogical models was conducted to examine whether there are differences in their characteristics and the implications of such differences on the selection and generation of ill-structured case problems. The five pedagogical models were: situated learning, goal-based scenario,…

  14. Ethiopian origin high-risk youth: a cross-cultural examination of alcohol use, binge drinking, and problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among underage youth has a major impact on public health, accidents, fatalities, and other problem behaviors. In Israel, alcohol use, binge drinking, and related problem behaviors are a growing concern. The purpose of this study was to examine underserved and underreported Ethiopian origin youth by comparing their substance use patterns and behavior with other high-risk youth. Data were collected from a purposive sample of boys of Ethiopian, former Soviet Union, and Israeli origin who were receiving treatment for drug use. Youth were asked to complete a simply worded self-report questionnaire developed for monitoring substance use and related problem behaviors. Ethiopian youth reported higher rates of family unemployment and public welfare dependence, last 30-day consumption of beer and hard liquor, serious fighting, and achievement decline when in school compared with the other youths. Findings highlight the need for ethno-cultural specific prevention and intervention efforts and further research of this high-risk, underserved group of immigrant origin youth.

  15. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  16. Self Efficacy, Alcohol Expectancy and Problem-Solving Appraisal as Predictors of Alcohol Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscaro, Michael; Broer, Karen; Taylor, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are cause for concern because the educational process and quality of campus student life are disrupted. Abusive drinking can have serious consequences on all areas of college life, including economic, health, social and educational. Heavy alcohol use may result in personal injury, drunk driving, alcohol overdose, unplanned…

  17. Risk-taking and alcohol use disorders symptomatology in a sample of problem drinkers.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Jentsch, J David; Ray, Lara A

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between risk-taking behavior and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms is poorly understood. This study employed a modified version of a behavioral measure of risk-taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), to examine its relationship to alcohol use and related symptoms in a community sample of individuals with or at risk for AUD. A total of 158 (71.9% male) participants completed a testing battery that included the BART, a structured diagnostic interview for AUD, and measures of alcohol use and related problems. Estimates of IQ and working memory were assessed as covariates. Results indicated that the relationship between risk-taking propensity, as assessed by the BART, and alcohol problems was significant and negative. Individuals with higher symptom count made fewer pumps per trial on the BART, indicating less risk-taking. It is important to note that this relationship was attenuated when controlling for estimated IQ and working memory span. Further examination demonstrated that IQ and age mediated the relationship between risk-taking propensity and symptom count. The main negative relationship observed between risk-taking on the BART and alcohol use and AUD symptomatology in this sample stands in contrast to the positive relationships observed in adolescent and nonclinical samples. Together, these findings highlight the need to consider development and the course of addiction to fully elucidate the effects of risky-decision making on AUD liability. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of inclusion of neurocognitive covariates (IQ), as well as demographic variables (age) when using this task. PMID:21707191

  18. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  19. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the comprehensive drinker profile.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A

    1997-04-01

    Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar. PMID:9075055

  20. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…

  1. Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Poverty and Their Relationship to Binge Drinking and Related Problems among Drinkers in Committed Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…

  2. Paternal Alcoholism and Youth Substance Abuse: The Indirect Effects of Negative Affect, Conduct Problems, and Risk Taking

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse. PMID:18207099

  3. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  4. The Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Alcohol-Related Problems in a Community Sample of African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study examines the prevalence of alcohol-related problems, the factors underlying these problems, and whether or not there is evidence of syndemic effects in a community population of southern, urban African American women. Methods. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 817 women, all African American, from 80 targeted census block groups in Atlanta, Georgia. Results. Most of the alcohol users (67.8%) experienced at least one problem as a result of their alcohol (ab)use, with most women experiencing two or more such problems. Eight factors were found to be associated with experiencing more alcohol problems: being aged 30 or older, having had no recent health insurance, lower levels of educational attainment, self-identifying as lesbian or bisexual, experiencing greater amounts of childhood maltreatment, greater impulsivity, perceiving one's local community or neighborhood to be unsafe, and having a larger number of criminally involved friends. Conclusions. Drinking-related problems were prevalent in this population. Numerous factors underlie the extent to which African American women experienced problems resulting from their alcohol use. There is strong evidence of syndemic-type effects influencing drinking problems in this population, and future efforts to reduce the negative impact of alcohol (ab)use ought to consider the adoption of programs using a syndemics' theory approach. PMID:27752388

  5. The Inventory of Gambling Situations in problem and pathological gamblers seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Blanco, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Identifying situations in which individuals gamble may be important for developing or improving treatments, but few instruments exist for examining high-risk gambling situations. This study evaluated the factor structure of the Inventory of Gambling Situations (IGS), an instrument that assesses situations that may lead to gambling episodes. Individuals seeking alcohol and drug abuse treatment who were identified as problem or pathological gamblers (N = 283) completed the IGS, and principal component analysis revealed a 4-factor solution best fit the data; the factors represented items related to Negative Affect, Positive Affect, Gambling Cues, and Social Situations. Across the whole scale, Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97, ranging from 0.83 to 0.96 for the four factors. IGS total scores correlated with other indices of gambling problems, including number of pathological gambling criteria endorsed and frequency and intensity of gambling. Race, education, and severity of psychiatric, drug and alcohol problems were significantly predictive of some factor scores. Specifically, African Americans were more likely to gamble in response to Negative Affect situations than Caucasians, and education was inversely associated with wagering in response to Gambling Cues. Psychiatric symptoms were predictive of gambling in response to both Positive and Negative Affect situations and Gambling Cues. Severity of drug and alcohol problems were related to gambling in Social Situations. Results from this study indicate that the IGS has good psychometric properties and suggest areas in which intervention efforts may be tailored to prevent or treat gambling problems among individuals seeking substance abuse treatment. PMID:21186927

  6. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk.

  7. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  8. Comparing Entering Freshmen's Perceptions of Campus Marijuana and Alcohol Use to Reported Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Gregg J.; Nguyen, Alyssa T.

    2009-01-01

    Use of marijuana and alcohol among current college students (N = 1101) was compared to the perceptions and use of entering freshmen (N = 481) surveyed before the start of classes. Entering freshmen significantly misperceived campus norms for marijuana use, over-estimating that almost every student used in the last 30 days, p less than 0.001.…

  9. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Childhood Cognitive Measures as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Problems by Mid-Adulthood in a Non-Western Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (n = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample is from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily Caucasian samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A non-linear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were non-drinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. PMID:25621419

  11. [Comparative characteristics of glucose metabolism in the liver of rats under acute alcohol and morphine intoxication].

    PubMed

    Lelevich, S V

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis effect of acute alcohol and morphine intoxications on rats on hepatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway was done. The dose-dependent inhibitory effect of ethanol on activity of limiting enzymes of these metabolic ways, as well as anaerobic reorientation of glucose metabolism was recognised with the increase of the dose of the intake alcohol. Morfine (10 mg/kg) activated enymes of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, but in contrast to ethanol it did not influence these parameters at the dose 20 or 40 mg/kg.

  12. Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27428756

  13. Not the same old thing: Establishing the unique contribution of drinking identity as a predictor of alcohol consumption and problems over time.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-09-01

    Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  15. [A systematic review of surgical hand antisepsis utilizing an alcohol preparation compared to traditional products].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Karen de Jesus; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko

    2012-12-01

    Surgical hand antisepsis aims at preventing surgical site infections, an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality and escalating hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of alcohol preparations with traditional surgical hand antisepsis products by means of a systematic review of the literature. Primary and secondary studies were included, considering the microbial count or surgical site infection rates as outcomes. The search was performed on the BVS Portal, PubMed, Ask and MEDLINE. Twenty-five studies were selected (two systematic reviews, nineteen experimental and four cohort studies). The alcohol preparations promoted a microbial reduction equal to and/or greater than traditional products in 17 studies, and a lesser reduction in four studies; similar surgical site infection rates were identified. Therefore, there is scientific evidence that support the safety of alcohol preparations for surgical hand antisepsis.

  16. Housing instability and alcohol problems during the 2007-2009 US recession: the moderating role of perceived family support.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Ryan D; Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina

    2014-02-01

    The 2007-2009 US economic recession was marked by unprecedented rates of housing instability and relatively little is known about how this instability impacted alcohol problems. While previous studies have linked homelessness to increased rates of alcohol use and abuse, housing instability during a recession impacts a much larger segment of the population and usually does not result in homelessness. Using a nationally representative sample of US adults, this study examines the association between housing instability during the recession and alcohol outcomes. Additionally, we assess whether this association is moderated by perceived family support. In multivariate negative binomial regressions, both trouble paying the rent/mortgage (vs. stable housing) and lost (vs. stable) housing were associated with experiencing more negative drinking consequences and alcohol dependence symptoms. However, these associations were moderated by perceived family support. In contrast to those with low perceived family support, participants with high perceived family support reported relatively few alcohol problems, irrespective of housing instability. Furthermore, while job loss was strongly associated with alcohol problems in univariate models, no significant associations between job loss and alcohol outcomes were observed in multivariate models that included indicators of housing instability. Findings point to the importance of the informal safety net and suggest that alcohol screening and abuse prevention efforts should be intensified during periods of recession, particularly among those who experience housing instability.

  17. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. PMID:26075735

  18. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems.

  19. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  20. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  1. Long-term effects of the Family Bereavement Program on spousally bereaved parents: Grief, mental health problems, alcohol problems, and coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping

  2. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors. PMID:25975381

  3. Implementation of public policy on alcohol and other drugs in Brazilian municipalities: comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Mota, Daniela Belchior; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2016-07-01

    One of the challenges with respect to public health and the abuse of alcohol and other drugs is to implement policies in support of greater co-ordination among various levels of government. In Brazil, policies are formulated by the Secretaria Nacional de Políticas sobre Drogas (SENAD - State Department for Policies on Drugs) and the Ministério da Saúde (MS - Ministry of Health). This study aims to compare implementation of policies adopted by SENAD and MS at the municipal level. Three municipalities were intentionally selected: Juiz de Fora having a larger network of treatment services for alcohol and drug users; Lima Duarte, a small municipality, which promotes the political participation of local actors (COMAD - Municipal Council on Alcohol and Drugs); and São João Nepomuceno, also a small municipality, chosen because it has neither public services specialised to assist alcohol and other drugs users, nor COMAD. Data collection was conducted through interviews with key informants (n = 19) and a review of key documents concerned with municipal policies. Data analysis was performed using content analysis. In Juiz de Fora, there are obstacles regarding the integration of the service network for alcohol and other drug users and also the articulation of local actors, who are predominant in the mental health sector. In Lima Duarte, while there is a link between local actors through COMAD, their actions within the local service network have not been effective. In São João Nepomuceno, there were no public actions in the area of alcohol and drugs, and consequently insufficient local debate. However, some voluntary, non-governmental work has been undertaken. There were weaknesses in the implementation of national-level policies by SENAD and the MS, due to the limited supply of available treatment, assistance and the lack of integration among local actors.

  4. The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in University undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Andretta, James R; McKay, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Time perspective is an individual difference variable which assesses the extent to which orientation to the past, present and future affects current behaviors. The present study investigated the viability of temporal profiles and the degree (if any) to which these predict meaningful differences in alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduates recruited from a University in the North West of England. Full survey data were available for 455 individuals (aged 18-25; 49.7% male) on (a) time perspective, and (b) alcohol-related problems. Four profiles emerged and were labeled Future-Positive, Present, Past Negative-Future, and Ambivalent. As hypothesized, the Future-Positive profile was associated with the best alcohol-related outcomes. The Present profile was associated with the worst outcomes. This study demonstrates that temporal profiles are associated with alcohol-related problems.

  5. Alcohol fuels from biomass in Brazil: a comparative assessment of methanol and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The prospect of an unprecedented production of ethanol for use as fuel has raised two general types of questions: (a) is sugar cane/ethanol the most cost-effective feedstock/product combination for a Brazilian alcohol-fuels program. (b) What are the potential environmental impacts of increased alcohol-fuels production, especially with respect to water quality and land use. This study uses a linear-programming model to evaluate options for future alcohol-fuels production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results indicate that: (a) the expansion of alcohol distilleries located adjacent to sugar refineries was the best strategy for the first phase of the Program; (b) in the future, the use of wood methanol could be less costly than sugar ethanol produced in independent distilleries; (c) ethanol from manioc can be competitive only if the cost of manioc falls to half of its current value, but manioc could be used immediately as a backup feedstock in the sugar-cane off-season; (d) the displacement of other crops by sugar cane, as measured by current land prices, seems to have little impact on the cost of ethanol, but could pose problems in terms of increased food prices and loss of foreign exchange; (e) the enforcement of regional water-quality standards would require relocation of distilleries in order to protect areas which already show high levels of pollution; (f) from the standpoint of gasoline substitution, the use of pure alcohol fuels should be expanded as much as possible.

  6. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous attendance following 12-step treatment participation as a link between alcohol-dependent fathers' treatment involvement and their children's externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2009-01-01

    We investigated longitudinal associations between alcohol-dependent fathers' 12-step treatment involvement and their children's internalizing and externalizing problems (N = 125, M(age) = 9.8 +/- 3.1), testing the hypotheses that fathers' greater treatment involvement would benefit later child behavior and that this effect would be mediated by fathers' posttreatment behaviors. The initial association was established between fathers' treatment involvement and children's externalizing problems only, whereas Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) results supported mediating hypotheses. Fathers' greater treatment involvement predicted children's lower externalizing problems 12 months later, and fathers' posttreatment behaviors mediated this association: Greater treatment involvement predicted greater posttreatment Alcoholics Anonymous attendance, which in turn predicted greater abstinence. Finally, fathers' abstinence was associated with lower externalizing problems in children. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:18715745

  8. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients’ experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care. Methods This qualitative study recruited problem drug users (N = 28) from primary care based methadone programmes in the Ireland’s Eastern region, using a stratified sampling matrix to include size of general practice and geographical area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis, and audited by a third reviewer. Results We identified three overarching themes relevant to the purpose of this paper: (1) patients’ experience of, and (2) attitude towards, screening and treatment for problem alcohol use in primary care, as well as their (3) views on service improvement. While most patients reported being screened for problem alcohol use at initial assessment, few recalled routine screening or treatment. Among the barriers and enablers to screening and treatment, patients highlighted the importance of the practitioner-patient relationship in helping them address the issue. Nevertheless, patients felt that healthcare professionals should be more proactive in the management of problem alcohol use at a primary care level and that primary care can play an important role in their treatment. Conclusions Problem alcohol use is an important challenge in the care of problem drug users. While primary care is well placed to address this issue, little data has reported on this topic. The development of interventions which promote screening and brief interventions in practice are likely to benefit this at-risk group and further research and education, that help achieve this goal, are a priority. Strategies such as dissemination of clinical guidelines, educational videos, academic

  9. TESTING A LEVEL OF RESPONSE TO ALCOHOL-BASED MODEL OF HEAVY DRINKING AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN 1,905 17-YEAR-OLDS

    PubMed Central

    Schuckit, Marc A.; Smith, Tom L.; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Macleod, John; Lewis, Glyn; Davis, John M.; Hibbeln, Joseph R.; Brown, Sandra; Zuccolo, Luisa; Miller, Laura L.; Davey-Smith, George

    2011-01-01

    Background The low level of response (LR) to alcohol is one of several genetically-influenced characteristics that increase the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Efforts to understand how LR operates through additional life influences have been carried out primarily in modest sized U.S.-based samples with limited statistical power, raising questions about generalizability and about the importance of components with smaller effects. This study evaluates a full LR-based model of risk in a large sample of adolescents from the U.K. Methods Cross-sectional structural equation models (SEM) were used for the approximate first half of the age 17 subjects assessed by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), generating data on 1,905 adolescents (0 age 17.8 years, 44.2% males). LR was measured with the Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) Questionnaire, outcomes were based on drinking quantities and problems, and standardized questionnaires were used to evaluate peer substance use, alcohol expectancies, and using alcohol to cope with stress. Results In this young and large U.K. sample, a low LR related to more adverse alcohol outcomes both directly and through partial mediation by all three additional key variables (peer substance use, expectancies, and coping). The models were similar in males and females. Conclusions These results confirm key elements of the hypothesized LR-based model in a large U.K. sample, supporting some generalizability beyond U.S. groups. They also indicate that with enough statistical power multiple elements contribute to how LR relates to alcohol outcomes, and reinforce the applicability of the model to both genders. PMID:21762180

  10. Multifactorial comparative proteomic study of cytochrome P450 2E1 function in chronic alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Kou, Yan; Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur; Wang, Rong

    2014-01-01

    With the use of iTRAQ technique, a multifactorial comparative proteomic study can be performed. In this study, to obtain an overview of ethanol, CYP2E1 and gender effects on liver injury and gain more insight into the underlying molecular mechanism, mouse liver proteomes were quantitatively analyzed using iTRAQ under eight conditions including mice of different genders, wild type versus CYP2E1 knockout, and normal versus alcohol diet. A series of statistical and bioinformatic analyses were explored to simplify and clarify multifactorial comparative proteomic data. First, with the Principle Component analysis, six proteins, CYP2E1, FAM25, CA3, BHMT, HIBADH and ECHS1, involved in oxidation reduction, energy and lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism, were identified as the most differentially expressed gene products across all of the experimental conditions of our chronic alcoholism model. Second, hierarchical clustering analysis showed CYP2E1 knockout played a primary role in the overall differential protein expression compared with ethanol and gender factors. Furthermore, pair-wise multiple comparisons have revealed that the only significant expression difference lied in wild-type and CYP2E1 knockout mice both treated with ethanol. Third, K-mean clustering analysis indicated that the CYP2E1 knockout had the reverse effect on ethanol induced oxidative stress and lipid oxidation. More importantly, IPA analysis of proteomic data inferred that the gene expressions of two upstream regulators, NRF2 and PPARα, regulated by chronic alcohol feeding and CYP2E1 knockout, are involved in ethanol induced oxidative stress and lipid oxidation. The present study provides an effectively comprehensive data analysis strategy to compare multiple biological factors, contributing to biochemical effects of alcohol on the liver. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with data set identifier of PXD000635.

  11. Social Environmental Influences on the Development and Resolution of Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Zucker, Robert A.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Ammon, Lyndsay; Ames, Genevieve M.; Longabaugh, Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, Santa Barbara, California, June 25–30. The overall goal of the symposium was to consider the broad impact of the social environment on the development of and successful or unsuccessful resolution of drinking problems. The presentations addressed multiple social environmental influences including: the influence of children on parents (Dr. Zucker), the influence of peers and parents on adolescents (Dr. Molina), the influence of family members on adult drinking (Dr. McCrady), the influence of adult peers/friends (Dr. Kaskutas), and the influence of the occupational environment (Dr. Ames). Dr. Longabaugh, the symposium discussant, addressed models for understanding the relationships between social influences and drinking problems. PMID:16573588

  12. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…

  13. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  14. Disentangling the complex association between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol-related problems: a review of methodological issues and approaches.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Carolyn E; Agrawal, Arpana; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Lynskey, Michael T

    2008-09-01

    This review describes and evaluates methodological approaches aimed at unraveling the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later misuse of alcohol, which is complicated by the significant overlap between factors that elevate risk for CSA exposure and those that increase risk for problem alcohol use. We critique methods used to distinguish direct effects of CSA events on alcohol-related outcomes from the effects of risk factors frequently present in families in which CSA exposure occurs (e.g., parental alcohol-related problems). These methods include measurement and adjustment for potentially confounding factors and the use of co-twin designs. The findings across methodological approaches provide support for a CSA-specific risk for alcohol misuse, despite the significant contribution of family background factors to overall risk, but much work remains to be done before a comprehensive model for this association can be proposed. Additional directions for research, including the incorporation of measured genes and the use of longitudinal designs, are proposed to further efforts to model the pathways from CSA to alcohol-related problems.

  15. Protective effects of the alcohol dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 allele on attention and behavior problems in adolescents exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Neil C; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against alcohol teratogenicity in infants and children. This study was conducted to determine whether the presence of the ADH1B*3 allele in the mother or child continues to be protective in alcohol-exposed individuals during adolescence. 186 adolescents and 167 mothers participating in a 14-year follow-up of the Detroit Longitudinal Cohort were genotyped for ADH1B alleles. Behavioral reports were obtained from classroom teachers. Frequencies of the ADH1B*3 allele were 17.6% in the mothers and 21.0% in the adolescents, which are consistent with the 15-20% expected for African Americans. Prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with increased attention problems and externalizing behaviors in adolescents born to mothers with two ADH1B*1 alleles but not in those whose mothers had at least one ADH1B*3 allele. A similar pattern was seen in relation to the presence or absence of an ADH1B*3 allele in the adolescent, which may have reflected the presence/absence of the maternal variant. This study is the first to demonstrate that the protective effects of the maternal ADH1B*3 allele continue to be evident during adolescence. These persistent individual differences in vulnerability of offspring to the behavioral effects of fetal alcohol exposure are likely attributable to more rapid metabolism of alcohol that the ADH1B*3 variant confers on the mother, leading to a reduction of the peak blood alcohol concentration to which the fetus is exposed during each drinking episode.

  16. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    PubMed Central

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  17. Web-based Treatment for Rural Women with Alcohol Problems: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among women in rural areas is a concern, particularly since treatment is not readily accessible, and women are highly susceptible to the ill affects of alcohol misuse. The Internet may offer a treatment delivery alternative for women who cannot easily take part in gender-focused programs that are located in urban centers. The purpose of this randomized study was to evaluate a 90-day web-based treatment program for women in rural areas of Missouri with problem drinking habits. The online treatment program consisted of reference and decision-making modules, synchronous and asynchronous communication features, and the option to interact privately with the researcher. Preliminary findings relating to participant demographics, website use, and satisfaction are reported in this article. The enrolled participants (n = 46) averaged 50 (SD = 11) years of age, were relatively well educated and, to a large extent, financially secure. Based on their website usage, participants appeared to prefer reading communiqués over actively posting messages to the asynchronous bulletin board. In general, participants indicated satisfaction with the program, and 83% noted that they would recommend it to a friend. PMID:19901570

  18. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those con-texts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes.

  19. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes.

  20. Military Sexual Trauma, Combat Exposure, and Negative Urgency as Independent Predictors of PTSD and Subsequent Alcohol Problems among OEF/OIF Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, Christine K.; Simons, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 OEF/OIF veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, as well as combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  1. Metacognitions as a predictor of drinking status and level of alcohol use following CBT in problem drinkers: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Wells, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the role of negative emotions and metacognitions in predicting problem drinkers' drinking status (absence or presence of drinking) and level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months after a course of treatment. A total of 70 problem drinkers with a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol abuse participated in the study. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory and symptoms of anxiety were measured with the state anxiety sub-scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Metacognitions were measured with the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire. Results indicated that beliefs about need to control thoughts predicted: (1) drinking status at 3 and 6 months; and (2) level of weekly alcohol use at 3, 6 and 12 months. The contribution of metacognition was independent of negative emotions and initial level of weekly alcohol use. The results support the role of metacognition in problem drinking. Given that metacognitions are a possible risk factor for drinking status and level of weekly alcohol use it is suggested that treatment for problem drinking could target this variable.

  2. The Impact of an Educational Program in Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems on Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Brazilian Context.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.

  3. Comparing the AUDIT and 3 Drinking Indices as Predictors of Personal and Social Drinking Problems in Freshman First Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The current study of 376 college freshman adjudicated the first time for breaking university drinking rules tested the predictive power of four alcohol consumption and problem drinking indices--recent changes in drinking (the Alcohol Change Index: ACI), heavy drinking, binge drinking index, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)…

  4. Attitudes and Descriptive Norms of Alcohol-Related Problems as Predictors of Alcohol Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…

  5. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet. PMID:23396051

  6. Empathy and social problem solving in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Friedmann, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Altered empathic responding in social interactions in concert with a reduced capacity to come up with effective solutions for interpersonal problems have been discussed as relevant factors contributing to the development and maintenance of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current work was to review and evaluate 30 years of empirical evidence of impaired empathy and social problem solving skills in alcohol dependence, mood disorders and selected personality disorders (borderline, narcissistic, antisocial personality disorders/psychopathy), which have until now received considerably less attention than schizophrenia or autism in this realm. Overall, there is tentative evidence for dissociations of cognitive (e.g. borderline personality disorder) vs. emotional (e.g. depression, narcissism, psychopathy) empathy dysfunction in some of these disorders. However, inconsistencies in the definition of relevant concepts and their measurement, scarce neuroimaging data and rare consideration of comorbidities limit the interpretation of findings. Similarly, although impaired social problem solving appears to accompany all of these disorders, the concept has not been well integrated with empathy or other cognitive dysfunctions as yet.

  7. The relationship of alcohol outlet density to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems among college students at eight universities.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Elissa R; Folkman, Alison; Folkman, M P H Kerry Lemieux; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-03-01

    To determine whether alcohol outlet density was correlated with heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems, we compared ecological measures of outlet density with survey measures of drinking using a geographic information system and the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (n=3,421, site n=8). We identified 966 outlets within 8 2-mile study areas. Densities/site ranged from 32 to 185. Density was correlated with heavy drinking (r=0.82, p=0.01), frequent drinking (r=0.73, p=0.04) and drinking-related problems (r=0.79, p=0.02). Women, underage students and students who picked up binge drinking in college were affected. Implications for prevention and research are discussed.

  8. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  9. Patterns of Alcohol Use among Adolescents and Associations with Emotional and Behavioral Problems. OAS Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenblatt, Janet C.

    Findings from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) show a substantial decrease in alcohol use by youth during the past decade. Yet despite these trends, an estimated 1 in 5 teenagers were current alcohol drinkers and 1 in 13 were binge alcohol drinkers. This report provides data showing the relationship between emotional state,…

  10. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project.

  11. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative.

  12. Alcohol marketing in the 21st century: new methods, old problems.

    PubMed

    Mart, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    Marketing and advertising for alcoholic beverages is abundant throughout the United States and the rest of the world. Despite the fact that alcohol advertising is related to earlier initiation of drinking, higher rates of consumption, and positive expectancies among youth populations, alcohol companies continue to design new products and related campaigns with youth-friendly attributes. Alcopops and caffeinated alcoholic beverages are two particularly dangerous types of products, and new social networking technologies make direct promotion easy and voluminous. In order to stop the harm from these alcohol products and promotion, advocacy from the research community is imperative. PMID:21599504

  13. Understanding Alcohol Consumption and Its Correlates among African American Youths in Public Housing: A Test of Problem Behavior Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombe, Margaret; Yu, Mansoo; Nebbitt, Von; Earl, Tara

    2011-01-01

    African American youths are overrepresented in urban public housing developments characterized by violence, poverty, and alternative market activities. Using Jessor and Jessor's problem behavior theory (PBT), the authors examined alcohol use and its correlates in a sample of African American youths from three public housing developments (N = 403).…

  14. The Needs of Pregnant and Parenting American Indian Women at Risk for Problem Alcohol or Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahnd, Elaine; Klein, Dorie

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 171 American Indian women in California who were pregnant or parenting and were considered at risk for problem substance abuse covered demographic information; personal and family history; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; HIV risk; and a needs assessment regarding health care, economic needs, and parenting and children's needs. (LP)

  15. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  16. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  17. The Native American adolescent: social network structure and perceptions of alcohol induced social problems.

    PubMed

    Rees, Carter; Freng, Adrienne; Winfree, L Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Race/ethnicity and the structure of an adolescent's social network are both important factors in the etiology of delinquent behavior. Yet, much of the minority-group delinquency literature overlooks the Native American youth population that traditionally exhibits high rates of alcohol use and abuse. Utilizing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we compare the structural characteristics of school-based friendship networks of American Indian youth and other racial/ethnic groups. Our core sample for the descriptive analysis consists of 70,841 youth (Caucasian = 42,096; Black = 13,554; Asian = 4,758; Hispanic = 4,464; American Indian = 3,426; Other = 2,543; Female = 50%). We find that Native American youth generally occupy similar social positions within school hierarchies compared to other minority groups. However, American Indian youth have fewer ties at the school level than Caucasian youth, including reports of fewer reciprocated friendships, a smaller number of in-school friends, and membership in less cohesive personal networks. We also focus on the detrimental social and physical consequences of alcohol use during adolescence and offer an extended consequences model (n = 5,841) that includes the interactive effects of race/ethnicity, age, and drinking influences on relationships with friends (Caucasian = 59%; Black = 19%; Asian = 7%; Hispanic = 7%; American Indian = 5%; Other = 3%; Female = 54%). American Indian youth are no more likely than other youth to report personal drinking as being detrimental to social relationships with parents, peers, and romantic partners. We address ties between our findings and criminal justice policies and practices, as well as the implications for similar network analyses involving other racial/ethnic groups.

  18. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit.

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  1. Loneliness and Alcoholism Risk in Late Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Adults and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Cole, Galen E.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to subjects over age 18. Among late adolescents (aged 18 to 20), lonely females had highest mean scores, indicating higher degree of alcoholism risk than lonely males and nonlonely subjects. For males, loneliness appeared to increase alcoholism risk, not in late adolescence, but during early…

  2. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  3. [Parenteral S-adenosylmethionine compared to placebos in the treatment of alcoholic liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Diaz Belmont, A; Dominguez Henkel, R; Uribe Ancira, F

    1996-01-01

    The improvements in the knowledge of the action of ethanol over the hepatic cell, its direct action over the cell, and the intracytoplasmatic structures membranes, point out the possibilities of use of sulfo-adenosil-L-metionina (SAMe); as an util drug inn the treatment of the altered metilation reactions, that take place in those membranes, facilitating their physiological functions. The primary end point in this study was to demonstrate the therapeutic worth os SAMe, by parenteral route in 45 patients with alcoholic liver disease, which were determined by clinical laboratory and hepatic function test, label qith 32 points or more of the discriminatory function index. Divided into two groups, placebo-SAMe, randomized, double blind. As well as total plasmatic and reduced glutation and lipoperoxidation index, indirect form as malondehaldehyde. Were determined at the first visit anf after 8 and 15 days of treatment. Comparing the results of both groups there were a significative favorable results for the group treatment with SAMe and this confirms the utility of this drug in the treatment of patients with alcoholic liver disease with a discriminatory function index (Maddrey index), of 32 points or more. PMID:8679834

  4. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  5. Challenges and intriguing problems in comparative renal physiology.

    PubMed

    Dantzler, William H

    2005-02-01

    The comparative approach has proved important many times in understanding renal function and continues to offer possible approaches to unsolved problems today, in three general areas. (1) Quantification of glomerular ultrafiltration. In contrast to the complex capillary network in the mammalian glomerulus, the glomerulus of the superficial loopless (reptilian-type) avian nephrons consists of a single capillary loop. This structure, in an avian species where it can be approached directly, should for the first time permit accurate determinations of the pressure profiles and the capillary area involved in glomerular ultrafiltration in an animal with high arterial pressure. (2) Fluid reabsorption by proximal renal tubules. In some reptilian proximal renal tubules, isolated and perfused in vitro, isosmotic fluid reabsorption can occur at control rates when lithium replaces sodium or when some other substance replaces sodium or chloride or both in the perfusate and bathing medium simultaneously. Reabsorption at the control rates, regardless of the composition of the perfusate and bathing medium, can be at least partially inhibited by cold and cyanide, but not by blockers of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. It is also independent of the buffer system used, but it is reduced about 20% by removal of colloid from the peritubular fluid. During the substitutions, the surface area of the proximal tubule cells increases dramatically and might permit some insignificant force to be more effective in the reabsorptive process. Understanding the process involved in this, apparently unique coupling of solute and fluid transport, certainly would be very valuable in understanding coupled transport of solutes and water across epithelia in general. (3) Urate secretion by proximal renal tubules. Urate is the major excretory end product of nitrogen metabolism in birds, most reptiles, and a few amphibians. It undergoes net secretion by the renal tubules. It has been possible to learn much about the

  6. Marital Relationships of Alcoholic, Conflicted, and Nonconflicted Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.

    Understanding characteristics specific to alcoholics' marriages could help therapists to more effectively address the needs of alcoholic clients. To identify some of these characteristics, 26 married couples with an alcoholic husband (ALC) were compared with 26 maritally-conficted (MC) and 26 nonconflicted (NC) couples without alcohol problems.…

  7. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  8. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  9. Comparing the effects of various fuel alcohols on the natural attenuation of Benzene Plumes using a general substrate interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Diego E.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2010-04-01

    The effects of five fuel alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, iso-butanol and n-butanol) on the natural attenuation of benzene were compared using a previously developed numerical model (General Substrate Interaction Module — GSIM) and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Simulations with a 30 gal dissolving LNAPL (light non-aqueous phase liquid) source consisting of a range of gasoline blends (10% and 85% v:v alcohol content) suggest that all fuel alcohols can hinder the natural attenuation of benzene, due mainly to accelerated depletion of dissolved oxygen and a decrease in the specific degradation rate for benzene (due to catabolite repression and metabolic flux dilution). Simulations for blends with 10% alcohol, assuming a homogeneous sandy aquifer, inferred maximum benzene plume elongations (relative to a regular gasoline release) of 26% for ethanol, 47% for iso-butanol, 147% for methanol, 188% for 1-propanol, and 265% for n-butanol. The corresponding elongation percentages for blends with 85% alcohol were generally smaller (i.e., 25%, 54%, 135%, 163%, and 181%, respectively), reflecting a lower content of benzene in the simulated release. Benzene plume elongation and longevity were more pronounced in the presence of alcohols that biodegrade slower (e.g., propanol and n-butanol), forming longer and more persistent alcohol plumes. Conversely, ethanol and iso-butanol exhibited the lowest potential to hinder the natural attenuation of benzene, illustrating the significant effect that a small difference in chemical structure (e.g., isomers) can have on biodegradation. Overall, simulations were highly sensitive to site-specific biokinetic coefficients for alcohol degradation, which forewarns against generalizations about the level of impact of specific fuel alcohols on benzene plume dynamics.

  10. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  11. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  12. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  13. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent. PMID:25559698

  14. "Disease" of the nation, family and individual: three moral discourses of alcohol problems in Finnish women's magazines from the 1960s to the 2000s.

    PubMed

    Törrönen, Jukka; Simonen, Jenni; Tigerstedt, Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Women's magazines can be seen as a genre that form feminized public spaces where everyday life contradictions of women's life are negotiated. The study examines the ways in which Finnish women's magazines have dealt with alcohol problems. The data covers six primary sampling years: 1968, 1976, 1984, 1992, 2000 and 2008. The data is analyzed by drawing on the concept of 'moral regulation'. The analysis shows that a family-centered framing dominated the constructions of alcohol problem: fathers' and husbands' alcoholism appeared as a main object of regulation in all decades under study, while mothers' and wives' alcoholism was much less prevalent.

  15. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  16. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  17. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with a population based sample.

    PubMed

    Mangerud, Wenche Langfjord; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Lydersen, Stian; Indredavik, Marit Sæbø

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use by diagnostic category in 566 adolescent psychiatric patients, comparing this sample with 8173 adolescents from the general population in Norway who completed the Young-HUNT 3 survey. Frequencies of current alcohol use were high in both samples but were lower among psychiatric patients. Compared with adolescents in the general population, adolescents in the clinical sample had a higher prevalence of current smoking and over four times higher odds of having tried illicit drugs. In the clinical sample, those with mood disorders reported the highest frequencies of smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use, whereas those with autism spectrum disorders reported the lowest frequencies. Our results show an increased prevalence of risky health behaviors among adolescents with psychiatric disorders compared with the general population. The awareness of disorder-specific patterns of smoking and substance use may guide preventive measures.

  18. Confronting the obstacles to screening and interventions for alcohol problems in trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Gentilello, Larry M

    2005-09-01

    Despite the demonstrated clinical benefits and decreased risks of injury recurrence, brief alcohol interventions are still not routine practice in trauma centers. Although alcohol and drugs play a significant role in trauma, few trauma specialists are aware of the potential benefits of interventions because alcohol treatment specialists have not widely disseminated their findings to other specialties. This article addresses some key obstacles that must be overcome to facilitate brief interventions as routine trauma practice. Included are discussions on training, cost and reimbursement factors, responsibility of the trauma surgeon, patient privacy and confidentiality issues, insurance laws and regulations, needed collaboration with partners, and research priorities and funding.

  19. Alcohol use and substance use disorders in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with nondeployed military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2015-01-01

    Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations.

  20. The Use of Qualitative Comparative Analysis for Critical Event Research in Alcohol and HIV in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Devyani; Singh, S. K.; Berg, Marlene; Singh, Sharad; Gupta, Kamla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) in critical event analysis to identify under what conditions alcohol is necessary in contributing to unprotected sex. The paper is based on a set of in-depth interviews with 84 men aged 18 = 29 from three typical low income communities in Mumbai who reported using alcohol and having sex with at least one nonspousal partner once or more in the 30 days prior to the interview. The interviews included narratives of critical events defined as recent (past 30–60 day) events involving sexual behavior with or without alcohol. The paper identifies themes related to alcohol, sexuality and condom use, uses QCA to identify and explain configurations leading to protected and unprotected sex, and explains the differences. The analysis shows that alcohol alone is not sufficient to explain any cases involving unprotected sex but alcohol in combination with partner type and contextual factors does explain unprotected sex for subsets of married and unmarried men. PMID:20563636

  1. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease.

  2. Drinking problems and self-reported criminal behavior, arrests and convictions: 1990 US alcohol and 1989 county surveys.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, T K; Weisner, C

    1995-03-01

    Use of general population surveys in addition to institutional samples is critical to disentangling the relationship between criminal behavior and alcohol problems or use of illicit drugs. Local area studies can be useful but generalizability of their results is seldom studied. Data from recent US national (n = 2058) and county (n = 3069) general population surveys are used to examine the role of alcohol problem and drug use history in predicting self-reported criminal behavior, arrest and conviction within a logistic regression framework. In the national and county surveys controlling for age, gender, income, marital status, employment, education, race and drug use, lifetime drinking problems significantly predicted current criminal behavior (odds ratios 1.3 and 1.5, respectively) with slightly stronger relationships noted in equivalent models predicting arrest (odds ratios 1.7 and 1.8) and conviction (odds ratios 1.7 and 1.6). Relationships between alcohol, drugs and criminal behavior/justice variables are discussed. Parallels between US and county results suggest that findings from intensive, articulated analyses of community-level population and institutional surveys may be cautiously generalized beyond their geographic locus.

  3. The relationship of alcohol problems to the risk for unidirectional and bidirectional intimate partner violence among a sample of blue-collar couples.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Ames, Genevieve M; Duke, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how each partner's alcohol problems may contribute to the risk of male-to-female only, female-to-male only, or bidirectional partner violence is important for the prevention and treatment of these problems. Multinomial regression analysis was conducted using data from 848 blue-collar couples. Findings suggest that male alcohol problems are linked to male-to-female and bidirectional partner violence but not with female-to-male partner violence. Female alcohol problems do not appear to be related to any type of partner aggression. Each partner's level of impulsivity was associated with bidirectional partner violence. Male impulsivity was associated with male-to-female violence, and female impulsivity was associated with female-to-male violence. Prevention of male alcohol problems and promotion of nonconfrontational conflict-solving techniques may help reduce partner aggression among couples in the general household population.

  4. Alcoholic Women on Skid Row.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sandra C.

    1987-01-01

    Examined women (N=20) who were receiving alcoholism treatment in the skid-row area of Portland, Oregon. Women had histories of problem drinking and extensive treatment for alcoholism. Most had been married and had children. Despite transiency, the majority maintained contact with friends and relatives. Compared these women to New York City's…

  5. The Professionalization of Comparative and International Education: Promises and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Matherly, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify, describe, and analyze historical trends in the professionalization of the field of comparative and international education, as indicated by the founding, expansion, and evolution of the professional associations and graduate programs serving the field. Using historical and university data as well as unique…

  6. Problems in comparing particulate spectrometer and visibility meter data.

    PubMed

    Loveland, R B; Lindberg, J D

    1988-10-15

    During the course of a study of vertical profiles of aerosol properties in low stratus clouds, data were acquired simultaneously with particulate spectrometers and with a visibility meter. Calculations made from the particulate data using Mie theory did not agree with extinction as inferred from the visibility meter data when the aerosol extinction was very high or very low. Several possible explanations for this discrepancy were investigated. It was found that the limited acceptance angle of the visibility meter, a form of integrating nephelometer, can contribute to the problem at high extinction values. In low extinction conditions a peculiarity of the electrooptical design of the particulate spectrometer may cause it to lead to serious errors in estimates of aerosol density.

  7. Personality disorders in alcoholics: a comparative pilot study between the IPDE and the MCMI-II.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Landa, Natalia; López-Goñi, José J; Lorea, Iñaki

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders (PDs) related to alcoholism are described. 105 participants took part in the study (50 consecutively recruited treatment-seeking alcoholics and 55 subjects from the general population). All subjects were assessed with the IPDE and the MCMI-II. According to the results in the IPDE, 22% of alcoholics, versus 7.27% of the normal sample, showed at least one PD. The most prevalent PDs were the Avoidance personality disorder (10%), followed by the Non-specified (8%) and Borderline (6%). When the MCMI-II was used a significantly higher prevalence of PDs was observed (52% in alcoholics and 18.1% in the normal sample), without coincidence in the kind of PDs diagnosed. This lack of consistency is probably related to the assessment tools, mainly the IPDE, which is more accurate and conservative than self-report inventories, which present a tendency for over-diagnosis. PMID:16236456

  8. Personality disorders in alcoholics: a comparative pilot study between the IPDE and the MCMI-II.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Landa, Natalia; López-Goñi, José J; Lorea, Iñaki

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, the most frequent personality disorders (PDs) related to alcoholism are described. 105 participants took part in the study (50 consecutively recruited treatment-seeking alcoholics and 55 subjects from the general population). All subjects were assessed with the IPDE and the MCMI-II. According to the results in the IPDE, 22% of alcoholics, versus 7.27% of the normal sample, showed at least one PD. The most prevalent PDs were the Avoidance personality disorder (10%), followed by the Non-specified (8%) and Borderline (6%). When the MCMI-II was used a significantly higher prevalence of PDs was observed (52% in alcoholics and 18.1% in the normal sample), without coincidence in the kind of PDs diagnosed. This lack of consistency is probably related to the assessment tools, mainly the IPDE, which is more accurate and conservative than self-report inventories, which present a tendency for over-diagnosis.

  9. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the "high risk" category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the "risk" category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the "high risk" category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the "risk" category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  10. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the “risk” category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  11. Prediction by neural network methods compared for energy control problems

    SciTech Connect

    Surkan, A.J.; Skurikhin, A.N.

    1996-10-01

    Daily recordings of energy consumption are sequenced to construct a time series that is used to test the accuracy of a variety of neural networks in making one- and two-day demand predictions. Five neural network methods were applied to the same data for a problem of predicting daily energy usage. These included four which were gradient-based, namely, back propagation (BACKPROP), quick-propagation (QUICKPROP), cascade correlation (CASCOR), memory neuron network (MNN), and a correlation-based method called ALOPEX. The observed time series is the only information source used for making predictions. Other supplementary parallel series of independent data can produce improvements. It was demonstrated that these neural network learning algorithms can train networks to predict consistently, one-day-ahead, over one year of set-aside test patterns and reduce the average error to below 19%. Reported is a comparison of applicability of neural networks by programmed simulations of the widely used gradient-based algorithms along with newer algorithms MNN and ALOPEX. The diverse capabilities of these various networks give insights which are a useful basis for selecting further studies.

  12. Children of parents with alcohol problems performing normality: A qualitative interview study about unmet needs for professional support

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Anne; Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Background Children of parents with alcohol problems are at risk for serious long-term health consequences. Knowledge is limited about how to recognize those in need of support and how to offer respectful services. Method From nine interviews with adult children from families with alcohol problems, we explored childhood experiences, emphasizing issues concerning potentially unmet needs for professional support. Smart's perspective on family secrets and Goffman's dramaturgical metaphor on social order of the family focusing on the social drama and the dramaturgy enacted by the children supported our cross-case thematic analysis. Findings The social interaction in the family was disrupted during childhood because of the parent's drinking problems. An everyday drama characterized by tension and threats, blame and manipulation was the backstage of their everyday life. Dealing with the drama, the children experienced limited parental support. Some children felt betrayed by the other parent who might trivialize the problems and excuse the drinking parent. Family activities and routines were disturbed, and uncertainty and insecurity was created. The children struggled to restore social order within the family and to act as normally as possible outside the family. It was a dilemma for the children to disclose the difficulties of the family. Conclusion Altogether, the children worked hard to perform a normally functioning family, managing a situation characterized by unmet needs for professional support. Adequate support requires recognition of the children's efforts to perform a normally functioning family. PMID:27104341

  13. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use.

  14. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. PMID:22832324

  15. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines.

  16. More mental health problems after divorce in couples with high pre-divorce alcohol consumption than in other divorced couples: results from the HUNT-study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Divorce is associated with mental health problems, and heavy drinking is related to higher risk of divorce. Less is known about the effects of divorce in couples where one or both drinks heavily. There are, however, reasons to expect different consequences of divorce in heavy risk using couples compared to other couples. Spouses of abusers may experience the divorce as a relief, whereas abusers may find it extra difficult to be left single. The aim of the study is to compare the effect of divorce on mental health in heavy drinking couples to the effect in couples who drink less. Methods Registry data were matched with data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT 1 (T1) and 2 (T2)), enabling longitudinal analyses of approximately 11,000 couples. Interaction terms between 1) alcohol use on T1 and divorce between T1 and T2 (11 year time lag), and 2) alcohol use on T1 and time since divorce at T2 for all divorced couples were tested to examine changes in mental health between T1 and T2 for a) spouses of high-risk compared to low-risk users, and b) high-risk compared to low-risk users themselves. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance. Results There was a general effect of divorce on change in mental health between T1 and T2. We observed a significantly stronger worsening in mental health in female high-risk users and their spouses than in divorced low-risk users and their spouses. The results also suggest that the strain after divorce lasts longer in women with a high alcohol consumption and their spouses. Conclusions Divorce seems to affect couples where one or both drink heavily more than couples with a low consumption. Also there was some evidence of a slower healing of mental health problems after divorce in alcohol exposed couples than in other couples. The results only reached significance for female high consumers and their spouses, but due to limited statistical power, safe conclusions about gender specific effects cannot be

  17. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  18. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  19. A Social Role Negotiation Approach to Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Thomas W.

    This document presents a social role negotiation model to be used in the prevention of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Section I focuses on theories and theorizing, explaining the fundamental aspects of a theory formulation project. Section II explores the historical and social context of the social role negotiation model. Patterns of…

  20. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  1. Faces of Change: Do I Have a Problem with Alcohol or Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... he drank a lot of alcohol. He dropped out of school in his senior year. Now Eric has a ... his life, Don was able to finish high school and find a good ... touched drugs in 10 years. He likes to work out at the gym, and he has made a ...

  2. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome: new perspectives for an ancient and underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Luisa; Memo, Luigi; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi; Vagnarelli, Federica

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of the dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy isn't indeed a new issue, but the recent evidences of ethyl-glucuronide and ethyl-sulfate in meconium as novel biomarkers of prenatal ethanol exposure open new perspectives for the early diagnosis of the alcohol-related birth defects. This is crucial for a better developmental outcome of the affected patients and for preventing additional cases in at risk families. The fetal alcohol syndrome is not a single entity but represents the most severe form of a spectrum of disorders, including distinctive craniofacial alterations, stunted growth and behavioral abnormalities, caused by complex gene-environment interactions. FAS must always be a diagnosis of exclusion and have to be differentiated from many conditions caused by other embryotoxin agents and genetic syndromes that share some phenotypic features. Even if the first trimester is considered the most vulnerable period, nowadays is known that a fetal damage might occur throughout all gestation. Since ethanol consumption is constantly increasing among young women, a substantial amount of work has to be made to implement the knowledge on alcohol fetal effects among women of childbearing age; moreover, awareness and training among professionals in the health care system might play a critical role in the early diagnosis of these serious conditions.

  4. Addressing Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T. P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Over the past 2 decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on…

  5. Comparing hard and soft prior bounds in geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1987-01-01

    In linear inversion of a finite-dimensional data vector y to estimate a finite-dimensional prediction vector z, prior information about X sub E is essential if y is to supply useful limits for z. The one exception occurs when all the prediction functionals are linear combinations of the data functionals. Two forms of prior information are compared: a soft bound on X sub E is a probability distribution p sub x on X which describeds the observer's opinion about where X sub E is likely to be in X; a hard bound on X sub E is an inequality Q sub x(X sub E, X sub E) is equal to or less than 1, where Q sub x is a positive definite quadratic form on X. A hard bound Q sub x can be softened to many different probability distributions p sub x, but all these p sub x's carry much new information about X sub E which is absent from Q sub x, and some information which contradicts Q sub x. Both stochastic inversion (SI) and Bayesian inference (BI) estimate z from y and a soft prior bound p sub x. If that probability distribution was obtained by softening a hard prior bound Q sub x, rather than by objective statistical inference independent of y, then p sub x contains so much unsupported new information absent from Q sub x that conclusions about z obtained with SI or BI would seen to be suspect.

  6. Comparing hard and soft prior bounds in geophysical inverse problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    In linear inversion of a finite-dimensional data vector y to estimate a finite-dimensional prediction vector z, prior information about X sub E is essential if y is to supply useful limits for z. The one exception occurs when all the prediction functionals are linear combinations of the data functionals. Two forms of prior information are compared: a soft bound on X sub E is a probability distribution p sub x on X which describes the observer's opinion about where X sub E is likely to be in X; a hard bound on X sub E is an inequality Q sub x(X sub E, X sub E) is equal to or less than 1, where Q sub x is a positive definite quadratic form on X. A hard bound Q sub x can be softened to many different probability distributions p sub x, but all these p sub x's carry much new information about X sub E which is absent from Q sub x, and some information which contradicts Q sub x. Both stochastic inversion (SI) and Bayesian inference (BI) estimate z from y and a soft prior bound p sub x. If that probability distribution was obtained by softening a hard prior bound Q sub x, rather than by objective statistical inference independent of y, then p sub x contains so much unsupported new information absent from Q sub x that conclusions about z obtained with SI or BI would seen to be suspect.

  7. Modeling behavioral reactivity to losses and rewards on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): moderation by alcohol problem severity.

    PubMed

    Ashenhurst, James R; Bujarski, Spencer; Jentsch, J David; Ray, Lara A

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between risk-taking behavior and substance dependence has proven to be complex, particularly when examining across participants expressing a range of substance use problem severity. While main indices of risk-taking in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) positively associate with problematic alcohol use in adolescent populations (e.g., MacPherson, Magidson, Reynolds, Kahler, & Lejuez, 2010), several studies have observed a negative relationship when examining behavior within adult substance using populations (Ashenhurst, Jentsch, & Ray, 2011; Campbell, Samartgis, & Crowe, 2013). To examine potential mechanisms that underlie this negative relationship, we implemented multilevel regression models on trial-by-trial BART data gathered from 295 adult problem drinkers. These models accounted for participant behavior on trials following balloon bursts or cash outs as indices of loss and reward reactivity, respectively, and included control variables including age, IQ, and individual delay discounting rate. Results revealed that individual trial pumping was significantly predicted by trial number, and by whether or not the previous trial was a big burst or a big cash out (i.e., large magnitude of potential gains) in a manner consistent with a "near-miss" effect. Furthermore, severity of alcohol problems moderated the effect of a previous trial big burst, but not of a big cash out, on subsequent trial behavior such that those with greater severity demonstrated relative insensitivity to this "near-miss" effect. These results extend previous studies suggesting that alcohol abusers are less risky on the BART by specifying a mechanism underlying this pattern, namely, diminished reactivity to large magnitude losses. PMID:24840639

  8. Saami and Norwegian clients' use of a treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems in northern Norway.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1992-04-01

    Saami people ("Lapps") and Norwegians make different use of primary health care services, and Larsen and Nergård (1) reported an under-representation of Saami clients at a treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems in Northern Norway in the years 1986-1988. However, Saami and Norwegian groups did not differ in number of days in treatment, number of treatment incidents, mean age or self-reported years of problem drinking. Since it is believed that Saami clients are under-represented in Norwegian treatment facilities because of cultural differences, the location of treatment facilities within a Saami municipality was expected to increase the incidence of Saami clients. The present study investigated the incidence of Saami clients at Karasjok treatment facility during 1988 and 1989, 8 and 9 years after the opening of this treatment centre. All clients registered at Finnmark County's treatment facility for drug and alcohol problems during 1988-89 were categorized as either Saami or Norwegian by their language preference. Unfortunately, the Saami group was still under-represented among clients at this treatment facility. In addition, a significant difference in the sex-ratio between the two groups was found, indicating that Saami women do not use the institution at all. Results are discussed in terms of availability of health services for minority groups.

  9. Comparative QSTR study of a series of alcohol derivatives against Tetrahymena pyriformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Khan, A. K. R.; Sahu, V. K.; Singh, P. P.

    The quantitative structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) models of 89 alcohol derivatives have been made with the help of quantum chemical and topological descriptors. The molecular modeling and geometry optimization have been carried out with CAChe pro software. The calculations of quantum chemical descriptors have been done by MOPAC 2002 of topological descriptors by Dragon software. The study indicates that quantum chemical descriptors better predict the toxicity of amino, halogenated and unsaturated alcohol derivatives, while toxicity of acetylenic, diols, and saturated alcohol derivatives are better predicted by topological descriptors as indicated by correlation coefficient and cross validation coefficient (rCVcirc2) values of the QSTR models. The predicted toxicity (PT) values obtained by these QSTR models are close to observed toxicity.

  10. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  11. Genetic differences in response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The level of response to alcohol, which reflects individual differences in sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol, is considered to be an important endophenotype of alcohol use disorder (AUD). By comparing monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability of the level of response to alcohol has been estimated to be 60%. Many genes have been implicated as potential contributors toward heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and AUD through a low level of response to alcohol, each with a small effect. Identified are genes for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, serotonin transporter, opioid receptor, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, but the most well-characterized genes that have a strong impact on the level of response to alcohol are those for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although two genetic variations in alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which have been the most intensively studied, exist almost exclusively in Asian populations, studies on the effect of genetic variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the response to alcohol are gradually expanding in non-Asian populations. In this chapter, we focus on genetic studies in humans. After analyzing the overall influence of genetic factors on the response to alcohol, we explore individual genes that may influence the response to alcohol. Lastly, we review studies examining the effects of genetic variations in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on the level of response to alcohol.

  12. Paternal Alcoholism and Toddler Noncompliance

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina Das; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Morrisey, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of fathers’ alcoholism and associated risk factors on toddler compliance with parental directives at 18 and 24 months of age. Methods Participants were 215 families with 12-month-old children, recruited through birth records, who completed assessments of parental substance use, family functioning, and parent-child interactions at 12, 18, and 24 months of child age. Of these families, 96 were in the control group, 89 families were in the father-alcoholic-only group, and 30 families were in the group with two alcohol-problem parents. Child compliance with parents during cleanup situations after free play was measured at 18 and 24 months. The focus of this paper is on four measures of compliance: committed compliance, passive noncompliance, overt resistance, and defiance. Results Sons of alcohol-problem parents exhibited higher rates of noncompliance compared with sons of nonalcoholic parents. Sons in the two-alcohol-problem parent group seemed to be following a trajectory toward increasing rates of noncompliance. Daughters in the two-alcohol-problem parent group followed an opposite pattern. Other risk factors associated with parental alcohol problems also predicted compliance, but in unexpected ways. Conclusions Results indicate that early risk for behavioral undercontrol is present in the toddler period among sons of alcoholic fathers, but not among daughters. PMID:11707637

  13. A comparative analysis of the effects of narcotics, alcohol and the barbiturates on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    PubMed

    Cicero, T J; Badger, T M

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of our current state of knowledge regarding the effects of alcohol, the narcotics and the barbiturates on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the male. Three facets of this problem will be considered: acute drug effects; chronic effects, particularly with respect to the development of tolerance and physical dependence; and, finally, an attempt will be made to indicate the way in which these three substances of abuse are similar and/or dissimilar in their effects on this system. The effects of acute and chronic treatment with narcotics, alcohol and the barbiturates will be discussed first and then an attempt will be made, in a General Discussion, to summarize the data, make general comparisons between the drugs and suggest future lines of research.

  14. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  15. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  16. [Comparative analysis of ergogenic efficacy of energy drinks components (caffeine and bitter orange extract) in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Anuchin, A M; Iuvs, G G

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of ergogenic effects of caffeine and bitter orange exract combined with alcohol is presented in the article. Investigations were performed on 3 groups (8 animals in each group) of male Wistar rats aged 4 months. Animals in group 1 were treated orally for 7 days, the mixture comprising caffeine and alcohol (0.6 g of caffeine, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 4.28 mg caffeine per kg of body weight. Animals in group 2 received a mixture containing bitter orange extract and alcohol (1 g bitter orange extract, 72 ml of ethanol, water to 1 liter) in an amount equivalent to 0.43 mg of synephrine per kg body weight. Animals in the control group received the same volume (7.1 ml/kg) 7.2% aqueous solution of ethanol. Group of animals consumed caffeine in mixture with alcohol and the control group exhibited a significant weight gain, while the body weight of animals treated with the extract of bitter orange didn't significantly change. Using the methodology of the open field the effects of caffeine and bitter orange extract in combination with alcohol on the ratio of the active components of the orienting-exploratory behavior and passive-defensive behavior have been determined. Administration of mixture with caffeine increased locomotory activity by 164%, administration of bitter orange extract didn't affect this performance. Introduction of caffeine containing mixture significantly reduced the level of situational anxiety, which was manifested in the reduction of time spent by the animal in the center of the arena. The effects of ergogenic components on the performance of static and dynamic muscle endurance have been investigated. Single administration of the mixture containing caffeine, after 30 min caused a significant increase in performance and, consequently, endurance of glycolytic muscle fibers measured using the "inverted grid" test. Animals from this group produced 186% more work compared with control animals. Acute

  17. Comparative study of boson peak in normal and secondary alcohols with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yomogida, Yoshiki; Sato, Yuki; Nozaki, Ryusuke; Mishina, Tomobumi; Nakahara, Jun'ichiro

    2010-05-01

    Using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, we measured the complex permittivity of some normal (1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol) and secondary alcohols (2-propanol, 2-butanol, and 2-pentanol) in the frequency ranges from 0.2 to 2.5 THz at temperatures from 253 to 323 K. For all the samples, the complex permittivity in the THz region includes the following three components: (i) a high frequency side of dielectric relaxation processes, (ii) a broad mode around 1 THz, and (iii) a low frequency side of an intermolecular vibration mode located above 2.5 THz. The mode around 1 THz is recognized as a boson peak which is related to the local structure of disordered materials. The intensity of the boson peak in secondary alcohols is higher than that in normal alcohols. On the other hand, the number of carbon atoms slightly affects the appearance of the boson peak. These observations indicate that the position of an OH group in a molecule has a profound effect on the local structures in monohydric alcohols.

  18. [Comparative analysis of the effects of alcoholism and opium addiction on liver function].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, N K; Synyts'kyĭ, V N; Kovtun, T V

    2001-01-01

    Groups of patients suffering alcoholism and narcomania were examined for the effect of intoxication on the blood serum enzymes of mainly liver origin: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as on thymol test. It has been shown that in patients with the first stage of alcoholism one could observe only functional disturbances in the liver: the increase of ADH activity which evidences for the induction of its synthesis. In patients with the first stage of opium narcomania one can record total hyperenzymenia, decrease of de-Rimis coefficient at the expense of more considerable increase of ALT activity than that of AST, as well as the sharp increase of thymol test--these are the signs of destructive and metabolic disturbances in the liver. In patients with the second stage of alcoholism one can observe the decrease of ALDH activity under the increase of ADH, AST, ALT activity and high thymol test-these are the signs of toxical hepatitis. Destructive and metabolic changes increase in the liver in the patients with the second stage of narcomania.

  19. Irritative action of alcoholic beverages in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages such as white wine, Japanese sake and whisky was examined in rat stomachs in vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. The concentration of ethanol in these alcoholic beverages was 15%. Mucosal application of ethanol (15%) and whisky in the chambered stomach caused a decrease in gastric potential difference (PD), while that of Japanese sake and white wine caused a slight increase but not decrease in PD. Likewise, both ethanol and whisky markedly reduced the cell viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min incubation, whereas neither Japanese sake nor white wine had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose, one of the non-alcoholic ingredients of white wine and Japanese sake, antagonized a reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less than that of ethanol or whisky and that these properties may be, at least partly, due to the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  20. Psychiatric Morbidity is Linked to Problem Drinking in Midlife Among Alcohol-Dependent Men: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Burroughs, Thomas; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Prior research on predictors of problem drinking has been limited because of an inability to attribute an unambiguous environmental explanation to observed findings. Using a prospective co-twin control design, we examined the extent to which a history of psychiatric symptoms exerts an environmental influence on problem drinking in midlife that is unconfounded by genetic underpinnings. Method: Participants were 367 complete male twin pairs (208 monozygotic, 159 dizygotic) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were assessed in midlife as part of the Family Twin Study (Mage = 51.4 years, SD = 2.8). Twin pairs who were concordant for a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in 1992 were selected for participation and were reinterviewed in 2001 to measure symptoms of AUD (i.e., problem drinking) since the prior assessment (past 10 years). Results: Within-pair differences in lifetime symptom counts of several psychiatric disorders measured in 1992 (i.e., major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, antisocial personality, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder) were significantly associated with within-pair differences in AUD symptoms in the subsequent 10 years. Conclusions: A history of psychiatric problems, particularly one marked by internalizing symptoms, appears to be linked to problem drinking in midlife above and beyond the confounding influence of genetic effects and underscores the potential value of integrated interventions for comorbidity to address problem drinking among individuals during this period of the life course. PMID:23200159

  1. Comparative effects of using alcohol, natural drying, and salicylic sugar powder on umbilical stump detachment of neonates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Fang; Lee, Tzu-Ying; Kuo, Ying-Ling; Lien, Man-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the effectiveness of alcohol, natural drying, and salicylic sugar powder on umbilical separation time of the neonate in our high-humidity region. From September 2007 to May 2008, a total of 143 neonates in a community hospital were divided into 3 groups according to their birth month in sequence. Each umbilical care regimen was randomly assigned to a 3-month period. Data on occurrence of omphalitis and cord separation time were collected by telephone follow-up until stump separation. The salicylic sugar powder group had the lowest rates of colonization and shortest cord separation time compared with the natural drying and alcohol groups. No omphalitis developed in any of the 3 groups. Natural drying and salicylic sugar powder are safe and effective ways to care for the umbilical cord stump in high-humidity regions. Nursing professionals should consider choosing a more effective umbilical care regimen and provide mothers with thorough instruction.

  2. Measuring alcohol use: "quantity frequency variability" and "weekly recall" compared among Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Dotinga, Aafje; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Bosveld, Willem; Garretsen, Henk F L

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the quality of the "Quantity Frequency Variability" (QFV) measure and the "Weekly Recall" (WR) measure among second-generation Turks and Moroccans in The Netherlands. Data were gathered in an experimental study conducted in 2002, in Rotterdam, the second largest city in the Netherlands. A sample of 744 second-generation Turks and 753 second-generation Moroccans, aged 16 years and older, was approached to participate in the study. The response rate was 40.3% among Turks and 37.5% among Moroccans, which resulted in 300 Turks (mean age 21.8, of which 51.7% were male) and 282 Moroccans (mean age 20.1, of which 44.9% were male) participating in the experimental study. Differences in item non-response rates and alcohol reports between both measures were analyzed among the drinking sample; i.e., 95 Turks (31.7%) and 26 Moroccans (9.2%). Data showed higher alcohol reports with the QFV measure compared to the WR measure. Furthermore, item non-response rates were significantly lower for the QFV measure compared to the WR measure. The results suggest that, compared to the WR measure, the QFV measure is a more appropriate instrument to study the prevalence of alcohol use among second-generation Turks and Moroccans. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  3. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  4. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress.

  5. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress. PMID:22244799

  6. Alcohol consumption in late adolescence and early adulthood--where is the problem?

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-07-25

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) is more common in late adolescence and early adulthood (approximately between the ages of 16 and 30) than in any other period in life. This is also the age when young people in Switzerland and many other European countries are legally allowed to buy and drink alcohol, but they usually do not yet have adult responsibilities. This paper reviews evidence from the international literature and provides examples of studies conducted in Switzerland demonstrating that (a) RSOD is by far most prevalent on Saturday evenings followed by Friday evenings, usually because young people go out and do not have any work or study responsibilities the next day; (b) RSOD results from drinking in private before going out ("predrinking") and accelerating the pace of drinking (i.e. increasing the number of drinks consumed per hour); (c) RSOD is often not accidental but purposeful,. to seek excitement, to have fun and to feel the effects of alcohol; (d) RSOD occurs predominantly outside the home, mostly in bars, pubs, discos or at special events and festivals; (e) RSOD often results in intended and unintended injuries and other acute consequences, which are leading risk factors for mortality and morbidity in this age group. Effective prevention strategies should include attempts to reduce opportunities to engage in heavy drinking as well as strategies to reduce its harmful consequences.

  7. Criminal and alcohol problems among Swedish drunk drivers--predictors of DUI relapse.

    PubMed

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence and types of crime offences, as well as predictors of relapse, among drivers suspected of driving under influence (DUI) were investigated. A total of 1830 Swedish DUI drivers responded to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test--AUDIT. Information about previous DUI offences, other traffic offences along with other types of criminal offences was taken from a crime register. A total criminality (including all traffic offences) of 64% in the period of five years before investigation was analyzed. 40% of the sample had other criminality besides traffic violations during that period. 14.3% of the drivers relapsed to DUI in the two-year period after the investigation. In terms of DUI relapse, the following factors were the main predictors: previous traffic violations, previous DUI offences, previous other criminality (frauds or other acts of dishonesty) and detection hours between 12.00 and 19.00. Detection in general traffic controls and high BAC (blood alcohol concentration) when detected were the strongest factors with negative correlation to DUI re-offence.

  8. A multidimensional model of mothers' perceptions of parent alcohol socialization and adolescent alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Ennett, Susan T; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J; Cai, Li

    2016-02-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents' mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers' reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: 2 profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and 2 reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from Grade 6 through 10 in the 2 alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. A Multidimensional Model of Mothers’ Perceptions of Parent Alcohol Socialization and Adolescent Alcohol Misuse

    PubMed Central

    Ennett, Susan T.; Jackson, Christine; Cole, Veronica T.; Haws, Susan; Foshee, Vangie A.; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Burns, Alison Reimuller; Cox, Melissa J.; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    We assessed a multidimensional model of parent alcohol socialization in which key socialization factors were considered simultaneously to identify combinations of factors that increase or decrease risk for development of adolescent alcohol misuse. Of interest was the interplay between putative risk and protective factors, such as whether the typically detrimental effects on youth drinking of parenting practices tolerant of some adolescent alcohol use are mitigated by an effective overall approach to parenting and parental modeling of modest alcohol use. The sample included 1,530 adolescents and their mothers; adolescents’ mean age was 13.0 (SD = .99) at the initial assessment. Latent profile analysis was conducted of mothers’ reports of their attitude toward teen drinking, alcohol-specific parenting practices, parental alcohol use and problem use, and overall approach to parenting. The profiles were used to predict trajectories of adolescent alcohol misuse from early to middle adolescence. Four profiles were identified: two profiles reflected conservative alcohol-specific parenting practices and two reflected alcohol-tolerant practices, all in the context of other attributes. Alcohol misuse accelerated more rapidly from grade 6 through 10 in the two alcohol-tolerant compared with conservative profiles. Results suggest that maternal tolerance of some youth alcohol use, even in the presence of dimensions of an effective parenting style and low parental alcohol use and problem use, is not an effective strategy for reducing risky adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26415053

  10. The effectiveness of brief personalized normative feedback in reducing alcohol-related problems amongst University students: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Teresa; Foxcroft, David R

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that university/college students tend to have an exaggerated view of the quantities of alcohol being consumed by their peers. Making students aware of this misperception may help change behaviour and reduce problem drinking. Methods/Design A Solomon Three Group Design will be used. There is one intervention group and two control groups, controlling separately for measurement and for intervention effects. Recruitment, consent, randomisation and data collection are all on-line. The primary outcomes are AUDIT Score, weekly consumption, perceived social norms, and alcohol related problems; secondary outcomes include alcohol expectancies and other health behaviours. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of an on-line personalized normative feedback intervention for alcohol misuse in university students. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number: ISRCTN30784467 PMID:18402657

  11. Why is adolescence a key period of alcohol initiation and who is prone to develop long-term problem use?: A review of current available data

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Géraldine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Cimochowska, Agnieska; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Background Early adolescence is a key developmental period for the initiation of alcohol use, and consumption among adolescents is characterized by drinking in high quantities. At the same time, adolescence is characterized by rapid biological transformations including dramatic changes in the brain, particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. Methods This article begins with an overview of the unique neural and behavioural characteristics of adolescent development that predispose these individuals to seek rewards and take risks such as initiation of drinking and high levels of alcohol intake. The authors then outline important factors associated with an increased risk for developing alcohol problems in later adolescence and young adulthood. Thereafter they address causality and the complex interplay of risk factors that lead to the development of alcohol use problems in late adolescence and young adults. Conclusions A few recommendations for the prevention of underage drinking are presented. PMID:24693359

  12. Repeated Diagnoses of Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders in a Prospective Study: Insights into the Extent and Nature of the Reliability and Validity Problem

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M.; Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior research indicates that assessments of lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show low sensitivity and are unreliable when assessed by a single, retrospective interview. This study sought to replicate and extend previous research by calculating the lifetime prevalence rate of AUDs using both single retrospective assessments of lifetime diagnosis and repeated assessments of both lifetime and past-year diagnoses over a 16-year period within the same high-risk sample. In addition, this study examined factors that contributed to the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Methods Using prospective data, the reliability and validity of lifetime estimates of alcohol dependence and AUD were examined in several ways. Data were drawn from a cohort of young adults at high and low risk for alcoholism, originally ascertained as first-time college freshmen (N = 489 at baseline) at a large, public university and assessed over 16 years. Results Compared with using a single, lifetime retrospective assessment of DSM-III disorders assessed at approximately age 34, lifetime estimates derived from using multiple, prospective assessments of both past-year and lifetime AUD were substantially higher (25% single lifetime vs. 41% cumulative past-year vs. 46% cumulative lifetime). This pattern of findings was also found when conducting these comparisons at the symptom level. Further, these results suggest that some factors (e.g., symptoms endorsed, prior consistency in reporting of a lifetime AUD, and family history status) are associated with the consistency in reporting lifetime AUDs over time. Conclusions Based on these findings, lifetime diagnoses using a single measurement occasion should be interpreted with considerable caution given they appear to produce potentially large prevalence underestimates. These results provide further insight into the extent and nature of the reliability and validity problem with lifetime AUDs. PMID:24033811

  13. Adolescent Brain Development and the Risk for Alcohol and Other Drug Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bava, Sunita

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic changes in neurochemistry, fiber architecture, and tissue composition occur in the adolescent brain. The course of these maturational processes is being charted with greater specificity, owing to advances in neuroimaging and indicate grey matter volume reductions and protracted development of white matter in regions known to support complex cognition and behavior. Though fronto-subcortical circuitry development is notable during adolescence, asynchronous maturation of prefrontal and limbic systems may render youth more vulnerable to risky behaviors such as substance use. Indeed, binge-pattern alcohol consumption and comorbid marijuana use are common among adolescents, and are associated with neural consequences. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of adolescent brain development, particularly aspects that predispose individuals to reward seeking and risky choices during this phase of life, and discusses the influence of substance use on neuromaturation. Together, findings in this arena underscore the importance of refined research and programming efforts in adolescent health and interventional needs. PMID:20953990

  14. College binge drinking in the 1990s: a continuing problem. Results of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 College Alcohol Study.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, H; Lee, J E; Kuo, M; Lee, H

    2000-03-01

    In 1999, the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study resurveyed colleges that participated in the 1993 and 1997 surveys. Responses to mail questionnaires from more than 14,000 students at 119 nationally representative 4-year colleges in 39 states were compared with responses received in 1997 and 1993. Two of 5 students (44%) were binge drinkers in 1999, the same rate as in 1993. However, both abstention and frequent binge-drinking rates increased significantly. In 1999, 19% were abstainers, and 23% were frequent binge drinkers. As before, binge drinkers, and particularly frequent binge drinkers, were more likely than other students to experience alcohol-related problems. At colleges with high binge-drinking rates, students who did not binge drink continued to be at higher risk of encountering the second-hand effects of others' heavy drinking. The continuing high level of binge drinking is discussed in the context of the heightened attention and increased actions at colleges. Although it may take more time for interventions to take effect, the actions college health providers have undertaken thus far may not be a sufficient response.

  15. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950

  16. State intervention in pregnancy: Should the law respond thus to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy poses a serious threat to the life and health of unborn children. A submission to the Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry proposed that the State's Child Protection Act be extended to allow intervention to protect unborn children, with a court empowered to order that the mother be taken into care pending birth, or otherwise impose conditions upon conduct. This article considers whether or not the law in Australia should respond to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder by allowing the involuntary treatment and detention of pregnant women. The focus, is upon intervention in response to existing pregnancies. Using a utilitarian critical framework, this article evaluates the merits of creating powers to compel treatment and detain in light of current legal principles relating to maternal autonomy and the legal position of the foetus. The common law position is considered, as well as current legislation allowing intervention in autonomous decision-making and whether or not these statutes may be enlivened to prevent foetal harm. This article suggests that permitting involuntary treatment and detention would be a significant policy change. It weighs up benefits and potential harms in considering whether or not such action would result in the most "good". PMID:26554205

  17. State intervention in pregnancy: Should the law respond thus to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Emily

    2015-09-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy poses a serious threat to the life and health of unborn children. A submission to the Queensland Child Protection Commission of Inquiry proposed that the State's Child Protection Act be extended to allow intervention to protect unborn children, with a court empowered to order that the mother be taken into care pending birth, or otherwise impose conditions upon conduct. This article considers whether or not the law in Australia should respond to the problem of Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder by allowing the involuntary treatment and detention of pregnant women. The focus, is upon intervention in response to existing pregnancies. Using a utilitarian critical framework, this article evaluates the merits of creating powers to compel treatment and detain in light of current legal principles relating to maternal autonomy and the legal position of the foetus. The common law position is considered, as well as current legislation allowing intervention in autonomous decision-making and whether or not these statutes may be enlivened to prevent foetal harm. This article suggests that permitting involuntary treatment and detention would be a significant policy change. It weighs up benefits and potential harms in considering whether or not such action would result in the most "good".

  18. Does understanding relational terminology mediate effects of intervention on compare word problems?

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Robin F; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., more, less, and fewer) mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N=31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation intervention, or business-as-usual (teacher-designed) control. Students in word-problem intervention classrooms received instruction on the compare problem type, which included a focus on understanding relational terminology within compare word problems. Analyses, which accounted for variance associated with classroom clustering, indicated that (a) compared with the calculation intervention and business-as-usual conditions, word-problem intervention significantly increased performance on all three subtypes of compare problems and on understanding relational terminology, and (b) the intervention effect was fully mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for one subtype of compare problems and partially mediated by students' understanding of relational terminology for the other two subtypes.

  19. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P < 0.01), while the number of products purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P < 0.01). For wine, however, these effects were not significant. Conclusions Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  20. Comparing the use of multimedia animations and written solutions in facilitating problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Neelam; Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Chen, Zhongzhou; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    We compared the use of solutions to a problem in the form of multimedia animations and static worksheets to help students learn how to solve physics problems that required the use of mathematical integration. We administered four tasks related to electricity and magnetism problems. In each task, students individually attempted a pre-test problem followed by a worksheet problem based on the same concept. Then, we provided students the solution to the worksheet problem either as a narrated multimedia animation or in a written format. Finally, all students solved a post-test problem. Results indicate that on all four tasks, there was a statistically significant improvement in problem solving scores for both the animation and written solution treatments. We found no significant differences between the treatments.

  1. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  2. Cleanroom airborne particulate limits and 70% isopropyl alcohol: a lingering problem for pharmaceutical manufacturing?

    PubMed

    Eaton, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Seventy percent isopropyl alcohol (70% IPA) in water for injection is extensively utilised within pharmaceutical cleanrooms for glove and surface disinfection. When supplied in pressurised containers and delivered as an aerosol, it has been demonstrated that large quantities of 70% IPA particles are generated that remain airborne for substantial periods of time. Within non-unidirectional airflow cleanroom areas, such particles are likely to be recorded by the particle monitoring system. Consequently, the derived operational limits for particles will almost certainly be at "artificially high" levels and any particle generating activities with contamination potential may be masked. These high particle levels may not comply with the requirements of Annex 1 of the European Unions Guide to Good Manufacturing Practices (EU GGMP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Aseptic Processing Guideline. This is the case predominantly for the larger particles (> or =5 microm), the monitoring of which is exclusively required by the Annex 1 guide. However, by using canisters that deliver the 70% IPA as a stream, large quantities of particles are not generated and more meaningful and compliant operational levels can be obtained. Additionally, the EU GGMP's Annex 1 continuing requirement to monitor particles > or =5 microm appears to have little value or scientific justification and restricts further harmonisation of the European guide with the US FDA Aseptic Processing Guideline.

  3. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... who need them. Is the historical stigma of addiction diminishing as alcohol research teaches us more about ... well as medicines that can help fight alcohol addiction. Ideally in the future, health professionals would be ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... factor in many problems, including alcohol abuse. 7 Poverty and inadequate access to health care also play ... 32 percent of Native Americans live below the poverty level, compared with 13 percent of all Americans. ...

  5. Relapse Prevention for Alcohol and Drug Problems: That Was Zen, This Is Tao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Marlatt, Alan G.

    2004-01-01

    Relapse prevention, based on the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, has become an adjunct to the treatment of numerous psychological problems, including (but not limited to) substance abuse, depression, sexual offending, and schizophrenia. This article provides an overview of the efficacy and effectiveness of relapse prevention in the…

  6. Identification of Countermeasures for the Youth Crash Problem Related to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    Past research relevant to the problem and possible countermeasures are discussed as the basis for the survey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with male New York State drivers. These groups, each containing young and middle aged drivers were sampled as follows: (1) random sample of the general population of licensed drivers, (2) drivers…

  7. Online and Offline Conversations About Alcohol: Comparing the Effects of Familiar and Unfamiliar Discussion Partners.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hanneke; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Meehan, Orla; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Although research has demonstrated that interpersonal communication about alcohol influences drinking behaviors, this notion has mainly been examined in offline contexts with familiar conversation partners. The present study investigated how communication mode and familiarity influence conversational valence (i.e., how negatively or positively people talk) and binge drinking norms. During a 2 (offline vs. online communication) × 2 (unfamiliar vs. familiar conversation partner) lab experiment, participants (N = 76) were exposed to an anti-binge drinking campaign, after which they discussed binge drinking and the campaign. Binge drinking norms were measured 1 week before and directly after the discussion. Results revealed that conversations between unfamiliar conversation partners were positive about the campaign, especially in offline settings, subsequently leading to healthier binge drinking norms. We recommend that researchers further investigate the influence of communication mode and familiarity on discussion effects, and we suggest that health promotion attempts might benefit from eliciting conversations about anti-binge drinking campaigns between unfamiliar persons.

  8. Comparing Cognitive Behavior Therapy, Problem Solving Therapy, and Treatment as Usual in a High Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Carment D.; Quinn, Andrea; Plever, Sally; Emmerson, Brett

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), problem-solving therapy (PST), or treatment as usual (TAU) were compared in the management of suicide attempters. Participants completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Social Problem-Solving Inventory, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire at pre- and posttreatment. Both CBT and PST…

  9. Does Understanding Relational Terminology Mediate Effects of Intervention on Compare Word Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Robin F.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether understanding relational terminology (i.e., "more, less," and "fewer") mediates the effects of intervention on compare word problems. Second-grade classrooms (N = 31) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: researcher-designed word-problem intervention, researcher-designed calculation…

  10. The Effect of External Representations on Compare Word Problems: Supporting Mental Model Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munez, David; Orrantia, Josetxu; Rosales, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of external representations presented together with compare word problems, and whether such effectiveness was moderated by working memory. Participants were 49 secondary school students. Each participant solved 48 problems presented in 4 presentation types that included 2 difficulty treatments (number of steps…

  11. Insecure attachment styles, relationship-drinking contexts, and marital alcohol problems: Testing the mediating role of relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2015-09-01

    Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one's partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the actor-partner interdependence model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first nine years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one's partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439

  12. Victimization and traumatic injuries among the homeless: associations with alcohol, drug, and mental problems.

    PubMed

    Padgett, D K; Struening, E L

    1992-10-01

    Data from a 1987 survey of 1,260 homeless adults in New York City show that mental problems and substance dependence were significantly linked to beating and sexual assault among women and to several types of injury and victimization among men. The extremely high rates of victimization and injury underscore a need for greater attention to the safety and welfare of homeless people. PMID:1443061

  13. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  14. Prediction of treatment outcome in a clinical sample of problem drinkers: self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change.

    PubMed

    Demmel, Ralf; Beck, Beate; Lammers, André

    2003-01-01

    Cognitive processes related to client motivation are important mediators of alcoholism treatment outcome. The present study aimed to expand previous research on client motivation and treatment outcome by establishing the predictive utility of self-efficacy, alcohol expectancies, and readiness to change in a sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients (N = 83). Treatment outcome was assessed three months following discharge. According to self-reported alcohol use, 22 clients were classified as abstainers and 41 clients as relapsers. Twenty participants were lost to follow-up. Readiness to change and anticipated reinforcement from alcohol predicted abstinence at follow-up. Client motivation was unrelated to both frequency and quantity of alcohol use. In accordance with social learning theory, self-efficacy was inversely correlated with alcohol expectancies. The results of the present study suggest that once abstinence has been violated factors other than pretreatment motivation determine drinking behavior.

  15. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the development of adolescent alcohol problems: A prospective, population-based study of Swedish twins.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Pettersson, Erik; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of problematic alcohol and other substance use in adolescence. This study used data from an ongoing, prospective, population-based twin study of Swedish children and adolescents to evaluate the extent to which the association between ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems reflects a unique source of genetic or environmental risk related to ADHD versus a broader predisposition to youth externalizing behavior. We used all available data from same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins on ADHD symptoms in childhood (age 9/12; N = 15,549) and alcohol problems in late adolescence (age 18; N = 2,564). Consistent with prior longitudinal studies, the phenotypic association between hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems was small in magnitude, whereas the association for inattentive symptoms was even weaker. Additive genetic influences explained 99.8% of the association between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and alcohol problems. Furthermore, we found that the genetic risk specifically associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms was attenuated when estimated in the context of externalizing behavior liability during childhood, of which ADHD symptoms were specific expressions. In sensitivity analyses exploring hyperactivity in mid-adolescence, we found a similar pattern of genetic associations. These results are consistent with previous findings of genetically driven overlap in the etiology of ADHD and problematic alcohol use. At least some of this co-occurrence may result from a general predisposition to externalizing behaviors in youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  17. Design of a Web-based individual coping and alcohol-intervention program (web-ICAIP) for children of parents with alcohol problems: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been estimated that approximately 20% of all Swedish children grow up with parents having alcohol problems, which may result in negative outcomes among these children. Therefore, most Swedish municipalities provide resources for support, but at the same time figures reveal that not even 2% receive support, mainly due to difficulties in identifying and recruiting these children into support programs. Delivering intervention programs to children and adolescents via the Internet seems a promising strategy, but to date, the number of web-based interventions aimed at this target group is very scarce. We have therefore developed a novel internet-delivered therapist assisted self-management intervention called the web-ICAIP (Individual Coping and Alcohol Intervention Program) for adolescents having parents with alcohol problems. The purpose of the program is to strengthen adolescents' coping behavior, improve their mental health, and postponing the onset or decreasing risky alcohol consumption. This paper describes the web-ICAIP and the design of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to measure the efficacy of this intervention. Methods/Design The RCT will include at least 183 adolescents (15-19 year old) who will be randomly allocated to two conditions where one group has access to the web-ICAIP and the other is a waiting list control group. Participants will be recruited from websites containing information and facts for adolescents about alcohol and other drugs. Possible participants will be screened using the short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST-6). The assessment consists of a baseline and two follow-up measurements taking place after two and six months, respectively. The primary outcomes include the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-DC), a coping behavior scale, and also the short version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C). Additional outcomes include the "Ladder of life

  18. Online and Offline Conversations About Alcohol: Comparing the Effects of Familiar and Unfamiliar Discussion Partners.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hanneke; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Meehan, Orla; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-07-01

    Although research has demonstrated that interpersonal communication about alcohol influences drinking behaviors, this notion has mainly been examined in offline contexts with familiar conversation partners. The present study investigated how communication mode and familiarity influence conversational valence (i.e., how negatively or positively people talk) and binge drinking norms. During a 2 (offline vs. online communication) × 2 (unfamiliar vs. familiar conversation partner) lab experiment, participants (N = 76) were exposed to an anti-binge drinking campaign, after which they discussed binge drinking and the campaign. Binge drinking norms were measured 1 week before and directly after the discussion. Results revealed that conversations between unfamiliar conversation partners were positive about the campaign, especially in offline settings, subsequently leading to healthier binge drinking norms. We recommend that researchers further investigate the influence of communication mode and familiarity on discussion effects, and we suggest that health promotion attempts might benefit from eliciting conversations about anti-binge drinking campaigns between unfamiliar persons. PMID:27216371

  19. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  20. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  1. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  2. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  3. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  4. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  6. The Xenopus alcohol dehydrogenase gene family: characterization and comparative analysis incorporating amphibian and reptilian genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family uniquely illustrates the concept of enzymogenesis. In vertebrates, tandem duplications gave rise to a multiplicity of forms that have been classified in eight enzyme classes, according to primary structure and function. Some of these classes appear to be exclusive of particular organisms, such as the frog ADH8, a unique NADP+-dependent ADH enzyme. This work describes the ADH system of Xenopus, as a model organism, and explores the first amphibian and reptilian genomes released in order to contribute towards a better knowledge of the vertebrate ADH gene family. Results Xenopus cDNA and genomic sequences along with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used in phylogenetic analyses and structure-function correlations of amphibian ADHs. Novel ADH sequences identified in the genomes of Anolis carolinensis (anole lizard) and Pelodiscus sinensis (turtle) were also included in these studies. Tissue and stage-specific libraries provided expression data, which has been supported by mRNA detection in Xenopus laevis tissues and regulatory elements in promoter regions. Exon-intron boundaries, position and orientation of ADH genes were deduced from the amphibian and reptilian genome assemblies, thus revealing syntenic regions and gene rearrangements with respect to the human genome. Our results reveal the high complexity of the ADH system in amphibians, with eleven genes, coding for seven enzyme classes in Xenopus tropicalis. Frogs possess the amphibian-specific ADH8 and the novel ADH1-derived forms ADH9 and ADH10. In addition, they exhibit ADH1, ADH2, ADH3 and ADH7, also present in reptiles and birds. Class-specific signatures have been assigned to ADH7, and ancestral ADH2 is predicted to be a mixed-class as the ostrich enzyme, structurally close to mammalian ADH2 but with class-I kinetic properties. Remarkably, many ADH1 and ADH7 forms are observed in the lizard, probably due to lineage-specific duplications. ADH4 is not

  7. A randomized trial comparing telephone versus in-person brief intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wilton, Georgiana; Moberg, D Paul; Van Stelle, Kit R; Dold, Lyric L; Obmascher, Kristi; Goodrich, Janae

    2013-01-01

    Brief, effective interventions are needed to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy in women who drink and do not use effective contraception. The Healthy Choices study compared telephone and in-person administration of a brief intervention. In addition to indicators of alcohol use and effective contraception, compliance with the intervention was examined. Women between the ages of 18 and 44 who were drinking above recommended levels and not using effective contraception were randomly assigned to either a telephone (n=68) or in-person (n=63) brief (two sessions) intervention. Overall, participants showed small but significant reductions in alcohol use and larger increases in effective use of contraception. Risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy was thus significantly reduced, largely due to improved contraception with minor reductions in alcohol use. There was no significant difference in success of the intervention between the two conditions (telephone versus in-person). These findings suggest telephone-based brief intervention may be equally successful and cost-effective in reducing the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy and thus fetal alcohol syndrome.

  8. Comparative oxidation of 2-propyn-1-ol with other low molecular weight unsaturated and saturated primary alcohols by bovine liver catalase in vitro.

    PubMed

    DeMaster, E G; Dahlseid, T; Redfern, B

    1994-01-01

    The oxidative metabolism of low molecular weight, saturated and unsaturated, primary alcohols, which include ethanol, allyl alcohol (2-propen-1-ol), and propargyl alcohol (2-propyn-1-ol), is generally accepted to occur via alcohol dehydrogenase; however, compared to other short-chain alcohols, 2-propyn-1-ol is a poor substrate for this enzyme. Accordingly, we have examined liver catalase as an alternative pathway for the oxidation or bioactivation of 2-propyn-1-ol to 2-propyn-1-al, a highly reactive alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde. The rates of oxidation for a series of low molecular weight, saturated, primary alcohols and selected unsaturated alcohols were determined for the bovine liver catalase-catalyzed reaction by measuring aldehyde production over time employing a GC procedure. A negative correlation was found for log rates of oxidation versus molecular size (volume) of the substrates (p < 0.01); however, the rate of oxidation for 2-propyn-1-ol was higher than predicted by this relation and was 30% greater than the oxidation rate determined for ethanol. In addition, 2-propyn-1-ol-derived 2-propyn-1-al inhibited the peroxidatic and catalytic activities of catalase, whereas 2-propen-1-ol-derived 2-propen-1-al had no effect on these activities of catalase. Inhibition was blocked by GSH; and the activity was not restored to the inhibited enzyme by GSH treatment or dialysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8075374

  9. Rewarding results: Improving the quality of treatment for people with alcohol and drug problems.

    PubMed

    2004-03-01

    Substance use disorders are the nation's number one health problem, and lie at the root of many public safety and workplace issues. Improving quality of treatment is as important as improving access to treatment. Leadership for improvement must come from many sources: Congress, SAMHSA, state legislatures, state and local treatment agencies, criminal justice, welfare and other public agencies, employers and managed care organizations, providers, and community leaders. We hope that our report helps leaders see ways to improve treatment quality. Our recommendations can be summed up in a single phrase: reward results. We recognize that there are many avenues for treatment quality improvement, including training, credentialing, best practice dissemination, work force development, facility licensing standards, improvement and implementation of new models for treatment of dual diagnosis patients. We believe, however, that rewarding results is essential to motivating action for improvement. We also believe that if providers receive rewards for improved results, they will creatively open new avenues for improvement--a focus on results gives greater freedom than more detailed mandates for change. Finally, we believe that rewards for result may lead to a restructured treatment system with greater stability and correspondingly greater capacity to improve. While we have placed central emphasis on the role of institutional buyers and managers of care, we believe that the voices of patients and families must be heard. People who have progressed to the stage of recovery, and their families, often have essential insight into what did and did not work for them--their personal stories are frequently compelling and persuasive. We also believe that providers of treatment for substance use disorders are profoundly committed to serving their patients, and often have great understanding of what works. Wise managers will listen very carefully and systematically to the voices of consumers

  10. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  12. Comparative Analysis of the Mathematics Problems Given at International Tests and at the Romanian National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The results of the Romanian pupils on international tests PISA and TIMSS in Mathematics are below the average. These poor results have many explications. In this article we compare the Mathematics problems given on these international tests with those given on national tests in Romania.

  13. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  14. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  15. The Effects of Boys & Girls Clubs on Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Related Problems in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven P.; And Others

    This comparative study evaluates the effects of Boys and Girls Clubs and related SMART Moves drug prevention programs on children and adolescents living in public housing and on the quality of life in public housing. The study involves 15 public housing developments in a representative sample of American cities and focuses on alcohol and other…

  16. Comparing maternal child health problems and outcomes across public health nursing agencies.

    PubMed

    Monsen, Karen A; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Lytton, Amy B; Taft, Lila L; Schwichtenberg, Linda D; Martin, Karen S

    2010-05-01

    To use aggregated data from health informatics systems to identify needs of maternal and child health (MCH) clients served by county public health agencies and to demonstrate outcomes of services provided. Participating agencies developed and implemented a formal standardized classification data comparison process using structured Omaha System data. An exploratory descriptive analysis of the data was performed. Summary reports of aggregated and analyzed data from records of clients served and discharged in 2005 were compared. Client problems and outcomes were found to be similar across agencies, with behavioral, psychosocial, environmental and physiological problems identified and addressed. Differential improvement was noted by problem, outcome measure, and agency; and areas for enhancing intervention strategies were prioritized. Problems with greatest improvement across agencies were Antepartum/postpartum and Family planning, and least improvement across agencies were Neglect and Substance use. Findings demonstrated that public health nurses address many serious health-related problems with low-income high-risk MCH clients. MCH client needs were found to be similar across agencies. Public health nurse home visiting services addressed important health issues with MCH clients, and statistically significant improvement in client health problems occurred consistently across agencies. The data comparison processes developed in this project were useful for MCH programs, and may be applicable to other program areas using structured client data for evaluation purposes. Using informatics tools and data facilitated needs assessment, program evaluation, and outcomes management processes for the agencies, and will continue to play an integral role in directing practice and improving client outcomes.

  17. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  18. Comparative assessments of the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development using optical coherence tomography and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C; Larin, Kirill V

    2013-02-01

    The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound (US). This study investigates the ability of these imaging technologies to measure the effects of maternal ethanol exposure on brain development, ex vivo, in fetal mice. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were administered ethanol (3 g/Kg b.wt.) or water by intragastric gavage, twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and imaged. Three-dimensional images of the mice fetus brains were obtained by OCT and high-resolution US, and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. Ethanol-exposed fetuses exhibited a statistically significant, 2-fold increase in average left and right ventricular volumes compared with the ventricular volume of control fetuses, with OCT-derived measures of 0.38 and 0.18 mm3, respectively, whereas the boundaries of the fetal mouse lateral ventricles were not clearly definable with US imaging. Our results indicate that OCT is a useful technology for assessing ventriculomegaly accompanying alcohol-induced developmental delay. This study clearly demonstrated advantages of using OCT for quantitative assessment of embryonic development compared with US imaging.

  19. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  20. Assessment of Alcohol Use Disorders among Court-Mandated DWI Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Homish, D. Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Convicted DWI offenders (N = 549) were assessed for alcohol use disorders. Repeat offenders had twice the rate of both lifetime and current alcohol use disorders compared with 1st-time offenders. Guidelines for determining alcohol problems in DWI offenders are recommended.

  1. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  2. Contextual and individual demographic determinants of alcohol consumption and smoking: a comparative study in southwestern China and southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Le, Cai; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Apakupakul, Nualta

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between contextual and individual demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption and smoking in southwestern China and southern Thailand. In 2000, a cross-sectional study was carried out in southern Thailand on 703 subjects > or = 45 years old, and in 2005 in southwestern China on 6,006 subjects. Each participant was interviewed by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Information regarding demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was obtained. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model variation in the prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. The findings in both countries indicate that age was negatively associated with the probability of consuming alcohol and males were more likely to consume alcohol and tobacco than females. Chinese communities with a lower level of education were more likely to smoke. Thai individuals with a higher educational level were less likely to smoke. Yi ethnicity was associated with a higher probability of drinking both at the contextual level and at the individual level in China. Non-Muslims were more likely to consume alcohol in Thailand. Future contextual and individual level interventions regarding alcohol drinking and smoking are needed in China, and further studies with larger sample sizes are needed in Thailand before conclusions can be drawn.

  3. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  4. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation as a Problem Behavior: A Comparative Study of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using a Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) framework, this paper examines the extent to which psychosocial correlates of early sexual initiation (before age 16) vary across developed nations. Methods Fifteen-year-old participants (n=5,624) in the 1997-1998 WHO collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children survey (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland) and the 1996 US Add Health survey self-reported substance use (alcohol and tobacco), school attachment, positive parental communication, and early sexual intercourse experience. Stratifying by gender, we performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses controlling for family socioeconomic status, family structure, and nation fixed effects. Results Self-reported early sexual experience, substance use, school attachment and positive communication with parents varied significantly across nations for both boys and girls. In both crude and adjusted analyses, substance use was positively associated with early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations, although associations were stronger in Europe than the US (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 1.56-3.74). School attachment was similarly inversely related to early sexual experience among boys and girls across nations (AOR range 0.63-0.94). However, positive parent communication was significantly inversely related to early sexual experience only among US females (AOR 0.50). Conclusions Findings overall supported the fit of early adolescent sexual initiation as a risk behavior within a PBT framework cross-nationally, suggesting that similar factors could be targeted to prevent early sexual initiation across some developed nations. However further research is warranted examining the temporality of these relationships. PMID:20864009

  5. Influence of Family Factors and Supervised Alcohol Use on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Harms: Similarities Between Youth in Different Alcohol Policy Contexts*

    PubMed Central

    McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.; Kim, Min Jung; Toumbourou, John W.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Harm-minimization policies suggest that alcohol use is a part of normal adolescent development and that parents should supervise their children's use to encourage responsible drinking. Zero-tolerance policies suggest that all underage alcohol use should be discouraged. This article compared hypotheses derived from harm-minimization and zero-tolerance policies regarding the influence of family context and supervised drinking on adolescent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia, two states that have respectively adopted zero-tolerance and harm-minimization policies. Method: Representative samples of seventh-grade students (N = 1,945; 989 females) were recruited from schools in each state. Students completed comprehensive questionnaires on alcohol use, related problem behaviors, and risk and protective factors annually from 2002 to 2004 when they were in ninth grade. Results: Relationships between family context and alcohol use and harmful use were very similar in both states. Adult-supervised settings for alcohol use were associated with higher levels of harmful alcohol consequences. Adult-supervised alcohol use mediated the links between favorable parental attitudes to alcohol use and ninth-grade alcohol use for students in both states. Conclusions: Despite policy differences in the two states, relationships between family context variables and alcohol use and harmful use are remarkably similar. Adult-supervised settings for alcohol use resulted in higher levels of harmful alcohol consequences, contrary to predictions derived from harm-minimization policy. Findings challenge the harm-minimization position that supervised alcohol use or early-age alcohol use will reduce the development of adolescent alcohol problems. PMID:21513678

  6. Patient satisfaction with treatment for alcohol use disorders: comparing patients with and without severe mental health symptoms

    PubMed Central

    McCallum, Stacey L; Andrews, Jane M; Gaughwin, Matthew D; Turnbull, Deborah A; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest patients with co-occurring alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and severe mental health symptoms (SMHS) are less satisfied with standard AUD treatment when compared to patients with an AUD alone. This study compared patient satisfaction with standard AUD treatment among patients with and without SMHS and explored how standard treatment might be improved to better address the needs of these patients. Methods Eighty-nine patients receiving treatment for an AUD either at an inpatient hospital, outpatient clinic, inpatient detoxification, or residential/therapeutic community services were surveyed. Patient satisfaction with treatment was assessed using the Treatment Perception Questionnaire (range: 0–40). Patients were stratified according to their score on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Forty patients scored in the extremely severe range of depression (score >14) and/or anxiety (score >10) (indicating SMHS) and 49 patients did not. An inductive content analysis was also conducted on qualitative data relating to areas of service improvement. Results Patients with SMHS were found to be equally satisfied with treatment (mean =25.10, standard deviation =8.12) as patients with an AUD alone (mean =25.43, standard deviation =6.91). Analysis revealed that being an inpatient in hospital was associated with reduced treatment satisfaction. Patients with SMHS were found to be significantly less satisfied with staffs’ understanding of the type of help they wanted in treatment, when compared to patients with AUDs alone. Five areas for service improvement were identified, including staff qualities, informed care, treatment access and continuity, issues relating to inpatient stay, and addressing patients’ mental health needs. Conclusion While findings suggest that AUD treatment services adequately meet the needs of patients with SMHS in treatment, patients with SMHS do feel that staff lack understanding of their treatment needs. Findings have

  7. Comparative Effect of Insulin Sensitizers and Statin on Metabolic Profile and Ultrasonographical Score in Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Suraj Singh; Reddy, Himanshu D.; Singhal, Shubham; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Usman, Kauser

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a metabolic disorder involving fat accumulation in the liver. The initial management for patients with NAFLD includes lifestyle modification and weight loss in overweight or obese patients. Aim The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy of insulin sensitizers and statin in the patients of NAFLD. Materials and Methods The study included 98 patients diagnosed with NAFLD on USG (Ultrasonography) abdomen, divided into three Groups randomly and administered Metformin (Group I), Rosuvastatin (Group II) or Pioglitazone (Group III) along with dietary intervention and lifestyle modification. Their Body Mass Index (BMI), liver function tests, fasting lipid profile, USG scores for fatty liver were done and followed up at 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 week for change in above parameters. Results Out of the three Groups, Group II showed a maximum improvements in usg scores for NAFLD (p<0.001) and fasting lipid profile. Group II also showed maximum derangement of liver enzymes at 24 weeks though none of the subjects had more than three times elevation of liver enzymes. Conclusion Rosuvastatin may be an effective therapy as add on treatment to dietary and lifestyle intervention in patients of NAFLD. As an add-on treatment Rosuvastatin was superior to Pioglitazone or Metformin and acute decompensation is unlikely with this drug. Metformin was not effective as add on therapy for NAFLD, rather rapid weight loss in short period of time resulted in worsening of hepatic steatosis. PMID:27656480

  8. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  9. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  10. Mental problems among first-year conservatory students compared with medical students.

    PubMed

    van Fenema, E M; van Geel, C C J

    2014-06-01

    Musical education and the musical profession can be stressful, which may make musicians vulnerable for stress-related disorders. To determine if music students are particularly at risk for mental problems, we used the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) and the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ48S) to compare symptoms in first-year conservatory students (n=33) and first-year medical students (n=43). On the SAPAS, we found that medical students have significantly more difficulty making and keeping friends (p=0.015). Also, we observed a trend that conservatory students lose their temper more easily (p=0.040). Both student groups showed high scores for the personality trait "perfectionism." On the SQ48, we observed a trend that both conservatory and medical students experience more psychological problems than the general population, but there were no significant differences between conservatory students and medical students in the total scores of both questionnaires.

  11. Emotional Intelligence and Problem Solving Strategy: Comparative Study Basedon "Tower of Hanoi" Test

    PubMed Central

    Arefnasab, Zahra; Zare, Hosein; Babamahmoodi, Abdolreza

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare problem solving strategies between peoples with high and low emotional intelligence (EI). Methods: This study is a cross sectional descriptive study.The sample groups include senior BS& BA between 20-30 years old into two with high and low emotional intelligence, each group had 30 subjects.Data was analyzed with non-parametric chi square test for main dependent variable (problem solving strategies) and accessory dependent variables(manner of starting and fulfillmentof the test).The Independent two group T-test was used for analyzing other accessory dependent variables(Number of errors and total time used for fulfillment of the test). Results: There was a significant difference between two groups in “number of errors” (t=-3.67,p=0) and “total time used for fulfillment of the test”(-6.17,p=0) and there was significant relation between EI and “problem solving strategies” (χ2=25.71, p<0.01) and (Cramer's v = 0.65, p<0.01) .Also there was significant relation between EI and “fulfillment of test” (χ2=20.31, p<0.01) and (φ=0.58, p<0.01). But the relation between EI and "manner of starting the test" was not significant (χ2=1.11, p=0.29). Subjects with high EI used more “insightful” strategy and subjects with low EI used more “trial- error” strategy. The first group completed the test more rapidlyand with fewer errors, compared with the second group. In addition the first group was more successful in performing the test than the second one. Conclusion: People with high EI significantly solve problems better than people with lowEI. PMID:24644484

  12. Psychosocial experiences in women facing fertility problems--a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Oddens, B J; den Tonkelaar, I; Nieuwenhuyse, H

    1999-01-01

    In a survey involving 281 patients awaiting assisted reproduction treatment at five centres in three countries, and 289 population controls, we investigated whether the patients had experienced more negative emotional feelings and negative emotional impact during periods when they were attempting to conceive as compared with the controls, and whether there was any difference in their well-being at the time of consultation. The study was performed in the context of currently divergent views as to the burden of fertility problems. The survey was carried out using questionnaires of the self-administration type. Women with fertility problems did in fact consistently report a higher prevalence of negative emotions than the controls with reference to the periods during which they had been trying to conceive. Patients reported more changes in interpartner relationships (either negative or positive). Sexuality was negatively affected among the patients. At the time of consultation, the patients had less favourable scores than the controls on scales for depressed mood, memory/concentration, anxiety and fears, as well as for self-perceived attractiveness. One in four (24.9%) of the patients had scores indicating depressive disorders as compared with only 6.8% of the controls. Current well-being was even more markedly affected in patients with previous unsuccessful in-vitro fertilization (IVF) experience. The 'infertility' life event was perceived as severe by both patients and controls. Both prior to consultation and during diagnosis and treatment, women with fertility problems had a higher prevalence of reported negative psycho-emotional experiences than women without fertility problems. PMID:10374131

  13. Dispelling the myth of “smart drugs”: Cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Wilcox, Holly C.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students’ substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories with NPS for studying was then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines. PMID:23254212

  14. How Schools Address Students' Mental Health and Drug and Alcohol Concerns and Problems: Lessons from Student Assistance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertman, Carl I.; Tarasevich, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Conversations with school superintendents, board members, principals, teachers, counselors, and nurses about their students' social and emotional health show how actively they are working to help students confront difficult issues. Topping the list of issues are drug and alcohol use and abuse, depression, and violence among students. Equally…

  15. The Relation of Parental Depression and Self Esteem to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Andrew M.; And Others

    Preliminary results from a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine the family life of children reared in a home with an alcoholic father are reported. Analysis is restricted to 15 families from a larger study in which the target child was a 3-year-old male. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Progress Evaluation…

  16. Personality-Targeted Interventions Delay Uptake of Drinking and Decrease Risk of Alcohol-Related Problems when Delivered by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Mackie, Clare J.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Al-Khudhairy, Nadia; Conrod, Patricia J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This trial examined the efficacy of teacher-delivered personality-targeted interventions for alcohol-misuse over a 6-month period. Method: This randomized controlled trial randomly allocated participating schools to intervention (n = 11) or control (n = 7) conditions. A total of 2,506 (mean age, 13.7 years) were assessed for elevated…

  17. The Alcohol Use and Associated Mental Health Problems of Student Service Members/Veterans in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn; Wadswroth, Shelley Macdermid; Hitt, Stacie

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study examined: (a) whether student service members/veterans attending college drank more frequently or in greater quantities than non-service peers; and (b) whether links between student service members/veterans' alcohol use and mental health-related outcomes differed from civilian students.Methods: Participants included 145 student…

  18. Alcoholism in the Families of Origin of MSW Students: Estimating the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Using Standardized Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Catherine A.; Hawkins, Raymond C., II

    1996-01-01

    A 1991 study of 136 graduate social work students determined students' status as adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by self-report and standardized screening test scores, and evaluated mental health functioning with four standardized measures. Results found that 47% of the social work students were ACAs, and not all (or only) ACAs were vulnerable…

  19. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  20. Developmental Findings from an Alcoholic Vulnerability Study: The Preschool Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Robert B.; Zucker, Robert A.

    Alcoholism has repeatedly been implicated in many significant social and health problems, yet little is known concerning etiology before age 12. As part of a longitudinal project to investigate alcoholism etiology in preschool children, a study was undertaken which compared families with male preschool children who are statistically at high risk…

  1. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  2. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  3. Comparative effects of curcumin and its analog on alcohol- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-induced alterations in circulatory lipid profiles.

    PubMed

    Rukkumani, Rajagopalan; Aruna, Kode; Varma, Penumathsa Suresh; Rajasekaran, Kallikat Narayanan; Menon, Venugopal P

    2005-01-01

    Excessive alcohol intake induces hyperlipidemia. Studies suggest that natural principles and their analogs are known to possess anti-hyperlipidemic properties. In the present work we tested the effect of curcumin, an active principle of turmeric (Curcuma longa), and a curcumin analog on alcohol- and thermally oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acid (deltaPUFA)- induced hyperlipidemia. Male albino Wistar rats were used for the experimental study. Anti-hyperlipidemic activity of curcumin and curcumin analog was evaluated by analyzing the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), phospholipids (PLs), and free fatty acids (FFAs). The results showed that the levels of cholesterol, TGs, PLs, and FFAs were increased significantly in alcohol-, deltaPUFA-, and alcohol + deltaPUFA-treated groups, which were brought down significantly on treatment with either of the curcuminoids. Curcumin analog treatment was found to be more effective than curcumin treatment. From the results obtained, we conclude that both curcumin and its analog effectively protect the system against alcohol- and deltaPUFA-induced hyperlipidemia and are possible candidates for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  4. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  5. A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neman, Robert Lynn

    This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

  6. Spatial learning in men undergoing alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Hamilton, Derek; Coriale, Giovanna; Carito, Valentina; Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George; Romeo, Marina; Ceccanti, Marco; Iannitelli, Angela; Fiore, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem worldwide. Brain and behavioral disruptions including changes in cognitive abilities are common features of alcohol addiction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate spatial learning and memory in 29 alcoholic men undergoing alcohol detoxification by using a virtual Morris maze task. As age-matched controls we recruited 29 men among occasional drinkers without history of alcohol dependence and/or alcohol related diseases and with a negative blood alcohol level at the time of testing. We found that the responses to the virtual Morris maze are impaired in men undergoing alcohol detoxification. Notably they showed increased latencies in the first movement during the trials, increased latencies in retrieving the hidden platform and increased latencies in reaching the visible platform. These findings were associated with reduced swimming time in the target quadrant of the pool where the platform had been during the 4 hidden platform trials of the learning phase compared to controls. Such increasing latency responses may suggest motor control, attentional and motivational deficits due to alcohol detoxification. PMID:26143187

  7. COMPARATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID IN MALE, FEMALE AND PREGNANT MICE FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH 8-2 FLUOROTELOMER ALCOHOL (FTOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The global occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in environmental and mammalian matrices has spurred regulatory interest in potential sources of this stable compound. 8-2 fluorotelomer alcohol, a primary compound used in polymer synthesis, is found ubiquitously in the envi...

  8. A Comparison of Class-Wide Taped Problems and Cover, Copy, and Compare for Enhancing Mathematics Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncy, Brian C.; Skinner, Christopher H.; McCallum, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of class-wide applications of Taped Problems (TP) and Cover, Copy, and Compare (CCC) procedures designed to enhance subtraction fact fluency in an intact third-grade classroom. During the TP procedure, a tape provided an auditory prompt (i.e., the problem), followed by a…

  9. Problem Gambling Among Urban and Rural Gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa: Associations with Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use and Psychological Distress.

    PubMed

    Skaal, Linda; Sinclair, Heidi; Stein, Dan J; Myers, Bronwyn

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the mental health correlates of problem gambling in low- and-middle-income countries such as South Africa and whether these correlates vary by urbanicity. To address this gap, we examined mental health factors associated with problem gambling among gamblers in Limpopo Province, South Africa disaggregated by rural, peri-urban and urban location. A survey of gambling behaviour and mental health was conducted among 900 gamblers. Overall, 28.3 % were at high risk and 38.1 % were at moderate risk for problem gambling. For the entire sample, hazardous/harmful alcohol use was associated with almost twofold increased chance of being at moderate risk (AOR 1.83; 95 % CI 1.08, 3.11) and almost sevenfold greater odds (AOR 6.93; 95 % CI 4.03-11.93) of being at high risk for problem gambling. Psychological distress was associated with being at high risk for problem gambling only (AOR 1.18; 95 % CI 1.14-1.22). After stratifying by urbanicity, hazardous/harmful alcohol use and psychological distress remained associated with high risk gambling across all locations. We found little knowledge of a free gambling helpline and other gambling services-particularly in less urbanised environments [χ(2) (2), 900 = 40.4; p < 0.001]. These findings highlight the need to increase awareness of free helpline services among gamblers and to ensure gambling services include screening and treatment for common mental disorders.

  10. Comparative study of the LOCV and the FHNC approaches for the nucleonic matter problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafrihi, Azar; Modarres, Majid

    2016-03-01

    The nucleonic matter problem is investigated by comparing the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the Fermi hypernetted chain (FHNC) theory, emphasizing the role of the LOCV correlation functions. In this way, the central correlation functions are used in the LOCV formalism, for the Bethe homework problem. It is shown that the LOCV computations reasonably agree with those of FHNC. Moreover, the FHNC calculations are performed with the LOCV correlation functions. It is found that, assuming the LOCV or the parametrized correlation functions, the FHNC computations do not change significantly. So, one may conclude that the mentioned consistencies refer to the choice of the LOCV correlation functions. Because, the contribution of the many-body cluster terms can be ignored, if the LOCV correlation functions satisfy the normalization constraint. Then, using the AV 18 interaction, the operator-dependent (OD) correlation functions are employed in the LOCV calculations. Note that the LOCV OD correlation functions are obtained by averaging over the states. It turns out that the overall behaviour of the LOCV OD correlation functions are similar to those of FHNC. Although, due to the many-body effects which are considered in the FHNC calculations, the LOCV results fairly differ from those of FHNC. Finally, it is worth mentioning that, unlike the recent FHNC calculations, the spin-orbit-dependent correlation functions are included in the LOCV approach.

  11. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  14. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners.

  15. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners. PMID:25397637

  16. [Clinical and biological specificities of female alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Limosin, F

    2002-01-01

    Even though the number of alcohol-dependent women is only about 1/3 of the number of alcoholic men, the alcoholism in women, by its clinical features and its course, is the source of therapeutic and economic stakes, particularly in young women among whom an increase of alcohol consumption related problems is reported. Another specificity of the female alcoholism is the lack of care seeking, whereas women have tendency globally to solicit more often care structures than men. Women represent only 1/4 of the overall treated alcoholic patients. The main explanation for this phenomenon is the pejorative social and moral connotation of the female alcoholism, with frequent feelings of shame and deep guilt, that also account for the frequency of hidden and lonely alcohol intakes. The female alcoholism is essentially characterized by an increased vulnerability to the toxic effects of the alcohol, whereas the pathological consumption starts later and with smaller daily amounts. Most studies have revealed a higher vulnerability in women to somatic complications directly attributable to the alcohol organs toxicity, such as hepatic cirrhosis and cardiovascular complications (high blood pressure, non obstructive cardiomyopathy). The reported brain morphological abnormalities could also occur more precociously in alcoholic women than in men. A decreased corpus callosum size among alcoholic women, but not in alcoholic men, was thus found in a recent study, compared with healthy controls. Among the different hypothesis proposed to explain this increased alcohol toxicity, the most incriminated is higher alcohol blood rates for the same ingested amount, mainly of the fact of a lower size with a weaker proportion of the bodily total water, but also of weaker concentrations of gastro-intestinal tract ADH, or of a longer metabolism during some menstrual phases. Indeed, some experimental studies on animal showed that the alcohol toxic effects may occur only from a threshold of alcohol

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol and Pregnancy Why take the risk? Language: English ... Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are completely preventable. Problem Alcohol can harm a developing baby before a woman ...

  19. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Poisoning Deaths A deadly consequence of binge drinking ... less binge drinking. Problem There are 2,200 alcohol poisoning deaths in the US each year. Alcohol ...

  20. Hurting, helping, or neutral? The effects of parental permissiveness toward adolescent drinking on college student alcohol use and problems.

    PubMed

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Crowley, D Max; Turrisi, Rob; Greenberg, Mark T; Mallett, Kimberly A

    2014-10-01

    To enhance prevention efforts to reduce college drinking, parents have been identified as an important source of influence that can be modified with brief interventions. Research suggests parental permissiveness toward drinking in adolescence is positively related to college student drinking, though existing studies have not comprehensively accounted for potential confounders (e.g., parental drinking). The present study used propensity modeling to estimate the effects of pre-college parental permissiveness on college student drinking and consequences while accounting for an inclusive range of confounders. A random sample of 1,518 incoming students at a large university completed baseline measures of parental permissiveness and a list of confounders (e.g., parental drinking, family history). At follow-up 15 months later, participants reported on their drinking and alcohol-related consequences. To control for potential confounders, individuals were weighted based on their propensity scores to obtain less biased estimates of the effects of parental permissiveness on drinking and consequences. Analyses revealed parental permissiveness was consistently and positively associated with college drinking and consequences when the confounders were not accounted for, but these effects were attenuated after weighting. Parents' allowance of drinking was not related to college drinking or consequences after weighting. Students' perceived parental limits for consumption were related to drinking and consequences in the weighted models. Prevention efforts may benefit from targeting parents' communication of acceptable limits for alcohol consumption. PMID:23934443

  1. No need to open the jar: a comparative study of Magnetic Resonance Imaging results on fresh and alcohol preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio (L. 1758), Cyprinidae, Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Chanet, Bruno; Fusellier, M; Baudet, J; Madec, S; Guintard, C

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) examinations have been conducted both on fresh and alcohol-preserved common carps (Cyprinus carpio). The images have been compared to those of a sagittally-cut frozen animal of the same species. This work shows that the images obtained are globally similar, and that the MRI technique can be applied to investigate the gross anatomy of alcohol-preserved specimens without destroying them. Unfortunately, this kind of study does not provide precise enough anatomical data for small specimens (less than 10 cm in total length) with a 1 Tesla magnetic field. Nevertheless, leaving the specimen in the jar during MRI examinations does not affect the quality of the final images.

  2. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  3. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  8. Mixing alcohol with artificially sweetened beverages: Prevalence and correlates among college students.

    PubMed

    Stamates, Amy L; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-11-01

    Mixing alcohol with diet beverages, as compared to mixing the same amount of alcohol with a regular beverage, is associated with greater intoxication. This may occur because diet mixers increase alcohol absorption rates. Thus, it is plausible that the use of diet mixers may increase the risk of alcohol-related harms. The current study sought to (1) determine the rate/frequency of use in among college students, (2) examine the relationship between mixing alcohol with diet beverages and alcohol-related problems, above typical alcohol use and sensation seeking, and (3) explore key traits (gender, restricting food while drinking, and body mass index [BMI]) that may characterize users. Participants were 686 (73% female) undergraduate students who completed self-reports of alcohol use (including diet mixer use), alcohol-related problems, eating behaviors while drinking, sensation seeking, and demographic information. Results revealed that about 36% of the sample reported consuming alcohol with diet mixers, and users typically consumed this beverage at least once a month. Students who reported mixing alcohol with diet beverages experienced more alcohol-related problems. And, the more frequently one consumed this beverage, the more problems were reported. These associations were found after controlling for typical level of alcohol use and sensation seeking. No differences were observed between user-status on gender, eating behaviors while drinking, and BMI. Our findings suggest that mixing alcohol with diet beverages could be a risk factor for experiencing more alcohol-related harms. Further research is needed to understand this relationship, as it may help guide intervening efforts aimed to reduce alcohol-related risks. PMID:27344010

  9. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  10. Transcriptional response to alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Tatiana V; Anholt, Robert RH; Mackay, Trudy FC

    2006-01-01

    Background Alcoholism presents widespread social and human health problems. Alcohol sensitivity, the development of tolerance to alcohol and susceptibility to addiction vary in the population. Genetic factors that predispose to alcoholism remain largely unknown due to extensive genetic and environmental variation in human populations. Drosophila, however, allows studies on genetically identical individuals in controlled environments. Although addiction to alcohol has not been demonstrated in Drosophila, flies show responses to alcohol exposure that resemble human intoxication, including hyperactivity, loss of postural control, sedation, and exposure-dependent development of tolerance. Results We assessed whole-genome transcriptional responses following alcohol exposure and demonstrate immediate down-regulation of genes affecting olfaction, rapid upregulation of biotransformation enzymes and, concomitant with development of tolerance, altered transcription of transcriptional regulators, proteases and metabolic enzymes, including biotransformation enzymes and enzymes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. Functional tests of P-element disrupted alleles corresponding to genes with altered transcription implicated 75% of these in the response to alcohol, two-thirds of which have human orthologues. Conclusion Expression microarray analysis is an efficient method for identifying candidate genes affecting complex behavioral and physiological traits, including alcohol abuse. Drosophila provides a valuable genetic model for comparative genomic analysis, which can inform subsequent studies in human populations. Transcriptional analyses following alcohol exposure in Drosophila implicate biotransformation pathways, transcriptional regulators, proteolysis and enzymes that act as metabolic switches in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism as important targets for future studies of the physiological consequences of human alcohol abuse. PMID:17054780

  11. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies.

  12. Population heterogeneity of trait anger and differential associations of trait anger facets with borderline personality features, neuroticism, depression, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Lubke, Gitta H; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; de Moor, Marleen H M; Trull, Timothy J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-12-15

    Anger is an emotion consisting of feelings of variable intensity ranging from mild irritation to intense fury. High levels of trait anger are associated with a range of psychiatric, interpersonal, and health problems. The objectives of this study were to explore heterogeneity of anger as measured by the Spielberger Trait Anger Scale (STAS), and to assess the association of the different anger facets with a selection of psychiatric disorders covering externalizing and internalizing problems, personality disorders, and substance use. Factor mixture models differentiated between a high and low scoring class (28% vs. 72%), and between three factors (anger-temperament, anger-reaction, and immediacy of an anger response). Whereas all psychiatric scales correlated significantly with the STAS total score, regressing the three STAS factors on psychiatric behaviors model showed a more detailed pattern. Only borderline affect instability and depression were significantly associated with all three factors in both classes whereas other problem behaviors were associated only with 1 or 2 of the factors. Alcohol problems were associated with immediacy only in the high scoring class, indicating a non-linear relation in the total sample. Taking into account these more specific associations is likely to be beneficial when investigating differential treatment strategies. PMID:26454404

  13. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  14. [Alcohol related problem in the workplace: trial of a screening and brief intervention program for risky drinking in the workplace, via the Internet].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Yukiko; Izumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Hiroko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Ino, Aro; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the effect of a screening and brief intervention via the Internet (6-month Total health Management Program: TMP, a kind of life evolution program), for improvement of alcohol related problem in the workplace. At a certain company, 2,096 employees were screened.using AUDIT-C and CAGE via the Internet (electronic screening). From those screened, 17 risky drinkers were picked up. The classification of "risky drinker" was determined based on employees scoring over six points on AUDIT-C and over two points on_ AGE. These employees were then called to one-day practical seminar program (including the program of food education, music therapy, aro-atherapy, body conditioning etc.). After which, during 6 months, they were followed up via e-mail every month. After the 6-month follow up, their results of AUDIT-C were significantly decreased. Additionally, aside from the frequency of drinking at bedtime, maximum alcohol consumption per day was also significantly decreased. The Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety captured the initial screen and then again after follow-up was reduced significantly. Moreover, quality-of-life index for sleep and dinner were both significantly improved as well..These results suggest that the SBI (screening and brief intervention: TMP) is effective for reducing drinking behavior, can be used to effectively elevate quality of life.

  15. [Neuropsychological performance and demographic characteristics in alcoholic patients in treatment].

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Rigoni, Maisa; Quarti Irigaray, Tatiana; Feliz Duarte de Moraes, João; Ferrão, Ygor; da Silva Oliveira, Margareth

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the cognitive performance of alcoholics (AG) and participants from the general population (CG) without alcohol dependence. The sample consisted of 141 men, aged 18 and 59. Divided into two groups, 101 alcoholic patients without comorbidities, hospitalized for drug abuse treatment, and 40 healthy individuals from the general population, matched for age and socioeconomic status. The instruments assessed the sociodemographics data and economic classification, alcohol dependence, psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive performance, executive functions, memory and perception. The results showed that the AG group presented severe dependence on alcohol and 92.1% indicated having a family with problems associated with alcohol for only 41.5 % of the CG. At the moment of the evaluation, 59.4 % of the participants of the AG group were abstinent between 8 and 15 days, and the in CG, 43.9%, were more than 60 days alcohol free. The neuropsychological performance verified that there was a decline in cognitive functions in alcoholics’ participants, whereas the AG suggests psychomotor retardation. Thus, it can be inferred that alcohol greatly affects cognitive functions of people who depend on this substance. In addition, there was a greater number of family stories with prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression and nicotine addiction in alcoholic patients compared with the general population.

  16. Perceptions of Problems Identified by Nigerian Students in American Higher Institutions: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, Eric A.

    1981-01-01

    Found that particular college of undergraduate degree was a predictor of problems in orientation, academics, social-personal living-dining, student-activities and placement areas for Nigerian students. Except in the area of finance, undergraduate respondents reported more problems than graduate respondents. (Author)

  17. Testing after Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n?=?120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of "isomorphic" problem solving or "example recall" on final test performance, which consisted of isomorphic problem…

  18. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Offenders with Intellectual Disability: Comparative Data from Three Forensic Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogue, T. E.; Mooney, P.; Morrissey, C.; Steptoe, L.; Johnston, S.; Lindsay, W. R.; Taylor, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite an increasing knowledge base concerning the assessment of emotional and behavioural problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), relatively little research has examined such problems in offenders with ID. Methods: The study assessed 172 male offenders with ID in three service settings (high, medium-low security and…

  19. Is Neighborhood Context Differently Related to Externalizing Problems and Delinquency for Girls Compared with Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroneman, Leoniek; Loeber, Rolf; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2004-01-01

    Although a number of reviews of gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency exist, this paper fills a gap in reviewing neighborhood influences on gender differences in conduct problems and delinquency. These influences are known to be important for boys in childhood and adolescence, but cannot be assumed to be influential in the same…

  20. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  1. The alcohol-preferring P rat and animal models of excessive alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2006-09-01

    The alcohol-preferring, P, rat was developed by selective breeding to study ethanol drinking behavior and its consequences. Characterization of this line indicates the P rat meets all of the criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism, and displays, relative to their alcohol-non-preferring, NP, counterparts, a number of phenotypic traits associated with alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Behaviorally, compared with NP rats, P rats are less sensitive to the sedative and aversive effects of ethanol and more sensitive to the stimulatory effects of ethanol. Neurochemically, research with the P line indicates the endogenous dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic, opiodergic, and peptidergic systems may be involved in a predisposition for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Paralleling the clinical literature, genetically selected P rats display levels of ethanol intake during adolescence comparable to that seen during adulthood. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk for health and other problems associated with ethanol abuse. A model of binge-like drinking during the dark cycle indicates that P rats will consume 6 g/kg/day of ethanol in as little as three 1-hour access periods/day, which approximates the 24-hour intake of P rats with free-choice access to a single concentration of ethanol. The alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) is a transient increase in ethanol intake above baseline values upon re-exposure to ethanol access after an extended period of deprivation. The ADE has been proposed to be an animal model of relapse behavior, with the adult P rat displaying a robust ADE after prolonged abstinence. Overall, these findings indicate that the P rat can be effectively used in models assessing alcohol-preference, a genetic predisposition for alcohol abuse and/or alcoholism, and excessive drinking using protocols of binge-like or relapse-like drinking.

  2. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  5. Teenagers and Alcohol Misuse in the United States: By Any Definition, It's a Big Problem. Health Sciences Program Reprint Series 96-55D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellickson, Phyllis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that more adolescents use alcohol than any other drug, studies of teenage alcohol misuse are relatively rare. This gap is addressed in this research report which examines the prevalence and demographic predictors of teenage alcohol misuse in a diverse sample of 4,390 high school seniors and dropouts. It focuses on three different…

  6. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  7. Potential and Challenges in Collecting Social and Behavioral Data on Adolescent Alcohol Norms: Comparing Respondent-Driven Sampling and Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Janina; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter; Allsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Background Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a method successfully used to research hard-to-access populations. Few studies have explored the use of the Internet and social media with RDS, known as Web-based RDS (WebRDS). This study explored the use of combining both “traditional” RDS and WebRDS to examine the influences on adolescent alcohol use. Objective This paper reports on the recruitment processes and the challenges and enablers of both RDS and WebRDS. It details comparative recruitment data and provides a summary of the utility of both methods for recruiting adolescents to participate in an online survey investigating youth alcohol norms. Methods Process evaluation data collected from research staff throughout the study were used to assess the challenges and solutions of RDS and WebRDS. Pearson chi-square test (Fisher’s exact test if applicable) was used to compare the differences in sociodemographics and drinking behavior between data collected by RDS and WebRDS. Results Of the total sample (N=1012), 232 adolescents were recruited by RDS and 780 by WebRDS. A significantly larger proportion of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander (P<.001) participants who spoke English as their main language at home (P=.03), and of middle and lower socioeconomic status (P<.001) was found in the RDS sample. The RDS sample was also found to have a higher occurrence of past 7-day drinking (P<.001) and past 7-day risky drinking (P=.004). No significant differences in gender, age, past month alcohol use, and lifetime alcohol use were observed between the RDS and WebRDS samples. This study revealed RDS and WebRDS used similar lengths of chains for recruiting participants; however, WebRDS conducted a faster rate of recruitment at a lower average cost per participant compared to RDS. Conclusions Using WebRDS resulted in significant improvements in the recruitment rate and was a more effective and efficient use of resources than the traditional RDS method. However, Web

  8. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  9. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  10. Simultaneous vs. concurrent use of alcohol and cannabis in the National Alcohol Survey

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi S.; Kerr, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most commonly used drug among those who drink, yet no study has directly compared those who use cannabis and alcohol simultaneously vs. concurrently (i.e., separately) in the adult general population. Here we assess differences in demographics, alcohol-related social consequences, harms to self, and drunk driving across simultaneous, concurrent, and alcohol-only using groups. Methods Secondary analyses of the 2005 and 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N=8,626; 4,522 female, 4,104 male), a Computer Assisted Telephone Interview survey of individuals aged 18 and older from all 50 states and DC. Blacks and Hispanics are over-sampled. Data were collected using list-assisted Random Digit Dialing (RDD). Multinomial and multivariable logistic regressions were used for analyses. Results The prevalence of simultaneous use was almost twice as high as concurrent use, implying that individuals who use both cannabis and alcohol tend to use them at the same time. Furthermore, simultaneous use was associated with increased frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Simultaneous use was also the most detrimental: compared to alcohol only, simultaneous use approximately doubled the odds of drunk driving, social consequences, and harms to self. The magnitudes of differences in problems remained when comparing drunk driving among simultaneous users to concurrent users. Conclusion The overall set of results is particularly important to bear in mind when studying and/or treating problems among alcohol/cannabis co-users because they demonstrate that in the general population, co-users are a heterogeneous group who experience different likelihoods of problems relative to co-use patterns. PMID:25872596

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  12. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  13. Comparing online and lab methods in a problem-solving experiment.

    PubMed

    Dandurand, Frédéric; Shultz, Thomas R; Onishi, Kristine H

    2008-05-01

    Online experiments have recently become very popular, and--in comparison with traditional lab experiments--they may have several advantages, such as reduced demand characteristics, automation, and generalizability of results to wider populations (Birnbaum, 2004; Reips, 2000, 2002a, 2002b). We replicated Dandurand, Bowen, and Shultz's (2004) lab-based problem-solving experiment as an Internet experiment. Consistent with previous results, we found that participants who watched demonstrations of successful problem-solving sessions or who read instructions outperformed those who were told only that they solved problems correctly or not. Online participants were less accurate than lab participants, but there was no interaction with learning condition. Thus, we conclude that online and Internet results are consistent. Disadvantages included high dropout rate for online participants; however, combining the online experiment with the department subject pool worked well. PMID:18522052

  14. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  15. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  16. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  17. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  18. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  19. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: Behavioral and physiological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kwako, L. E.; Schwandt, M. L.; Sells, J. R.; Ramchandani, V. A.; George, D. T.; Sinha, R.; Heilig, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. Objectives The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier Social Stress Test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress, and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Methods Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with comorbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the NIAAA inpatient research facility. They participated in a four week inpatient study of the efficacy of a NK1 antagonist to treat comorbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Results Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in ACTH and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Conclusions Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress vs. alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of comorbid PTSD and AD on craving. PMID:24806358

  20. Access to treatment for those with alcohol, crack or other drug dependency problems--a case study in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Bastos, Francisco I; Inglez-Dias, Aline; Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa

    2016-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric policies has meant more emphasis on the protection of the individual's rights, tougher regulations and disincentives regarding involuntary patient admissions, and the creation of a community network to support individuals needing help. The differing socioeconomic status of those requiring treatment coupled with guidelines issued by the Health Ministry has meant that more support and care is now being directed towards individuals and families. The rise in public awareness of the problems in these areas has aided in the changes that have taken place. Due to a lack of community public services, this has led to the proliferation of different types of services all with differing standards of care and has fueled the public debate surrounding involuntary patient admissions. Our analysis in relation to treatment for those with alcohol, crack and other drugs problems in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, states that there are gaps related to access for all-day public services and a lack of psychiatrists in multi-disciplinary teams. There are many new and untried serviced offered by the private sector, religious bodies and public shelters which have arisen in the wake of the rise in people that need help. We took note of the development and progress of these new projects as well as the policy recommendations from the Government.