Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol purchase task

  1. Is Talk ‘Cheap’? An Initial Investigation of the Equivalence of Alcohol Purchase Task Performance for Hypothetical and Actual Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Acker, John; Stojek, Monika; Murphy, James G.; MacKillop, James

    2011-01-01

    Background Behavioral economic alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are self-report measures of alcohol demand that assess estimated consumption at escalating levels of price. However, the relationship between estimated performance for hypothetical outcomes and choices for actual outcomes has not been determined. The present study examined both the correspondence between choices for hypothetical and actual outcomes, and the correspondence between estimated alcohol consumption and actual drinking behavior. A collateral goal of the study was to examine the effects of alcohol cues on APT performance. Methods Forty one heavy-drinking adults (56% male) participated in a human laboratory protocol comprising APTs for hypothetical and actual alcohol and money, an alcohol cue reactivity paradigm, an alcohol self-administration period, and a recovery period. Results Pearson correlations revealed very high correspondence between APT performance for hypothetical and actual alcohol (ps < .001). Estimated consumption on the APT was similarly strongly associated with actual consumption during the self-administration period (r = .87, p <.001). Exposure to alcohol cues significantly increased subjective craving and arousal, and had a trend-level effect on intensity of demand, in spite of notable ceiling effects. Associations among motivational indices were highly variable, suggesting multidimensionality. Conclusions These results suggest there may be close correspondence both between value preferences for hypothetical alcohol and actual alcohol, and between estimated consumption and actual consumption. Methodological considerations and priorities for future studies are discussed. PMID:22017303

  2. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  3. Alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crash risk and the location of alcohol purchase.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving alcohol impairment are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the U.S. In this study, we examine how the probability of driving after a binge-drinking episode varies with the location of consumption and type of alcohol consumed. We also investigate the relationship between the location of alcohol purchase and the number of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. Using multiple datasets that are representative of the U.S. between 2003 and 2009, we find that binge-drinkers are significantly more likely to drive after consuming alcohol at establishments that sell alcohol for on-premises consumption, e.g., from bars or restaurants, particularly after drinking beer. Further, per capita sales of alcohol for off-premises consumption are unrelated to the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. When disaggregating alcohol types, per capita sales of beer for off-premises consumption are negatively associated with the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. In contrast, total per capita sales of alcohol from all establishments (on- and off-premises) are positively related to the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes and the magnitude of this relationship is strongest for beer sales. Thus, policies that shift consumption away from bars and restaurants could lead to a decline in the number of motor vehicle crashes. PMID:24675388

  4. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J.; Chick, J.; Black, H.; Rees, C.; O'May, F.; Rush, R.; McPake, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Study design Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. Methods 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a ‘typical’ weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Results Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those <50 pence (£0.5 UK) per alcohol unit. Corresponding figures for the Scottish population are 69% and 60%. The most popular low-priced drinks were white cider, beer and vodka with the most common off-sales outlet being the corner shop, despite supermarkets offering cheaper options. Consumption levels of the cheapest drink (white cider) were similar across all quintiles apart from the least deprived. Conclusions Heavy drinkers from all quintiles purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are

  5. Minimum Financial Outlays for Purchasing Alcohol Brands in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Alison Burke; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Siegel, Michael; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low alcohol prices are a potent risk factor for excessive drinking, underage drinking, and adverse alcohol-attributable outcomes. Presently, there is little reported information on alcohol prices in the U.S., in particular as it relates to the costs of potentially beneficial amounts of alcohol. Purpose To determine the minimum financial outlay necessary to purchase individual brands of alcohol using online alcohol price data from January through March 2012. Methods The smallest container size and the minimum price at which that size beverage could be purchased in the U.S. in 2012 were determined for 898 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types. The analyses were conducted in March 2012. Results The majority of alcoholic beverage categories contain brands that can be purchased in the U.S. for very low minimum financial outlays. Conclusions In the U.S., a wide variety of alcohol brands, across many types of alcohol, are available at very low prices. Given that both alcohol use and abuse are responsive to price, particularly among adolescents, the prevalence of low alcohol prices is concerning. Surveillance of alcohol prices and minimum pricing policies should be considered in the U.S. as part of a public health strategy to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:23253652

  6. DUI pre-arrest alcohol purchases: a survey of Sonoma County drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, R A

    1992-07-01

    Based on a sample of 1,052 drunk drivers in northern California, less than 1% (0.80%) of those arrested for DUI had purchased and consumed alcohol prior to arrest from a convenience/gas store (gasmart). Data from both "on-sale" (on-premises consumption) and "off-sale" (off-premises consumption) alcohol outlets were compared. When off-sale outlets were compared only 2% of the DUI offenders had purchased and consumed alcohol from gasmarts prior to the arrest event. Gasmarts were the least frequent source of DUI-offender alcohol purchases. This report also describes the distribution of alcohol outlets for Sonoma and San Diego counties with respect to type of license and activity. Convenience stores that sold gas and alcohol concurrently were not overrepresented in either county. PMID:1466667

  7. The Effect of Introducing a Minimum Price on the Distribution of Alcohol Purchase: A Counterfactual Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anurag; Etilé, Fabrice; Sinha, Kompal

    2016-09-01

    We use counterfactual analysis techniques to evaluate the impact of a $2 minimum unit price (MUP) on the distribution of Australian (Victorian) household off-trade alcohol purchases. Our estimates suggest that a $2 MUP significantly reduces the purchases of at-risk households by up to -0.92 [90% CI: -1.55, -0.28] standard drinks at the highest quantiles and has substantially less effect on households purchasing at light and moderate levels. A $2 MUP may reduce the proportions of male and female shoppers purchasing at the public health threshold of more than two standard drinks per household member per day by -3.03 [90% CI: -4.83, -1.22] percentage points (relative variation: -17%); and -1.85 [90% CI: -2.60, -1.10] percentage points (relative variation:-22%), respectively. Implementing an MUP on alcohol thus promises significant positive impacts on public health. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27427503

  8. Use of false ID cards and other deceptive methods to purchase alcoholic beverages during high school.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H; Farrow, J A; Banks, B; Giesel, A E

    1998-01-01

    Altered motor vehicle drivers's licenses or other falsified or counterfeit photo identification cards are widely and illegally used by teenagers to obtain beer and other alcohol beverages. We obtained information on the methods currently used by teenagers to purchase beer and wine by asking nine hundred teenagers, between 16-19 years old to complete a brief, confidential questionnaire. High school students most often obtained alcoholic beverages by requesting someone of legal age to purchase it for them. College students used borrowed, altered, or counterfeit identification (ID) more often than high school students. Photo IDs purchased through mail order from a magazine advertisement were used infrequently and when use was attempted, they were sometimes (25%) unsuccessful. Fifteen percent of high school students, 14% of college freshmen, and 24% of teenage drug abusers were able to purchase beer by the case with borrowed, altered, or fake ID. Suggestions to reduce sales of alcohol-containing beverages to minors include universal "carding" of prospective purchasers, use of two view or hologram photos on a drivers' license, requiring three different ID cards at the point of purchase, and penalties to stores that fail to make a good effort to identify underage customers. PMID:9789157

  9. Identification and management of nonsystematic purchase task data: Toward best practice.

    PubMed

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Snider, Sarah E; Quisenberry, Amanda J; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-10-01

    Experimental assessments of demand allow the examination of economic phenomena relevant to the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of addiction and other pathologies (e.g., obesity). Although such assessments have historically been resource intensive, development and use of purchase tasks-in which participants purchase 1 or more hypothetical or real commodities across a range of prices-have made data collection more practical and have increased the rate of scientific discovery. However, extraneous sources of variability occasionally produce nonsystematic demand data, in which price exerts either no or inconsistent effects on the purchases of individual participants. Such data increase measurement error, can often not be interpreted in light of research aims, and likely obscure effects of the variable(s) under investigation. Using data from 494 participants, we introduce and evaluate an algorithm (derived from prior methods) for identifying nonsystematic demand data, wherein individual participants' demand functions are judged against 2 general, empirically based assumptions: (a) global, price-dependent reduction in consumption and (b) consistency in purchasing across prices. We also introduce guidelines for handling nonsystematic data, noting some conditions in which excluding such data from primary analyses may be appropriate and others in which doing so may bias conclusions. Adoption of the methods presented here may serve to unify the research literature and facilitate discovery. PMID:26147181

  10. The effects of perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R

    2008-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future. PMID:18201842

  11. Alcohol, drug and other prior crimes and risk of arrest in handgun purchasers: protocol for a controlled observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316

  12. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  13. Problematic Alcohol Use and Mild Intellectual Disability: Standardization of Pictorial Stimuli for an Alcohol Cue Reactivity Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Bloemsaat, Gijs; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the first step in developing a cue reactivity task for studying cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and alcohol use-related problems: the standardization of pictorial stimuli. Participants (N = 40), both with and without a history of alcohol use-related problems and…

  14. Task Force on Responsible Decisions about Alcohol. Interim Report Number 2 (A Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Interim Report 2 of the Task Force on Responsible Decisions about Alcohol focuses on the issue of responsible decisions in regard to alcohol abuse. In this report, the task force defines responsible decisions as those in which respect for oneself and others are considered, and discusses situational, health, and safety responsibilities. Some…

  15. Effects of chronic alcohol consumption on spatial reference and working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Santín, L J; Rubio, S; Begega, A; Arias, J L

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the spatial memory impairments induced by chronic alcohol consumption in rats. The alcoholization process began on the 21st postnatal day and alcohol concentrations were gradually increased to reach a concentration of 20% that was maintained for 4 mon. Behavioral tests were performed in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). The first study assessed the effects of chronic alcohol intake on two reference memory tasks (a place learning with multiple trials and a new place learning carried out in the same experimental context). Alcohol-treated animals presented no overall impairment in their ability to process spatial information. Deficits were restricted to reduced behavioral flexibility in spatial strategies. The second study assessed working memory in two tasks in which information about platform location was only valid for one trial. In the first working memory task, the animals had to perform one trial per day and in the second task they were submitted to four trials per day. At the end of the second experiment, all animals were trained in a visual-cued task. In the second experiment, the most important deficits in alcohol-treated animals occur in spatial working memory tasks, and this impairment was independent of the intertrial interval used. In the second spatial working memory task, performance of the alcohol-treated animals in the earlier trials affected their performance in subsequent trials, suggesting that a process of proactive interference had taken place. The visual-cued task demonstrated that these behavioral impairments were produced without visuoperceptive impairments. PMID:10719794

  16. Acute and Chronic Alcohol Administration: Effects on Performance of Zebrafish in a Latent Learning Task

    PubMed Central

    Luchiari, Ana C; Salajan, Diana C; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major medical problem. Zebrafish have been proposed to model alcohol related human disorders. Alcohol impairs learning and memory. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on performance of zebrafish in a recently developed latent learning paradigm. We employ a 2 × 3 × 2 experimental design (chronic × acute alcohol treatment × path blocked). The latent learning task had two phases: one, 30 min long exploration trials (16 days, 1 trial/day) with left or right path of a complex maze blocked, and two, a subsequent probe trial with all paths open leading to a goal box that now contained stimulus fish. During the 16 days each fish received one of two chronic treatments: freshwater or 0.50% (vol/vol%) alcohol. Subsequently, fish were immersed for 1h in one of the following solutions: 0.00 (freshwater), 0.50 or 1.00% alcohol, the acute challange. Behavior of fish was recorded during the probe trial that commenced immediately after the acute treatment. Path choices, latency to leave the start box and to enter the goal box, time spent in the goal box, distance travelled, and duration of freezing were quantified. We found that acute exposure to 1.00% alcohol after chronic freshwater disrupted learning performance, so did exposure to freshwater after chronic alcohol treatment (withdrawal). We also found exposure to chronic alcohol to diminish the effect of subsequent acute alcohol suggesting development of tolerance. Our results demonstrate that analysis of learning performance of zebrafish allows detection of alcohol-induced functional changes. The simplicity and scalability of the employed task also imply the utility of the zebrafish in high throughput drug screens. PMID:25557800

  17. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  18. Working with or against the Stores?: A Non-Governmental Organization Working with Alcohol Purchase Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geidne, Susanna; Eriksson, Charli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the implementation by a non-governmental organization (NGO) of an intervention with two different strategies--one employing confrontational approaches, the other cooperative ones--aiming to reduce the rate of successful purchase attempts (PAs) of medium-strength beer in Sweden.…

  19. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  20. Development of a Virtual Approach-Avoidance Task to Assess Alcohol Cravings.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deok-Yong; Lee, Jang-Han

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a new approach-avoidance task in a virtual environment that could be used to assess the response to virtual alcohol-related situations by heavy social drinkers (HSDs) and light social drinkers (LSDs). Thirty-six male undergraduates (18 HSDs, 18 LSDs) responded to signals when they pulled or pushed a joystick after watching scenes of alcohol- or nonalcohol-related situations in a virtual environment. The HSD group spent more time on moving away from alcohol-related situations than nonalcohol-related situations. We found that the HSD group had difficulty in avoiding alcohol-related situations in the virtual environment. The Virtual Approach-Avoidance Task might more accurately measure the levels of social drinkers' craving to drink as it provides realistic situations and allows individuals to be immersed in virtual environments. PMID:26544667

  1. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  2. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  3. Effects of Alcohol on Performance on a Distraction Task During Simulated Driving

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Allyssa J.; Meda, Shashwath A.; Skudlarski, Pawel; Calhoun, Vince; Astur, Robert; Ruopp, Kathryn C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Prior studies report that accidents involving intoxicated drivers are more likely to occur during performance of secondary tasks. We studied this phenomenon, using a dual-task paradigm, involving performance of a visual oddball (VO) task while driving in an alcohol challenge paradigm. Previous functional MRI (fMRI) studies of the VO task have shown activation in the anterior cingulate, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. Thus, we predicted dose-dependent decreases in activation of these areas during VO performance. Methods Forty healthy social drinkers were administered 3 different doses of alcohol, individually tailored to their gender and weight. Participants performed a VO task while operating a virtual reality driving simulator in a 3T fMRI scanner. Results Analysis showed a dose-dependent linear decrease in Blood Oxygen Level Dependent activation during task performance, primarily in hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal areas, with the least activation occurring during the high dose. Behavioral analysis showed a dose-dependent linear increase in reaction time, with no effects associated with either correct hits or false alarms. In all dose conditions, driving speed decreased significantly after a VO stimulus. However, at the high dose this decrease was significantly less. Passenger-side line crossings significantly increased at the high dose. Conclusions These results suggest that driving impairment during secondary task performance may be associated with alcohol-related effects on the above brain regions, which are involved with attentional processing/decision-making. Drivers with high blood alcohol concentrations may be less able to orient or detect novel or sudden stimuli during driving. PMID:19183133

  4. High-Alcohol Preferring Mice Are More Impulsive Than Low-Alcohol Preferring Mice as Measured in the Delay Discounting Task

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, B. G.; Grahame, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Repeated studies have shown that high impulsivity, when defined as the tendency to choose small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is more prevalent in drug addicts and alcoholics when compared with nonaddicts. Assessing whether impulsivity precedes and potentially causes addiction disorders is difficult in humans because they all share a history of drug use. In this study, we address this question by testing alcohol-naïve mice from lines showing heritable differences in alcohol intake. Methods Replicated selected lines of outbred high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice were compared to a low-alcohol preferring (LAP) line as well as the low-drinking progenitor line (HS/Ibg) on an adjusting amount delay discounting (DD) task. The DD task employs 2 levers to present subjects with a choice between a small, immediate and a large, delayed saccharin reward. By adjusting the quantity of the immediate reward up and down based on choice behavior, the task allows an estimate of how the subjective value of the delayed reinforcer decreases as delays increase. Latency to respond was also measured for each trial. Results Both HAP2 and HAP1 lines of mice were more impulsive than the LAP2 and HS/Ibg lines, respectively. Hyperbolic curve-fitting confirmed steeper discounting in the high-alcohol drinking lines. In addition, the high-alcohol drinking lines demonstrated greater within-session increases in reaction times relative to the low-alcohol drinking lines. No other differences (consumption of saccharin, total trials completed) consistently mapped onto genetic differences in alcohol drinking. Conclusions Alcohol-naïve outbred mice selected for high-alcohol drinking were more impulsive with saccharin reinforcers than low-alcohol drinkers. These data are consistent with results seen using inbred strain descendents of high-alcohol drinking and low-alcohol drinking rat lines, and suggest that impulsivity is a heritable difference that precedes alcoholism. PMID

  5. What do preschoolers know about alcohol? Evidence from the electronic Appropriate Beverage Task (eABT).

    PubMed

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Le Mével, Lydie; Zucker, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    While much is known about alcohol use in adolescence and beyond, factors leading to such behaviors are rooted much earlier in life. To investigate what preschoolers (aged three to six) know about alcohol and adult alcohol use, we developed an electronic version (eABT) of the Appropriate Beverage Task (Zucker, Kincaid, Fitzgerald, & Bingham, 1995). Drawings of adults and children in 11 everyday scenarios and 12 photos of different beverages were shown on a touchscreen computer to 301 three- to six-year-olds (49.5% girls) from 37 preschools and seven nurseries in French-speaking Switzerland. First, the children assigned a beverage to each individual in each drawing, and then were asked if the beverage contained alcohol and if they knew its name. The results revealed that 68.1% correctly classified beer, white wine, red wine and champagne as alcoholic beverages, while 46.4% knew the beverages by name, compared to 83.2% and 73.1% for non-alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages were assigned more often to men (42.2%) than to women (28.7%) or to children (12.7%), and more often to adults at a party (39.4%) than to those playing outdoors (34.7%). In conclusion, children as young as three often have some beverage-specific knowledge. From the age of four onwards, they begin to know that alcoholic beverages contain alcohol. Children aged six and over tend to have some knowledge of adult drinking norms, i.e. who is drinking and in what circumstances. PMID:27240210

  6. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Response Conflict in a Flanker Task.

    PubMed

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Rickenbacher, Elizabeth; Azma, Sheeva

    2012-02-11

    Events evoke seamlessly integrated stimulus evaluation and response preparation processing streams, guided by regulative functions that change behavior flexibly in accord with the internal goals and contextual demands. The neural basis of the effects of alcohol intoxication on these processing streams is poorly understood, despite the evidence of alcohol's deleterious effects on both attention and motor control. In an attempt to separate and examine relative susceptibility of these two dimensions, we employed a color version of the Eriksen flanker task that manipulated compatibility at the stimulus- and response-processing levels. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in healthy social drinkers as they participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. Alcohol increased reaction times to response-level incongruity and decreased accuracy overall. Relative to the no-conflict condition, the observed brain activity was predominantly evoked by response-related conflict in medial prefrontal and lateral prefrontal cortices under placebo, in agreement with extensive evidence of their role in conflict processing. Activity evoked by response incongruity in the medial frontal cortex and insula was insignificant under alcohol, indicating its interference with response inhibition and preparation. Conversely, activity in ventrolateral prefrontal and premotor areas was relatively greater under alcohol than placebo, suggesting their compensatory engagement. This finding is consistent with the compensatory prefrontal activity increase found in studies with chronic alcoholic individuals, indicating functional reorganization with a goal of optimizing response strategy. These results delineate functional differences and selective susceptibility of a prefrontal network subserving response-level conflict processing. Our findings are incompatible with notions that moderate alcohol primarily

  7. Reduced mental capacity and behavior of a rider of a bicycle simulator under alcohol stress or under dual task load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soede, M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a bicycle simulator with alcohol administration and a binary choice task in separate sessions, intending to reduce the subject's mental capacity. Before and after such sessions a visual evoked response measurement was done. The subject's performance was analyzed with describing function techniques. The results indicate that the alcohol affects the course-following task as well as the balancing task. The binary choice task is more specifically influencing the course-following task. The dual task shows a more pronounced effect on the recovery of the evoked response. The alcohol is delaying the recovery curve of the evoked response. A tentative explanation can be given which agrees with the performance data.

  8. Maternal risk taking on the balloon analogue risk task as a prospective predictor of youth alcohol use escalation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Felton, Julia W; Dahne, Jennifer; Ninnemann, Andrew; Lejuez, C W

    2015-10-01

    The transition from late childhood through middle adolescence represents a critical developmental period during which there is a rapid increase in the initiation and escalation of alcohol use. Alcohol use is part of a constellation of risk taking behaviors that increase during this developmental transition, which can be explained by environmental and genetic factors. Social learning theory (SLT) implicates observations of parental drinking in the development of alcohol use in youth. Parental risk taking more broadly has not previously been examined as a factor predictive of alcohol use escalation in youth across adolescence. The current study examined the relative contributions of maternal risk taking on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and maternal alcohol use in the prediction of alcohol escalation among youth over three years. Participants were a sample of 245 youth (55.0% male, 49.6% Caucasian) who participated annually between grades 8 and 10, drawn from a larger study of adolescent risk taking. Within our sample, maternal risk taking, as measured by the BART, predicted increases in alcohol use. Interestingly, maternal alcohol use and other youth factors were not predictive of escalations in youth alcohol use. Our findings suggest the importance of considering maternal riskiness more broadly, rather than solely focusing on maternal alcohol use when attempting to understand youth alcohol use across adolescence. These findings emphasize the relevance of maternal risk taking as measured by a behavioral task and suggest a general level of riskiness displayed by mothers might encourage youth to behave in a riskier manner themselves. PMID:26046400

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  13. Electronic Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the development of a computerized purchase requisition system for schools that is more efficient, cost effective, and dependable than a manual purchasing system. Includes two tables, one a model form for entering purchase orders, the other a purchase order detail form. (MD)

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  16. In verbis, vinum? Relating themes in an open-ended writing task to alcohol behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert D; Heim, Derek; Chung, Cindy K; Duffy, John C; Davies, John B; Pennebaker, James W

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol's function as a regulator of emotions has long been denoted in figures of speech, most famously 'in vino, veritas' (in wine, truth). In contrast, we ask whether an individual's self-reported alcohol consumption and related attitudes can be correlated with the words they use to write about alcohol. Participants completed an open-ended essay as part of a survey on alcohol attitudes and behaviors. We used a computerized technique, the Meaning Extraction Method, to summarize the responses into thematic tropes, and correlated these with quantitative measurements of demographics, attitudes and behaviors. Participants were recruited using a random population postal survey in the UK (n=1001). Principal components analysis identified regular co-occurring words, to locate themes in the responses. Seven themes were identified that corresponded to both negative and positive aspects of alcohol consumption ranging from concern for the influence of alcohol on others (e.g., children and family) to participants' own enjoyment of alcohol (e.g., social drinking). Small but significant correlations suggested a relationship between the essay responses and individual consumption patterns and attitudes. PMID:23602961

  17. Priming deficiency in male subjects at risk for alcoholism: the N4 during a lexical decision task

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Stimus, Arthur; Bauer, Lance O.; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J.; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Background While there is extensive literature on the relationship between the P3 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) and risk for alcoholism, there are few published studies regarding other potentially important ERP components. One important candidate is the N4(00) component in the context of semantic processing, as abnormalities in this component have been reported for adult alcoholics. Method A semantic priming task was administered to non-alcohol dependent male offspring (18 to 25 years) of alcoholic fathers [high risk (HR) n=23] and non-alcoholic fathers [low risk (LR) n=28], to study whether the two groups differ in terms of the N4 component. Subjects were presented with 150 words and 150 non-words. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unprimed. For the analysis, N4 amplitude and latency, as well as behavioral measures for the primed and unprimed words were considered. Results A significant interaction effect was observed between semantic condition and group, where HR subjects did not show N4 attenuation for primed stimuli. Conclusion The lack of N4 attenuation to primed stimuli and/or inability to differentiate between primed and unprimed stimuli, without latency and reaction time being affected, suggest deficits in semantic priming, especially in semantic expectancy and/or post-lexical semantic processing in HR male offspring. Further, it indicates that it might be an electrophysiological endophenotype that reflects genetic vulnerability to develop alcoholism. PMID:19764939

  18. Purchasing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Bureau of Administration and Finance.

    A concise reference guide for Kentucky school administrators and purchasing officials regarding desirable purchasing practices. The size of the school system will determine the manner in which the purchasing program should be implemented. Although methods may vary, the principles of good management are applicable to both large and small school…

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. 27 CFR 31.141 - Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits. 31.141 Section 31.141 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Purchases of Distilled Spirits § 31.141 Unlawful purchases of distilled spirits. (a) General. It is unlawful for any dealer to purchase distilled spirits for resale from any person other than: (1) A...

  1. Computerized Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, John M.

    To maximize efficiency and minimize cost, purchasing departments are using computers to issue purchase orders, expedite orders, and control inventory. In order to familiarize prospective users, explanations of some of the terminology, equipment, and other pertinent facts associated with automation are supplied. Six pages, in outline form, explain…

  2. Wise Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgman, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Recent events in Florida, California, and other states suggest that school equipment purchasing is fraught with scandal and risk. This article recommends putting district policies in writing, carefully selecting bidders, timing bids to avoid peak periods, and resisting personalized incentives. Sidebars detail model purchasing guidelines and…

  3. Neural correlates of a Go/NoGo task with alcohol stimuli in light and heavy young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Ames, Susan L; Wong, Savio W; Bechara, Antoine; Cappelli, Christopher; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W

    2014-11-01

    Inhibitory processes are highly relevant to behavioral control affecting decisions made daily. The Go/NoGo task is a common task used to tap basic inhibitory processes important in higher order executive functioning. The present study assessed neural correlates of response inhibition during performance of a Go/NoGo task in which NoGo signals or tests of inhibitory control consisted of images of beer bottles. Group comparisons were conducted between 21 heavy and 20 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22. Behaviorally, overall performance assessed with d-prime was significantly better among the lighter drinkers. On a neural level, the heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex and cingulate relative to the light drinkers during the NoGo trials. These regions are implicated in reflective or control processing of information. Further, heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the insula relative to light drinkers during NoGo trials, a neural region implicated in habit circuitry and tied to cue induced urges and emotional memories of physical effects of drugs. These results suggest that the heavier drinkers may have experienced increased working memory demand and control efforts to withhold a response due to poorer inhibitory control from enhanced salience of alcohol cues on the beer NoGo trials, which also engaged insula mediated effects. PMID:25172182

  4. Neural Correlates of a Go/NoGo Task with Alcohol Stimuli in Light and Heavy Young Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Wong, Savio W.; Bechara, Antoine; Cappelli, Christopher; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry, L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory processes are highly relevant to behavioral control affecting decisions made daily. The Go/NoGo task is a common task used to tap basic inhibitory processes important in higher order executive functioning. The present study assessed neural correlates of response inhibition during performance of a Go/NoGo task in which NoGo signals or tests of inhibitory control consisted of images of beer bottles. Group comparisons were conducted between 21 heavy and 20 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22. Behaviorally, overall performance assessed with d-prime was significantly better among the lighter drinkers. On a neural level, the heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex and cingulate relative to the light drinkers during the NoGo trials. These regions are implicated in reflective or control processing of information. Further, heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the insula relative to light drinkers during NoGo trials, a neural region implicated in habit circuitry and tied to cue induced urges and emotional memories of physical effects of drugs. These results suggest that the heavier drinkers may have experienced increased working memory demand and control efforts to withhold a response due to poorer inhibitory control from enhanced salience of alcohol cues on the beer NoGo trials, which also engaged insula mediated effects. PMID:25172182

  5. Neurocognitive Deficits in Male Alcoholics: An ERP/sLORETA Analysis of the N2 Component in an Equal Probability Go/NoGo Task

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, AK; Kamarajan, C; Tang, Y; Chorlian, DB; Roopesh, BN; Manz, N; Stimus, A; Rangaswamy, M; Porjesz, B

    2011-01-01

    In alcoholism research, studies concerning time-locked electrophysiological aspects of response inhibition have concentrated mainly on the P3 component of the event-related potential (ERP). The objective of the present study was to investigate the N2 component of the ERP to elucidate possible brain dysfunction related to the motor response and its inhibition using a Go/NoGo task in alcoholics. The sample consisted of 78 abstinent alcoholic males and 58 healthy male controls. The N2 peak was compared across group and task conditions. Alcoholics showed significantly reduced N2 peak amplitudes compared to normal controls for Go as well as NoGo task conditions. Control subjects showed significantly larger NoGo than Go N2 amplitudes at frontal regions, whereas alcoholics did not show any differences between task conditions at frontal regions. Standardized Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography Analysis (sLORETA) indicated that alcoholics had significantly lower current density at the source than control subjects for the NoGo condition at bilateral anterior prefrontal regions, whereas the differences between groups during the Go trials was not statistically significant. Furthermore, NoGo current density across both groups revealed significantly more activation in bilateral anterior cingulate cortical (ACC) areas, with the maximum activation in the right cingulate regions. However, the magnitude of this difference was much less in alcoholics compared to control subjects. These findings suggest that alcoholics may have deficits in effortful processing during the motor response and its inhibition, suggestive of possible frontal lobe dysfunction. PMID:22024409

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  7. The Association between Different Levels of Alcohol Use and Gait under Single and Dual Task in Community-Dwelling Older Persons Aged 65 to 70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Büla, Christophe; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between alcohol intake and gait parameters in older persons. Methods. Community-dwelling persons aged 65–70 years (N = 807). Information on health, functional status, and alcohol use was self-reported at baseline and at 3-year follow-up, whereas gait speed and stride-to-stride variability were measured while walking only (single task) and under dual tasking (counting backwards). Results. Compared to light-to-moderate drinking, heavy drinking was associated with slower gait speed in single task (adj. coeff.: −.040, 95% CI: −.0.78 to −.002, p = .035). No significant association was observed between heavy drinking and gait speed variability. Nondrinkers walked significantly slower than light-to-moderate drinkers in dual task and had significantly higher gait speed variability in both single and dual task, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity. At follow-up, 35.2% and 34.1% of the participants walked significantly slower in single and dual task, respectively. This proportion varied a little across drinking categories. Conclusion. At baseline, heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with slower gait speed in single task. Selective survival of the fittest heavy drinkers probably explains why this association faded in longitudinal analyses. The trend of poorer gait performance in nondrinkers disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity, suggesting confounding by a worse health status. PMID:27516773

  8. The Association between Different Levels of Alcohol Use and Gait under Single and Dual Task in Community-Dwelling Older Persons Aged 65 to 70 Years.

    PubMed

    Seematter-Bagnoud, Laurence; Büla, Christophe; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between alcohol intake and gait parameters in older persons. Methods. Community-dwelling persons aged 65-70 years (N = 807). Information on health, functional status, and alcohol use was self-reported at baseline and at 3-year follow-up, whereas gait speed and stride-to-stride variability were measured while walking only (single task) and under dual tasking (counting backwards). Results. Compared to light-to-moderate drinking, heavy drinking was associated with slower gait speed in single task (adj. coeff.: -.040, 95% CI: -.0.78 to -.002, p = .035). No significant association was observed between heavy drinking and gait speed variability. Nondrinkers walked significantly slower than light-to-moderate drinkers in dual task and had significantly higher gait speed variability in both single and dual task, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity. At follow-up, 35.2% and 34.1% of the participants walked significantly slower in single and dual task, respectively. This proportion varied a little across drinking categories. Conclusion. At baseline, heavy alcohol consumption was significantly associated with slower gait speed in single task. Selective survival of the fittest heavy drinkers probably explains why this association faded in longitudinal analyses. The trend of poorer gait performance in nondrinkers disappeared after adjustment for comorbidity, suggesting confounding by a worse health status. PMID:27516773

  9. Understanding the Effects of Stress and Alcohol Cues on Motivation for Alcohol via Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and alcohol cues are common antecedents of both ongoing drinking and relapse. One candidate mechanism of risk from these factors is acute increases in craving, but experimental support for this hypothesis is mixed. Furthermore, the combination of stress and cues has been largely unstudied. The current study employed a behavioral economic approach to investigate the combined roles of psychosocial stress and alcohol cues on motivation for alcohol. Methods In a sample of 84 adult heavy drinkers, we examined the effects of an acute laboratory stress induction and an alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and stress, arousal, and behavioral economic decision-making. Primary dependent measures included an intertemporal cross-commodity multiple choice procedure (ICCMCP), incorporating both price and delay elements; an alcohol purchase task (APT), measuring alcohol demand; and a monetary delay discounting task (DDT), measuring intertemporal choice. Results The stress induction significantly increased stress, craving, and the incentive value of alcohol on the ICCMCP and APT. Stress-related increases in value on the ICCMCP were mediated by increased alcohol demand. Exposure to alcohol cues only significantly affected craving, APT breakpoint, and arousal. Delay discounting was not affected by either stress or cues. Conclusions These results reveal unique behavioral economic dimensions of motivation for alcohol following acute stress and an alcohol cue exposure. More broadly, as the first application of this approach to understanding the role of stress in drug motivation, these findings support its utility and potential in future applications. PMID:24890323

  10. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task.

    PubMed

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline. PMID:27494180

  11. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Malaak N.; Simpson, Sean L.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Porrino, Linda J.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65–80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7–21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24–35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline. PMID:27494180

  12. Consortium Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Jake E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how joint buying through consortial arrangements has had a dramatic impact on the purchasing power of higher education institutions, with cooperative agreements leading to significant savings for the member institutions. (EV)

  13. Conflict anticipation in alcohol dependence — A model-based fMRI study of stop signal task

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S.; Zhang, Sheng; Sinha, Rajita; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous work characterized altered cerebral activations during cognitive control in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to anticipate changes and adjust behavior accordingly. Here, we employed a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial anticipation of the stop signal and modeled fMRI signals of conflict anticipation in a stop signal task. Our goal is to characterize the neural correlates of conflict anticipation and its relationship to response inhibition and alcohol consumption in AD. Methods Twenty-four AD and 70 age and gender matched healthy control individuals (HC) participated in the study. fMRI data were pre-processed and modeled with SPM8. We modeled fMRI signals at trial onset with individual events parametrically modulated by estimated probability of the stop signal, p(Stop), and compared regional responses to conflict anticipation between AD and HC. To address the link to response inhibition, we regressed whole-brain responses to conflict anticipation against the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). Results Compared to HC (54/70), fewer AD (11/24) showed a significant sequential effect — a correlation between p(Stop) and RT during go trials — and the magnitude of sequential effect is diminished, suggesting a deficit in proactive control. Parametric analyses showed decreased learning rate and over-estimated prior mean of the stop signal in AD. In fMRI, both HC and AD responded to p(Stop) in bilateral inferior parietal cortex and anterior pre-supplementary motor area, although the magnitude of response increased in AD. In contrast, HC but not AD showed deactivation of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). Furthermore, deactivation of the pgACC to increasing p(Stop) is positively correlated with the SSRT in HC but not AD. Recent alcohol consumption is correlated with increased activation of the thalamus and cerebellum in AD during conflict anticipation. Conclusions The

  14. Ether- and alcohol-functionalized task-specific ionic liquids: attractive properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaokun; Baker, Gary A; Zhao, Hua

    2012-05-21

    In recent years, the designer nature of ionic liquids (ILs) has driven their exploration and exploitation in countless fields among the physical and chemical sciences. A fair measure of the tremendous attention placed on these fluids has been attributed to their inherent designer nature. And yet, there are relatively few examples of reviews that emphasize this vital aspect in an exhaustive or meaningful way. In this critical review, we systematically survey the physicochemical properties of the collective library of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs, highlighting the impact of ionic structure on features such as viscosity, phase behavior/transitions, density, thermostability, electrochemical properties, and polarity (e.g. hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding capability). In the latter portions of this review, we emphasize the attractive applications of these functionalized ILs across a range of disciplines, including their use as electrolytes or functional fluids for electrochemistry, extractions, biphasic systems, gas separations, carbon capture, carbohydrate dissolution (particularly, the (ligno)celluloses), polymer chemistry, antimicrobial and antielectrostatic agents, organic synthesis, biomolecular stabilization and activation, and nanoscience. Finally, this review discusses anion-functionalized ILs, including sulfur- and oxygen-functionalized analogs, as well as choline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs), an emerging class of fluids which can be sensibly categorized as semi-molecular cousins to the IL. Finally, the toxicity and biodegradability of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs are discussed and cautiously evaluated in light of recent reports. By carefully summarizing literature examples on the properties and applications of oxy-functional designer ILs up till now, it is our intent that this review offers a barometer for gauging future advances in the field as well as a trigger to spur further contemplation of these seemingly inexhaustible and

  15. Ether- and Alcohol-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids: Attractive Properties and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaokun; Baker, Gary A.; Zhao, Hua

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the designer nature of ionic liquids (ILs) has driven their exploration and exploitation in countless fields among the physical and chemical sciences. A fair measure of the tremendous attention placed on these fluids has been attributed to their inherent designer nature. And yet, there are relatively few examples of reviews which emphasize this vital aspect in an exhaustive or meaningful way. In this critical review, we systematically survey the physicochemical properties of the collective library of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs, highlighting the impact of ionic structure on features such as viscosity, phase behavior/transitions, density, thermostability, electrochemical properties, and polarity (e.g., hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding capability). In the latter portions of this review, we emphasize the attractive applications of these functionalized ILs across a range of disciplines, including their use as electrolytes or functional fluids for electrochemistry, extractions, biphasic systems, gas separations, carbon capture, carbohydrate dissolution (particularly, the (ligno)celluloses), polymer chemistry, antimicrobial and antielectrostatic agents, organic synthesis, biomolecular stabilization and activation, and nanoscience. Finally, this review discusses anion-functionalized ILs, including sulfur- and oxygen-functionalized analogs, as well as choline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs), an emerging class of fluids which can be sensibly categorized as semi-molecular cousins to the IL. Finally, the toxicity and biodegradability of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs are discussed and cautiously evaluated in light of recent reports. By carefully summarizing literature examples on the properties and applications of oxy-functional designer ILs up till now, it is our intent that this review offer a barometer for gauging future advances in the field as well as a trigger to spur further contemplation of these seemingly inexhaustible and

  16. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  17. Effects of alcohol on the performance of the Tower of London task in relation to the menstrual cycle: an electroencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Martin, Araceli; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel A; Santana, Gloria; Gumá-Díaz, Emilio; Amezcua, Claudia

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the metabolism of alcohol and cognitive functions can vary during the menstrual cycle. Also, both alcohol ingestion and hormonal variations during menstruation have been associated with characteristic changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. The aim of the present study was to determine whether EEG activity during the performance of the Tower of London (TOL) task is affected by previous ingestion of alcohol and whether these EEG patterns vary in relation to different phases of the menstrual cycle. For this purpose, female participants consumed a moderate dose of alcohol or placebo during the follicular and early luteal phases of the menstrual cycle and then, 35 min after liquid ingestion, EEG activity was recorded during the performance of TOL. A deleterious effect of alcohol on TOL performance was potentiated in the follicular phase, related to a higher α1 relative power, probably as a result of the low progesterone levels characteristic of this menstrual phase. These data show the feasibility of examining the interaction of alcohol and menstrual cycle phases on cognitive performance by means of EEG recording, and contribute toward a better understanding of the brain mechanisms that underlie the cognitive changes that occur during the menstrual cycle under the effects of alcohol. PMID:22954645

  18. Delta, theta, and alpha event-related oscillations in alcoholics during Go/NoGo task: Neurocognitive deficits in execution, inhibition, and attention processing.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B; Stimus, Arthur; Porjesz, Bernice

    2016-02-01

    Higher impulsivity observed in alcoholics is thought to be due to neurocognitive functional deficits involving impaired inhibition in several brain regions and/or neuronal circuits. Event-related oscillations (EROs) offer time-frequency measure of brain rhythms during perceptual and cognitive processing, which provide a detailed view of neuroelectric oscillatory responses to external/internal events. The present study examines evoked power (temporally locked to events) of oscillatory brain signals in alcoholics during an equal probability Go/NoGo task, assessing their functional relevance in execution and inhibition of a motor response. The current study hypothesized that increases in the power of slow frequency bands and their topographical distribution is associated with tasks that have increased cognitive demands, such as the execution and inhibition of a motor response. Therefore, it is hypothesized that alcoholics would show lower spectral power in their topographical densities compared to controls. The sample consisted of 20 right-handed abstinent alcoholic males and 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Evoked delta (1.0-3.5Hz; 200-600ms), theta (4.0-7.5Hz; 200-400ms), slow alpha (8.0-9.5Hz; 200-300ms), and fast alpha (10.0-12.5Hz; 100-200ms) ERO power were compared across group and task conditions. Compared to controls, alcoholics had higher impulsiveness scores on the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and made more errors on Go trials. Alcoholics showed significantly lower evoked delta, theta, and slow alpha power compared to controls for both Go and NoGo task conditions, and lower evoked fast alpha power compared to controls for only the NoGo condition. The results confirm previous findings and are suggestive of neurocognitive deficits while executing and suppressing a motor response. Based on findings in the alpha frequency ranges, it is further suggested that the inhibitory processing impairments in alcoholics may arise from inadequate early

  19. Initial Development of a Brief Behavioral Economic Assessment of Alcohol Demand

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Max M.; Murphy, Cara M.; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to difficulties with definition and measurement, the role of conscious craving in substance use disorders remains contentious. To address this, behavioral economics is increasingly being used to quantify aspects of an individual’s acute motivation to use a substance. Doing so typically involves the use of a purchase task, in which participants make choices about consuming alcohol or other substances at various prices and multiple indices of alcohol demand are generated. However, purchase tasks can be limited by the time required to administer and score them. In the current study, a brief 3-item measure, designed to capture three important indices of demand that are derived from demand curve modeling (intensity, Omax, and breakpoint), was investigated in a group of 84 heavy drinkers. Participants underwent a cue-reactivity paradigm that is established to increase both conscious craving and alcohol demand on traditional purchase tasks. All three indices of demand for alcohol measured using the abbreviated measure increased significantly in response to alcohol cues, analogous to what has been observed using a traditional purchase task. Additionally, the correlations between these indices and subjective craving were modest-to-moderate, as has been found in studies comparing craving to the indices derived from purchase tasks. These findings suggest that this abbreviated measure may be a useful and efficient way to capture important and distinct aspects of motivation for alcohol. If these results are confirmed, this measure may be able to help increase the portability of behavioral economic indices of demand into novel research and clinical contexts. PMID:27135038

  20. The Effect of Point of Sale Promotions on the Alcohol Purchasing Behaviour of Young People in Metropolitan, Regional and Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Smith, Kylie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study, part of a larger project examining marketing and alcohol, looked specifically at the effects of point of sale (POS) promotions on young people, with a view to providing evidence which could be used to inform policy and regulation in this area. A series of focus groups were conducted in three different locations with young people aged…

  1. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  2. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  3. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL..., written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  4. Area Under the Curve as a Novel Metric of Behavioral Economic Demand for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N.; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances including alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC – which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices - as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42–.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs. PMID:25895013

  5. Area under the curve as a novel metric of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy-drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC--which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices--as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42-.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity, and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs. PMID:25895013

  6. Seven PC Purchasing Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Explores how to avoid common pitfalls when schools purchase computer equipment. Purchasing tips are provided in the areas of choosing multiple platforms, buying the cheapest model available, choosing a proprietary design, falling for untested technology, purchasing systems that are not upgradable, ignoring extended warranties, and failing to plan…

  7. A Curriculum for Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Richard LaDoyt

    The objective of this research was to identify the necessary educational organization required to form a curriculum plan for the field of purchasing and to investigate the nature of the industrial purchasing function. The dissertation delineates the critical areas of business operation: industrial purchasing, procurement, and material management.…

  8. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  10. Uranium purchases report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

  11. A Curriculum for Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Richard L.

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the educational needs of persons engaged in purchasing and materials management functions in order to develop a curriculum plan which would adequately prepare personnel for entry and career progression within the field of purchasing. In addition to literature reviews and analyses on the subject,…

  12. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  13. Exploring Online Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Examines the setup of American University's electronic procurement system and explains how it works and the benefits it brings to the school. Cautionary advice on setting up an online purchasing system is also offered. (GR)

  14. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  15. Uranium purchases report 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-19

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 and 1992 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B ``Uranium Marketing Activities,are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Data on utility uranium purchases and imports are shown on Table 1. Utility enrichment feed deliveries and secondary market acquisitions of uranium equivalent of US DOE separative work units are shown on Table 2. Appendix A contains a listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new domestic purchase contracts. Appendix B contains a similar listing of firms that sold uranium to US utilities during 1992 under new import purchase contracts. Appendix C contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data.

  16. Uranium purchases report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-10

    Data reported by domestic nuclear utility companies in their responses to the 1991 through 1993 ``Uranium Industry Annual Survey,`` Form EIA-858, Schedule B,`` Uranium Marketing Activities,`` are provided in response to the requirements in the Energy Policy Act 1992. Appendix A contains an explanation of Form EIA-858 survey methodologies with emphasis on the processing of Schedule B data. Additional information published in this report not included in Uranium Purchases Report 1992, includes a new data table. Presented in Table 1 are US utility purchases of uranium and enrichment services by origin country. Also, this report contains additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. Table 2 is an update of Table 1 and Table 3 is an update of Table 2 from the previous year`s report. The report contains a glossary of terms.

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  18. Purchasing School Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school districts in Jefferson County, Kentucky; Long Island, New York; and central Pennsylvania buy and replace school furniture. Addresses getting quantity discounts and the importance of quality and durability. Includes a sidebar on the availability of volume discounts from the Association of Educational Purchasing Agencies. (EV)

  19. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  20. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  1. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  2. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  3. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  4. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. NASA Scientific Data Purchase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce; Policelli, Fritz; Zanoni, Vicki; Frisbie, Troy

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the folloving: 1. 50 Million ,Appropriation - Acquire science data from commercial sources. 2. Demonstration Project - Test new way of doing business. Tap new sources of data. Support Earth science research. Support commercial remote sensing industry. 3. Phase I - Review simulated/prototypical datasets (10 companies). 4. Phase II - 3-year purchase/distribution of select data (5 companies). 5. FY01 $20M Appropriation - Commercial Imagery Office Proposed continuation and new contracts.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  9. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  10. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  11. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  12. Scientific Data Purchase Project Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holekamp, Kara; Fletcher, Rose

    2001-01-01

    The Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project acquires science data from commercial sources. It is a demonstration project to test a new way of doing business, tap new sources of data, support Earth science research, and support the commercial remote sensing industry. Phase I of the project reviews simulated/prototypical data sets from 10 companies. Phase II of the project is a 3 year purchase/distribution of select data from 5 companies. The status of several SDP projects is reviewed in this viewgraph presentation, as is the SDP process of tasking, verification, validation, and data archiving. The presentation also lists SDP results for turnaround time, metrics, customers, data use, science research, applications research, and user feedback.

  13. Propensity for and Correlates of Alcohol Sales to Underage Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Heather; Toomey, Traci I.; Dunsmuir, William; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the propensity for alcohol sales to youth in the late 1990s, following increased efforts to reduce youth access to alcohol. Male and female pseudo-underage buyers (i.e., age [greater than or equal to] 21 but judged to appear less than 21) attempted to purchase alcohol without age identification at 741 alcohol…

  14. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  15. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  16. Further Evidence of Close Correspondence for Alcohol Demand Decision Making for Hypothetical and Incentivized Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol purchase tasks (APTs) are increasingly being used to assess behavioral economic demand for alcohol. Prior studies utilizing APTs have typically assessed demand for hypothetical outcomes, making the extent to which these hypothetical measures reflect preferences when actual rewards are at stake an important empirical question. This study examined alcohol demand across hypothetical and incentivized APTs. Nineteen male heavy drinkers completed two APTs—one for hypothetical alcohol and another in which one randomly-selected outcome was provided. Participants were given an opportunity to consume the alcohol associated with their choice on the incentivized APT during a self-administration period in a simulated bar environment. Results indicated generally close correspondence between APT versions, though participants were more sensitive to increases in price and tended to consume more at low prices on the incentivized version. Estimated consumption on the incentivized APT was highly correlated with the amount of alcohol consumed in the laboratory (r = .87, p < .001), suggesting that APT responses are valid indicators of actual drinking behavior. These results provide further evidence of congruence of demand-based decision-making when rewards are hypothetical vs. actually available. Implications for behavioral economic approaches to addictive behavior and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:25712039

  17. Should general practitioners purchase health care for their patients? The total purchasing experiment in Britain.

    PubMed

    Wyke, Sally; Mays, Nicholas; Street, Andrew; Bevan, Gwyn; McLeod, Hugh; Goodwin, Nick

    2003-09-01

    Until relatively recently, general practitioners (GPs) have been allowed to work independently, with no requirement to consider the resource implications of their referral and prescribing decisions. In order to align the interests of GPs with the overall objectives of health systems a number of countries have introduced primary care based capitation, funds pooling and budget holding either as experiments or as an overall policy. Are these experiments and policies likely to work? This paper presents evidence from the UK total purchasing experiment, which was the first major quasi-market development in the NHS to be independently evaluated from the outset. Total purchasing gave volunteer groups of practices freedom to purchase all hospital and community health services for their patients. The evidence suggests that whilst GPs have great potential as purchasers, they also have considerable limitations. The expectation that they will be able to improve the quality of patient experience of care, or to alter the use of resources, may not be generally realised. GP-based purchasing may be more appropriate where the task is to alter the balance or location of care between hospital and extramural settings. However, budgetary incentives are not 'magic potions' which have similar effects on behaviour wherever they are introduced. Holding budgets and having independent contracts, while important pre-requisites for being taken seriously in a quasi-market, were not sufficient for effective total purchasing. The paper concludes that health systems should not only value innovation and experimentation and encourage learning from evaluative research; they should also recognise the importance of supportive circumstances for any innovation to effect real and sustained change. PMID:12941492

  18. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  19. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  20. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  1. Guidelines for Purchasing Playground Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Notes that the purchase of playground equipment is one of the most important decisions center directors make. Offers advice from a number of playground equipment manufacturers that suggests directors consider activities, safety, construction, installation, and warranty when purchasing equipment. Also suggests interviewing other directors about…

  2. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... Act) shall purchase stock in the Bank in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1 percent...

  3. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... Act) shall purchase stock in the Bank in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1 percent...

  4. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks... Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank... Act) shall purchase stock in the Bank in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1 percent...

  5. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  6. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  7. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  8. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  9. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  10. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  11. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

  12. Purchasing and Selecting School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Discusses factors for schools to consider when deciding on a lighting system: purchase price, installation charges, maintenance costs, energy costs, and ensuring optimal educational environment. Presents best practices in these areas. (EV)

  13. Striatal activity and reduced white matter increase frontal activity in youths with family histories of alcohol and other substance-use disorders performing a go/no-go task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagamets, Malle A; Winkler, Anderson; Rowland, Laura M; Mathias, Charles W; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at greater risk of developing substance-use disorders relative to those with no such family histories (FH−). We previously reported that FH+ youths have elevated activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal striatum while performing go/no-go tasks and have reduced frontal white matter integrity. A better understanding of relationships between these variables would provide insight into how frontostriatal circuitry is altered in FH+ youths, which may be an important contributor to their elevated risk. Methods In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test interactions between activity in the SMA and dorsal striatum in 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths during go/no-go task performance and to determine whether increased activity in these regions in FH+ youths can be at least partially explained by reduced frontal white matter integrity, as indexed by anterior corona radiata fractional anisotropy and N-acetylaspartate. Results Increased dorsal striatum activity explained most (∽75%) of the elevated SMA activity in FH+ youths, and the combined contributions of increased dorsal striatal activity, and decreased white matter integrity fully explained the elevated SMA activity. Conclusions These results suggest the elevated frontal cortical activity in FH+ youths is driven both by their increased striatal activity via downstream projections and reduced white matter integrity in frontal cortical projections, the latter likely increasing frontal cortical activity due to increased energy demands required for action potential propagation. As part of our ongoing longitudinal studies we will examine how these frontostriatal alterations relate to risk for developing substance-use disorders. PMID:26221573

  14. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  15. Managing Medicaid managed care: are states becoming prudent purchasers?

    PubMed

    Fossett, J W; Goggin, M; Hall, J S; Johnston, J; Plein, L C; Roper, R; Weissert, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which five states are becoming "prudent purchasers" in their oversight of Medicaid managed care. Our conclusions are mixed. These states are making more sustained efforts along these lines than most private purchasers are and have improved the amount and quality of the data they collect on the experiences of Medicaid clients when compared with the traditional fee-for-service program. They have been less successful in ensuring data quality that is adequate to support contracting decisions and in developing the analytical or political capacity to use data to "manage" the managed care system. Becoming a prudent purchaser appears to be a complex task for states that may prove difficult to achieve. PMID:10916959

  16. Alcohol sales to pseudo-intoxicated bar patrons.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, T L; Wagenaar, A C; Kilian, G; Fitch, O; Rothstein, C; Fletcher, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many establishments serve alcoholic beverages to obviously intoxicated patrons despite laws against such sales. To guide the development of interventions to reduce these illegal alcohol sales, this study used actors feigning intoxication to determine whether servers recognized obvious signs of intoxication and to assess the tactics servers used when dealing with intoxicated patrons. METHODS: Male actors ages 30 to 50 acted out signs of obvious intoxication as they attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages. If served during the first attempt, these pseudo-intoxicated buyers made second purchase attempts during the same visit. Observers accompanied the actors; after each visit, actors and observers recorded the servers' behavior and comments. RESULTS: Alcoholic beverages were served to actors portraying intoxicated patrons at 68% of first purchase attempts and 53% of second purchase attempts (62% of a total of 106 purchase attempts). The most common refusal technique was a direct refusal (68% of refusals), made with either no excuse or with reference to the actors' apparent intoxication level. Servers' second most commonly used refusal technique was offering alcohol-free beverages, such as coffee or water (18% of refusals). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine why servers who recognize intoxication serve alcoholic beverages and what training, outlet policies, and external pressures are needed to reduce illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. PMID:10501134

  17. Alcohol Alert. No. 58. Changing the Culture of Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kington, Raynard

    2002-01-01

    Drinking on college campuses is more pervasive and destructive than many people realize. The extent of the problem was recently highlighted by an extensive 3-year investigation by the Task Force on College Drinking, commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The Task Force reports that alcohol consumption is…

  18. 12 CFR 925.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank in which it is a member in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1...

  19. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  20. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  1. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002... Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a) Program 213.7002 Purchase orders. The contracting officer need not obtain a contractor's written acceptance of a purchase order or modification of a purchase order for...

  2. Medications for Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Onysko, Mary; Hebert, Melanie

    2016-03-15

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that clinicians screen adults for alcohol misuse and provide persons engaged in risky or hazardous drinking behaviors with brief behavioral counseling to reduce alcohol misuse. However, only a minority of American adults with high-risk alcohol use receive treatment. Three medications are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat alcohol use disorder: acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone. Acamprosate and naltrexone reduce alcohol consumption and increase abstinence rates, although the effects appear to be modest. Disulfiram has been used for years, but evidence supporting its effectiveness is inconsistent. Other medications may be beneficial to reduce heavy alcohol use. The anticonvulsants topiramate and gabapentin may reduce alcohol ingestion, although long-term studies are lacking. Antidepressants do not decrease alcohol use in patients without mood disorders, but sertraline and fluoxetine may help depressed patients decrease alcohol ingestion. Ondansetron may reduce alcohol use, particularly in selected subpopulations. Further study is needed for genetically targeted or as-needed medications to reduce alcohol use. PMID:26977830

  3. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  4. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  5. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  6. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  7. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purchase of home; affordability of purchase. 982.632 Section 982.632 Housing and Urban Development...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for financing purchase of a home to be assisted under the homeownership option. Such PHA requirements may...

  8. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  9. Developing a pharmaceutical purchasing strategy.

    PubMed

    Hynniman, C E

    1992-09-01

    The process commonly used by group purchasing organizations to contract for multisource pharmaceuticals and a strategic approach for the director of pharmacy in working with the purchasing group and the P & T Committee is described. The pharmacist should be knowledgeable concerning the group's contract commitment requirements, product specifications, terms and conditions and procedures for vendor selection, product award, contract implementation, and performance monitoring. To ensure results that meet the needs of the medical staff, it is important that the P & T Committee actively participate. The P & T Committee should understand the reasons for selecting a particular purchasing group, understand the necessary steps in obtaining the most favorable economic advantage, review products with potential brand interchange concerns, recommend product specifications, and reaffirm formulary procedures regarding the principle of current consent. PMID:10171225

  10. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  11. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  12. Purchasers' group 'leapfrogs' to quality.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    Group hopes purchasing power or members will spark changes. What happens when big health care purchasers like AT&T, Boeing, Caterpillar, Delta Airlines, Eli Lilly, Ford, General Motors, and IBM get together and voice an opinion about the quality of health care? Hospitals listen. At least that's the theory behind the Leapfrog Group, an organization sponsored by the Business Roundtable and including some 70 companies that hope to improve safety in health care by alerting patients to key features of hospitals around the country. PMID:11330032

  13. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  14. Alcohol Sales to Youth: Data from Rural Communities Within the Cherokee Nation.

    PubMed

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Komro, Kelli A

    2016-01-01

    Access to alcohol among individuals under 21 years of age continues to be a public health concern with approximately 5000 youth deaths attributable to alcohol each year (US Department of Health and Human Services 2007). To date, there is no research on youth access to alcohol from commercial sources within rural communities with large populations of Native American families. We evaluated commercial access to alcohol by underage-appearing female confederates in 4 rural towns within the Cherokee Nation, a non-reservation tribal jurisdiction that includes a high proportion of Native Americans embedded within a predominately White population. Alcohol purchase attempts were conducted approximately every 4 weeks on 10 occasions for a total of 997 alcohol purchase attempts. In addition to purchase attempt outcome, we collected data on characteristics of the outlets and clerks. Alcohol was sold to confederates without use of age identification on 23 % of all purchase attempts. Across repeated attempts, 76 % of outlets sold alcohol to a confederate at least once. Males and younger clerks were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederates. Grocery stores and gas stations were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederate than liquor stores, but this effect was no longer significant once seller age was accounted for in a multivariable model. Three out of 4 outlets sold alcohol to young-appearing buyers at least once across repeated attempts. Results reinforce the continuing need for regular enforcement of laws against selling alcohol to minors. PMID:26228479

  15. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  16. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  17. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  18. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  19. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  20. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  1. 27 CFR 555.34 - Replacement of stolen or lost ATF Form 5400.30 (Intrastate Purchase of Explosives Coupon (IPEC)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... lost ATF Form 5400.30 (Intrastate Purchase of Explosives Coupon (IPEC)). 555.34 Section 555.34 Alcohol... or lost ATF Form 5400.30 (Intrastate Purchase of Explosives Coupon (IPEC)). When any Form 5400.30 is.... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1140-0077)...

  2. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N = 40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counterbalanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or "loss of control" drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual's control over ongoing alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134023

  3. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  4. Quality assurance for purchased catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Puls, F.H. )

    1988-09-01

    Petrochemical industries require many different types of catalysts in process operations. A significantly portion of these requirements is being met through purchases from merchant catalyst suppliers. The importance of catalysts and of catalyst quality to these industries cannot be overstated. It is not surprising that in the quest for quality which has affected much of US industry in the last few years, catalysts were among the first products which were singled out for development of quality assurance. Currently, catalyst supplier auditing and certification procedures are being implemented. Primary emphasis is on the implementation of statistical process control procedures in the manufacture of commercially available catalyst. Thus, a trend exists to move from quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) for purchased catalysts to statistical process control (SPC). This development is being supported by audits of the suppliers' manufacturing quality control systems. The keystone of quality management is the concept of customer and supplier working together for their mutual advantage. The focus in this presentation will be on two topics. (1) Fixed bed catalysts: The recognition of lot-to-lot variations led to purchase specifications which then led to quality control procedures for purchased catalysts. (2) Catalyst suppliers: the limitations of quality control for catalysts will be discussed, and the efforts of catalyst suppliers to apply SPC will be mentioned.

  5. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  6. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  7. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  8. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  9. Informed Purchasing Can Stretch Short Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John B.; Miller, Kathryn Madera

    1979-01-01

    Provides purchasing tips for programs on a tight budget. Topics include writing specifications for the merchandise needed, finding and developing sources (vendors), receiving and analyzing bids, writing purchase orders, and receiving merchandise. (CM)

  10. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  11. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT... Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase orders....

  12. Direct purchase contracts carry risks, benefits.

    PubMed

    Fine, A

    1991-05-01

    To better control their purchasing of healthcare services, some employers are seeking direct managed care contracts with healthcare facilities. Along with evaluating potential markets introduced by a proposed contract, a provider should develop a pricing strategy, a monitoring system, and a process for internal audit before entering into a direct purchase contract. With the proper checks in place, direct purchase contracts can be mutually beneficial to providers and purchasers. PMID:10145432

  13. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  14. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  15. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  16. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  17. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  18. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 813.202 Section 813.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING... Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  19. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  20. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  1. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  2. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  3. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  4. Purchasing for Food Service: Self-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lynne Nannen

    This book is designed to teach accounting procedures and product specifications that are needed by the competent purchaser in order to make optimum purchasing decisions basic to a successful food service operation. It may be used by any level of food service personnel that is involved with any phase of the purchasing process. Preferably, the book…

  5. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  6. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  7. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  8. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  9. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  10. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706 Purchase exceptions. (a) Ordering offices may acquire supplies or... in a purchase exception granted by the designated central nonprofit agency. (b) The central...

  11. 48 CFR 217.7003 - Purchase request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase request. 217.7003... Property 217.7003 Purchase request. Ensure that the requiring activity provides all of the following in support of the purchase request— (a) A certification that the property is eligible for exchange...

  12. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706 Purchase exceptions. (a) Ordering offices may acquire supplies or... in a purchase exception granted by the designated central nonprofit agency. (b) The central...

  13. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706... Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706 Purchase exceptions. (a) Ordering offices may acquire supplies or... in a purchase exception granted by the designated central nonprofit agency. (b) The central...

  14. 48 CFR 217.7003 - Purchase request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase request. 217.7003... Property 217.7003 Purchase request. Ensure that the requiring activity provides all of the following in support of the purchase request— (a) A certification that the property is eligible for exchange...

  15. 48 CFR 217.7003 - Purchase request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase request. 217.7003... Property 217.7003 Purchase request. Ensure that the requiring activity provides all of the following in support of the purchase request— (a) A certification that the property is eligible for exchange...

  16. 48 CFR 217.7003 - Purchase request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase request. 217.7003... Property 217.7003 Purchase request. Ensure that the requiring activity provides all of the following in support of the purchase request— (a) A certification that the property is eligible for exchange...

  17. 48 CFR 217.7003 - Purchase request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase request. 217.7003... Property 217.7003 Purchase request. Ensure that the requiring activity provides all of the following in support of the purchase request— (a) A certification that the property is eligible for exchange...

  18. Local and global alcohol supply: economic and geographic models of community systems.

    PubMed

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J

    2000-12-01

    This paper discusses how economic and geographic distributions of local supply affect patterns of alcohol problems in state and community settings. It is argued that characteristics of local supply directly affect the economic and social behaviors of consumers when purchasing and using alcohol. For example, although taxes may be raised in order to lower alcohol use, the manner in which tax increases are translated into price increases, and the way consumers respond to price increases through alterations in purchase patterns, may strongly mitigate price effects. Similarly, although overall alcohol availability may be reduced in order to lower alcohol use, the tendency for greater numbers of outlets to be focused in low-income areas and the manner in which consumers bundle alcohol purchases with other routine activities (e.g. shopping) may also strongly mitigate such effects. PMID:11218350

  19. 12 CFR 167.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit...

  20. 12 CFR 167.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit...

  1. 12 CFR 167.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit...

  2. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  3. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  4. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  5. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign delivery... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND...

  6. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  7. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  8. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  9. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  10. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  11. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  12. Comparing the Family Environments of Alcoholic and "Normal" Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstead, William J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Comparing alcoholic and normal families indicated that alcoholic families perceived a higher level of conflict and a less cohesive family environment. In alcoholic families less emphasis was placed on independence, cultural and recreational activities, and organizational tasks. Results confirm speculation regarding the types of family dimensions…

  13. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  14. Ambulatory purchasing: harnessing supply costs.

    PubMed

    Jager, P A

    1997-04-01

    The healthcare system remains in a dynamic state of flux. We have all heard the story: the changing healthcare market brings reduced reimbursement for services, increased competition, and steadily increasing supply, maintenance, and equipment costs. Ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) must keep in sync with this change or fail to survive the current market forces. However, because they represent a small contract to various vendors, many ASCs pay premium prices for inventory while receiving less from Managed Care Plans (MCPs) and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs). This dilemma makes control of supply costs a top priority for ASCs. In reality, purchasing is becoming more strategically connected to the ASC balance sheet than ever before. Apart from personnel costs, supply and pharmaceutical purchasing represents the greatest expense category on our financial statement. Harnessing these costs directly relates to bottom line profitability. In addition, while performing cost savings magic, ASCs must maintain patient and surgeon satisfaction with the superior outcomes and state-of-the-art technology their reputations are based upon. Sound impossible? This article details how Surgery Center Plus, Inc. (SCP) implemented a cost containment project. PMID:10167012

  15. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  16. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  17. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  18. The effectiveness of group-purchasing organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Cleverley, W O; Nutt, P C

    1984-01-01

    The prices paid for routine medical supply items by six hospital group-purchasing systems and a control group of 24 nonaffiliated hospitals were compared to determine the effects of group purchasing. Each of the six group-purchasing systems obtained lower prices for supply items used in the study, ranging from 12 to 26 percent average savings. The enforcement of written contracts among the plan's members and the percentage of plan member participation appeared to explain effectiveness. Size of the plan and volume of purchases did not influence the percentage of saving realized among the groups. PMID:6724956

  19. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  20. Relationships between Diet, Alcohol Preference, and Heart Disease and Type 2 Diabetes among Americans.

    PubMed

    Adjemian, Michael K; Volpe, Richard J; Adjemian, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Although excessive alcohol consumption is a recognized cause of morbidity and mortality, many studies have linked moderate alcohol consumption to improved cardiovascular health and a lower risk of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Self-reported alcohol and diet data used to generate these results suffer from measurement error due to recall bias. We estimate the effects of diet, alcohol, and lifestyle choices on the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease and T2D among U.S. adults using a nationally representative cohort of households with scanner data representing their food-at-home, alcohol, and tobacco purchases from 2007-2010, and self-reported health surveys for the same study participants from 2010-2012. Multivariate regression models were used to identify significant associations among purchase data and lifestyle/demographic factors with disease prevalence in 2010, and with incidence of new disease from 2011-2012. After controlling for important confounders, respondents who purchased moderate levels of wine were 25% less likely than non-drinkers to report heart disease in 2010. However, no alcohol-related expenditure variables significantly affected the likelihood of reporting incident heart disease from 2011-2012. In contrast, many types of alcohol-related purchases were associated with a lower prevalence of T2D, and respondents who purchased the greatest volumes of wine or beer--but not liquor--were less likely to report being diagnosed with T2D in 2011-2012 than non-drinkers. PMID:25961601

  1. P300 and alcohol consumption in normals and individuals at risk for alcoholism. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Polich, J; Bloom, F E

    1986-01-01

    Pairs of college student subjects (36 male, 36 female) were matched on age, sex, and personal drinking history. One pair member had a parent who met the DSM III criteria of alcoholism, while the other pair member had no close alcoholic relative. The P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was obtained from each subject with auditory stimuli in an "oddball" paradigm. Target stimuli occurred randomly on 20% of the trials in a frequency discrimination task, a relatively easy intensity discrimination task, and a more difficult intensity discrimination task. Subjects indicated when the target items occurred by moving their index finger. No significant overall effects were obtained for family history for either P300 latency or amplitude. P300 latency increased and amplitude decreased with increases in the reported amount of alcohol consumption in all subjects only for the difficult intensity task but were statistically significant only for individuals with a negative family history for alcoholism. PMID:3749511

  2. Science Notes. Simulating Drug or Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbutt, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a computer program that, by means of a simple motor task, provides a context that enables students to learn about motor coordination. The effects of alcohol, drugs, or solvents on the motor task can be investigated using a delay in the feedback loop. A description of the hardware and software is included. (KR)

  3. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  4. Purchasing and Accounting. MAS-116. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to perform purchasing and accounting tasks efficiently and effectively. The first section is an introduction to the module. The next three…

  5. Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Vending Machine Purchasing Skills by Moderately Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietupski, John; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four elementary age moderately disabled students were taught to use a picture-prompt prosthetic to make vending machine purchases. All students reached criterion on the vending machine use task, demonstrated partial generalization to untrained machines, and three Ss exhibited maintenance as much as six weeks beyond the termination of instruction.…

  6. 12 CFR 567.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit...

  7. 12 CFR 390.471 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.471 Purchased credit card relationships,...

  8. 12 CFR 390.471 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.471 Purchased credit card relationships,...

  9. 12 CFR 390.471 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.471 Purchased credit card relationships,...

  10. 12 CFR 567.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit... credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit...

  11. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under...

  12. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  13. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…

  14. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  15. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchase prices. 1430.103 Section 1430.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Dairy Product Price...

  18. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal Service acquires property and services pursuant to the authority of 39 U.S.C. 410....

  19. 48 CFR 213.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.302 Section 213.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.302 Purchase...

  20. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase...

  1. 48 CFR 813.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase orders. 813.302 Section 813.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 813.302 Purchase...

  2. Creating a Purchase Order Using Spreadsheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indusi, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Describes the creation of a company purchase order complete with the names of items to be purchased, cost, quantity, discounts, sales tax, and balance due. It requires students to apply their knowledge and understanding of percentages and also gives students an opportunity to understand the mathematics they use with algebraic formulas. (AIM)

  3. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704 Section 8.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING... Prison Industries, Inc., ordering offices shall purchase supplies and services in the...

  4. 48 CFR 13.203 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.203 Section 13.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... Threshold 13.203 Purchase guidelines. (a) Solicitation, evaluation of quotations, and award. (1) To...

  5. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.202 Section 13.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... quoter, documentation to support the purchase may be limited to identification of the solicited...

  6. 48 CFR 13.203 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase guidelines. 13.203 Section 13.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING... quoter, documentation to support the purchase may be limited to identification of the solicited...

  7. Teaching about the Louisiana Purchase. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The year 2003 marks the bicentennial of the 1803 Treaty of France, by which the United States of America acquired the Louisiana Territory, an area of more than 828,000 square miles. Upon this acquisition, known as the Louisiana Purchase, the territory of the United States doubled. Historians consider the Louisiana Purchase to be a landmark event…

  8. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  9. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  10. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  11. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... filing procedures posted on the Commission's Web site at http://www.ferc.gov and make the list publicly... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3... FOR PERSONS HOLDING INTERLOCKING POSITIONS § 46.3 Purchaser list. (a) Compilation and filing list....

  12. A Guide for Purchasing Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bobbie; Litchford, Mary D.

    This manual provides school foodservice management with information for purchasing conventional foodservice production equipment using a decision-making process and critical pathway approach. Chapters are organized by each phase of the decision-making process, and purchasing tips are highlighted throughout the guide to give suggestions, or alert…

  13. Purchasing Energy. Managing School Facilities, Guide 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Paul

    This booklet examines the purchasing choices which will be available with the introduction of full competition for all electricity and gas supplies in the United Kingdom, giving schools the chance to make significant savings on energy costs. The guide offers detailed purchasing information on such topics as tariff structures, contract energy…

  14. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  15. 48 CFR 1313.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 1313.302 Section 1313.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisitions Methods 1313.302 Purchase orders....

  16. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal Service acquires property and services pursuant to the authority of 39 U.S.C. 410....

  17. Instructional Cues Modify Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balodis, Iris M.; MacDonald, Tara K.; Olmstead, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication produces impaired decision-making on tasks assessing ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex functioning and impulsive responding. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making test targeting the VMF, and the Newman Perseveration Task (NT), a measure of…

  18. 48 CFR 1913.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase order and related forms. 1913.505 Section 1913.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SMALL PURCHASES AND OTHER SIMPLIFIED PURCHASE PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1913.505 Purchase order...

  19. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... routinely purchased items. (a) Definitions. (1) Inexpensive equipment means equipment the average purchase... purchased equipment means equipment that was acquired by purchase on a national basis at least 75 percent of... lump sum amount for purchase of the item based on the applicable fee schedule amount. (2)...

  20. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... routinely purchased items. (a) Definitions. (1) Inexpensive equipment means equipment the average purchase... purchased equipment means equipment that was acquired by purchase on a national basis at least 75 percent of... lump sum amount for purchase of the item based on the applicable fee schedule amount. (2)...

  1. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  2. How To Start and Run an Alcohol and Other Drug Information Centre: A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolett, Virginia, Ed.; Kinney, Jean, Ed.

    This guide was designed to help individuals interested in organizing alcohol and other drug information, but who are not trained in library science. It offers basic suggestions for organizing a small collection of alcohol and other drug information using only techniques that do not require the purchase of any specialized equipment or supplies. It…

  3. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  4. Heroin Purchasing is Income and Price Sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (mean = $60/day) if: (1) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (2) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (3) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, i.e., live closer to their primary dealer, more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively), and purchasing more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users’ purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. PMID:21443296

  5. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. PMID:21443296

  6. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  8. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  9. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purchase card. 413.301 Section 413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  10. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purchase card. 413.301 Section 413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  11. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purchase card. 413.301 Section 413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  12. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purchase card. 413.301 Section 413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  13. 48 CFR 813.106-70 - Oral purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 813.106-70 Oral purchase... a purchase order number to the transaction. A copy of any electronically generated purchase...

  14. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  18. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  19. The effect of alcoholic beverage excise tax on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities.

    PubMed

    Son, Chong Hwan; Topyan, Kudret

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the effect of state excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages (spirits, wine, and beer) on alcohol-attributable injury mortalities--deaths caused by motor vehicle accidents, suicides, homicides, and falls--in the United States between 1995 and 2004, using state-level panel data. There is evidence that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to changes in state excise taxes on alcohol-specific beverages. This study examines the direct relationship between injury deaths and excise taxes without testing the degree of the association between excise taxes and alcohol consumption. The study finds that beer taxes are negatively related to motor vehicle accident mortality, while wine taxes are negatively associated with suicides and falls. The positive coefficient of the spirit taxes on falls implies a substitution effect between spirits and wine, suggesting that an increase in spirit tax will cause spirit buyers to purchase more wine. This study finds no evidence of a relationship between homicides and state excise taxes on alcohol. Thus, the study concludes that injury deaths attributable to alcohol respond differently to the excise taxes on different types of alcoholic beverages. PMID:20306111

  20. Neurocognitive effects of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana; Pérez-Pàmies, Montserrat; Sànchez-Turet, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol hangover is characterized by adverse physical and mental effects that occur the next morning after the intake of toxic doses of alcohol. One of the more relevant functional consequences of hangover is the cognitive and subjective impairment, which could be related to the high socioeconomic costs of alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, few studies have addressed the study of neurocognitive and subjective effects of hangover. The systematic and exhaustive study of neurocognitive and subjective effects has not been done. In the present work we briefly review the hangover impact, not only in the objective execution of attention, psychomotricity and memory tasks, but in the subjective state of the subjects as well. Moreover, we also highlight the methodology difficulties to study neurocognitive effects of hangover and suggest several aspects to take into account in future investigations. PMID:17543471

  1. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

  2. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  3. Purchasing Computer-Aided Design Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger A.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model for the purchase of computer-aided design (CAD) software: collect general information, observe CAD in use, arrange onsite demonstrations, select CAD software and hardware, and choose a vendor. (JOW)

  4. Purchase Information Acquisition and Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Zarrel; Durand, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Indicates that searching for product information before an actual purchase tends to be negatively related to dogmatism, and that the number of other people approached for information had the highest negative correlations with dogmatism. (RL)

  5. Opinion survey: materials management and purchasing habits.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This opinion survey was undertaken to gauge the current status of materials management and purchasing departments at hospitals throughout the southern and southeastern United States. The survey was based on lengthy telephone interviews (from 30 to 60 minutes) and followup discussions with materials managers, purchasing agents and administrators. Interviews covered a variety of topics, including: cost-containment strategies; group purchasing and consignment purchasing; and current and anticipated trends in materials management. Many questions were left open-ended, so the survey could gauge attitudes, as well as determine contemporary practices and procedures. (In some cases, respondents were also given the opportunity to comment on the statements of their peers, in order to corroborate and substantiate data.) PMID:10291314

  6. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... information to indicate that the price may not be reasonable (e.g., comparison to the previous price paid or personal knowledge of the supply or service); or (ii) Purchasing a supply or service for which...

  7. A multistate trial of pharmacy syringe purchase.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Horton, Joe C; Cottler, Linda B; Booth, Robert; Leukefeld, Carl G; Singer, Merrill; Cunningham-Williams, Renee; Reich, Wendy; Fortuin Corsi, Karen; Staton, Michele; Fink, Joseph L; Stopka, Thomas J; Spitznagel, Edward L

    2004-12-01

    Pharmacies are a potential site for access to sterile syringes as a means for preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the type and extent of their utility is uncertain. To examine pharmacy syringe purchase, we conducted a standardized, multistate study in urban and rural areas of four states in which attempts to purchase syringes were documented. Of 1,600 overall purchase attempts, 35% were refused. Colorado (25%) and Connecticut (28%) had significantly lower rates of refusal than Kentucky (41%) and Missouri (47%). Furthermore, urban settings had higher rates of refusal (40%) than rural settings (31%, P < .01). Race and gender did not have a consistent impact on rates of refusal. Despite potential advantages of pharmacies as sites for access to sterile syringes, pharmacy purchase of syringes faces significant obstacles in terms of the practices in different jurisdictions. PMID:15466847

  8. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

  9. 48 CFR 13.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase orders. 13.302 Section 13.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS... orders....

  10. 48 CFR 813.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase orders. 813.302 Section 813.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS... orders....

  11. 48 CFR 813.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase orders. 813.302 Section 813.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS... orders....

  12. 48 CFR 13.302 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase orders. 13.302 Section 13.302 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS... orders....

  13. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  14. Purchased power is not a riskless strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Foltz, D.A.; Malko, J.R.; Pumilia, G.J.; Purvenas, T.J.

    1994-12-01

    Purchased power may allow utilities to delay or eliminate plant construction, but our review of credit agencies and impacts on bond yields indicates added risk to the utility that enters into purchased power commitments. The electric utility industry currently is in a state of flux. The traditional relationship of a vertically integrated electric utility providing generation, transmission and distribution of electric power to its customers has changed. Through the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), electric utilities now face business competition in electric generation and transmission segments. While the precise risk implications associated with the gradual deregulations of the electric utility industry are still uncertain, electric utilities have begun to feel the negative impact of purchased power through credit rating agency downgradings. The primary purposes of this article are: (1) to highlight the increase in investment risk caused by purchased power contracts in order to demonstrate that purchased power is not a riskless alternative to building, and (2) to attempt to quantify the added cost of purchased power. When discussing the risk implications of purchased power, it is important to understand how the risk of a firm is evaluated. The investment risk of a firm is composed of business risk and financial risk. The business risk of a firm includes all factors that affect its pre-tax operating income (EBIT). The financial risk of a firm is caused by the use of leverage, or borrowed funds, in its capital structure. Purchased power can increase both business and financial risk of an electric utility.

  15. Spatial learning in men undergoing alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Hamilton, Derek; Coriale, Giovanna; Carito, Valentina; Aloe, Luigi; Chaldakov, George; Romeo, Marina; Ceccanti, Marco; Iannitelli, Angela; Fiore, Marco

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major public health problem worldwide. Brain and behavioral disruptions including changes in cognitive abilities are common features of alcohol addiction. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate spatial learning and memory in 29 alcoholic men undergoing alcohol detoxification by using a virtual Morris maze task. As age-matched controls we recruited 29 men among occasional drinkers without history of alcohol dependence and/or alcohol related diseases and with a negative blood alcohol level at the time of testing. We found that the responses to the virtual Morris maze are impaired in men undergoing alcohol detoxification. Notably they showed increased latencies in the first movement during the trials, increased latencies in retrieving the hidden platform and increased latencies in reaching the visible platform. These findings were associated with reduced swimming time in the target quadrant of the pool where the platform had been during the 4 hidden platform trials of the learning phase compared to controls. Such increasing latency responses may suggest motor control, attentional and motivational deficits due to alcohol detoxification. PMID:26143187

  16. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-11-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  17. 48 CFR 2913.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other methods of purchasing. However, the same legal restrictions apply to credit card purchases that.../Agency Purchase/Credit Card Program procedures. A number of the more common restrictions which... purchase card. 2913.301 Section 2913.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  18. Parent outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and vegetables: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To validate four scales – outcome expectancies for purchasing fruit and for purchasing vegetables, and comparative outcome expectancies for purchasing fresh fruit and for purchasing fresh vegetables versus other forms of fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Survey instruments were administ...

  19. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and...

  20. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purchase card. 213.301 Section 213.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (1) “United States... accordance with 201.603-3(b) also may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase...

  1. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purchase card. 213.301 Section 213.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (1) “United States... with 201.603-3(a) also may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase...

  2. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purchase card. 213.301 Section 213.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (1) “United States... with 201.603-3(a) also may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase...

  3. 48 CFR 3413.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 3413.303-5 Section 3413.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION... Methods 3413.303-5 Purchases under BPAs. (b) Individual purchases under blanket purchase agreements...

  4. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purchase of the home is being financed with an FHA-insured 203(k) rehabilitation loan (see 24 CFR part 203... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.545 Financing purchase of the home. (a) Purchase using...

  5. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purchase of the home is being financed with an FHA-insured 203(k) rehabilitation loan (see 24 CFR part 203... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.545 Financing purchase of the home. (a) Purchase using...

  6. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified bond purchase plans. 1.405-1 Section 1... bond purchase plans. (a) Introduction. Section 405 relates to the requirements for qualification of... purchased under a qualified bond purchase plan described in section 405(a) and paragraph (b) of this...

  7. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Qualified bond purchase plans. 1.405-1 Section 1... bond purchase plans. (a) Introduction. Section 405 relates to the requirements for qualification of... purchased under a qualified bond purchase plan described in section 405(a) and paragraph (b) of this...

  8. 26 CFR 1.405-1 - Qualified bond purchase plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified bond purchase plans. 1.405-1 Section 1... bond purchase plans. (a) Introduction. Section 405 relates to the requirements for qualification of... purchased under a qualified bond purchase plan described in section 405(a) and paragraph (b) of this...

  9. 48 CFR 13.302-2 - Unpriced purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Unpriced purchase orders...-2 Unpriced purchase orders. (a) An unpriced purchase order is an order for supplies or services, the price of which is not established at the time of issuance of the order. (b) An unpriced purchase...

  10. 48 CFR 13.302-2 - Unpriced purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Unpriced purchase orders...-2 Unpriced purchase orders. (a) An unpriced purchase order is an order for supplies or services, the price of which is not established at the time of issuance of the order. (b) An unpriced purchase...

  11. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... average purchase price of which did not exceed $150 during the period July 1986 through June 1987. (2) Routinely purchased equipment means equipment that was acquired by purchase on a national basis at least 75... basis or in a lump sum amount for purchase of the item based on the applicable fee schedule amount....

  12. 48 CFR 2913.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .../Agency Purchase/Credit Card Program procedures. A number of the more common restrictions which... other methods of purchasing. However, the same legal restrictions apply to credit card purchases that... purchase card. 2913.301 Section 2913.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 48 CFR 2913.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../Agency Purchase/Credit Card Program procedures. A number of the more common restrictions which... other methods of purchasing. However, the same legal restrictions apply to credit card purchases that... purchase card. 2913.301 Section 2913.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 48 CFR 2913.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../Agency Purchase/Credit Card Program procedures. A number of the more common restrictions which... other methods of purchasing. However, the same legal restrictions apply to credit card purchases that... purchase card. 2913.301 Section 2913.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... purchase of the home is being financed with an FHA-insured 203(k) rehabilitation loan (see 24 CFR part 203... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.545 Financing purchase of the home. (a) Purchase using...

  16. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purchase of the home is being financed with an FHA-insured 203(k) rehabilitation loan (see 24 CFR part 203... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.545 Financing purchase of the home. (a) Purchase using...

  17. 24 CFR 291.545 - Financing purchase of the home.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purchase of the home is being financed with an FHA-insured 203(k) rehabilitation loan (see 24 CFR part 203... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Financing purchase of the home. 291... Neighbor Next Door Sales Program § 291.545 Financing purchase of the home. (a) Purchase using...

  18. NASA Scientific Data Purchase Project: From Collection to User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lamar; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rose

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project is currently a $70 million operation managed by the Earth Science Applications Directorate at Stennis Space Center. The SDP project was developed in 1997 to purchase scientific data from commercial sources for distribution to NASA Earth science researchers. Our current data holdings include 8TB of remote sensing imagery consisting of 18 products from 4 companies. Our anticipated data volume is 60 TB by 2004, and we will be receiving new data products from several additional companies. Our current system capacity is 24 TB, expandable to 89 TB. Operations include tasking of new data collections, archive ordering, shipment verification, data validation, distribution, metrics, finances, customer feedback, and technical support. The program has been included in the Stennis Space Center Commercial Remote Sensing ISO 9001 registration since its inception. Our operational system includes automatic quality control checks on data received (with MatLab analysis); internally developed, custom Web-based interfaces that tie into commercial-off-the-shelf software; and an integrated relational database that links and tracks all data through operations. We've distributed nearly 1500 datasets, and almost 18,000 data files have been downloaded from our public web site; on a 10-point scale, our customer satisfaction index is 8.32 at a 23% response level. More information about the SDP is available on our Web site.

  19. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  20. Making Your Purchasing Dollars Count--Mistakes To Avoid in Purchasing from Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Describes common mistakes to be avoided by child care directors in early childhood catalog purchasing. Notes roadblocks to successful purchases, including failing to check out seller's reliability, comparing prices without including shipping costs or considering product quality, failing to anticipate needs, ordering from outdated catalogs, failing…

  1. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. 213.257 Section 213.257...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. (a) Where a mortgage is endorsed for insurance pursuant to the sale of an Investor Sponsor Project or covers Existing...

  2. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. 213.257 Section 213.257...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. (a) Where a mortgage is endorsed for insurance pursuant to the sale of an Investor Sponsor Project or covers Existing...

  3. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. 213.257 Section 213.257...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. (a) Where a mortgage is endorsed for insurance pursuant to the sale of an Investor Sponsor Project or covers Existing...

  4. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. 213.257 Section 213.257...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. (a) Where a mortgage is endorsed for insurance pursuant to the sale of an Investor Sponsor Project or covers Existing...

  5. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. 213.257 Section 213.257...; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase existing community facility. (a) Where a mortgage is endorsed for insurance pursuant to the sale of an Investor Sponsor Project or covers Existing...

  6. 17 CFR 229.703 - Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Miscellaneous... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers. 229.703 Section 229.703 Commodity and Securities...

  7. 17 CFR 229.703 - Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Miscellaneous... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers. 229.703 Section 229.703 Commodity and Securities...

  8. 17 CFR 229.703 - Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Miscellaneous... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers. 229.703 Section 229.703 Commodity and Securities...

  9. 17 CFR 229.703 - Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Miscellaneous... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers. 229.703 Section 229.703 Commodity and Securities...

  10. 12 CFR 567.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased credit card relationships and servicing assets), credit-enhancing interest-only strips, and deferred tax assets. 567.12 Section 567.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 17 CFR 229.703 - Purchases of equity securities by the issuer and affiliated purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Equity Securities Period (a)Total number of shares (or units) purchased (b)Average price paid per share... exercise of outstanding put options issued by the company, or other transactions). (2) The average price paid per share (or unit) (column (b)); (3) The total number of shares (or units) purchased as part...

  12. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  13. 24 CFR 982.632 - Homeownership option: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... financing, refinancing or other debt if the PHA determines that the debt is unaffordable, or if the PHA... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Homeownership option: Financing...: Financing purchase of home; affordability of purchase. (a) The PHA may establish requirements for...

  14. The criminal purchase of firearm ammunition

    PubMed Central

    Tita, G E; Braga, A A; Ridgeway, G; Pierce, G L

    2006-01-01

    Objective Laws that prohibit certain individuals from owning firearms also pertain to ammunition. Whereas retail sales of firearms to criminals are regularly disrupted by instant background checks, sales of ammunition are essentially unchecked and the rate at which criminals acquire ammunition is unknown. This research describes the ammunition market and estimates the rate at which criminals are acquiring ammunition. Design Criminal background checks conducted on individuals purchasing ammunition in the City of Los Angeles in April and May 2004. Setting Los Angeles, CA, USA. Subjects Ammunition purchasers. Main outcome measures Criminal activity that prohibits one from owning, purchasing, or possessing ammunition. Results 2.6% (95% CI 1.9% to 3.2%) of ammunition purchasers had a prior felony conviction or another condition that prohibited them from possessing ammunition. During the study period prohibited possessors purchased 10 050 rounds of ammunition in Los Angeles. Conclusions These estimates suggest that monitoring ammunition transactions may help reduce the supply of ammunition to criminals and the frequency of injuries from felonious gun assaults. Such a record can also provide information for generating leads on illegal firearm possession. PMID:17018671

  15. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  16. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Woud, Marcella L; Field, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic alcohol action tendencies are related to alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. These action tendencies are measured with reaction time tasks in which the latency to make an approach response to alcohol pictures is compared with the latency to make an avoidance response. In the literature, 4 different tasks have been used, and these tasks differ on whether alcohol is a relevant (R) or irrelevant (IR) feature for categorization and on whether participants must make a symbolic approach response (stimulus-response compatibility [SRC] tasks) or an overt behavioral response (approach avoidance tasks [AAT]) to the pictures. Previous studies have shown positive correlations between measures of action tendencies and hazardous drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. However, results have been inconsistent and the different measures have not been directly compared with each other. Therefore, it is unclear which task is the best predictor of hazardous drinking and alcohol consumption. In the present study, 80 participants completed all 4 measures of action tendencies (i.e., R-SRC, IR-SRC, R-AAT, and IR-AAT) and measures of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Stepwise regressions showed that the R-SRC and R-AAT were the only significant predictors of hazardous drinking, whereas the R-AAT was the only reliable predictor of alcohol consumption. Our results confirm that drinking behavior is positively correlated with automatic alcohol approach tendencies, but only if alcohol-relatedness is the relevant feature for categorization. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134039

  17. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  18. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  19. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  1. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  2. Semantic and visual memory after alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Donat, D C

    1986-05-01

    This study compared the relative performance of 40 patients (M age = 31.7) with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. This result is consistent with previous results obtained on tests of intelligence despite the added requirement of encoding, storing, and retrieving data inherent in the memory tasks. This result provides support for the contention that visuospatial and visuomotor skills evince primary residual impairment secondary to the abuse of alcohol. The significance of this result, in light of previous research, is discussed. PMID:3711356

  3. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. PMID:24632050

  4. [Suicidality and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Smulders, Yvo M; Biesaart, Monique C H I; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the role played by a patient's mental competency in the assessment and treatment of patients who are under the influence of alcohol and expressing suicidal thoughts. The factors that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of suicidality are not always clear: somatic complications or possible discharge from the emergency room. The treating physician at the emergency department should evaluate the mental competency. The risk of suicide should also be assessed by a psychiatrist. In order to make the right decisions about treatment and mental competency, the key concepts of proportionality, effectiveness and subsidiarity in the assessment of mental competency are crucial. These concepts require a personalized, multidisciplinary approach and result in unique decisions which may differ from case to case. In the assessment and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol who are suicidal and do not want to have a proper medical evaluation, communication between the emergency physician, internist and psychiatrist is crucial to optimize both evaluation and treatment. In this context, tasks and responsibilities should be clearly defined in order to minimize the risk of errors and complications. PMID:26443116

  5. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun's most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked--purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun's recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in "one-gun-a-month" laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (>or=2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to 4

  6. Factors Affecting a Recently Purchased Handgun’s Risk for Use in Crime under Circumstances That Suggest Gun Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun’s most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked—purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun’s recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun’s most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in “one-gun-a-month” laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (≥2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to

  7. Optimization of environmental water purchases with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinshead, Sarah P.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-08-01

    Water managers are turning increasingly to market solutions to meet new environmental demands for water in fully allocated systems. This paper presents a three-stage probabilistic optimization model that identifies least cost strategies for staged seasonal water purchases for an environmental water acquisition program given hydrologic, operational, and biological uncertainties. Multistage linear programming is used to minimize the expected cost of long-term, spot, and option water purchases used to meet uncertain environmental demands. Results prescribe the location, timing, and type of optimal water purchases and illustrate how least cost strategies change as information becomes available during the year. Results also provide sensitivity analysis, including shadow values that estimate the expected cost of additional dedicated environmental water. The model's application to California's Environmental Water Account is presented with a discussion of its utility for planning and policy purposes. Model limitations and sensitivity analysis are discussed, as are operational and research recommendations.

  8. The Effects of Alcohol on the Speed of Memory Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stempel, Jennifer J.; And Others

    Recent research has clearly indicated that intoxication with alcohol impairs memory. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol on retrieval from long-term memory by using a set of cognitive decision tasks. Subjects (N=24) were female college students in good health not taking oral contraceptives. Subjects were administered 0 or 1.0…

  9. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  10. Exercising purchasing power for preventive care.

    PubMed

    Schauffler, H H; Rodriguez, T

    1996-01-01

    Public and private purchasers can shift the focus of the health care system from managing the delivery of medical services to improving health. We report on the efforts of the Pacific Business Group on Health to include health promotion and disease prevention in its definition of health care value, to pay health plans based on their performance in providing appropriate preventive care, and to encourage employers and workers to choose health plans that excel in promoting health. This example serves as a model for other purchasing groups by combining economic incentives and systems of accountability to achieve public health goals. PMID:8920570

  11. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  12. Does the benefits schedule of cash assistance programs affect the purchase of temptation goods? Evidence from Peru.

    PubMed

    White, Justin S; Basu, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    A critique of cash assistance programs is that beneficiaries may spend the money on "temptation goods" such as alcohol and tobacco. We exploit a change in the payment schedule of Peru's conditional cash transfer program to identify the impact of benefit receipt frequency on the purchase of temptation goods. We use annual household data among cross-sectional and panel samples to analyze the effect of the policy change on the share of the household budget devoted to four categories of temptation goods. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach, we find that larger, less frequent payments increased the expenditure share of alcohol by 55-80% and sweets by 10-40%, although the absolute magnitudes of these effects are small. Our study suggests that less frequent benefits scheduling may lead cash recipients to make certain types of temptation purchases. PMID:26874596

  13. Alcohol-related Cues Promote Automatic Racial Bias.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott; Friedman, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase the expression of race bias by impairing control-related processes. The current study tested whether simple exposure to alcohol-related images can also increase bias, but via a different mechanism. Participants viewed magazine ads for either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to completing Payne's (2001) Weapons Identification Task (WIT). As predicted, participants primed with alcohol ads exhibited greater race bias in the WIT than participants primed with neutral beverages. Process dissociation analyses indicated that these effects were due to automatic (relative to controlled) processes having a larger influence on behavior among alcohol-primed relative to neutral-primed participants. Structural equation modeling further showed that the alcohol-priming effect was mediated by increases in the influence of automatic associations on behavior. These data suggest an additional pathway by which alcohol can potentially harm inter-racial interactions, even when no beverage is consumed. PMID:22798699

  14. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  15. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  20. 18 CFR 46.3 - Purchaser list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchaser list. 46.3 Section 46.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT PUBLIC UTILITY FILING REQUIREMENTS AND FILING...

  1. 48 CFR 213.7002 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase orders. 213.7002 Section 213.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Procedures Under the 8(a)...

  2. 48 CFR 8.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.603 Section 8.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal Prison Industries, Inc. 8.603...

  3. 48 CFR 808.603 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 808.603 Section 808.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Federal...

  4. Purchasing Telefax Equipment: How to Begin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Describes the types of telefacsimile machines (fax) and outlines steps for fax purchase for libraries. The basic and special purpose capabilities of fax machines, as well as critical specifications for measuring quality, are summarized. Support considerations--delivery, warranty, and service--are also noted. (MES)

  5. Consider Workplace Needs When Purchasing Office Furniture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Examines furniture-buying tips, involving workplace-needs assessment, that can help make the organization's workplace more effective. Stresses the importance of planning, tying the furniture purchasing into the strategic business, considering alternatives to furniture ownership, evaluating employee health and safety, and understanding any added…

  6. Obesity prevention at the point of purchase.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I

    2016-05-01

    The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. PMID:26910361

  7. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER TITLE I OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3 Purchase... behalf of CCC; (8) The method of financing provided under the Agricultural Commodities Agreement; (9)...

  8. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Agriculture SALES OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES MADE AVAILABLE UNDER TITLE I OF THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3 Purchase... behalf of CCC; (8) The method of financing provided under the Agricultural Commodities Agreement; (9)...

  9. Administrative reports for monitoring pharmacy purchasing.

    PubMed

    Chin, R K

    1984-11-01

    The use of administrative reports in a hospital pharmacy department to monitor communication regarding drug supply problems and to assist pharmacy administration in assessing the performance of its purchasing area is described. The weekly drug supply problems report was developed as a method to communicate problems in the storeroom to other pharmacy areas. The weekly borrow and loan report, which accounts for all borrow and loan transactions, helps determine the proper reorder quantities of drug products borrowed frequently and monitors repayment for loaned items. The inventory assessment report is prepared annually; in this report, drug expenditures for a "market-basket" list of drug products are compared for the current and previous years. To assess the use of nonformulary drugs, a quarterly report of expenditures for nonformulary drugs is compiled. The purchasing pharmacist, who is responsible for inventory control, prepares these reports. When considered in relation to the budget and workload statistics, the reports can be used to assess the performance of the purchasing area. Increased accountability and more orderly operation of the purchasing area has accompanied the use of these reports. PMID:6507438

  10. THE IMPACT OF EPA'S GREEN POWER PURCHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All federal agencies, including EPA, are required to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions attributed to facility energy use by 30% below 1990 levels by 2010. A key approach to reducing facility greenhouse gas emissions, employed by EPA, involves the purchase of "green power...

  11. 25 CFR 117.20 - Purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase orders. 117.20 Section 117.20 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES DEPOSIT AND EXPENDITURE OF INDIVIDUAL FUNDS OF MEMBERS OF THE OSAGE TRIBE OF INDIANS WHO DO NOT HAVE CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY §...

  12. Selecting Instructional Materials for Purchase. Procedural Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Committee of the National Education Association and Association of American Publishers.

    This book charts procedures for the selection and purchase of instructional materials and related services for the public schools of the United States. It is addressed to school board members, administrators, teachers, curriculum specialists, librarians, and media specialists. Chapter 1 deals whith changing conditions affecting selection including…

  13. BOOKS PURCHASED FOR GIFTED CENTERS, GRADE SIX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    THE LISTED REFERENCE BOOKS HAVE BEEN PURCHASED FROM FUNDS ALLOTTED TO THE GIFTED PROGRAM. THEY ARE LOANS TO THE SCHOOL AND ARE TO BE KEPT IN THE SIXTH-GRADE CLASSROOM. THIRTY BOOKS ARE INCLUDED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER ACCORDING TO AUTHOR. SCIENCE TOPICS INCLUDE ASTRONOMY, WEIGHTS AND MEASURES, PLANTS, PHYSICS, THE SEA, CHEMISTRY, BIOLOGY,…

  14. Home Economics Education: Tips on Purchasing Clothes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Univ. System, Albany.

    The learning package on purchasing clothes is designed for use by instructors in adult consumer-homemaking programs, with the target population generally being adults in socioeconomically disadvantaged innercity and rural areas. Major topics include: government regulations related to care and labeling of fabrics and garments, wardrobe planning,…

  15. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706 Section 8.706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled 8.706...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion,...

  17. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion,...

  18. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion,...

  19. 48 CFR 8.704 - Purchase priorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase priorities. 8.704 Section 8.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People Who...

  20. 48 CFR 8.706 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase exceptions. 8.706 Section 8.706 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition From Nonprofit Agencies Employing People Who...

  1. An Analysis of the Purchasing Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustic, Gary; And Others

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the purchasing occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Fourteen duties are broken down into a number of…

  2. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  3. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  4. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  5. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  6. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  9. Drinkers' use of physical availability of alcohol: buying habits and consumption level.

    PubMed

    Neuman, C; Rabow, J

    1985-01-01

    On the aggregate level, physical availability of alcohol is related to per capita consumption, prompting the question whether high availability can increase consumption net of social norms which enhance drinking. This issue is investigated using individual-level data in a high-availability urban environment. Effortless, efficient purchase of alcoholic beverages explains a small but significant amount of the variance in consumption when normative factors are statistically controlled. Qualitative factors of availability are discussed, with particular emphasis on food stores, which account for more than half this sample's purchases. PMID:3833803

  10. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  11. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  12. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  13. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Nicole J; Draper, Brian; Withall, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  14. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  15. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  16. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Commercial Credit Card Program. ... purchase card. 2413.301 Section 2413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the...

  17. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Commercial Credit Card Program. ... purchase card. 2413.301 Section 2413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the...

  18. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commercial Credit Card Program. ... purchase card. 2413.301 Section 2413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the...

  19. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commercial Credit Card Program. ... purchase card. 2413.301 Section 2413.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the...

  20. 41 CFR 101-25.203 - Centralized purchases by GSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.203 Centralized purchases by GSA. GSA will exclusively, or with... with §§ 101-25.202 and 101-25.204. (e) GSA has issued appropriate regulations, or a Federal...

  1. 41 CFR 101-25.203 - Centralized purchases by GSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.203 Centralized purchases by GSA. GSA will exclusively, or with... with §§ 101-25.202 and 101-25.204. (e) GSA has issued appropriate regulations, or a Federal...

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.203 - Centralized purchases by GSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.203 Centralized purchases by GSA. GSA will exclusively, or with... with §§ 101-25.202 and 101-25.204. (e) GSA has issued appropriate regulations, or a Federal...

  3. 41 CFR 101-25.203 - Centralized purchases by GSA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Interagency Purchase Assignments § 101-25.203 Centralized purchases by GSA. GSA will exclusively, or with... with §§ 101-25.202 and 101-25.204. (e) GSA has issued appropriate regulations, or a Federal...

  4. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  5. Weekend alcoholism in youth and neurocognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Claudia; García-Moreno, Luis M; Expósito, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Numerous studies have shown that alcohol intake causes neuropsychological disorders that affect various brain structures. The «premature ageing» hypothesis proposes that the brain areas of alcoholics undergo deterioration similar to that observed in old age. We investigated whether alcohol abuse by young people (binge drinking) causes alterations comparable to some found in elderly people. Ninety-one people were divided into four groups: a) young people who abused alcohol; b) young people who drank alcohol in moderation; c) young people who did not drink alcohol; and d) elderly adults without any significant cognitive deterioration. All of them were assessed with a neuropsychological battery. We observed some similarities in the results obtained by young drinkers and the elderly participants, which would provide some support for the hypothesis of premature aging. The tasks that young drinkers performed worse were those related to executive functions, in which the prefrontal cortex plays an essential role. We also found differences between the two groups of young drinkers (moderate and high consumption), which leads us to believe that the amount of alcohol consumed and the pattern of consumption are factors to consider in relation to cognitive impairment. PMID:21504671

  6. Long-Term Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Allampati, Sanath; Mullen, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The key to management of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is early recognition by the patient and physician. Excessive alcohol consumption, ranging from drinking more than recommended amounts to abuse, is one of the most preventable causes of death and disability. The US Preventive Services Task Force guidelines recommend screening for alcoholism in the primary care setting. Abstinence is the cornerstone of therapy and it decreases mortality and morbidity significantly. Alcoholic cirrhosis can cause varices that need to be followed closely with upper endoscopy to prevent or treat hemorrhage. In this review, we describe an approach to long-term management of ALD. PMID:27373616

  7. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects. PMID:24667153

  8. Alcohol, selective attention and sexual arousal in men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R S; Adler, J L

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-two men social drinkers were randomly assigned to the cells of a balanced placebo design to investigate the effects of expected and actual alcohol consumption on sexual responsiveness. Using a dichotic listening task, erotic and nonerotic information was presented in the nonattended channel while subjects performed simple (low-attention demand) and complex (high-attention demand) numerical tasks presented in the attended channel. Penile tumescence was recorded continuously in response to all audiotaped information. The high-attention demand task significantly interfered with sexual arousal compared with the low-attention demand task, primarily because of the significant suppressant effect of alcohol on arousal during the complex task. The lack of differences in tumescence under the two cognitive tasks when subjects were sober is inconsistent with the cognitive interference model of sexual arousal. Alcohol expectations increased arousal during the low-attention demand task, whereas actual alcohol consumption decreased arousal only during the high-attention demand task. Both effects are attributed to the different effects of these separate variables on attentional processes. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3990295

  9. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  10. Price Discounts on Alcohol in a City in Northern England

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Jean; Beenstock, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Aims To describe the extent and nature of price discounts on alcohol in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Methods An observational survey in stores licensed for off-sales in December 2010 to January 2011. Results A total of 2018 price discounts in 29 stores led to a median saving of 25% and required a median purchase of 20 standard UK alcohol units. Median price per standard unit was £0.92 (US$1.49; €1.05) before discount and £0.68 (US$1.10; €0.78) after discount. Conclusions Restriction of price discounting should be considered as a public health policy. PMID:22358038

  11. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods. PMID:20609376

  12. 50 CFR 622.250 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.250 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) A female golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ may not be sold or purchased. (b) A golden crab... golden crab, as required under § 622.240(a), may not be sold or purchased. (c) A golden crab harvested...

  13. 50 CFR 622.250 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.250 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) A female golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ may not be sold or purchased. (b) A golden crab... golden crab, as required under § 622.240(a), may not be sold or purchased. (c) A golden crab harvested...

  14. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  15. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  16. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  17. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  18. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  19. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  20. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  1. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  2. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small purchases. 35.936-19 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-19 Small purchases. (a) A small purchase is the procurement of materials, supplies, and services when the...

  3. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small purchases. 35.936-19 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-19 Small purchases. (a) A small purchase is the procurement of materials, supplies, and services when the...

  4. 32 CFR 855.18 - Aviation fuel and oil purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aviation fuel and oil purchases. 855.18 Section... oil purchases. When a user qualifies under the provisions of AFM 67-1, vol. 1, part three, chapter 1, Air Force Stock Fund and DPSC Assigned Item Procedures, 5 purchase of Air Force fuel and oil may...

  5. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  6. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  7. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  8. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  9. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  10. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section 626.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase of crude oil, DOE shall, through...

  11. 7 CFR 1730.64 - Power purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power purchase agreements. 1730.64 Section 1730.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Power purchase agreements. Nothing in this subpart requires the borrower to enter into purchase...

  12. 12 CFR 7.1020 - Purchase of open accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of open accounts. 7.1020 Section 7... OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1020 Purchase of open accounts. (a) General. The purchase of open accounts is a part of the business of banking and within the power of a national bank. (b) Export transactions....

  13. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial... PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 213.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (1) “United States... accordance with 201.603-3(b) also may use the Governmentwide commercial purchase card to make a purchase...

  14. 48 CFR 1513.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase order and related forms. 1513.505 Section 1513.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1513.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  15. 48 CFR 2413.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purchase order and related forms. 2413.505 Section 2413.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACTING TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 2413.505 Purchase order and related...

  16. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  18. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  19. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  20. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  1. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purchase card. 1313.301 Section 1313.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  2. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purchase card. 1313.301 Section 1313.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  3. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purchase card. 1313.301 Section 1313.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  4. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purchase card. 1313.301 Section 1313.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  5. Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Denise

    1989-01-01

    Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

  6. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as if unconstructed roads or other developments needed by the purchaser for removal of the timber were in place....

  7. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification to potential purchasers. 1962.13 Section... Security § 1962.13 Notification to potential purchasers. (a) In States without a Central Filing System (CFS... of potential purchasers. A written notice will be sent by the Agency, certified mail, return...

  8. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification to potential purchasers. 1962.13 Section... Security § 1962.13 Notification to potential purchasers. (a) In States without a Central Filing System (CFS... of potential purchasers. A written notice will be sent by the Agency, certified mail, return...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification to potential purchasers. 1962.13 Section... Security § 1962.13 Notification to potential purchasers. (a) In States without a Central Filing System (CFS... of potential purchasers. A written notice will be sent by the Agency, certified mail, return...

  10. 48 CFR 613.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 613.303-5 Section 613.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS... Purchases under BPAs. (b) Individual purchases under BPAs for commercial items may exceed the...

  11. 48 CFR 613.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 613.303-5 Section 613.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE CONTRACTING METHODS... Purchases under BPAs. (b) Individual purchases under BPAs for commercial items may exceed the...

  12. 48 CFR 213.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 213.303-5 Section 213.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition Methods 213.303-5 Purchases under BPAs. (b) Individual purchases for subsistence may be made...

  13. 48 CFR 1313.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 1313... Purchases under BPAs. (a) Individual purchases shall not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold... established under FAR Subpart 13.5 “Test Program for Certain Commercial Items” is the simplified...

  14. 48 CFR 213.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 213.303-5 Section 213.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Acquisition Methods 213.303-5 Purchases under BPAs. (b) Individual purchases for subsistence may be made...

  15. 48 CFR 13.303-5 - Purchases under BPAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchases under BPAs. 13...-5 Purchases under BPAs. (a) Use a BPA only for purchases that are otherwise authorized by law or... under the authority of 12.102(f)(1)) do not apply to BPAs established in accordance with...

  16. Charge It!: Using Bank Credit Cards for Small Dollar Purchases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suwanski, Gene

    1994-01-01

    Recent improvements in corporate credit card programs have allowed colleges and universities to let end users make their own small dollar purchases. This makes purchasing small items quicker and more convenient and eliminates purchasing department efforts, achieving significant operational savings. However, careful control of the system is…

  17. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  18. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  20. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  1. Formal plan for major equipment purchases saves money.

    PubMed

    Becker, G E

    1989-08-01

    A healthcare organization that uses its purchasing department only to process paperwork overlooks a key area for strategic planning and cost savings. By using a 15-step equipment purchasing process managed by a trained purchasing specialist, organizations can gain control of what can otherwise be an unwieldy process. PMID:10303650

  2. 5 CFR 4001.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets....105 Purchase of System institution assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System... asset (such as real property, vehicles, furniture, or similar items) from a System institution...

  3. 5 CFR 4101.105 - Purchase of System institution assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System institution assets... assets. (a) Prohibition on purchasing assets owned by a System institution. No covered employee, or spouse or minor child of a covered employee, shall purchase, directly or indirectly, an asset (such...

  4. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  5. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  6. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  7. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  8. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  9. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  10. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  11. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.4 Purchase—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4...

  12. 48 CFR 813.106-70 - Oral purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oral purchase orders. 813... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 813.106-70 Oral purchase orders. When advantageous to VA, the contracting officer may use an oral purchase order for...

  13. 31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341... BONDS § 341.4 Proof of purchase. At the time a Retirement Plan Bond is issued, the issuing agent will... name the bond is inscribed, to the registered owner as well, proof of the purchase on Form PD 3550....

  14. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amendments thereto. (e) When the central nonprofit agency grants a purchase exception under the above... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purchase exceptions. 51... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING...

  15. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amendments thereto. (e) When the central nonprofit agency grants a purchase exception under the above... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Purchase exceptions. 51-5... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING...

  16. 48 CFR 813.106-70 - Oral purchase orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oral purchase orders. 813... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 813.106-70 Oral purchase orders. When advantageous to VA, the contracting officer may use an oral purchase order for...

  17. 31 CFR 341.4 - Proof of purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of purchase. 341.4 Section 341... BONDS § 341.4 Proof of purchase. At the time a Retirement Plan Bond is issued, the issuing agent will... name the bond is inscribed, to the registered owner as well, proof of the purchase on Form PD 3550....

  18. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... homeownership premium (e.g., increment of value attributable to the value of the lease-purchase right or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317...-purchase agreements. (a) A family leasing a unit with assistance under the program may enter into...

  19. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amendments thereto. (e) When the central nonprofit agency grants a purchase exception under the above... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Purchase exceptions. 51-5... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING...

  20. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Purchase—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section... Service. Payment for the notes could be made in the same manner as payment for Series E savings...

  1. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... items. (a) Definitions. (1) Inexpensive equipment means equipment the average purchase price of which... means equipment that was acquired by purchase on a national basis at least 75 percent of the time during... lump sum amount for purchase of the item based on the applicable fee schedule amount. (2)...

  2. 42 CFR 414.220 - Inexpensive or routinely purchased items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... items. (a) Definitions. (1) Inexpensive equipment means equipment the average purchase price of which... means equipment that was acquired by purchase on a national basis at least 75 percent of the time during... lump sum amount for purchase of the item based on the applicable fee schedule amount. (2)...

  3. 41 CFR 51-5.4 - Purchase exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amendments thereto. (e) When the central nonprofit agency grants a purchase exception under the above... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purchase exceptions. 51... Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 5-CONTRACTING...

  4. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... homeownership premium (e.g., increment of value attributable to the value of the lease-purchase right or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317...-purchase agreements. (a) A family leasing a unit with assistance under the program may enter into...

  5. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... homeownership premium (e.g., increment of value attributable to the value of the lease-purchase right or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317...-purchase agreements. (a) A family leasing a unit with assistance under the program may enter into...

  6. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... homeownership premium (e.g., increment of value attributable to the value of the lease-purchase right or... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317...-purchase agreements. (a) A family leasing a unit with assistance under the program may enter into...

  7. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES § 342.4 Purchase—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4...

  8. College Men and Their Interest in Food Purchasing and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciscy, Deborah M.; McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes and behaviors of male undergraduates regarding food purchasing and preparation. Good taste, expiration date, and freshness were perceived as important when purchasing food. Family and friends were regarded as helpful information sources when purchasing and preparing food. A majority of respondents wanted to learn…

  9. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  10. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  11. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  12. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  13. 48 CFR 1513.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Purchase order and related forms. 1513.505 Section 1513.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1513.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  14. 48 CFR 1513.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase order and related forms. 1513.505 Section 1513.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1513.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  15. 48 CFR 1513.505 - Purchase order and related forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purchase order and related forms. 1513.505 Section 1513.505 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Purchase Orders 1513.505 Purchase order and related forms....

  16. School Food Purchasing Guide. A Special Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Thelma

    This document serves as a guide for school food service purchasing agents. It provides an overview of regulations influencing the market, as well as the factors to be considered in the purchase of meat, vegetables, produce, dairy products, and frozen foods. Sample bids and specifications for such purchases are also provided. A purchasing…

  17. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  18. The effects of alcohol expectancy priming on group bonding.

    PubMed

    Moltisanti, Allison J; Below, Maureen C; Brandon, Karen O; Goldman, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    According to alcohol expectancy theory, drinking-related information is stored in memory and, when cue activated, influences alcohol-related behavior. Priming of alcohol cues and expectancies has been shown to elicit both drinking and nonconsumptive behavior associated with alcohol consumption, such as willingness to meet with a stranger and aggression. These social influence effects have been shown to be moderated by individual differences in alcohol expectancies. In the present study, we tested whether an alcohol prime would facilitate social group bonding even in the absence of consumption, and whether such group bonding would be moderated by individually held social expectancies. One hundred twenty undergraduates (75% female) completed an alcohol expectancy measure prior to participation. Participants were primed with either alcohol or neutral beverage words and completed a collaborative group activity followed by questionnaires measuring perceived group cohesion. Several interactions were found between condition and expectancy reflecting that those in the alcohol prime condition with higher social alcohol expectancies reported greater cohesion on task-related, but not emotion-related, group measures. These findings underscore the complexity of the impact of expectancy and social behavior on drinking: the priming of alcohol expectancies may activate aspects of pro-social behavior, which may influence drinking, which in turn may feedback to positively reinforce social expectancies. PMID:24128149

  19. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  20. 31 CFR 315.11 - Excess purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excess purchases. 315.11 Section 315.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND...

  1. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  2. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  3. Depletion sensitivity predicts unhealthy snack purchases.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Stefanie J; Adriaanse, Marieke A; Fennis, Bob M; De Vet, Emely; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research is to examine the relation between depletion sensitivity - a novel construct referring to the speed or ease by which one's self-control resources are drained - and snack purchase behavior. In addition, interactions between depletion sensitivity and the goal to lose weight on snack purchase behavior were explored. Participants included in the study were instructed to report every snack they bought over the course of one week. The dependent variables were the number of healthy and unhealthy snacks purchased. The results of the present study demonstrate that depletion sensitivity predicts the amount of unhealthy (but not healthy) snacks bought. The more sensitive people are to depletion, the more unhealthy snacks they buy. Moreover, there was some tentative evidence that this relation is more pronounced for people with a weak as opposed to a strong goal to lose weight, suggesting that a strong goal to lose weight may function as a motivational buffer against self-control failures. All in all, these findings provide evidence for the external validity of depletion sensitivity and the relevance of this construct in the domain of eating behavior. PMID:26321417

  4. Cigarette purchasing behaviors when prices are high.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl; Bauer, Joseph E; Giovino, Gary A; Cummings, K Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cigarette purchase patterns of smokers in Erie and Niagara Counties following recent increases in the state excise tax for cigarettes. Data were collected with telephone interviews of a sample of 1,548 randomly selected people in Erie and Niagara Counties between October 2002 and March 2003. Purchase patterns were assessed for the 908 smokers in the sample who responded to questions about cigarette purchasing patterns. Thirty-three percent reported that their usual source of cigarettes is from a small store, large store, pharmacy, or vending machine, while 67% reported that their usual source is from an Indian reservation. Only one smoker reported the Internet was a usual source of cigarettes. The average price paid per pack was $4.80 in a small store and $1.91 on an Indian reservation. Price influences smoking behavior; however, the majority of smokers are taking advantage of readily available venues where less expensive, untaxed cigarettes are sold. This may undermine the public health benefit of higher prices and cause lost revenue to state and local governments. PMID:15643371

  5. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  6. Pharmacologic dissociation between impulsivity and alcohol drinking in High Alcohol Preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G.; Bristow, R. Evan; Heighton, Meredith E.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among impulsivity, drinking, and vigilance in selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice, a line that has previously demonstrated both high impulsivity and high alcohol consumption. Amphetamine, naltrexone and memantine were tested in a delay discounting (DD) task for their effects on impulsivity and vigilance. The same drugs and doses were also assessed for effects on alcohol drinking in a two-bottle choice test. Methods HAP mice were subjected to a modified version of adjusting amount DD using 0.5 sec and 10 sec delays to detect decreases and increases, respectively, in impulsive responding. In 2 experiments, mice were given amphetamine (0.4, 0.8 or 1.2 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) before DD testing. Another pair of studies used scheduled access, two-bottle choice drinking to assess effects of amphetamine (0.4, 1.2, or 3.0 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) on alcohol consumption. Results Amphetamine dose-dependently reduced impulsivity and vigilance decrement in DD, but similar doses left alcohol drinking unaffected. Naltrexone and memantine decreased alcohol intake at doses that did not affect water drinking, but had no effects on impulsivity or vigilance decrement in the DD task. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, none of the drugs tested here, while effective either on alcohol drinking or impulsivity, decreased both behaviors. These findings suggest that the genetic association between drinking and impulsivity observed in this population is mediated by mechanisms other than those targeted by the drugs tested in these studies. PMID:20491739

  7. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education impacts healthy food purchases

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase (POP) intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention to usual care (no treatment). Setting A supermarket in a socioeconomically diverse region of Phoenix, Arizona. Participants One-hundred fifty-three adult shoppers were recruited on-site. Intervention The intervention consisted of brief shopping education by a nutrition educator and an explanation and promotion of a supermarket POP healthy shopping program that included posted shelf signs identifying healthy foods, sample shopping lists, tips, and signage. Main Outcome Measures Outcomes included purchases of total, saturated, and trans fat (g/1000 kcals), and fruits, vegetables, and dark green and bright yellow vegetables (servings/1000 kcals) derived through nutritional analysis of participant shopping baskets. Analysis Analysis of covariance compared the intervention and control groups on food purchasing patterns while adjusting for household income. Results The intervention resulted in greater purchasing of fruit and green and yellow vegetables. No other group differences were observed. Conclusions and Implications Long-term evaluations of supermarket interventions should be conducted to improve the evidence base, and to determine the potential for impact on food choices associated with decreased chronic disease. PMID:22104016

  8. Alcohol-induced heart rate response dampening during aversive and rewarding stress paradigms in subjects at risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Croissant, Bernhard; Rist, Fred; Demmel, Ralf; Olbrich, Robert

    2006-08-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are at risk to develop alcohol problems. In several studies, psychophysiological stress responses were more attenuated by alcohol in FH+ than in FH- subjects. However, it is not clear from these studies, if this stronger stress-response dampening effect of alcohol (SRD) in FH+ subjects is confined to aversive stimuli, or would hold for nonaversive stress conditions as well. Also, male and female FH+ subjects seem to respond differently to the alcohol challenge, but have rarely been directly compared in a SRD paradigm. Participants were 54 female and 63 male healthy adults; 31 women were daughters (DOAs) and 40 men were sons (SOAs) of alcohol-dependent fathers. The remaining 23 women (DONAs) and 23 men (SONAs) had no FH of any alcohol use disorder. The participants took part in two laboratory sessions, one with and one without alcohol. In each session, three stressor procedures were presented. Heart rate is the main dependent variable in this report. SOAs, but not SONAs showed a tendency towards SRD. Among female participants, a strong SRD occurred, but contrary to our expectation only in controls. Stress responses and SRD effects were somewhat stronger in the aversive than in the rewarding task. The extent of alcohol induced SRD was strongly influenced by BAL and the amplitude of the stress response in the no-alcohol condition (multiple regression analysis). Thus, aversive tasks might have the advantage of eliciting stronger stress responses than rewarding tasks, thereby providing better conditions for observing differences in alcohol induced SRD between FH+ and FH- subjects. PMID:16386812

  9. [Safety problems of occupational activity during alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that work efficiency of persons occupied by machine operating duties degrades markedly under the action of an acute alcoholic intoxication--less on real machines and more on simulators and when operating simple technical devices. Work efficiency degradation is manifested by the task execution time increase (to a lesser degree) and by erroneous action quantity increase after taking alcohol, i.e. by work reliability decease. Most heavily it is manifested during the first 0.7-1.5 hr. After taking alcohol. And direct work efficiency index is usually improved 12-16 hr. after taking alcohol. Increase of erroneous action quantity is caused probably by a series of physiological, psychophysiological and psychological changes in the condition of a man under the action of alcohol. Time of the day when the activity takes place after taking that dose of alcohol is practically non valid for changing work efficiency index. PMID:11965736

  10. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  12. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases. PMID:25147143

  13. Quality assurance standards for purchasing and inventory control.

    PubMed

    Soares, D P

    1985-03-01

    A process is described for quality assurance in pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control. A quality assurance program should ensure that quality drugs are purchased at the lowest price, drug products are available when needed, the system is managed efficiently, internal controls are provided, drug products are stored under appropriate conditions, and laws, regulations, accreditation standards, and procedures are followed. To meet these objectives, product quality, vendor performance, the department's system of internal controls, purchasing data, and storage conditions should be monitored. A checklist for evaluating purchasing and inventory practices and a sample audit form listing quality assurance criteria, standards, procedures, and recommended actions are provided. A quality assurance program for pharmaceutical purchasing and inventory control should define institution-specific criteria and standards and use these standards for continual evaluation of all aspects of the purchasing and inventory control system. Documentation of quality assurance activities should be provided for use by the purchasing department, hospital administration, and regulatory bodies. PMID:3985026

  14. Use of commercial and social sources of alcohol by underage drinkers: the role of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Storvoll, Elisabet E; Pape, Hilde; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    We have explored whether alcohol use and procurement of alcohol from commercial and social sources vary with pubertal timing. A sub-sample of 9291 Norwegian minors (13-17 year-olds) was extracted from a nationwide school survey (response rate: 92%). Adolescents who had matured early (early developers, EDs) reported higher consumption and more alcohol-related harm than those who had matured late (late developers, LDs) or at the "normal" time (on time developers, ODs). Purchases from on-premise and off-premise outlets were much more important sources of alcohol for EDs than for ODs and LDs - both in relative and absolute terms. Moreover, EDs were somewhat more likely to obtain alcohol from social sources. Taken together, the findings indicate that adolescents who mature early have access to a larger variety of sources of alcohol than adolescents who mature later - which in turn may explain their increased level of drinking. PMID:17553624

  15. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  16. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  17. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  18. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  19. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  20. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...