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Sample records for alcohol purchase task

  1. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  2. Alcohol purchasing by ill heavy drinkers; cheap alcohol is no single commodity

    PubMed Central

    Gill, J.; Chick, J.; Black, H.; Rees, C.; O'May, F.; Rush, R.; McPake, B.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Potential strategies to address alcohol misuse remain contentious. We aim to characterise the drink purchases of one population group: heavy drinkers in contact with Scottish health services. We contrast our findings with national sales data and explore the impact of socio-economic status on purchasing behaviour. Study design Cross-sectional study comparing alcohol purchasing and consumption by heavy drinkers in Edinburgh and Glasgow during 2012. Methods 639 patients with serious health problems linked to alcohol (recruited within NHS hospital clinics (in- and out-patient settings) 345 in Glasgow, 294 in Edinburgh) responded to a questionnaire documenting demographic data and last week's or a ‘typical’ weekly consumption (type, brand, volume, price, place of purchase). Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile was derived as proxy of sociodemographic status. Results Median consumption was 184.8 (IQR = 162.2) UK units/week paying a mean of 39.7 pence per alcohol unit (£0.397). Off-sales accounted for 95% of purchases with 85% of those <50 pence (£0.5 UK) per alcohol unit. Corresponding figures for the Scottish population are 69% and 60%. The most popular low-priced drinks were white cider, beer and vodka with the most common off-sales outlet being the corner shop, despite supermarkets offering cheaper options. Consumption levels of the cheapest drink (white cider) were similar across all quintiles apart from the least deprived. Conclusions Heavy drinkers from all quintiles purchase the majority of their drinks from off-sale settings seeking the cheapest drinks, often favouring local suppliers. While beer was popular, recent legislation impacting on the sale of multibuys may prevent the heaviest drinkers benefiting from the lower beer prices available in supermarkets. Non-etheless, drinkers were able to offset higher unit prices with cheaper drink types and maintain high levels of consumption. Whilst price is key, heavy drinkers are

  3. Estimating Demand for Alternatives to Cigarettes With Online Purchase Tasks

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Richard J.; June, Kristie M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Rousu, Matthew C.; Thrasher, James F.; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explored how advertising affects demand for cigarettes and potential substitutes, including snus, dissolvable tobacco, and medicinal nicotine. Methods A web-based experiment randomized 1062 smokers to see advertisements for alternative nicotine products or soft drinks, then complete a series of purchase tasks, which were used to estimate demand elasticity, peak consumption, and cross-price elasticity (CPE) for tobacco products. Results Lower demand elasticity and greater peak consumption were seen for cigarettes compared to all alternative products (p < .05). CPE did not differ across the alternative products (p ≤ .03). Seeing relevant advertisements was not significantly related to demand. Conclusions These findings suggest significantly lower demand for alternative nicotine sources among smokers than previously revealed. PMID:24034685

  4. A two-part mixed effects model for cigarette purchase task data.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tingting; Luo, Xianghua; Chu, Haitao; Le, Chap T; Epstein, Leonard H; Thomas, Janet L

    2016-11-01

    The Cigarette Purchase Task is a behavioral economic assessment tool designed to measure the relative reinforcing efficacy of cigarette smoking across different prices. An exponential demand equation has become a standard model for analyzing purchase task data, but its utility is compromised by its inability to accommodate values of zero consumption. We propose a two-part mixed effects model that keeps the same exponential demand equation for modeling nonzero consumption values, while providing a logistic regression for the binary outcome of zero versus nonzero consumption. Therefore, the proposed model can accommodate zero consumption values and retain the features of the exponential demand equation at the same time. As a byproduct, the logistic regression component of the proposed model provides a new demand index, the "derived breakpoint", for the price above which a subject is more likely to be abstinent than to be smoking. We apply the proposed model to data collected at baseline from college students (N = 1,217) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial utilizing financial incentives to motivate tobacco cessation. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the proposed model provides better fits than an existing model. We note that the proposed methodology is applicable to other purchase task data, for example, drugs of abuse.

  5. Adolescents' experiences and perceived (dis)advantages of the three main outlet types for alcohol purchases.

    PubMed

    Gosselt, Jordy F; Strump, Tanja; Van Hoof, Joris

    2016-12-01

    Based on the existing literature, relevant determinants of availability for on-premises locations, off-premises locations, and the Internet were qualitatively explored and categorized by "experts" consisting of underage alcohol purchasers. In total, 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 94 Dutch adolescents. For on-premises locations, the high prices were perceived as the biggest disadvantage, and the ease to circumvent legal age limits as the biggest advantage. For off-premises locations, the cheap pricing was perceived as the most positive aspect, and the legal age limit as the biggest disadvantage. For online purchases, the waiting time was perceived as the most negative aspect, and the proximity of online stores as the biggest advantage.

  6. Alcohol-related impairment in the Lane Change Task.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Anja Katharina; Vollrath, Mark

    2010-11-01

    The Lane Change Task was developed to provide an objective safety criterion for the assessment of driver distraction by in-vehicle information systems (IVIS). It consists of two basic driving tasks, namely lane keeping and lane changes. The LCT has been shown to reliably detect distraction from driving. As this test becomes increasingly important for the assessment of safety the validity of the LCT is crucial. In order to examine this further, the effect of an alcohol intoxication of 0.08 g/dl on the performance in the LCT was examined in the present study as the negative effects of alcohol on driving are well known. Twenty-three participants were tested under alcohol and placebo in a cross-over design measuring different performance indicators in the LCT. There were significant effects of alcohol during the lane keeping phase. However, these were much smaller than those typically found with distracting secondary tasks. The lane change phase was only marginally affected by alcohol. This result gives rise to some caution for interpreting effects in the LCT. The LCT is well able to detect distraction, as other studies have shown. However, our study with intoxicated participants shows that a small effect in the LCT does not necessarily mean that this condition does not impair driving.

  7. The effects of price and perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Goudie, Andrew J; Sumnall, Harry R; Field, Matt; Clayton, Hannah; Cole, Jon C

    2007-07-10

    Behavioural economic models of substance use describe the relationship between changes in unit price and consumption. However, these models rarely take account of the perceived quality (i.e. potency) of controlled drugs. Therefore we investigated the effects of both price and quality on the decision to purchase controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers. Forty current polysubstance misusers (29 males, 11 females; mean age 23.8) were recruited into the study. Participants were asked to hypothetically purchase drugs from a price list of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy at different levels of quality and price (i.e. better quality drugs cost more money). The disposable income available for those purchases was systematically varied in order to determine the impact of income on the decision to purchase drugs. Demand for both normal and strong alcohol was income inelastic. Demand for both poor and average quality cannabis and ecstasy was income inelastic, but demand for good quality cannabis and ecstasy was income elastic. The demand for poor quality cocaine was income inelastic, with the demand for both average and good quality cocaine being income elastic. Participants reported too few purchases of amphetamine, which precluded behavioural economic analysis. These results suggest that, like other goods, controlled drugs are purchased based upon the consumer's interpretations of their relative value. Therefore, it is probable that the purchase and subsequent use of controlled drugs by polysubstance misusers will be heavily influenced by the economic environment.

  8. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P < 0.01), while the number of products purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P < 0.01). For wine, however, these effects were not significant. Conclusions Banning multi-buy promotions for alcohol in Scotland did not reduce alcohol purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  9. The effects of perceived quality on the behavioural economics of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy purchases.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Goudie, Andrew J; Field, Matt; Loverseed, Anne-Claire; Charlton, Sarah; Sumnall, Harry R

    2008-04-01

    Previous research has indicated that non-dependent polydrug users are willing to pay more money to buy good quality drugs as their income increased. This study sought to examine whether altering the perceived quality of controlled drugs would affect drug purchases if the monetary price remained fixed. A random sample of 80 polydrug users were recruited. All participants were administered an anonymous questionnaire consisting of the Drug Abuse Screening Test for Adolescents (DAST-A), the Severity of Dependence Scale for cannabis (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and questions about their drug use. Participants then completed a simulation of controlled drug purchases where the price of alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, and ecstasy remained the same but their perceived quality changed (i.e. unit price increased as the perceived quality decreased). The demand for alcohol was quality inelastic and alcohol quality had no effects on the purchase of any other controlled drug. Demand for cannabis was quality elastic and alcohol substituted for cannabis as its unit price increased. Demand for cocaine was quality elastic and alcohol, cannabis, and ecstasy substituted for cocaine as its unit price increased. Demand for ecstasy was quality elastic and alcohol and cocaine both substituted for ecstasy as its unit price increased. These results suggest that perceived quality influences the demand for controlled drugs and that monitoring the perceived quality of controlled drugs may provide a warning of potential public health problems in the near future.

  10. Point-of-purchase alcohol marketing and promotion by store type--United States, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    2003-04-11

    Alcohol consumption is the third leading preventable cause of death in the United States, accounting for approximately 100,000 deaths annually. Efforts to reduce the adverse health and social consequences from alcohol use include policies to restrict access to alcohol among underaged persons (i.e., persons aged <21 years) and to reduce alcohol-impaired driving among persons of all ages. Recent studies have focused on alcohol marketing as a potentially important contributor to alcohol consumption, particularly among underage drinkers. Point-of-purchase (POP) (i.e., on-site) marketing, including alcohol advertising and placement, can increase alcohol sales and consumption substantially, thereby increasing the risk for various alcohol-related health outcomes, including alcohol-impaired driving and interpersonal violence. To assess the type and frequency of POP alcohol marketing, researchers with the ImpacTeen Project collected and analyzed store observation data during 2000-2001 from 3,961 alcohol retailers in 329 communities throughout the United States. This report summarizes the results of the study, which indicate that POP alcohol marketing is extensive in certain store types frequented by teenagers and young adults. Public health agencies and policy makers should work with liquor control boards to reduce POP marketing that could promote risky or underage drinking.

  11. Alcohol, drug and other prior crimes and risk of arrest in handgun purchasers: protocol for a controlled observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316

  12. Firearms, alcohol and crime: convictions for driving under the influence (DUI) and other alcohol-related crimes and risk for future criminal activity among authorised purchasers of handguns.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Wright, Mona A; Castillo-Carniglia, Alvaro; Shev, Aaron; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2017-01-30

    Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were arrested for murder, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Prior alcohol-related convictions were associated with a fourfold to fivefold increase in risk of incident arrest for a violent or firearm-related crime, a relative increase greater than that seen for age, sex or prior violence. Prior convictions for alcohol-related crime may be an important predictor of risk for future criminal activity among purchasers of firearms.

  13. Sensitivity of a critical tracking task to alcohol impairment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, J. A.; Thompson, R. R.

    1973-01-01

    A first order critical tracking task is evaluated for its potential to discriminate between sober and intoxicated performances. Mean differences between predrink and postdrink performances as a function of BAC are analyzed. Quantification of the results shows that intoxicated failure rates of 50% for blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) at or above 0.1%, and 75% for BACs at or above 0.14%, can be attained with no sober failure rates. A high initial rate of learning is observed, perhaps due to the very nature of the task whereby the operator is always pushed to his limit, and the scores approach a stable asymptote after approximately 50 trials. Finally, the implementation of the task as an ignition interlock system in the automobile environment is discussed. It is pointed out that lower critical performance limits are anticipated for the mechanized automotive units because of the introduction of larger hardware and neuromuscular lags. Whether such degradation in performance would reduce the effectiveness of the device or not will be determined in a continuing program involving a broader based sample of the driving population and performance correlations with both BACs and driving proficiency.

  14. Factors which Explain Amount of Participation in Rural Adolescent Alcohol Use Prevention Task Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissel, Christopher; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveys of adolescent alcohol abuse prevention task force members found that members who were more satisfied with the task force and lived in the community less time spent more time on task force work. Satisfaction was greater for those who perceived more personal and community influence on the task force. (SM)

  15. Problematic Alcohol Use and Mild Intellectual Disability: Standardization of Pictorial Stimuli for an Alcohol Cue Reactivity Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Bloemsaat, Gijs; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The present study focused on the first step in developing a cue reactivity task for studying cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) and alcohol use-related problems: the standardization of pictorial stimuli. Participants (N = 40), both with and without a history of alcohol use-related problems and…

  16. Working with or against the Stores?: A Non-Governmental Organization Working with Alcohol Purchase Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geidne, Susanna; Eriksson, Charli

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the implementation by a non-governmental organization (NGO) of an intervention with two different strategies--one employing confrontational approaches, the other cooperative ones--aiming to reduce the rate of successful purchase attempts (PAs) of medium-strength beer in Sweden.…

  17. Effects of Lowering the Minimum Alcohol Purchasing Age on Weekend Assaults Resulting in Hospitalization in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Davie, Gabrielle; McElduff, Patrick; Connor, Jennie; Langley, John

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects on assault rates of lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age in New Zealand from 20 to 18 years. We hypothesized that the law change would increase assaults among young people aged 18 to 19 years (the target group) and those aged 15 to 17 years via illegal sales or alcohol supplied by older friends or family members. Methods. Using Poisson regression, we examined weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization from 1995 to 2011. Outcomes were assessed separately by gender among young people aged 15 to 17 years and those aged 18 to 19 years, with those aged 20 and 21 years included as a control group. Results. Relative to young men aged 20 to 21 years, assaults increased significantly among young men aged 18 to 19 years between 1995 and 1999 (the period before the law change), as well as the postchange periods 2003 to 2007 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.39) and 2008 to 2011 (IRR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.37). Among boys aged 15 to 17 years, assaults increased during the postchange periods 1999 to 2003 (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.49) and 2004 to 2007 (IRR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.45). There were no statistically significant effects among girls and young women. Conclusions. Lowering the minimum alcohol purchasing age increased weekend assaults resulting in hospitalization among young males 15 to 19 years of age. PMID:24922142

  18. Legal Ages for Purchase and Consumption of Alcohol and Heavy Drinking among College Students in Canada, Europe, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Adrienne; Frye, Laurie; Bauerle, Jennifer; Turner, James C.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy drinking and associated negative consequences remain a serious problem among college students. In a secondary analysis of data from two published study, the authors examine the correlation between minimum legal age to purchase and/or consume alcohol and rates of heavy drinking among college students in 22 countries. The published studies use…

  19. A review of alcohol-impaired driving: the role of blood alcohol concentration and complexity of the driving task.

    PubMed

    Martin, Teri L; Solbeck, Patricia A M; Mayers, Daryl J; Langille, Robert M; Buczek, Yvona; Pelletier, Marc R

    2013-09-01

    The operation of a motor vehicle requires the integrity of sensory, motor, and intellectual faculties. Impairment of these faculties following the consumption of alcohol has been studied extensively through laboratory, closed-course and on-road driving, and epidemiological studies. The scientific literature was reviewed critically, with a focus on low-to-moderate blood alcohol concentrations (BAC ≤ 0.100%), to identify the most reliable determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. Variables such as age, gender, driving skill, and tolerance were shown to have limited impact on impairment. It was concluded the most relevant variables are BAC and complexity of the driving task. The scientific literature provides a high degree of confidence to support the conclusion that a BAC of 0.050% impairs faculties required in the operation of a motor vehicle. Whether impairment is apparent depends upon the complexity of the driving task, which applies to both study design and actual driving.

  20. The Effects of Varied Extinction Conditions Following Acquisition on a 100 Per Cent Rewarded Task in Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okultich, Peter V.; Marlatt, G. Alan

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine whether alcoholics will show greater persistance in responding under punishment in a simple operant task as compared to nonalcoholics; and (2) with this task, under what conditions alcoholics will suppress their responses to the same extent as nonalcoholics. In the task, all subjects during…

  1. Driving Performance Under Alcohol in Simulated Representative Driving Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P < 0.05 for the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289

  2. Implicit alcohol-aggression scripts and alcohol-related aggression on a laboratory task in 11- to 14-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen L; Lipka, Sigrid; Coyne, Sarah M; Qualter, Pamela; Barlow, Alexandra; Taylor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Social scripts are commonly shared representations of behavior in social contexts, which are seen to be partly transmitted through social and cultural media. Research suggests that people hold scripts associated with alcohol-related aggression, but, unlike general aggression scripts, there is little evidence of social transmission. To demonstrate social transmission of alcohol-related aggression scripts, learning mechanisms based on personal experience should be minimized. We used a lexical decision task to examine implicit links between alcohol and aggression in alcohol-naïve adolescents who have limited personal or vicarious experience of alcohol-related aggression. One hundred and four 11-14 year old adolescents made lexical decisions on aggressive or nonaggressive words preceded by 40-ms alcohol or nonalcohol word primes. Repeated measures analyses of group data showed that alcohol word primes did not lead to faster responses to aggressive words than to nonaggressive words, nor were responses to aggressive words faster when they were preceded by alcohol word primes than by nonalcohol word primes. However, at an individual level, faster recognition times to the alcohol prime/aggression target word combination predicted aggression on a competitive laboratory task in 14 year olds only. This occurred only when the competitive aggression task was preceded by a visual presentation of alcoholic, but not nonalcoholic beverage, images. We concluded that alcohol-related aggression scripts are not strongly developed in this age group, but individual differences in script strength are linked to alcohol-related laboratory aggression.

  3. Normal Performance on a Simulated Gambling Task in Treatment-Naïve Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background Research suggests that substance abusers make more disadvantageous decisions on the simulated gambling task (SGT); such decisions are associated with deviance proneness and antisocial symptoms. This study examines decision-making on the SGT in young adults with alcohol dependence that are treatment-naïve (TxN). Methods 116 subjects (58 controls, 58 TxNs) were tested on the SGT, where participants choose cards from 4 different decks that vary in terms of the magnitude of the immediate gain (large/small) and the magnitude of long-term loss (larger/smaller). Participants also were assessed on measures of externalizing symptoms, personality traits reflecting social deviance, neuropsychological function, and the density of the family history of alcoholism. Results TxNs did not differ from controls on measures of SGT decision-making. SGT performance was not associated with externalizing symptoms, social deviance proneness, or a familial density of alcoholism. Although, TxNs had higher levels of externalizing symptoms, social deviance and familial density of alcoholism compared with controls, these variables were only modestly elevated compared with previous samples of long-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals who showed decision-making deficits on the SGT. Conclusions The results suggest that our sample of young adult TxN adults with alcohol dependence do not have global deficits in decision-making as measured by the SGT, and that their poor decisions regarding their alcohol consumption are more specific to drinking. PMID:16737453

  4. Reduced mental capacity and behavior of a rider of a bicycle simulator under alcohol stress or under dual task load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soede, M.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on a bicycle simulator with alcohol administration and a binary choice task in separate sessions, intending to reduce the subject's mental capacity. Before and after such sessions a visual evoked response measurement was done. The subject's performance was analyzed with describing function techniques. The results indicate that the alcohol affects the course-following task as well as the balancing task. The binary choice task is more specifically influencing the course-following task. The dual task shows a more pronounced effect on the recovery of the evoked response. The alcohol is delaying the recovery curve of the evoked response. A tentative explanation can be given which agrees with the performance data.

  5. 48 CFR 13.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial purchase card to micro-purchases. Agency procedures should encourage use of the card in greater... Governmentwide commercial purchase card may be used to— (1) Make micro-purchases; (2) Place a task or...

  6. 48 CFR 13.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... commercial purchase card to micro-purchases. Agency procedures should encourage use of the card in greater... Governmentwide commercial purchase card may be used to— (1) Make micro-purchases; (2) Place a task or...

  7. 48 CFR 13.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... commercial purchase card to micro-purchases. Agency procedures should encourage use of the card in greater... Governmentwide commercial purchase card may be used to— (1) Make micro-purchases; (2) Place a task or...

  8. Alcoholism - A High Priority Health Problem. A Report of the Indian Health Service Task Force on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, George; And Others

    Three separate reports are included in this document on American Indian alcoholism. Section I of the document (December 1969) outlines the history, nature, extent, and significance of Indian alcoholism (reporting that the incidence of alcoholism among Indians is twice that of the national average, low socioeconomic status, rather than a…

  9. Purchasing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort. Bureau of Administration and Finance.

    A concise reference guide for Kentucky school administrators and purchasing officials regarding desirable purchasing practices. The size of the school system will determine the manner in which the purchasing program should be implemented. Although methods may vary, the principles of good management are applicable to both large and small school…

  10. Brain atrophy in long-term abstinent alcoholics who demonstrate impairment on a simulated gambling task.

    PubMed

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk

    2006-09-01

    We recently demonstrated impairment on the Simulated Gambling Task (SGT) in long-term abstinent alcoholics (AbsAlc). Brain regions that have been shown to be necessary for intact SGT performance are the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the amygdala; patients with VMPFC or amygdalar damage demonstrate SGT impairments similar to those of substance abusing populations. We examined these brain regions, using T1-weighted MRIs, in the 101 participants from our previous study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM was performed using a modification we developed [Fein, G., Landman, B., Tran, H., Barakos, J., Moon, K., Di Sclafani, V., Shumway, R., 2006. Statistical parametric mapping of brain morphology: sensitivity is dramatically increased by using brain-extracted images as inputs. Neuroimage] of Baron's procedure, [], in which we use skull-stripped images as input. We also restricted the analysis to a ROI consisting of the amygdala and VMPFC as defined by the Talairach Daemon resource. Compared to the controls, the AbsAlc participants had significant foci of reduced gray matter density within the amygdala. Thus, SGT decision-making deficits are associated with reduced gray matter in the amygdala, a brain region previously implicated in similar decision-making impairments in neurological samples. This structurally based abnormality may be the result of long-term alcohol abuse or dependence, or it may reflect a pre-existing factor that predisposes one to severe alcoholism. From an image analysis perspective, this work demonstrates the increased sensitivity that results from using skull-stripped inputs and from restricting the analysis to a ROI. Without both of these methodological advances, no statistically significant finding would have been forthcoming from this work.

  11. Brain Atrophy in Long-Term Abstinent Alcoholics Who Demonstrate Impairment on a Simulated Gambling Task

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Landman, Bennett; Tran, Hoang; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter; Barakos, Jerome; Moon, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    We recently demonstrated impairment on the Simulated Gambling Task (SGT) in long-term abstinent alcoholics (AbsAlc). Brain regions that have been shown to be necessary for intact SGT performance are the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the amygdala; patients with VMPFC or amygdalar damage demonstrate SGT impairments similar to those of substance abusing populations. We examined these brain regions, using T1-weighted MRIs, in the 101 participants from our previous study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM was performed using a modification we developed (Fein et al., 2006) of Baron’s procedure, (Baron et al., 2001), in which we use skull-stripped images as input. We also restricted the analysis to a ROI consisting of the amygdala and VMPFC as defined by the Talairach Daemon resource. Compared to the controls, the AbsAlc participants had significant foci of reduced gray matter density within the amygdala. Thus, SGT decision-making deficits are associated with reduced gray matter in the amygdala, a brain region previously implicated in similar decision-making impairments in neurological samples. This structurally based abnormality may be the result of long-term alcohol abuse or dependence, or it may reflect a pre-existing factor that predisposes one to severe alcoholism. From an image analysis perspective, this work demonstrates the increased sensitivity that results from using skull-stripped inputs and from restricting the analysis to a ROI. Without both of these methodological advances, no statistically significant finding would have been forthcoming from this work. PMID:16872844

  12. Initial Development of a Brief Behavioral Economic Assessment of Alcohol Demand.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Murphy, Cara M; MacKillop, James

    2015-06-01

    Due to difficulties with definition and measurement, the role of conscious craving in substance use disorders remains contentious. To address this, behavioral economics is increasingly being used to quantify aspects of an individual's acute motivation to use a substance. Doing so typically involves the use of a purchase task, in which participants make choices about consuming alcohol or other substances at various prices and multiple indices of alcohol demand are generated. However, purchase tasks can be limited by the time required to administer and score them. In the current study, a brief 3-item measure, designed to capture three important indices of demand that are derived from demand curve modeling (intensity, Omax, and breakpoint), was investigated in a group of 84 heavy drinkers. Participants underwent a cue-reactivity paradigm that is established to increase both conscious craving and alcohol demand on traditional purchase tasks. All three indices of demand for alcohol measured using the abbreviated measure increased significantly in response to alcohol cues, analogous to what has been observed using a traditional purchase task. Additionally, the correlations between these indices and subjective craving were modest-to-moderate, as has been found in studies comparing craving to the indices derived from purchase tasks. These findings suggest that this abbreviated measure may be a useful and efficient way to capture important and distinct aspects of motivation for alcohol. If these results are confirmed, this measure may be able to help increase the portability of behavioral economic indices of demand into novel research and clinical contexts.

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  17. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  18. In verbis, vinum? Relating themes in an open-ended writing task to alcohol behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert D; Heim, Derek; Chung, Cindy K; Duffy, John C; Davies, John B; Pennebaker, James W

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol's function as a regulator of emotions has long been denoted in figures of speech, most famously 'in vino, veritas' (in wine, truth). In contrast, we ask whether an individual's self-reported alcohol consumption and related attitudes can be correlated with the words they use to write about alcohol. Participants completed an open-ended essay as part of a survey on alcohol attitudes and behaviors. We used a computerized technique, the Meaning Extraction Method, to summarize the responses into thematic tropes, and correlated these with quantitative measurements of demographics, attitudes and behaviors. Participants were recruited using a random population postal survey in the UK (n=1001). Principal components analysis identified regular co-occurring words, to locate themes in the responses. Seven themes were identified that corresponded to both negative and positive aspects of alcohol consumption ranging from concern for the influence of alcohol on others (e.g., children and family) to participants' own enjoyment of alcohol (e.g., social drinking). Small but significant correlations suggested a relationship between the essay responses and individual consumption patterns and attitudes.

  19. Working Memory Moderates the Association Between Smoking Urge and Smoking Lapse Behavior After Alcohol Administration in a Laboratory Analogue Task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lapses after smoking cessation often occur in the context of alcohol use, possibly because alcohol increases urge to smoke. Poor working memory, or alcohol-induced decrements in working memory, may influence this relationship by making it more difficult for an individual to resist smoking in the face of smoking urges. Methods: Participants (n = 41) completed measures of working memory and urge to smoke before and after alcohol administration (placebo, 0.4g/kg, and 0.8g/kg, within subjects) and then participated in a laboratory analogue task in which smoking abstinence was monetarily incentivized. Results: Working memory moderated the relationship between smoking urge and latency to smoke: for those with relatively poorer working memory, urge to smoke was more strongly and negatively associated with latency to smoke (i.e., higher urges were associated with shorter latency). Conclusions: Those with weak working memory may need additional forms of treatment to help them withstand smoking urges. PMID:25481913

  20. Performance of a cognitive, but not visual, secondary task interacts with alcohol-induced balance impairment in novice and experienced motorcycle riders.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Allen, Amy R; Mulvihill, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    The appropriateness of applying drink driving legislation to motorcycle riding has been questioned as there may be fundamental differences in the effects of alcohol on driving and motorcycling. It has been suggested that alcohol may redirect riders' focus from higher-order cognitive skills such as cornering, judgement and hazard perception, to more physical skills such as maintaining balance. To test this hypothesis, the effects of low doses of alcohol on balance ability were investigated in a laboratory setting. The static balance of twenty experienced and twenty novice riders was measured while they performed either no secondary task, a visual (search) task, or a cognitive (arithmetic) task following the administration of alcohol (0%, 0.02%, and 0.05% BAC). Subjective ratings of intoxication and balance impairment increased in a dose-dependent manner in both novice and experienced motorcycle riders, while a BAC of 0.05%, but not 0.02%, was associated with impairments in static balance ability. This balance impairment was exacerbated when riders performed a cognitive, but not a visual, secondary task. Likewise, 0.05% BAC was associated with impairments in novice and experienced riders' performance of a cognitive, but not a visual, secondary task, suggesting that interactive processes underlie balance and cognitive task performance. There were no observed differences between novice vs. experienced riders on static balance and secondary task performance, either alone or in combination. Implications for road safety and future 'drink riding' policy considerations are discussed.

  1. Evoked gamma band response in male adolescent subjects at high risk for alcoholism during a visual oddball task.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Tang, Yongqiang; Ranganathan, Mohini; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Jones, Kevin A; Chorlian, David B; Kamarajan, Chella; Stimus, Arthur; Kuperman, Samuel; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J; Bauer, Lance O; Schuckit, Marc A; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates early evoked gamma band activity in male adolescent subjects at high risk for alcoholism (HR; n=68) and normal controls (LR; n=27) during a visual oddball task. A time-frequency representation method was applied to EEG data in order to obtain stimulus related early evoked (phase-locked) gamma band activity (29-45 Hz) and was analyzed within a 0-150 ms time window range. Significant reduction of the early evoked gamma band response in the frontal and parietal regions during target stimulus processing was observed in HR subjects compared to LR subjects. Additionally, the HR group showed less differentiation between target and non-target stimuli in both frontal and parietal regions compared to the LR group, indicating difficulty in early stimulus processing, probably due to a dysfunctional frontoparietal attentional network. The results indicate that the deficient early evoked gamma band response may precede the development of alcoholism and could be a potential endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  3. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  4. Neural Correlates of a Go/NoGo Task with Alcohol Stimuli in Light and Heavy Young Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Wong, Savio W.; Bechara, Antoine; Cappelli, Christopher; Dust, Mark; Grenard, Jerry, L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory processes are highly relevant to behavioral control affecting decisions made daily. The Go/NoGo task is a common task used to tap basic inhibitory processes important in higher order executive functioning. The present study assessed neural correlates of response inhibition during performance of a Go/NoGo task in which NoGo signals or tests of inhibitory control consisted of images of beer bottles. Group comparisons were conducted between 21 heavy and 20 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22. Behaviorally, overall performance assessed with d-prime was significantly better among the lighter drinkers. On a neural level, the heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial frontal cortex and cingulate relative to the light drinkers during the NoGo trials. These regions are implicated in reflective or control processing of information. Further, heavy drinkers showed significantly greater activity in the insula relative to light drinkers during NoGo trials, a neural region implicated in habit circuitry and tied to cue induced urges and emotional memories of physical effects of drugs. These results suggest that the heavier drinkers may have experienced increased working memory demand and control efforts to withhold a response due to poorer inhibitory control from enhanced salience of alcohol cues on the beer NoGo trials, which also engaged insula mediated effects. PMID:25172182

  5. Integrating Green Purchasing Into Your Environmental Management System (EMS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The goal of this report is to help Federal facilities integrate green purchasing into their EMS. The intended audience includes those tasked with implementing an EMS, reducing environmental impacts, meeting green purchasing requirements.

  6. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  7. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Malaak N.; Simpson, Sean L.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Porrino, Linda J.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65–80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7–21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24–35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline. PMID:27494180

  8. Moderate-Heavy Alcohol Consumption Lifestyle in Older Adults Is Associated with Altered Central Executive Network Community Structure during Cognitive Task.

    PubMed

    Mayhugh, Rhiannon E; Moussa, Malaak N; Simpson, Sean L; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Porrino, Linda J; Laurienti, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Older adults today consume more alcohol than previous generations, the majority being social drinkers. The effects of heavy alcohol use on brain functioning closely resemble age-related changes, but it is not known if moderate-heavy alcohol consumption intensifies brain aging. Whether a lifestyle of moderate-heavy alcohol use in older adults increased age-related brain changes was examined. Forty-one older adults (65-80 years) that consumed light (< 2 drinks/week and ≥ 1 drink/month, n = 20) or moderate-heavy (7-21 drinks/week, non-bingers, n = 21) amounts of alcohol were enrolled. Twenty-two young adults (24-35 years) were also enrolled (light, n = 11 and moderate-heavy, n = 11). Functional brain networks based on magnetic resonance imaging data were generated for resting state and during a working memory task. Whole-brain, Central Executive Network (CEN), and Default Mode Network (DMN) connectivity were assessed in light and moderate-heavy alcohol consuming older adults with comparisons to young adults. The older adults had significantly lower whole brain connectivity (global efficiency) and lower regional connectivity (community structure) in the CEN during task and in the DMN at rest. Moderate-heavy older drinkers did not exhibit whole brain connectivity differences compared to the low drinkers. However, decreased CEN connectivity was observed during the task. There were no differences in the DMN connectivity between drinking groups. Taken together, a lifestyle including moderate-heavy alcohol consumption may be associated with further decreases in brain network connectivity within task-related networks in older adults. Further research is required to determine if this decrease is compensatory or an early sign of decline.

  9. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  10. Ether- and Alcohol-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids: Attractive Properties and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaokun; Baker, Gary A.; Zhao, Hua

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the designer nature of ionic liquids (ILs) has driven their exploration and exploitation in countless fields among the physical and chemical sciences. A fair measure of the tremendous attention placed on these fluids has been attributed to their inherent designer nature. And yet, there are relatively few examples of reviews which emphasize this vital aspect in an exhaustive or meaningful way. In this critical review, we systematically survey the physicochemical properties of the collective library of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs, highlighting the impact of ionic structure on features such as viscosity, phase behavior/transitions, density, thermostability, electrochemical properties, and polarity (e.g., hydrophilicity, hydrogen bonding capability). In the latter portions of this review, we emphasize the attractive applications of these functionalized ILs across a range of disciplines, including their use as electrolytes or functional fluids for electrochemistry, extractions, biphasic systems, gas separations, carbon capture, carbohydrate dissolution (particularly, the (ligno)celluloses), polymer chemistry, antimicrobial and antielectrostatic agents, organic synthesis, biomolecular stabilization and activation, and nanoscience. Finally, this review discusses anion-functionalized ILs, including sulfur- and oxygen-functionalized analogs, as well as choline-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs), an emerging class of fluids which can be sensibly categorized as semi-molecular cousins to the IL. Finally, the toxicity and biodegradability of ether- and alcohol-functionalized ILs are discussed and cautiously evaluated in light of recent reports. By carefully summarizing literature examples on the properties and applications of oxy-functional designer ILs up till now, it is our intent that this review offer a barometer for gauging future advances in the field as well as a trigger to spur further contemplation of these seemingly inexhaustible and

  11. The interaction of approach-alcohol action tendencies, working memory capacity, and current task goals predicts the inability to regulate drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Sharbanee, Jason M; Stritzke, Werner G K; Wiers, Reinout W; Young, Paul; Rinck, Mike; MacLeod, Colin

    2013-09-01

    The inability to regulate alcohol consumption has been attributed to an imbalance between stimulus-driven behavioral biases, or action tendencies, and the ability to exert goal-directed control, or working memory capacity (WMC). Previous research assessing the interaction between these variables has not considered the effect of whether individuals' current goals or task demands require goal-directed control. Our aim was to examine the potential interaction of appetitive action tendencies and the ability to exert control over these action tendencies as a function of whether task demands require applying control for successful task completion. Two groups of social drinkers (n = 40 per group) who differed in their ability to regulate their alcohol consumption completed a novel variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), which separately assessed approach and avoid trials. The approach and avoidance responses differentially require goal-directed control, depending on whether the task-relevant response is incongruent with the stimulus-driven action tendency. Results indicated that (a) group differences in AAT indices were only observed on trials that required an avoidance movement, which are trials where the task-relevant response would be incongruent with an approach action tendency, and (b) the extent of the group differences for these avoidance trials was moderated by individual differences in WMC, such that problem drinkers with lower WMC showed greater behavioral bias toward alcohol than those with higher WMC. These findings suggest that difficulties in regulating alcohol consumption arise from a complex interaction of action-tendencies, WMC, and current goals or task demands.

  12. The Effect of Point of Sale Promotions on the Alcohol Purchasing Behaviour of Young People in Metropolitan, Regional and Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Smith, Kylie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study, part of a larger project examining marketing and alcohol, looked specifically at the effects of point of sale (POS) promotions on young people, with a view to providing evidence which could be used to inform policy and regulation in this area. A series of focus groups were conducted in three different locations with young people aged…

  13. Delta, theta, and alpha event-related oscillations in alcoholics during Go/NoGo task: neurocognitive deficits in execution, inhibition, and attention processing

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashwini K.; Kamarajan, Chella; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Stimus, Arthur; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Higher impulsivity observed in alcoholics is thought to be due to neurocognitive functional deficits involving impaired inhibition in several brain regions and/or neuronal circuits. Event-related Oscillations (EROs) offer time-frequency measure of brain rhythms during perceptual and cognitive processing, which provide a detailed view of neuroelectric oscillatory responses to external/internal events. The present study examines evoked power (temporally locked to events) of oscillatory brain signals in alcoholics during an equal probability Go/NoGo task, assessing their functional relevance in execution and inhibition of a motor response. The current study hypothesized that increases in the power of slow frequency bands and their topographical distribution is associated with tasks that have increased cognitive demands, such as the execution and inhibition of a motor response. Therefore, it is hypothesized that alcoholics would show lower spectral power in their topographical densities compared to controls. The sample consisted of 20 right-handed abstinent alcoholic males and 20 age and gender-matched healthy controls. Evoked delta (1.0-3.5 Hz; 200-600 ms), theta (4.0-7.5 Hz; 200-400 ms), slow alpha (8.0-9.5 Hz; 200-300 ms), and fast alpha (10.0-12.5 Hz; 100-200 ms) ERO power were compared across group and task conditions. Compared to controls, alcoholics had higher impulsiveness scores on the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and made more errors on Go trials. Alcoholics showed significantly lower evoked delta, theta, and slow alpha power compared to controls for both Go and NoGo task conditions, and lower evoked fast alpha power compared to controls for only the NoGo condition. The results confirm previous findings and are suggestive of neurocognitive deficits while executing and suppressing a motor response. Based on findings in the alpha frequency ranges, it is further suggested that the inhibitory processing impairments in alcoholics may arise from inadequate

  14. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  15. Nurse attendee purchasing patterns.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M D; Savik, K; Kjervik, D K

    1993-01-01

    Retention of nursing professionals is crucial in responding to the increasing demand for and complexity of nursing care. Augmenting the decision-making role of nurses is one important retention-related strategy. Purchasing patterns reflect one aspect of nurses' decision-making role. National meetings provide nurses with an opportunity to investigate educational and employment options, as well as to preview technological advances in patient care products and supplies. Yet, the purchasing patterns of nurses related to the marketing of patient care supplies, or educational material at national meetings have rarely been acknowledged or researched. This study investigated the purchasing patterns of nurse attendees as revealed at a national meeting and how attendance influenced purchasing input following the meeting. The study addressed differences in purchasing patterns between specific groups of nurse attendees, as well as the relationship between meeting attendance motivators and purchasing patterns. A descriptive methodology utilizing participant observation at four national nursing meetings and mail survey in four phases was used to determine if there were: (1) identifiable purchasing patterns for nurses attending specific nursing-organization sponsored national meetings, (2) differences in purchasing patterns between nurse attendees from these meetings, (3) differences in self-reported post-meeting purchase input, and (4) relationships between meeting attendance motivators and purchasing patterns. The findings demonstrate that nurse attendee purchasing patterns can be identified and do vary among nursing groups. Nurse attendees at specialty meetings were more likely to act as specifiers, have a more dominant role in purchasing and were more likely to influence product purchases than were nurse attendees from generalist meetings. Self-reports of post-meeting purchasing input demonstrated that nurse attendees utilized information gained at national meetings in

  16. Seven PC Purchasing Pitfalls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Explores how to avoid common pitfalls when schools purchase computer equipment. Purchasing tips are provided in the areas of choosing multiple platforms, buying the cheapest model available, choosing a proprietary design, falling for untested technology, purchasing systems that are not upgradable, ignoring extended warranties, and failing to plan…

  17. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  18. Reward processing deficits and impulsivity in high-risk offspring of alcoholics: A study of event-related potentials during a monetary gambling task

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Bauer, Lance O.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. The goal of the present study is to elucidate reward processing deficits, externalizing disorders, and impulsivity as elicited by electrophysiological, clinical and behavioral measures in subjects at high risk for alcoholism from families densely affected by alcoholism in the context of brain maturation across age groups and gender. Methods Event-related potentials (ERPs) and current source density (CSD) during a monetary gambling task (MGT) were measured in 12–25 year old offspring (N = 1864) of families in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) Prospective study; the high risk (HR, N = 1569) subjects were from families densely affected with alcoholism and the low risk (LR, N = 295) subjects were from community families. Externalizing disorders and impulsivity scores were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring from older (16–25 years) male and younger (12–15 years) female subgroups showed lower P3 amplitude than LR subjects. The amplitude decrement was most prominent in HR males during the loss condition. Overall, P3 amplitude increase at anterior sites and decrease at posterior areas were seen in older compared to younger subjects, suggesting frontalization during brain maturation. The HR subgroups also exhibited hypofrontality manifested as weaker CSD activity during both loss and gain conditions at frontal regions. Further, the HR subjects had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders. P3 amplitudes during the gain condition were negatively correlated with impulsivity scores. Conclusions Older male and younger female HR offspring, compared to their LR counterparts, manifested reward processing deficits as indexed by lower P3 amplitude and weaker CSD activity, along with higher prevalence of externalizing disorders and higher impulsivity scores

  19. Neural predictors of purchases.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Brian; Rick, Scott; Wimmer, G Elliott; Prelec, Drazen; Loewenstein, George

    2007-01-04

    Microeconomic theory maintains that purchases are driven by a combination of consumer preference and price. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated how people weigh these factors to make purchasing decisions. Consistent with neuroimaging evidence suggesting that distinct circuits anticipate gain and loss, product preference activated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), while excessive prices activated the insula and deactivated the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) prior to the purchase decision. Activity from each of these regions independently predicted immediately subsequent purchases above and beyond self-report variables. These findings suggest that activation of distinct neural circuits related to anticipatory affect precedes and supports consumers' purchasing decisions.

  20. Responsible Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  1. International Green Purchasing Network - Sustainable Purchasing Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  3. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  4. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  5. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  6. 27 CFR 8.22 - Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. 8.22 Section 8.22 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... Practices § 8.22 Contracts to purchase distilled spirits, wine, or malt beverages. Any contract or agreement, written or unwritten, which has the effect of requiring the retailer to purchase distilled spirits,...

  7. Uranium purchases report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    US utilities are required to report to the Secretary of Energy annually the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the US, as well as the country of origin and seller of any enrichment services purchased by the utility. This report compiles these data and also contains a glossary of terms and additional purchase information covering average price and contract duration. 3 tabs.

  8. Planning and coordinating pharmaceutical purchasing.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, E C

    1984-09-01

    The planning and coordination of the pharmaceutical purchasing process are discussed. Planning for pharmaceutical purchasing should begin with decisions regarding why a purchasing policy is needed, what the institution's purchasing policy will be, and what departments will be involved in purchasing. General goals of purchasing and procedures for revising purchasing functions are presented, and the role of the pharmacy department, materials management, and other hospital departments in purchasing is discussed. Coordinating input on purchasing decisions from medical staff, administration, and clinical and technical pharmacy personnel to achieve purchasing goals and objectives is discussed. A well-designed pharmaceutical purchasing system provides for planned and scheduled purchases, competitive bidding, product standardization, group purchasing, information sharing, internal accountability, and quality assurance.

  9. A Curriculum for Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkerton, Richard L.

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the educational needs of persons engaged in purchasing and materials management functions in order to develop a curriculum plan which would adequately prepare personnel for entry and career progression within the field of purchasing. In addition to literature reviews and analyses on the subject,…

  10. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol.

  13. The neural bases underlying social risk perception in purchase decisions.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Sugiura, Motoaki; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Akimoto, Yoritaka; Shibuya, Satoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    Social considerations significantly influence daily purchase decisions, and the perception of social risk (i.e., the anticipated disapproval of others) is crucial in dissuading consumers from making purchases. However, the neural basis for consumers' perception of social risk remains undiscovered, and this novel study clarifies the relevant neural processes. A total of 26 volunteers were scanned while they evaluated purchase intention of products (purchase intention task) and their anticipation of others' disapproval for possessing a product (social risk task), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI data from the purchase intention task was used to identify the brain region associated with perception of social risk during purchase decision making by using subjective social risk ratings for a parametric modulation analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to explore if there was a difference between participants' purchase decisions and their explicit evaluations of social risk, with reference to the neural activity associated with social risk perception. For this, subjective social risk ratings were used for a parametric modulation analysis on fMRI data from the social risk task. Analysis of the purchase intention task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the anterior insula, an area of the brain that is known as part of the emotion-related network. Analysis of the social risk task revealed a significant positive correlation between ratings of social risk and activity in the temporal parietal junction and the medial prefrontal cortex, which are known as theory-of-mind regions. Our results suggest that the anterior insula processes consumers' social risk implicitly to prompt consumers not to buy socially unacceptable products, whereas ToM-related regions process such risk explicitly in considering the anticipated disapproval of others. These findings may prove helpful in understanding the mental

  14. Increased Forebrain Activations in Youths with Family Histories of Alcohol and Other Substance Use Disorders Performing a Go/No Go Task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagaments, Malle; Rowland, Laura M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Wright, Susan N.; Hong, L. Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH−), and this increased risk may be related to impaired maturation of forebrain circuitry. FH+ individuals have shown altered forebrain activity at rest and while performing cognitive tasks. However, it is not fully understood how forebrain activity is altered in FH+ individuals and ultimately how these alterations may contribute to substance use disorder risk. Methods In the present study, we tested 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths performing a go/no-go task and examined activations in blocks with only go trials (Go Only), blocks with 50% go and 50% no go trials (Go/NoGo), and a contrast of those 2 blocks. Results FH+ youths had significantly greater cerebral activations in both the Go and Go/NoGo blocks than FH− youths in regions including the posterior cingulate/precuneus, bilateral middle/superior temporal gyrus, and medial superior frontal gyrus with no significant group differences in the subtraction between Go Only and Go/NoGo blocks. Additionally, FH+ youths had moderately slower reaction times on go trials in the Go Only blocks. Conclusions Our findings suggest that global activation increases in FH+ youths are modulated by FH density and are not specific to the inhibitory components of the task. This pattern of increased activations in FH+ youths may be at least partially due to impaired forebrain white matter development leading to greater activations/less efficient neural communication during task performance. PMID:25406902

  15. School District Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natale, Joseph L.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the effective management of purchasing processes in a school district. These processes include obtaining materials, supplies, and equipment of maximum value for the least expense, and receiving, storing, and distributing the items obtained. The chapter opens with an overview of…

  16. Purchasing School Furnishings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how school districts in Jefferson County, Kentucky; Long Island, New York; and central Pennsylvania buy and replace school furniture. Addresses getting quantity discounts and the importance of quality and durability. Includes a sidebar on the availability of volume discounts from the Association of Educational Purchasing Agencies. (EV)

  17. Inventory Control and Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mason

    1981-01-01

    An inventory control system stimulates competitive bidding, resulting in the best price for an item. Other cost savings can be achieved by specifying prepayment of freight charges by the successful bidder, seeking standardization of products, and purchasing jointly with nearby municipalities and school districts. (Author/MLF)

  18. From intelligence to evidence-based healthcare: a purchasing odyssey.

    PubMed

    Booth, A; Hey, S

    1995-12-01

    Since the appearance of the NHS Executive's guidance document, Purchasing Intelligence (1991), efforts have been concentrated on the development of 'purchasing intelligence facilities' staffed, in the main, by health librarians. However, the concept of 'intelligence' has a wider dimension that impacts upon the whole culture of an organization. The authors examine purchasing organizations against popular theories of organizational development. The characteristics of Handy's Task culture, with Athena as its patron, may be observed in many authorities. Using the results of two surveys, conducted in March 1995, they identify some key information management issues involving structure, tasks, technology and people. Skills in information 'transformation' must be acquired by all staff in purchasing authorities. The intelligence officer must become a modern-day Odysseus if the intelligence facility is to 'survive and thrive'.

  19. State and Local Government Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    This report concerns public purchasing at all levels of government and brings into focus the role of the purchasing official in government management. Covered in the report are essential elements of the purchasing process, including the assessment of needs; written specifications; advertising, evaluating, and awarding bids; and inspection and…

  20. Commercial Purchase Card Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Unless a waiver to the EFT requirement has been approved by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), the preferred method for purchases...maintenance information form . f. Provide accounting/certifying officials with a line of accounting for interest penalties. g. Upon implementation of...4100.33 g. Acknowledge acceptance of his or her appointment as an approving/certifying official and complete DD Form 577, Signature Card (Figure 2

  1. Propensity for illegal alcohol sales to underage youth in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Traci L; Komro, Kelli A; Oakes, J Michael; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2008-06-01

    To assess youth's ability to purchase alcohol in a city previously not assessed-Chicago, Illinois-we hired individuals aged 21 and older who appeared to be aged 18-20 (i.e., pseudo-underage buyers) to make alcohol purchase attempts without age identification in off-premise licensed alcohol establishments. We conducted two purchase attempts at each establishment across 44 community areas, resulting in a total of 652 purchase attempts. Our dependent variable was purchase attempt outcome (purchase, no purchase) and we used four categories of independent variables: characteristics of sellers, establishments, purchase attempts, and community areas. We analyzed our data using a logistic regression model, with purchase attempt outcome regressed on the independent variables. The overall purchase rate was 35.1%, ranging from 0% to 72% across community areas. Buyers were less likely to purchase alcohol in community areas that had populations with higher percentages of Hispanics (OR = 0.99; CI = 0.98, 1.0), and more likely to purchase alcohol in establishments that had more expensive beer (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.50, 2.67) and in areas with higher percentages of unemployed individuals (OR = 1.1; CI = 1.07, 1.14). Although progress has been made since the early 1990s in reducing sales to underage youth, youth still have relatively easy access to alcohol from licensed establishments. We recommend increased use of compliance checks-underage youth attempt to purchase alcohol under the supervision of enforcement agents; if alcohol is sold, the server/seller and/or license holder are penalized-which scientific studies have shown to be the most effective strategy in reducing sales to minors.

  2. Achieving Consumer Purchase Payoffs: A Used Car Purchase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, E. Scott; Maynes, Blanche R.

    1997-01-01

    This case study of a used car purchase illuminates the concepts and principles that should guide purchase decisions. It suggests that consumers should be aware there is little correlation between price and quality; competent shopping yields better quality; and consumers must decide their preferred trade-off between price and quality. (SK)

  3. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  4. Purchasing Prudence: Look beyond Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joyce M.

    1994-01-01

    With schools facing budget cuts, purchasing managers should drop old habits by shopping around, foregoing the favored vendor, and buying in large quantities with other schools. Describes a cooperative purchasing arrangement available to Iowa schools within the area of the Heartland Area Education Agency. (MLF)

  5. [Effect of alcohol on electrical organisation in the brain during a visuospatial working memory task and its relationship with the menstrual cycle].

    PubMed

    Sanz-Martin, Araceli; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Ángel; Santana, Gloria; Gumá-Díaz, Emilio

    2014-02-01

    Introduccion. El metabolismo del alcohol y el desempeño de muchas funciones cognitivas pueden variar a lo largo del ciclo menstrual. Tanto la ingestion de alcohol como las variaciones hormonales durante el ciclo menstrual se asocian con cambios caracteristicos en la actividad electroencefalografica. Objetivo. Determinar si la actividad electroencefalografica durante una tarea de memoria de trabajo es afectada por el consumo agudo de alcohol, y si dicha actividad varia en funcion del ciclo menstrual. Sujetos y metodos. Muestra de 24 mujeres que ingirieron alcohol o placebo durante las fases folicular y lutea temprana. Se registro el electroencefalograma durante la ejecucion de una tarea de memoria de trabajo visuoespacial. Resultados. Aunque el alcohol no deterioro el rendimiento de la tarea de memoria de trabajo, si produjo en el electroencefalograma una disminucion de la potencia relativa de theta y una menor correlacion frontoparietal derecha en las bandas theta y alfa2. Unicamente las mujeres alcoholizadas en la fase folicular presentaron una mayor potencia relativa de alfa1, que podria indicar menor nivel de alertamiento y atencion. Conclusiones. Estos resultados contribuyen a una mejor comprension de los mecanismos cerebrales que subyacen a los cambios cognitivos con el alcohol y su relacion con el ciclo menstrual.

  6. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: Numerous factors to consider

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purchase of a confocal microscope can be a complex and difficult decision for an individual scientist, group or evaluation committee. This is true even for scientists that have used confocal technology for many years. The task of reaching the optimal decision becomes almost i...

  7. Understanding the Attitude-Action Gap: Functional Integration of Environmental Aspects in Car Purchase Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairesse, Olivier; Macharis, Cathy; Lebeau, Kenneth; Turcksin, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at understanding how a general positive attitude toward the environment results in a limited purchase of environmentally friendlier cars, often referred to as the attitude-action gap. In a first experiment 27 volunteers performed a judgment task on car purchase intention. Participants were asked to evaluate the probability of…

  8. Farm alcohol fuel project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Demmel, D.

    1981-11-15

    The Small Energy Project is a research and demonstration effort designed to assist small farmers in the utilization of energy conservation techniques on their farms. The Farm Alcohol Project was designed to demonstrate the production of alcohol fuels on small farms in order to reduce purchased liquid fuel requirements. The Project considered the use of on-farm raw materials for process heat and the production of fuel grade, low prood ethanol in volumes up to 10,000 gallons per year. The fuel would be used entirely on the farm. The approach considered low-cost systems the farmer could build himself from local resources. Various crops were considered for ethanol production. The interest in farm alcohol production reached a peak in 1980 and then decreased substantially as farmers learned that the process of alcohol production on the farm was much more complicated than earlier anticipated. Details of Alcohol Project experiences in ethanol production, primarily from corn, are included in this report. A one-bushel distillation plant was constructed as a learning tool to demonstrate the production of ethanol. The report discusses the various options in starch conversion, fermentation and distillation that can be utilized. The advantages and disavantages of atmospheric and the more complicated process of vacuum distillation are evaluated. Larger farm plants are considered in the report, although no experience in operating such plants was gained through the Project. Various precautions and other considerations are included for farm plant designs. A larger community portable distillery is also evaluated. Such a plant was considered for servicing farms with limited plant equipment. The farms serviced would perform only fermentation tasks, with the portable device performing distillation and starch conversion.

  9. A behavioral economic measure of demand for alcohol predicts brief intervention outcomes.

    PubMed

    MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2007-07-10

    Considerable basic and clinical research supports a behavioral economic conceptualization of alcohol and drug dependence. One behavioral economic approach to assess motivation for a drug is the use of demand curves, or quantitative representations of drug consumption and drug-reinforced responding across a range of prices. This study used a hypothetical alcohol purchase task to generate demand curves, and examined whether the resulting demand curve parameters predicted drinking outcomes following a brief intervention. Participants were 51 college student drinkers (67% female; 94% Caucasian; drinks/week: M=24.57, S.D.=8.77) who completed a brief alcohol intervention. Consistent with predictions, a number of demand curve indices significantly predicted post-intervention alcohol use and frequency of heavy drinking episodes, even after controlling for baseline drinking and other pertinent covariates. Most prominently, O(max) (i.e., maximum alcohol expenditure) and breakpoint (i.e., sensitivity of consumption to increasing price) predicted greater drinking at 6-month post-intervention follow-up. These results indicate that a behavioral economic measure of alcohol demand may have utility in characterizing the malleability of alcohol consumption. Moreover, these results support the utility of translating experimental assays of reinforcement into clinical research.

  10. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  11. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  12. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  13. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  14. 48 CFR 813.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase Threshold 813.202 Purchase guidelines. Open market micro-purchases shall be equitably distributed among...

  15. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W.; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers’ product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making. PMID:24600365

  16. Purchase decision-making is modulated by vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Nora; Mast, Fred W; Hasler, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Purchases are driven by consumers' product preferences and price considerations. Using caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS), we investigated the role of vestibular-affective circuits in purchase decision-making. CVS is an effective noninvasive brain stimulation method, which activates vestibular and overlapping emotional circuits (e.g., the insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)). Subjects were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation while they performed two purchase decision-making tasks. In Experiment 1 subjects had to decide whether to purchase or not. CVS significantly reduced probability of buying a product. In Experiment 2 subjects had to rate desirability of the products and willingness to pay (WTP) while they were exposed to CVS and sham stimulation. CVS modulated desirability of the products but not WTP. The results suggest that CVS interfered with emotional circuits and thus attenuated the pleasant and rewarding effect of acquisition, which in turn reduced purchase probability. The present findings contribute to the rapidly growing literature on the neural basis of purchase decision-making.

  17. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  18. 48 CFR 13.203 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  19. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  20. 48 CFR 13.203 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  1. 48 CFR 13.202 - Purchase guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Actions at or Below the Micro-Purchase... extent practicable, micro-purchases shall be distributed equitably among qualified suppliers. (2)...

  2. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  3. The relationships between the impact of alcoholic beverage control policies, selected contextual determinants, and alcohol drinking in Spain.

    PubMed

    Matrai, Silvia; Casajuana, Cristina; Allamani, Allaman; Baccini, Michela; Pepe, Pasquale; Massini, Giulia; Gual, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol prevention policies alone neither cause nor explain changes in alcohol consumption, nor in related harm. Alcohol consumption in Spain throughout the period 1962-2008 was analyzed considering selected contextual factors and alcohol policies. Increased urbanization was found to be associated with higher consumption, especially of beer. Restrictive policies regulating purchase age, advertising, and licensing premises to sell alcohol were associated with decreased alcohol consumption, while lower blood alcohol concentration limits were followed by an increase. Study limitations are noted. Changes in the evolution of socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and cultural factors should be carefully analyzed to inform alcohol policy planning and evaluation.

  4. SPLC Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  5. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-25

    Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

  6. Purchasing and Selecting School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Discusses factors for schools to consider when deciding on a lighting system: purchase price, installation charges, maintenance costs, energy costs, and ensuring optimal educational environment. Presents best practices in these areas. (EV)

  7. Propensity for and Correlates of Alcohol Sales to Underage Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Heather; Toomey, Traci I.; Dunsmuir, William; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the propensity for alcohol sales to youth in the late 1990s, following increased efforts to reduce youth access to alcohol. Male and female pseudo-underage buyers (i.e., age [greater than or equal to] 21 but judged to appear less than 21) attempted to purchase alcohol without age identification at 741 alcohol…

  8. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  9. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  10. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  11. 12 CFR 1263.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stock purchase. 1263.20 Section 1263.20 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the...

  12. 12 CFR 925.20 - Stock purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase. 925.20 Section 925.20 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.20 Stock purchase. (a) Minimum stock purchase. Each member shall purchase stock in the Bank in which it is a member in an amount equal to the greater of: (1) $500; (2) 1...

  13. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Next Door Sales Program § 291.515 Purchaser qualifications. To qualify to purchase a home through the... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time of closing on the purchase of the home; (b) The person must certify to his/her good faith...

  14. 24 CFR 291.515 - Purchaser qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Next Door Sales Program § 291.515 Purchaser qualifications. To qualify to purchase a home through the... in § 291.530) at the time he/she submits a bid to purchase a home through the program and at the time of closing on the purchase of the home; (b) The person must certify to his/her good faith...

  15. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... commercial purchase card to make a purchase that exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed $25... to make a purchase that exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed the...

  16. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  17. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...

  20. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    PubMed

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  1. Authorities and Mechanisms for Purchased Care at the Department of Veterans Affairs

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael D.; Batka, Caroline; Buttorff, Christine; Dunigan, Molly; Lovejoy, Susan L.; McGovern, Geoffrey; Pace, Nicholas M.; Pillemer, Francesca; Williams, Kayla M.; Apaydin, Eric; Aranibar, Clara; Buenaventura, Maya; Carter, Phillip; Cherney, Samantha; Davis, Lynn E.; Donohue, Amy Grace; Geyer, Lily; Hemler, Joslyn; Roshan, Parisa; Skrabala, Lauren; Simmons, Stephen; Thompson, Joseph; Welch, Jonathan; Hosek, Susan D.; Farmer, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the authorities and mechanisms by which the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) pays for health care services from non-VA providers. Purchased care accounted for 10 percent, or around $5.6 billion, of VA's health care budget in fiscal year 2014, and the amount of care purchased from outside VA is growing rapidly. VA purchases non-VA care through an array of programs, each with different payment processes and eligibility requirements for veterans and outside providers. A review and analysis of statutes, regulations, legislation, and literature on VA purchased care, along with interviews with expert stakeholders, a survey of VA medical facilities, and an evaluation of local-level policy documents revealed that VA's purchased care system is complex and decentralized. Inconsistencies in procedures, unclear goals, and a lack of cohesive strategy for purchased care could have ramifications for veterans' access to care. Adding to the complexity of VA's purchased care system is a lack of systematic data collection on access to and quality of care provided through VA's purchased care programs. The analysis also explored concepts of “episodes of care” and their implications for purchased care by VA. PMID:28083425

  2. Finding the Right Purchasing Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisele-Dyrli, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    School administrators are faced with a wide variety of choices and a huge market when it comes to products and technology. According to a report issued in March by market research firm Compass Intelligence, school districts spend over $18 billion annually on IT-related purchases, and the market is projected to grow to nearly $21 billion by 2015.…

  3. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y; Sung, H; Yang, C; Shih, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Since market liberalisation in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT$4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT$10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. Design: 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Results: Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes—a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT$1000/month on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT$1000 (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. Conclusions: This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is

  4. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975–2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  5. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.

  6. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  7. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  8. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  9. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  10. 27 CFR 70.145 - Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment lien creditors. 70.145 Section 70.145 Alcohol, Tobacco... Lien for Taxes § 70.145 Purchasers, holders of security interests, mechanic's lienors, and judgment... in § 70.143(a) of this part), mechanic's lienor (as defined in § 70.143(b) of this part), or...

  11. Purchasing for Food Service: Self-Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lynne Nannen

    This book is designed to teach accounting procedures and product specifications that are needed by the competent purchaser in order to make optimum purchasing decisions basic to a successful food service operation. It may be used by any level of food service personnel that is involved with any phase of the purchasing process. Preferably, the book…

  12. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  13. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  14. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  15. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food... DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each manufacturer... control to be exercised over the product, services, suppliers, contractors, and consultants, based on...

  16. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  17. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  18. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  19. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  20. 22 CFR 132.1 - Purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase. 132.1 Section 132.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE MISCELLANEOUS BOOKS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS, ETC. § 132.1 Purchase. The purchase by the Department of State of books, maps, newspapers, periodicals, and other publications shall be made...

  1. 21 CFR 820.50 - Purchasing controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchasing controls. 820.50 Section 820.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Purchasing Controls § 820.50 Purchasing controls. Each...

  2. Guide to Effective Purchasing. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frediani, Pam

    This manual is intended to help create and sustain good relations between purchasers and suppliers of foods and related products. It is designed to guide anyone involved in the purchasing function: purchasing officers and managers in medium and large establishments, food and beverage managers, catering managers, chefs, caterers, restaurateurs,…

  3. Purchasing. School Business Management Handbook Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    Purchasing, one of the most highly specialized activities in school administration, involves securing material or service in the right quantity and quality, at the right time, and for the right price. This handbook, intended as a guide for purchasing agents, details principles essential for operating a school purchasing office in New York State.…

  4. Analyzing lease/purchase options.

    PubMed

    Ciolek, D; Mace, J D

    1998-01-01

    The authors' previous article, "Equipment Acquisition Using Various Forms of Leasing," covers information necessary for selecting among the different kinds of leases. This article explains how to reach a proper financial analysis, preferably using two phases. Using a representative example, the article guides the reader through the first phase and introduces the elements needing review in the second phase. Key elements include pretax aftertax and cash flow analyses. Different organizations use different yardsticks to measure the financials of a transaction, but in general, cash is king. Therefore, the most widely used comparison is the purchase versus lease IRR (internal rate of return) produced by measuring the cash flow of the purchase case compared to the cash flow of the lease case.

  5. 43 CFR 30.175 - When does a purchased interest vest in the purchaser?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When does a purchased interest vest in the purchaser? 30.175 Section 30.175 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior INDIAN PROBATE HEARINGS PROCEDURES Purchase at Probate § 30.175 When does a purchased interest vest in...

  6. Britain's alcohol market: how minimum alcohol prices could stop moderate drinkers subsidising those drinking at hazardous and harmful levels.

    PubMed

    Record, Chris; Day, Chris

    2009-10-01

    Discounting of alcoholic products is universal in U.K. supermarkets with some chains selling own brand spirits for less than the duty payable per item. Eighty per cent of alcohol purchases are made by 30% of the population and this group are the main beneficiaries. In December 2008 the government announced its intention to consult on modifications to the Licensing Act 2003 to enable the introduction of mandatory conditions for the sale of alcoholic products in order to curtail alcohol harm. In this article it is shown that families in Britain have nothing to fear from the introduction of a 50 p/unit minimum price of alcohol as the overall effect should be a reduction in average weekly supermarket bills for the majority while harmful and hazardous drinkers will pay more. By paying less for non-alcoholic products sold by supermarkets, moderate drinkers should no longer be effectively subsidising the alcohol purchased by the harmful and hazardous group.

  7. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  8. Striatal activity and reduced white matter increase frontal activity in youths with family histories of alcohol and other substance-use disorders performing a go/no-go task

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Ashley; Tagamets, Malle A; Winkler, Anderson; Rowland, Laura M; Mathias, Charles W; Wright, Susan N; Hong, L Elliot; Kochunov, Peter; Dougherty, Donald M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Youths with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at greater risk of developing substance-use disorders relative to those with no such family histories (FH−). We previously reported that FH+ youths have elevated activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal striatum while performing go/no-go tasks and have reduced frontal white matter integrity. A better understanding of relationships between these variables would provide insight into how frontostriatal circuitry is altered in FH+ youths, which may be an important contributor to their elevated risk. Methods In this study, we used structural equation modeling (SEM) to test interactions between activity in the SMA and dorsal striatum in 72 FH+ and 32 FH− youths during go/no-go task performance and to determine whether increased activity in these regions in FH+ youths can be at least partially explained by reduced frontal white matter integrity, as indexed by anterior corona radiata fractional anisotropy and N-acetylaspartate. Results Increased dorsal striatum activity explained most (∽75%) of the elevated SMA activity in FH+ youths, and the combined contributions of increased dorsal striatal activity, and decreased white matter integrity fully explained the elevated SMA activity. Conclusions These results suggest the elevated frontal cortical activity in FH+ youths is driven both by their increased striatal activity via downstream projections and reduced white matter integrity in frontal cortical projections, the latter likely increasing frontal cortical activity due to increased energy demands required for action potential propagation. As part of our ongoing longitudinal studies we will examine how these frontostriatal alterations relate to risk for developing substance-use disorders. PMID:26221573

  9. Alcohol Alert. No. 58. Changing the Culture of Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kington, Raynard

    2002-01-01

    Drinking on college campuses is more pervasive and destructive than many people realize. The extent of the problem was recently highlighted by an extensive 3-year investigation by the Task Force on College Drinking, commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The Task Force reports that alcohol consumption is…

  10. Alcohol Sales to Youth: Data from Rural Communities Within the Cherokee Nation.

    PubMed

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Komro, Kelli A

    2016-01-01

    Access to alcohol among individuals under 21 years of age continues to be a public health concern with approximately 5000 youth deaths attributable to alcohol each year (US Department of Health and Human Services 2007). To date, there is no research on youth access to alcohol from commercial sources within rural communities with large populations of Native American families. We evaluated commercial access to alcohol by underage-appearing female confederates in 4 rural towns within the Cherokee Nation, a non-reservation tribal jurisdiction that includes a high proportion of Native Americans embedded within a predominately White population. Alcohol purchase attempts were conducted approximately every 4 weeks on 10 occasions for a total of 997 alcohol purchase attempts. In addition to purchase attempt outcome, we collected data on characteristics of the outlets and clerks. Alcohol was sold to confederates without use of age identification on 23 % of all purchase attempts. Across repeated attempts, 76 % of outlets sold alcohol to a confederate at least once. Males and younger clerks were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederates. Grocery stores and gas stations were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederate than liquor stores, but this effect was no longer significant once seller age was accounted for in a multivariable model. Three out of 4 outlets sold alcohol to young-appearing buyers at least once across repeated attempts. Results reinforce the continuing need for regular enforcement of laws against selling alcohol to minors.

  11. Alcohol sales to youth: Data from rural communities within the Cherokee Nation

    PubMed Central

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Kominsky, Terrence K.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to alcohol among individuals under 21 years of age continues to be a public health concern with approximately 5,000 youth deaths attributable to alcohol each year (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). To date, there is no research on youth access to alcohol from commercial sources within rural communities with large populations of Native American families. Methods We evaluated commercial access to alcohol by underage-appearing female confederates in 4 rural towns within the Cherokee Nation, a non-reservation tribal jurisdiction that includes a high proportion of Native Americans embedded within a predominately White population. Alcohol purchase attempts were conducted approximately every four weeks on 10 occasions for a total of 997 alcohol purchase attempts. In addition to purchase attempt outcome, we collected data on characteristics of the outlets and clerks. Results Alcohol was sold to confederates without use of age identification on 23% of all purchase attempts. Across repeated attempts, 76% of outlets sold alcohol to a confederate at least once. Males and younger clerks were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederates. Grocery stores and gas stations were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederate than liquor stores but this effect was no longer significant once seller age was accounted for in a multivariable model. Conclusion Three out of 4 outlets sold alcohol to young-appearing buyers at least once across repeated attempts. Results reinforce the continuing need for regular enforcement of laws against selling alcohol to minors. PMID:26228479

  12. Evaluating the lease vs. purchase decision.

    PubMed

    Hah, W; Lee, K J

    1993-02-01

    Each individual lease vs. purchase situation should be analyzed using the Net Present Value evaluation Method proposed to decide which method of financing is best for a particular practice. As this article is not designed to be a comprehensive resource on lease vs. purchase decision making, it is hoped that this model can be a starting point for you and your financial manager to develop a NPV/lease vs. purchase model that is more relevant to your practice.

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  14. 48 CFR 313.303-5 - Purchases under blanket purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purchase agreements. 313.303-5 Section 313.303-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Simplified Acquisition Methods 313.303-5 Purchases under blanket purchase agreements. (e)(5) HHS personnel that sign...

  15. 76 FR 79548 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ..., Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and Assumption of Liabilities AGENCY... and relevant provisions in the eligible obligations rule and the rule governing the purchase of assets... reorganizes the current rule and directs its regulatory provisions to the purchase of a loan participation....

  16. 78 FR 40953 - Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701 and 741 RIN 3133-AEOO Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible... Loan Participations; Purchase, Sale and Pledge of Eligible Obligations; Purchase of Assets and... final rule regarding loan participations was published at 78 FR 37946 (June 25, 2013) with an...

  17. Teaching about the Louisiana Purchase. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    The year 2003 marks the bicentennial of the 1803 Treaty of France, by which the United States of America acquired the Louisiana Territory, an area of more than 828,000 square miles. Upon this acquisition, known as the Louisiana Purchase, the territory of the United States doubled. Historians consider the Louisiana Purchase to be a landmark event…

  18. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal Service acquires property and services pursuant to the authority of 39 U.S.C. 410....

  19. 39 CFR 601.100 - Purchasing policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.100 Purchasing policy. The Postal Service acquires property and services pursuant to the authority of 39 U.S.C. 410....

  20. 7 CFR 17.3 - Purchase authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... expense of the participant. (2) Purchase authorizations may permit cotton textiles processed beyond the... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase authorizations. 17.3 Section 17.3 Agriculture... THE AGRICULTURAL TRADE DEVELOPMENT AND ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED § 17.3...

  1. A Guide for Purchasing Food Service Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Bobbie; Litchford, Mary D.

    This manual provides school foodservice management with information for purchasing conventional foodservice production equipment using a decision-making process and critical pathway approach. Chapters are organized by each phase of the decision-making process, and purchasing tips are highlighted throughout the guide to give suggestions, or alert…

  2. Centralized Purchasing in a Decentralized Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Brian C.

    1995-01-01

    Purchasing in the Edmonton, Alberta, Public Schools focuses on delivering service that is driven by and sensitive to the customers. Purchasing Services respond to site-based decision making, and the Distribution Centre--a central stores operation--ensures the district the best value for dollars expended. (MLF)

  3. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  4. 2 CFR 200.67 - Micro-purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Micro-purchase. 200.67 Section 200.67 Grants... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.67 Micro-purchase. Micro-purchase means... which does not exceed the micro-purchase threshold. Micro-purchase procedures comprise a subset of a...

  5. Purchasing and Accounting. MAS-116. Waste Isolation Division (WID). Management and Supervisor Training (MAST) Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM.

    This learning module, which is part of a management and supervisor training program for managers and supervisors employed at the Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Division, is designed to prepare trainees to perform purchasing and accounting tasks efficiently and effectively. The first section is an introduction to the module. The next three…

  6. Acquisition, Maintenance and Generalization of Vending Machine Purchasing Skills by Moderately Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nietupski, John; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Four elementary age moderately disabled students were taught to use a picture-prompt prosthetic to make vending machine purchases. All students reached criterion on the vending machine use task, demonstrated partial generalization to untrained machines, and three Ss exhibited maintenance as much as six weeks beyond the termination of instruction.…

  7. Purchasing in a supply chain environment.

    PubMed

    Schorr, J E

    2000-08-01

    Why the interest in purchasing? In the typical company, material costs are 40% to 75% of the cost of goods sold, labor is 5% to 15%, and the balance is burden. The typical company has $4-$5 in purchased cost to $1 in labor. Most companies are implementing material requirements planning (MRP II) and enterprise resource planning systems to control the $1 in labor and have little expectation in the area of purchasing savings. Yet a dollar saved in purchasing goes directly to the bottom line. I ran a survey of 100 Class A users of MRP II; in all 100 of the companies, the biggest payback was in the area of purchasing.

  8. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  10. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior.

  11. Alcohols toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables

  12. Does the benefits schedule of cash assistance programs affect the purchase of temptation goods?

    PubMed Central

    White, Justin S.; Basu, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    A critique of cash assistance programs is that beneficiaries may spend the money on “temptation goods” such as alcohol and tobacco. We exploit a change in the payment schedule of Peru’s conditional cash transfer program to identify the impact of benefit receipt frequency on the purchase of temptation goods. We use annual household data among cross-sectional and panel samples to analyze the effect of the policy change on the share of the household budget devoted to four categories of temptation goods. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach, we find that larger, less frequent payments increased the expenditure share of alcohol by 55–80% and sweets by 10–40%, although the absolute magnitudes of these effects are small. Our study suggests that less frequent benefits scheduling may lead cash recipients to make certain types of temptation purchases. PMID:26874596

  13. 48 CFR 970.4402 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor purchasing... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Management and Operating Contractor Purchasing 970.4402 Contractor purchasing system....

  14. 50 CFR 622.226 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) South Atlantic wild live rock. Wild live rock in or from the South Atlantic EEZ may not be sold or purchased. The prohibition on sale or purchase does not apply to wild live...

  15. Alcohol Use Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...

  16. Anticipated effects of alcohol stimulate craving and impair inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Jennings, Emily; Rose, Abigail K

    2016-05-01

    A considerable evidence base has demonstrated that priming doses of alcohol impair inhibitory control and activate motivation to consume alcohol. There is, however, a lack of studies investigating the effect of placebo-alcohol on these processes and their association with alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE). We investigated the effect of placebo-alcohol on craving and inhibitory control, and the extent to which placebo effects correlated with AOE in 32 nondependent drinkers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing typical alcohol use (fortnightly alcohol consumption, AUDIT) and AOE (measured using the Alcohol Outcome Expectancy Scale). On a within-subjects basis participants consumed a placebo-alcohol drink and control drink. Measures of craving were taken pre- and postdrink, and participants completed a go/no-go task following the drink. Craving was increased by the placebo-alcohol and, importantly, placebo-alcohol impaired inhibitory control. Furthermore expectancies of cognitive and behavioral impairment were correlated with go/no-go task performance following a placebo. Increases in craving were associated with a range of elevated outcome expectancies. This suggests that the anticipated effects of alcohol can impair inhibitory control and increase craving; therefore studies using placebo versus alcohol comparisons relative to studies using a pure no-alcohol control are underestimating the real-world effect of alcohol on these processes, which is a combination of pharmacological and anticipated effects of alcohol. Furthermore, individual differences in AOE may influence reactivity to the anticipated effects of alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. European Union Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  18. Notification: Purchase Card and Convenience Check Audit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OA-FY13-0116, April 11, 2013. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Inspector General, is beginning the fieldwork phase of its audit of the agency’s purchase card and convenience check programs.

  19. GPP Webinar: The Power of Aggregated Purchasing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Partnership webinar examining the use of an aggregated model for renewable energy purchases which can lead to significant energy, environmental and financial benefits by addressing administrative cost barriers and leveraging the shared purchasi

  20. Quick Guide: Power Purchase Agreements (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    Introduction to Federal power purchase agreements (PPAs), including available FEMP services and technical assistance as well as questions to ask when evaluating PPAs for a Federal renewable energy project.

  1. Practice Greenhealth Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. Primer for Purchasing Computer Programs: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delf, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    The second article in a series of three to help purchasers obtain the best computer programs for their budgets, deals with bid solicitation and software evaluation. The first article appeared in the July 1981 issue. (Author/MLF)

  3. Point-of-Purchase Advertising. Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackelford, Ray

    1998-01-01

    In this technology education activity, students learn the importance of advertising, conduct a day-long survey of advertising strategies, and design and produce a tabletop point-of-purchase advertisement. (JOW)

  4. Increase the Government Purchase Card Limit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    contractors and government employees has echoed down the years since the colonial days. Abuses and the ensuing public scandals produce an increasing maze...in the chart because there are certain circumstances when purchases under the $3,000 purchase card limit must still go to contracting. First, if...18 of 21 commands. The remaining three are in very large operations that push the authority down to a more junior Supply Officer whose day-to-day

  5. Task breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlich, Jane

    1990-01-01

    The topics concerning the Center for Space Construction (CSC) space construction breakdown structure are presented in viewgraph form. It is concluded that four components describe a task -- effecting, information gathering, analysis, and regulation; uncertainties effect the relative amount of information gathering and analysis that occurs; and that task timing requirements drive the 'location in time' of cognition.

  6. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...

  8. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  9. 36 CFR 223.101 - Determination of purchaser responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... purchaser has a satisfactory record of integrity and business ethics; (5) The purchaser has or is able to... and governmental business commitments; (3) The purchaser has a satisfactory performance record on... applicable laws and regulations. (c) If the prospective purchaser is a small business concern and...

  10. Extending purchasing with document management, workflow and the internet

    SciTech Connect

    SIMPSON,SUZANNE L.; PERICH,JULIE K.

    2000-02-09

    Sandia is a national security laboratory operated for the U.S. department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company. Sandia designs all non-nuclear components for the nation's nuclear weapons, performs a wide variety of energy research and development projects, and works on assignments that respond to national security threats - both military and economic. They encourage and seek partnerships with appropriate U.S. industry and government groups to collaborate on emerging technologies that support their mission. Today, Sandia has two primary facilities, one in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and one in Livermore, California. They employ about 7,600 people and manage about $1.4 billion of work per year. In 1995, a decision was made to move from their in-house developed systems to commercial software. This decision was driven partly by Y2K compliance issues associated with the existing operating system and support environment. Peoplesoft was selected for human resources and Oracle for manufacturing and financial. They implemented Peoplesoft for human resources (HR) in 1997. They then implemented 7 Oracle modules in manufacturing in October 1998, including WIP, BOM, engineering, quality, inventory, MRP, cost management and limited HR/purchasing/receiving functionality required to support manufacturing. In March of 1999, they brought a portion of their Projects module up to allow for input of project/task information by their line customers and on October 1, 1999, they went live with the fill-blown financial package. They implemented projects, GL, receivables, payables, purchasing, assets and incorporated manufacturing modules and HR. This paper will discuss the analysis and implementation of the purchasing module.

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. 24 CFR 213.257 - Premiums; purchasing cooperatives; Existing Construction; supplementary loans to purchase...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES COOPERATIVE HOUSING MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations-Projects § 213.257 Premiums; purchasing cooperatives... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Premiums; purchasing...

  14. A Point-of-Purchase Intervention Featuring In-Person Supermarket Education Affects Healthful Food Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Woolf, Kathleen; Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of a multicomponent supermarket point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person nutrition education on the nutrient composition of food purchases. Design: The design was a randomized trial comparing the intervention with usual care (no treatment). Setting and Participants: A supermarket in a…

  15. NASA Scientific Data Purchase Project: From Collection to User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Lamar; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rose

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) project is currently a $70 million operation managed by the Earth Science Applications Directorate at Stennis Space Center. The SDP project was developed in 1997 to purchase scientific data from commercial sources for distribution to NASA Earth science researchers. Our current data holdings include 8TB of remote sensing imagery consisting of 18 products from 4 companies. Our anticipated data volume is 60 TB by 2004, and we will be receiving new data products from several additional companies. Our current system capacity is 24 TB, expandable to 89 TB. Operations include tasking of new data collections, archive ordering, shipment verification, data validation, distribution, metrics, finances, customer feedback, and technical support. The program has been included in the Stennis Space Center Commercial Remote Sensing ISO 9001 registration since its inception. Our operational system includes automatic quality control checks on data received (with MatLab analysis); internally developed, custom Web-based interfaces that tie into commercial-off-the-shelf software; and an integrated relational database that links and tracks all data through operations. We've distributed nearly 1500 datasets, and almost 18,000 data files have been downloaded from our public web site; on a 10-point scale, our customer satisfaction index is 8.32 at a 23% response level. More information about the SDP is available on our Web site.

  16. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  17. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  18. Optimization of environmental water purchases with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinshead, Sarah P.; Lund, Jay R.

    2006-08-01

    Water managers are turning increasingly to market solutions to meet new environmental demands for water in fully allocated systems. This paper presents a three-stage probabilistic optimization model that identifies least cost strategies for staged seasonal water purchases for an environmental water acquisition program given hydrologic, operational, and biological uncertainties. Multistage linear programming is used to minimize the expected cost of long-term, spot, and option water purchases used to meet uncertain environmental demands. Results prescribe the location, timing, and type of optimal water purchases and illustrate how least cost strategies change as information becomes available during the year. Results also provide sensitivity analysis, including shadow values that estimate the expected cost of additional dedicated environmental water. The model's application to California's Environmental Water Account is presented with a discussion of its utility for planning and policy purposes. Model limitations and sensitivity analysis are discussed, as are operational and research recommendations.

  19. Alcoholics Anonymous

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...

  20. Alcohol Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...

  1. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  2. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  3. Are employers pursuing value-based purchasing?

    PubMed

    Maio, Vittorio; Hartmann, Christine W; Goldfarb, Neil I; Roumm, Adam R; Nash, David B

    2005-01-01

    Some employers have begun to undertake a variety of initiatives, collectively termed value-based purchasing (VBP), which aim at factoring quality into the purchasing decision-making process when negotiating costs with providers and insurers. There is evidence that the VBP movement has begun gaining momentum; yet it is unclear whether employers are firmly committed to VBP principles. By surveying a national sample of employers, this study investigates the extent to which employers are currently engaged in VBP activities and also increases our understanding of barriers hampering the broader implementation of these activities.

  4. Collective purchase behavior toward retail price changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2011-02-01

    By analyzing a huge amount of point-of-sale data collected from Japanese supermarkets, we find power law relationships between price and sales numbers. The estimated values of the exponents of these power laws depend on the category of products; however, they are independent of the stores, thereby implying the existence of universal human purchase behavior. The rate of sales numbers around these power laws are generally approximated by log-normal distributions implying that there are hidden random parameters, which might proportionally affect the purchase activity.

  5. Factors affecting a recently purchased handgun's risk for use in crime under circumstances that suggest gun trafficking.

    PubMed

    Wright, Mona A; Wintemute, Garen J; Webster, Daniel W

    2010-05-01

    While many handguns are used in crime each year in the USA, most are not. We conducted this study to identify factors present at the time of a handgun's most recent retail sale that were associated with its subsequent use in crime under circumstances suggesting that the handgun had been trafficked--purchased with the intent of diverting it to criminal use. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun purchases were of particular interest. Using data for 180,321 handguns purchased from federally licensed retailers in California in 1996, we studied attributes of the handguns, the retailers selling them, the purchasers, and the sales transactions. Our outcome measure was a handgun's recovery by a police agency, followed by a gun ownership trace, conducted by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, that determined (a) that the recovery had occurred within 3 years of the handgun's most recent purchase from a licensed retailer and (b) that the person who possessed the gun when it was recovered by police was not its most recent purchaser. Altogether, 722 handguns were recovered and had trace results that met the additional criteria. Handguns acquired in multiple-gun, same-day transactions were more likely to be traced than were single-purchase handguns (odds ratio [OR] 1.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.08 to 1.63). This was not the case for multiple-purchase handguns defined more broadly as multiple handguns purchased by one individual over any 30-day period as used in "one-gun-a-month" laws. Bivariate regressions indicated increased risk of a handgun being traced when it sold new for $150 or less (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.59 to 5.11) or had been purchased by a woman (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62 to 2.52). Handguns sold by retailers who also had a relatively high proportion (>or=2%) of purchases denied because the prospective purchasers were prohibited from owning firearms were more likely to be traced than were those sold by other retailers (OR 4.09, 95% CI 3.39 to 4

  6. Instructional Cues Modify Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balodis, Iris M.; MacDonald, Tara K.; Olmstead, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication produces impaired decision-making on tasks assessing ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex functioning and impulsive responding. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a decision-making test targeting the VMF, and the Newman Perseveration Task (NT), a measure of…

  7. 24 CFR 280.40 - Eligible purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eligible purchasers. 280.40 Section 280.40 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.103 - Purchase prices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... barrels for $0.03 per pound less than the cheddar cheese block price; (3) Butter for not less than $1.05 per pound; unless (i) Net removals of butter for a period of 12 consecutive months exceed 450,000,000 pounds, but do not exceed 650,000,000 pounds, in which case the CCC butter purchase price will be...

  9. Instructional Materials: Selection and Purchase. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Publishers, New York, NY.

    The purpose of this book is to chart procedures for the selection and purchase of instructional materials and related services for the public schools. Recent developments cited as having a significant bearing on the selection process are (1) the struggle of minority groups toward new status; (2) the increased political power of parents, students,…

  10. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J; Li, Q; Abrams, S; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Background: Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Methods: Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. Results: 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Conclusion: Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts. PMID:15791017

  11. 31 CFR 315.11 - Excess purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND U.S. SAVINGS NOTES Limitations on Annual Purchases § 315.11...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... on such lambs or lamb products on the live weight of the lamb at the time of slaughter at the rate... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  13. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... on such lambs or lamb products on the live weight of the lamb at the time of slaughter at the rate... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... on such lambs or lamb products on the live weight of the lamb at the time of slaughter at the rate... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  15. 7 CFR 1280.217 - Lamb purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... on such lambs or lamb products on the live weight of the lamb at the time of slaughter at the rate... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lamb purchases. 1280.217 Section 1280.217 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAMB PROMOTION, RESEARCH,...

  16. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  17. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  18. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  19. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.110 - First purchaser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.110 First purchaser. The term... otherwise acquiring from a producer soybeans produced by such producer; or (b) In any case in which...

  1. THE IMPACT OF EPA'S GREEN POWER PURCHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All federal agencies, including EPA, are required to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions attributed to facility energy use by 30% below 1990 levels by 2010. A key approach to reducing facility greenhouse gas emissions, employed by EPA, involves the purchase of "green power...

  2. Purchasing Books from Publishers and Wholesalers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ung Chon

    1975-01-01

    Book purchase requests for 32 titles were sent simultaneously to four different wholesalers and the publishers of the titles. The efficiency of each supplier was evaluated in terms of the number of days required to supply books and the percentage of the actual charge against the list price. (Author/PF)

  3. Consider Workplace Needs When Purchasing Office Furniture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Examines furniture-buying tips, involving workplace-needs assessment, that can help make the organization's workplace more effective. Stresses the importance of planning, tying the furniture purchasing into the strategic business, considering alternatives to furniture ownership, evaluating employee health and safety, and understanding any added…

  4. Can a Purchaser Save Money by Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the mathematics involved in comparing the purchase of an automobile with cash versus with a loan. Investigates two scenarios: (1) if a loan is taken out and the cash price is invested at a fixed rate, and (2) if cash is paid and monthly payments are invested over the period of the loan. (MDH)

  5. Technology Purchasing Forecast, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    Quality Education Data is an education research firm identifies and tracks the use of technology in education. QED surveyed a selection of all public school districts and schools in the United States about technology trends. This report provides statistics for hardware, software, and network purchases in K-12 schools for 1996-97 as compared to…

  6. Reducing Alcohol Problems on Campus: A Guide to Planning and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…

  7. 26 CFR 48.4221-3 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 48.4221-3 Section 48.4221-3 Internal Revenue... export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. (a) In general. (1) An article... 4221(a)(2) and this section, for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4221-3 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 48.4221-3 Section 48.4221-3 Internal Revenue... export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. (a) In general. (1) An article... 4221(a)(2) and this section, for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4221-3 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 48.4221-3 Section 48.4221-3 Internal Revenue... export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. (a) In general. (1) An article... 4221(a)(2) and this section, for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser...

  10. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  11. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  12. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  13. Does the benefits schedule of cash assistance programs affect the purchase of temptation goods? Evidence from Peru.

    PubMed

    White, Justin S; Basu, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    A critique of cash assistance programs is that beneficiaries may spend the money on "temptation goods" such as alcohol and tobacco. We exploit a change in the payment schedule of Peru's conditional cash transfer program to identify the impact of benefit receipt frequency on the purchase of temptation goods. We use annual household data among cross-sectional and panel samples to analyze the effect of the policy change on the share of the household budget devoted to four categories of temptation goods. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach, we find that larger, less frequent payments increased the expenditure share of alcohol by 55-80% and sweets by 10-40%, although the absolute magnitudes of these effects are small. Our study suggests that less frequent benefits scheduling may lead cash recipients to make certain types of temptation purchases.

  14. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  15. 39 CFR 601.104 - Postal purchasing authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES § 601.104 Postal purchasing..., or terminating any contract regarding the acquisition of property, services, and related...

  16. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed $25,000, if— (i) The purchase— (A) Is made... that exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold,...

  17. 48 CFR 213.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed $25,000, if— (i) The purchase— (A) Is made... that exceeds the micro-purchase threshold but does not exceed the simplified acquisition threshold,...

  18. 50 CFR 622.76 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... live rock. Wild live rock in or from the Gulf EEZ may not be sold or purchased. The prohibition on sale or purchase does not apply to wild live rock from the Gulf EEZ that was harvested and landed prior...

  19. 50 CFR 622.76 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... live rock. Wild live rock in or from the Gulf EEZ may not be sold or purchased. The prohibition on sale or purchase does not apply to wild live rock from the Gulf EEZ that was harvested and landed prior...

  20. Alcoholic sialosis.

    PubMed

    Kastin, B; Mandel, L

    2000-01-01

    Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...

  2. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...

  3. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  4. Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (i.e., the age-group between 16 and 20 years) is characterized by significant changes in neurological and cognitive processes, behavioral and social functioning, and relational and physical contexts as the individual moves toward adulthood. In this age-group, major role transitions affect almost every aspect of life. Moreover, brain development continues—and with it the development of cognitive functions, working memory, emotional and behavioral self-regulation, and decisionmaking. The adolescent’s social and emotional development also continues to evolve, affecting interactions with parents, siblings, peers, and first romantic relationships. All of these changes impact drinking behavior during late adolescence, and, in fact, alcohol use, binge drinking, and heavy drinking are particularly prevalent in youth ages 16–20. Determining the common trajectories of drinking behavior in this age–group is important for understanding how adolescent alcohol use helps shape adult outcomes and for identifying risk and protective factors. It also is important to study the short- and long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol use and abuse, including alcohol’s effects on the developing adolescent brain and accomplishment of important developmental tasks of this age. PMID:23104446

  5. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  6. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  9. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  10. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  12. 20 CFR 416.919f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 416.919f... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1519f - Type of purchased examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Type of purchased examinations. 404.1519f... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Standards for the Type of Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519f Type of purchased examinations. We will purchase only the...

  14. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Small purchases. 35.936-19 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-19 Small purchases. (a) A small purchase is the procurement of materials, supplies, and services when the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.936-19 - Small purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small purchases. 35.936-19 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-19 Small purchases. (a) A small purchase is the procurement of materials, supplies, and services when the...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5120 - Purchase eligibility requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eligibility requirement. (a) Limitations. Eligibility to purchase Farm Credit Investment Bonds shall be... purchase investment bonds from any of the institutions in the district which offer the purchase program... Credit Bank or agricultural credit bank or of any legal entity which is a borrower from any Farm...

  17. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  18. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  19. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  20. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  1. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  2. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  3. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  4. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  5. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  6. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  7. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  8. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section... Purchase—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased... Puerto Rico. No mail deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions...

  9. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  10. 31 CFR 342.4 - Purchase-registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase-registration. 342.4 Section...—registration. (a) Purchase. Savings notes, in combination with Series E bonds, could be purchased from any... deliveries elsewhere were made. (b) Registration. The following restrictions applied to original issues...

  11. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  12. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  13. College Men and Their Interest in Food Purchasing and Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciscy, Deborah M.; McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the attitudes and behaviors of male undergraduates regarding food purchasing and preparation. Good taste, expiration date, and freshness were perceived as important when purchasing food. Family and friends were regarded as helpful information sources when purchasing and preparing food. A majority of respondents wanted to learn…

  14. 48 CFR 2913.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial purchase card. 2913.301 Section 2913.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... commercial purchase card. (a) The Government purchase card has far fewer requirements for documentation...

  15. 48 CFR 8.405-3 - Blanket purchase agreements (BPAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supply or service arises. (2) Multiple-award BPAs. (i) Orders at or below the micro-purchase threshold. The ordering activity may place orders at or below the micro-purchase threshold with any BPA holder... among the BPA holders. (ii) Orders exceeding the micro-purchase threshold but not exceeding...

  16. School Food Purchasing Guide. A Special Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Thelma

    This document serves as a guide for school food service purchasing agents. It provides an overview of regulations influencing the market, as well as the factors to be considered in the purchase of meat, vegetables, produce, dairy products, and frozen foods. Sample bids and specifications for such purchases are also provided. A purchasing…

  17. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  18. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  19. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  20. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  1. 25 CFR 117.10 - Purchase of automotive equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of automotive equipment. 117.10 Section 117.10... COMPETENCY § 117.10 Purchase of automotive equipment. The superintendent may disburse from the surplus funds of an adult Indian not to exceed $2,000 for the purchase of automotive equipment when the...

  2. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Limitations on Annual Purchases § 353.10 Amounts which may be purchased. The amount of savings bonds of Series EE and HH which may be purchased and held, in the... and is limited as follows: (a) Series EE—(1) General annual limitation. $5,000 (principal amount)....

  3. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  4. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  5. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  6. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  7. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  8. Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Denise

    1989-01-01

    Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

  9. Comparison of Cooperative and Noncooperative Purchasing in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Beth W.; Strohbehn, Catherine; Shelly, Mark C.; Arendt, Susan; Gregoire, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare food cost and public school foodservice directors' satisfaction between districts participating in school foodservice cooperatives or group purchasing arrangements and districts purchasing independently. It also assessed the prevalence of purchasing cooperatives in school foodservice and…

  10. 25 CFR 117.8 - Purchase of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Purchase of land. 117.8 Section 117.8 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase of land. Upon written application of an adult Indian, the superintendent may disburse not to exceed $10,000 from the surplus funds of such Indian for the purchase of land, the title to which...

  11. 25 CFR 117.8 - Purchase of land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purchase of land. 117.8 Section 117.8 Indians BUREAU OF... Purchase of land. Upon written application of an adult Indian, the superintendent may disburse not to exceed $10,000 from the surplus funds of such Indian for the purchase of land, the title to which...

  12. 42 CFR 457.1010 - Purchase of family coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase of family coverage. 457.1010 Section 457... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1010 Purchase of family coverage. A State may purchase family coverage... family coverage is cost-effective under the standards described in § 457.1015; (b) The State does...

  13. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  14. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  16. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  18. Creative renewable energy purchasing options for businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2007-01-15

    Green energy providers are creating novel ways for large commercial clients to get involved in the long-term development of renewable energy generation. Some plans are designed to allow the purchase of energy to provide long-term off-take stability and other financial benefits to companies developing renewable energy projects. Two new insurance products could help absorb some of the financial risk taken on by the clients. (author)

  19. Relationship between involvement and functional milk desserts intention to purchase. Influence on attitude towards packaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gastón; Besio, Mariángela; Giménez, Ana; Deliza, Rosires

    2010-10-01

    Consumers perceive functional foods as member of the particular food category to which they belong. In this context, apart from health and sensory characteristics, non-sensory factors such as packaging might have a key role on determining consumers' purchase decisions regarding functional foods. The aims of the present work were to study the influence of different package attributes on consumer willingness to purchase regular and functional chocolate milk desserts; and to assess if the influence of these attributes was affected by consumers' level of involvement with the product. A conjoint analysis task was carried out with 107 regular milk desserts consumers, who were asked to score their willingness to purchase of 16 milk dessert package concepts varying in five features of the package, and to complete a personal involvement inventory questionnaire. Consumers' level of involvement with the product affected their interest in the evaluated products and their reaction towards the considered conjoint variables, suggesting that it could be a useful segmentation tool during food development. Package colour and the presence of a picture on the label were the variables with the highest relative importance, regardless of consumers' involvement with the product. The importance of these variables was higher than the type of dessert indicating that packaging may play an important role in consumers' perception and purchase intention of functional foods.

  20. Effects of a price increase on purchases of sugar sweetened beverages. Results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Waterlander, Wilma Elzeline; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M

    2014-07-01

    Sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes are receiving increased political interest. However, there have been no experimental studies of the effects of price increases on SSBs or the effects on close substitutes such as diet drinks, alcohol or sugary snacks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a price increase on SSBs on beverage and snack purchases using a randomized controlled design within a three-dimensional web-based supermarket. The trial contained two conditions: experimental condition with a 19% tax on SSBs (to reflect an increase in Dutch value added tax from 6% to 19%); and a control condition with regular prices. N = 102 participants were randomized and purchased groceries on a single occasion at a three-dimensional Virtual Supermarket. Data were analysed using independent t-tests and regression analysis. Results showed that participants in the price increase condition purchased significantly less SSBs than the control group (B = -.90; 95% CI = -1.70 to -.10 L per household per week). There were no significant effects on purchases in other beverage or snack food categories. This means that the higher VAT rate was effective in reducing SSB purchases and had no negative side-effects.

  1. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  2. Waiting for Merlot: anticipatory consumption of experiential and material purchases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Killingsworth, Matthew A; Gilovich, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Experiential purchases (money spent on doing) tend to provide more enduring happiness than material purchases (money spent on having). Although most research comparing these two types of purchases has focused on their downstream hedonic consequences, the present research investigated hedonic differences that occur before consumption. We argue that waiting for experiences tends to be more positive than waiting for possessions. Four studies demonstrate that people derive more happiness from the anticipation of experiential purchases and that waiting for an experience tends to be more pleasurable and exciting than waiting to receive a material good. We found these effects in studies using questionnaires involving a variety of actual planned purchases, in a large-scale experience-sampling study, and in an archival analysis of news stories about people waiting in line to make a purchase. Consumers derive value from anticipation, and that value tends to be greater for experiential than for material purchases.

  3. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  4. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  5. Card Perseveration Task performance and post-task feeling states: relationship to drug use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martin, C A; Rayens, M K; Kelly, T; Hartung, C; Leukefeld, C; Haigler, E

    2000-05-01

    This study examined whether performance on the Card Perseveration Task (Card Task) and self-report of feeling state after the task are related to self-report of drug use. The evaluation was of 64 adolescents from an adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic (40 males, aged 15.5 years, SD = 1.6; 24 females aged 16.9 years, SD = 1.5). Drug use histories were obtained using a substance dependence symptom checklist based on DSM-III-R. The Card Task was administered, and after completion, a Post-Task Self-Report (PTSR) was administered. A factor analysis with varimax rotation grouped the 28 items of the PTSR into Distress, Happy, Satisfied, and Wanting to Win subscales. Correlations of drug use with performance on the Card Task and the PTSR subscales were obtained. Cards Played on the Card Task were correlated with alcohol (cc = .31, p < or = .01); marijuana (cc = .35, p < or = .01) and polydrug (cc = .26, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. Money Won on the Card Task was correlated negatively with nicotine (cc = -.26, p < or = .05) and marijuana (cc = -.27, p < or = .05) dependence symptoms. The PTSR Distress subscale correlated with nicotine (cc = .49, p < or = .001), alcohol (cc = .37, p < or = .01), marijuana (cc = .39, p < or = .01), and polydrug (cc = .49, p < or = .001) dependence symptoms. These findings provide evidence that both the Card Task and feeling states associated with task performance are related to self-reports of drug use.

  6. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products.

  7. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010–11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. PMID:24632050

  8. 27 CFR 53.133 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 53.133 Section 53.133..., Etc. § 53.133 Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second..., or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. See § 53.11 for the meaning of...

  9. 27 CFR 53.133 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 53.133 Section 53.133..., Etc. § 53.133 Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second..., or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. See § 53.11 for the meaning of...

  10. 27 CFR 53.133 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 53.133 Section 53.133..., Etc. § 53.133 Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second..., or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. See § 53.11 for the meaning of...

  11. 27 CFR 53.133 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 53.133 Section 53.133..., Etc. § 53.133 Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second..., or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. See § 53.11 for the meaning of...

  12. 27 CFR 53.133 - Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. 53.133 Section 53.133..., Etc. § 53.133 Tax-free sale of articles for export, or for resale by the purchaser to a second..., or for resale by the purchaser to a second purchaser for export. See § 53.11 for the meaning of...

  13. The influence of alcohol on cognitive conflict.

    PubMed

    Kuusinen, J; Nystedt, L

    1985-01-01

    The influence of alcohol on cognitive conflict between individuals was studied by means of an experiment that was designed to be representative of real life negotiating situations, where alcohol is consumed and where two parties are required to find new common solutions to problems that they have previously learned to solve differently by themselves. The subjects were 60 male students of technology divided into experimental and control groups. The amount of alcohol (whisky) consumed by the experimental subjects produced approximately 0.08% blood alcohol concentration. In the experiment, the cognitive conflict situation was created by first training subjects to solve diagnostic medical tasks individually and then bringing two differently trained subjects together to find common solutions to similar diagnostic problems. The results showed that small amounts of alcohol do not influence cognitive behavior in a social situation where an individual has to find new solutions to problems that he has originally learned to solve in a certain way by himself.

  14. The Resting Brain of Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Jung, Young-Chul; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption affects multiple cognitive processes supported by far-reaching cerebral networks. To identify neurofunctional mechanisms underlying selective deficits, 27 sober alcoholics and 26 age-matched controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity analysis assessed the default mode network (DMN); integrative executive control (EC), salience (SA), and attention (AT) networks; primary somatosensory, auditory, and visual (VI) input networks; and subcortical reward (RW) and emotion (EM) networks. The groups showed an extensive overlap of intrinsic connectivity in all brain networks examined, suggesting overall integrity of large-scale functional networks. Despite these similar patterns, connectivity analyses identified network-specific differences of weaker within-network connectivity and expanded connectivity to regions outside the main networks in alcoholics compared with controls. For AT and VI networks, better task performance was related to expanded connectivity in alcoholism, supporting the concept of network expansion as a neural mechanism for functional compensation. For default mode, SA, RW, and EC networks, both weaker within-network and expanded outside-network connectivity correlated with poorer performance and mood. Current smoking contributed to some of these abnormalities in connectivity. The observed pattern of resting-state connectivity might reflect neural vulnerability of intrinsic networking in alcoholics and suggests a mechanism to explain signature impairments in EM, RW evaluation, and EC ability. PMID:24935777

  15. Can obviously intoxicated patrons still easily buy alcohol at on-premise establishments?

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as “overservice”) despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Methods To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in one Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only one of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons–establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently-owned establishments. Discussion Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem. PMID:26891204

  16. [Out of addictions: Alcohol, or alcohol to alcohol].

    PubMed

    Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M

    2016-06-29

    Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.

  17. 12 CFR 567.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Purchased credit card relationships, servicing...-enhancing interest-only strips, and deferred tax assets. 567.12 Section 567.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.12...

  18. 12 CFR 167.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchased credit card relationships, servicing...-enhancing interest-only strips, and deferred tax assets. 167.12 Section 167.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements §...

  19. 12 CFR 567.12 - Purchased credit card relationships, servicing assets, intangible assets (other than purchased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-taxable business combinations. A deferred tax liability that is specifically related to an intangible asset (other than purchased credit card relationships) arising from a nontaxable business combination may be netted against this intangible asset. The net amount of the intangible asset must be...

  20. Quality measurement in orthopaedics: the purchasers' view.

    PubMed

    Lansky, David; Milstein, Arnold

    2009-10-01

    While all of medicine is under pressure to increase transparency and accountability, joint replacement subspecialists will face special scrutiny. Disclosures of questionable consulting fees, a demographic shift to younger patients, and uncertainty about the marginal benefits of product innovation in a time of great cost pressure invite a serious and progressive response from the profession. Current efforts to standardize measures by the National Quality Forum and PQRI will not address the concerns of purchasers, payors, or policy makers. Instead, they will ask the profession to document its commitment to appropriateness, stewardship of resources, coordination of care, and patient-centeredness. One mechanism for addressing these expectations is voluntary development of a uniform national registry for joint replacements that includes capture of preoperative appropriateness indicators, device monitoring information, revision rates, and structured postoperative patient followup. A national registry should support performance feedback and quality improvement activity, but it must also be designed to satisfy payor, purchaser, policymaker, and patient needs for information. Professional societies in orthopaedics should lead a collaborative process to develop metrics, infrastructure, and reporting formats that support continuous improvement and public accountability.

  1. Food purchasing sites. Repercussions for healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Costa, Janaína Calu; Claro, Rafael M; Martins, Ana Paula B; Levy, Renata B

    2013-11-01

    Changes in the food system are associated with the increase in consumption of foods with low nutritional value in recent decades. Data on food purchasing for household consumption, collected from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE--Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) Household Budget Survey (HBS) in 2002-3, were used to describe the contribution of food purchasing sites (FPS) to the diet of Brazilian families. All the 241 distinct FPS mentioned in the HBS were grouped into ten categories, according to the nature of the products available. Food acquisitions were organized into seven groups. Supermarkets and hypermarkets accounted for 49% of the acquisitions and were the main source of six out of the seven food groups. Street markets and greengroceries stood out in the acquisitions of fruits and vegetables, accounting for 39% of this market. The large contribution of supermarkets and hypermarkets to the diet shows the need for healthy eating promotion policies aiming at these locations. Street markets and greengroceries represent important allies for healthy eating.

  2. Issues in Purchasing and Maintaining Intrinsic Standards

    SciTech Connect

    PETTIT,RICHARD B.; JAEGER,KLAUS; EHRLICH,CHARLES D.

    2000-09-12

    Intrinsic standards are widely used in the metrology community because they realize the best level uncertainty for many metrology parameters. For some intrinsic standards, recommended practices have been developed to assist metrologists in the selection of equipment and the development of appropriate procedures in order to realize the intrinsic standard. As with the addition of any new standard, the metrology laboratory should consider the pros and cons relative to their needs before purchasing the standard so that the laboratory obtains the maximum benefit from setting up and maintaining these standards. While the specific issues that need to be addressed depend upon the specific intrinsic standard and the level of realization, general issues that should be considered include ensuring that the intrinsic standard is compatible with the laboratory environment, that the standard is compatible with the current and future workload, and whether additional support standards will be required in order to properly maintain the intrinsic standard. When intrinsic standards are used to realize the best level of uncertainty for a specific metrology parameter, they usually require critical and important maintenance activities. These activities can including training of staff in the system operation, as well as safety procedures; performing periodic characterization measurements to ensure proper system operation; carrying out periodic intercomparisons with similar intrinsic standards so that proper operation is demonstrated; and maintaining control or trend charts of system performance. This paper has summarized many of these important issues and therefore should be beneficial to any laboratory that is considering the purchase of an intrinsic standard.

  3. Investigation of the Association Between Alcohol Outlet Density and Alcohol-Related Hospital Admission Rates in England: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, John; Green, Mark; Strong, Mark; Pearson, Tim; Meier, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Background Availability of alcohol is a major policy issue for governments, and one of the availability factors is the density of alcohol outlets within geographic areas. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the association between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions for alcohol-related conditions in a national (English) small area level ecological study. Methods This project will employ ecological correlation and cross-sectional time series study designs to examine spatial and temporal relationships between alcohol outlet density and hospital admissions. Census units to be used in the analysis will include all Lower and Middle Super-Output Areas (LSOAs and MSOAs) in England (53 million total population; 32,482 LSOAs and 6781 MSOAs). LSOAs (approximately 1500 people per LSOA) will support investigation at a fine spatial resolution. Spatio-temporal associations will be investigated using MSOAs (approximately 7500 people per MSOA). The project will use comprehensive coverage data on alcohol outlets in England (from 2003, 2007, 2010, and 2013) from a commercial source, which has estimated that the database includes 98% of all alcohol outlets in England. Alcohol outlets may be classified into two broad groups: on-trade outlets, comprising outlets from which alcohol can be purchased and consumed on the premises (eg, pubs); and off-trade outlets, in which alcohol can be purchased but not consumed on the premises (eg, off-licenses). In the 2010 dataset, there are 132,989 on-trade and 51,975 off-trade outlets. The longitudinal data series will allow us to examine associations between changes in outlet density and changes in hospital admission rates. The project will use anonymized data on alcohol-related hospital admissions in England from 2003 to 2013 and investigate associations with acute (eg, admissions for injuries) and chronic (eg, admissions for alcoholic liver disease) harms. The investigation will include the examination of conditions that

  4. Task-Oriented Spoken Dialog System for Second-Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Oh-Woog; Kim, Young-Kil; Lee, Yunkeun

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Dialog-Based Computer Assisted second-Language Learning (DB-CALL) system using task-oriented dialogue processing technology. The system promotes dialogue with a second-language learner for a specific task, such as purchasing tour tickets, ordering food, passing through immigration, etc. The dialog system plays a role of a…

  5. Estimating population food and nutrient exposure: a comparison of store survey data with household panel food purchases.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-05-28

    Population exposure to food and nutrients can be estimated from household food purchases, but store surveys of foods and their composition are more available, less costly and might provide similar information. Our aim was to compare estimates of nutrient exposure from a store survey of packaged food with those from household panel food purchases. A cross-sectional store survey of all packaged foods for sale in two major supermarkets was undertaken in Auckland, New Zealand, between February and May 2012. Longitudinal household food purchase data (November 2011 to October 2012) were obtained from the nationally representative, population-weighted New Zealand Nielsen HomeScan® panel. Data on 8440 packaged food and non-alcoholic beverage products were collected in the store survey. Food purchase data were available for 1229 households and 16 812 products. Store survey data alone produced higher estimates of exposure to Na and sugar compared with estimates from household panel food purchases. The estimated mean difference in exposure to Na was 94 (95 % CI 72, 115) mg/100 g (20 % relative difference; P<0·01), to sugar 1·6 (95 % CI 0·8, 2·5) g/100 g (11 %; P<0·01), to SFA -0·3 (95 % CI -0·8, 0·3) g/100 g (6 %; P=0·3) and to energy -18 (-71, 35) kJ/100 g (2 %; P=0·51). Compared with household panel food purchases, store survey data provided a reasonable estimate of average population exposure to key nutrients from packaged foods. However, caution should be exercised in using such data to estimate population exposure to Na and sugar and in generalising these findings to other countries, as well as over time.

  6. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  9. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  10. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Houben, Katrijn; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Wiers, Reinout W; Jansen, Anita

    2011-07-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking students were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: In the beer/no-go condition, participants performed a go/no-go task that consistently paired alcohol-related stimuli with a stopping response, to increase response inhibition for alcohol-related stimuli. In the beer/go condition, in contrast, participants were always required to respond to alcohol-related stimuli during the go/no-go task. Before and after the go/no-go manipulation, we measured weekly alcohol intake and implicit attitudes toward alcohol. In addition, we measured alcohol consumption during a taste test immediately after the go/no-go manipulation. Following the manipulation, participants in the beer/no-go condition demonstrated significantly increased negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol, and a significant reduction in weekly alcohol intake, while participants in the beer/go condition showed a non-significant increase in implicit positive attitudes toward alcohol and a significant increase in weekly alcohol intake. This study demonstrates that repeatedly stopping prepotent responses toward alcohol-related stimuli can be an effective strategy to reduce excessive alcohol use.

  11. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  12. Alcohol-related stimuli reduce inhibitory control of behavior in drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Jessica, Weafer; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Poor behavioral control and heightened attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli have independently received considerable attention in regard to their roles in alcohol abuse. Theoretical accounts have begun to speculate as to potential reciprocal interactions between these two mechanisms that might promote excessive alcohol consumption, yet experimental evidence is lacking. Objectives The objective of the study was to integrate these two lines of research through the development of a novel laboratory task that examines the degree to which alcohol cues serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control. Methods Fifty adult drinkers were recruited to perform the attentional bias–behavioral activation (ABBA) task. The ABBA task, an adaptation of traditional cued go/no-go tasks, is a reaction time model that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can increase behavioral activation of a drinker and reduce the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. Participants also completed a novel measure of attentional bias, the scene inspection paradigm (SIP), that measures fixation time on alcohol content imbedded in complex scenes. Results As hypothesized, the proportion of inhibitory failures on the ABBA task was significantly higher following alcohol images compared to neutral images. Correlational analyses showed that heightened attentional bias on the SIP was associated with greater response activation following alcohol images on the ABBA task. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol stimuli serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control, and that heightened attentional bias is associated with greater disruption of control mechanisms following alcohol images. PMID:22358851

  13. User's demography and expectation regarding search, purchase and evaluation in mobile application store.

    PubMed

    Prata, Wilson; de Moraes, Anamaria; Quaresma, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    This article is result from a questionnaire about mobile app store usage. The objective of this work was to collect information about user needs and opinion regarding search, purchase and evaluation process in Android Market, Apple App Store, BlackBerry App World and Nokia Ovi Store. The data collected was analyzed to identify the positive and negative usability aspects, if the process to perform these task are any different in those stores and if the users are satisfy with their store or if they have any complains about it. Its covers the brazilian market only.

  14. A dynamic panel model of the associations of sweetened beverage purchases with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-05-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers.

  15. E-commerce. Point, click, purchase.

    PubMed

    Menduno, M

    1999-10-01

    Many in health care may still be technology-shy, but there are big savings to be found in business-to-business e-commerce. Some experts estimate that electronic purchasing can trim 18 to 45 percent of costs out of the health care supply chain. That could revolutionize the $140 billion supply industry--but only if buyers and sellers can get on the same page. A whole host of companies are springing up to make that link. It won't be easy. "Anyone can do online ordering," says Joseph Miccio of NCI Consulting. "The real challenge for these vendors is to simultaneously connect all the players in the supply chain through a common database."

  16. Electronic commerce can cut purchasing costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Electronic commerce could be the most important strategy exercised by utilities involved in transmission and distribution in the next five to ten years. One key element of electronic commerce is electronic data interchange (EDI). EDI is the direct, standardized computer-to-computer exchange of business documents, such as purchase orders, invoices, payments and inventory analysis between trading partners. EDI enables business documents delivery in seconds instead of days. Inventory has been a big expense for utilities, especially in the transmission and distribution area. In order to provide and restore electrical service to customers, utilities have been required to stock high levels of many different items. At times, warehouse personnel have had difficulty determining the minimum quantity needed for a particular part so items are stocked just-in-case.Electronic commerce will allow utilities to more accurately determine minimum stocking requirements and reduce inventory without sacrificing customer service.

  17. Tween consumers: catalog clothing purchase behavior.

    PubMed

    Simpson, L; Douglas, S; Schimmel, J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the catalog shopping behavior of students in their tween years (i.e., between childhood and adolescence; ages 12-14) with that of older students (ages 15-18). Junior high and high school students who had purchased clothing from a catalog in the past 12 months responded to a questionnaire that examined the label information sought and product-specific attributes considered. Results indicated that tweens were more concerned with style, brand names, and the latest fashion than were older students. This finding was especially interesting, as these attributes all relate to status; the tweens were more interested than the older students in wearing the latest fashions, being in style, and gaining the prestige of wearing brand-name clothing. This supports previous findings indicating that the tween years are a time when peer pressure and "fitting in" are very important.

  18. Purchasing a decentralized medication management system.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Decentralized medication management systems (DMMSs) are used in hospitals, long-term care facilities, prisons, outpatient clinics, surgery centers, and other places to manage the distribution of drugs. DMMSs consist of storage compartments for medications, with an internal computer that controls and records the administration of drugs. Some DMMSs are stationary cabinets and others are mobile carts. There have been important advances in DMMS technology since we evaluated these products in 1996, including enhanced computer memory and processing power, wider adoption of wireless networking, better user interfaces, and greater integration with other hospital information systems. To get the most out of a DMMS purchase or upgrade, facilities will need careful planning that involves assessing their own needs, selecting hardware and software configurations that meet those needs, and then choosing the right vendor and model. A properly selected DMMS can help to enforce medication distribution policies, prevent errors, and streamline processes.

  19. Online purchases in an Infocomm sophisticated society.

    PubMed

    Goby, Valerie Priscilla

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation of attitude and intention in relation to online shopping in Singapore. Singaporeans display high levels of Infocomm proficiency, the result of many intense government initiatives to transform the country into an Intelligent Community. Does this Internet embracing environment enhance attitude and intention to online shopping? This study considers the links between personal consequences, subjective norms, behavioral control, and personal innovativeness with attitude and intention among Singaporeans. It uses a model based on the Theory of Planned Behavior and makes some initial comparisons of its findings with those of existing studies. The effects of behavioral control and intention on actual purchase behavior are not investigated. Findings permit the tentative proposition that level of Infocomm knowledge impacts on attitude and intention.

  20. Alcohol fuels technology program: Byng public school. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    This is the final report for the Energy Grant awarded to Byng School for the purpose of building a distillery and producing fuel alcohol to be used in the school vehicles. The distillery has been built and alcohol has been produced and tested. At the time of the grant award, it was feared gasoline would soon retail for $4 per gallon. Fortunately, this has not been the case and the school is able to purchase gasoline for about 97 cents. As it cost 93 cents per gallon to produce alcohol in the distillery, the plan to produce alcohol for use in the busses has temporarily been set aside. We are holding the distillery ready for production as insurance against an increase in gasoline price. The plant and process are described.

  1. Radiotherapy equipment--purchase or lease?

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A; Ward, A

    2001-08-01

    Against a background of increasing demand for radiotherapy equipment, this study was undertaken to investigate options for equipment procurement, in particular to compare purchase with lease. The perceived advantages of lease are that equipment can be acquired within budget and cashflow constraints, with relatively low amounts of cash leaving the NHS in the first year, avoiding the necessity of capitalizing the equipment and providing protection against the risk of obsolescence associated with high technology equipment. The perceived disadvantages of leasing are that the Trust does not own the equipment, leasing can be more expensive in revenue terms, the tender process is extended and there may be lease conditions to be met, which may be costly and/or restrictive. There are also a number of technical considerations involved in the leasing of radiotherapy equipment that influence the financial analysis and practical operation of the radiotherapy service. The technical considerations include servicing and planned preventative maintenance, upgrades, spare parts, subsequent purchase of "add ons", modification of equipment, research and development work, commencement of the lease period, return of equipment at the end of the lease period and negotiations at the end of the lease period. A study from Raigmore Hospital, Inverness is described, which involves the procurement of new, state-of-the-art radiotherapy equipment. This provides an overview of the procurement process, including a summary of the advantages and disadvantages of leasing, with the figures from the financial analysis presented and explained. In addition, a detailed description is given of the technical considerations to be taken into account in the financial analysis and negotiation of any lease contract.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D

    2006-04-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the previous monosodium titanate (MST) purchase specifications for particle size and strontium decontamination factor. Based on the measured particle size and filtration performance characteristics of several MST samples with simulated waste solutions and various filter membranes we recommend changing the particle size specification as follows. The recommended specification varies with the size and manufacturer of the filter membrane as shown below. We recommend that future batches of MST received at SRS be tested for particle size and filtration performance. This will increase the available database and provide increased confidence that particle size parameters are an accurate prediction of filtration performance. Testing demonstrated the feasibility of a non-radiochemical method for evaluating strontium removal performance of MST samples. Using this analytical methodology we recommend that the purchase specification include the requirement that the MST exhibits a strontium DF factor of >1.79 upon contact with a simulated waste solution with composition as reported for simulated waste solution SWS-7-2005-1 in Table 1 and containing 5.2 to 5.7 mg L{sup -1} strontium with 0.1 g L{sup -1} of the MST. We also recommend performing additional tests with these simulants and MST samples and, if available, new MST samples, to determine the reproducibility and increase the available database for the measurements by the ICP-ES instrument. These measurements will provide increased confidence that the non-radiological method provides a reliable method for evaluating the strontium and actinide removal performance for MST samples.

  3. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Through NOFAS Affiliates 0 Comments The number of organizations and advocates dedicated to addressing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders–and their influence and effectiveness–is steadily growing, leading... Read More → 20 Mar NOFAS Launches FASD Justice Task Force 0 Comments Under the guidance of ...

  4. "Procurement Cards" Help Colleges Reduce Paperwork and Delays in Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Joye

    1995-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges and universities are using procurement cards, which are credit cards with limited usage, for institutional faculty and staff to make small purchases without going through costly and inefficient purchasing channels. Some concerns include distribution of cards, increased liability, and monitoring of expenditures. (MSE)

  5. Reaffirming Some Basic Principles in Purchasing and Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Throop, Harold L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Reaffirms necessary elements for the successful operation of college purchasing and maintenance programs (e.g., purchasing calendar, bidding procedures, vendor selection, contracting services, budgeting for maintenance, and workforce analysis). Discusses ways some colleges are saving on operating costs (e.g., solar energy, energy management,…

  6. 48 CFR 453.303-838 - Purchase Order (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purchase Order (AD-838). 453.303-838 Section 453.303-838 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 453.303-838 Purchase Order (AD-838)....

  7. 24 CFR 982.317 - Lease-purchase agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease-purchase agreements. 982.317... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.317 Lease... homeownership premium (e.g., increment of value attributable to the value of the lease-purchase right...

  8. Assessment of perception and intention in pesticide purchase in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jong Chao; Liao, Chih-Hsiang

    2016-05-01

    Environmental chemical agents such as pesticides can be purchased easily at a relatively low price, and this has resulted in high concern of environmental toxicity to human health, due to their persistence in various environmental bodies. Hence, this study aims to propose important factors influencing pesticide purchase intentions, including consumers' perceptions of the brand image and the ecological health risk. Since consumers are primary users, the seller knows the product's features but not the psychology of those who purchase it. Therefore, we attempted to clarify purchase intentions and perceptions using structural equation modeling techniques to empirically analyze survey data from 324 pesticide consumers in Taiwan. Our results demonstrate that perceived brand image positively affects perceived quality of a product, whereas perceived risk negatively affects perceived quality and purchase intentions. Furthermore, this study provides evidence that perceived quality positively affects purchase intentions. These relationships suggest that perceived quality mediates both the positive association between brand image and purchase intentions and the negative association between perceived risk and purchase intentions. Based on such outcomes, we propose that consumers need to be informed of pesticides related to costs and environmental benefits.

  9. 39 CFR 601.102 - Revocation of prior purchasing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation of prior purchasing regulations. 601.102 Section 601.102 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES §...

  10. 39 CFR 601.102 - Revocation of prior purchasing regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Revocation of prior purchasing regulations. 601.102 Section 601.102 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCUREMENT SYSTEM FOR THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OTHER THAN PATENTS PURCHASING OF PROPERTY AND SERVICES §...

  11. 50 CFR 622.473 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.473 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) Caribbean prohibited coral. (1) No person may sell or purchase a Caribbean prohibited coral harvested in the Caribbean EEZ. (2) A Caribbean prohibited coral...

  12. 50 CFR 622.473 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.473 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) Caribbean prohibited coral. (1) No person may sell or purchase a Caribbean prohibited coral harvested in the Caribbean EEZ. (2) A Caribbean prohibited coral...

  13. 48 CFR 811.104-71 - Purchase description clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Documents 811.104-71 Purchase description clauses. (a) When a solicitation uses “brand name or equal..., Brand name or equal, and the provision set forth at FAR 52.214-21, Descriptive Literature. The... provision. (b) When a “brand name or equal” purchase description is included in an invitation for bids,...

  14. 48 CFR 208.7005 - Military interdepartmental purchase requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Military interdepartmental... Coordinated Acquisition 208.7005 Military interdepartmental purchase requests. Follow the procedures at— (a) PGI 253.208-1 when using DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request; and (b) PGI...

  15. 18 CFR 292.311 - Reinstatement of obligation to purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electric energy, a qualifying cogeneration facility, a qualifying small power production facility, a State... utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section...

  16. 18 CFR 292.311 - Reinstatement of obligation to purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... electric energy, a qualifying cogeneration facility, a qualifying small power production facility, a State... utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section...

  17. 18 CFR 292.311 - Reinstatement of obligation to purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electric energy, a qualifying cogeneration facility, a qualifying small power production facility, a State... utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section...

  18. 18 CFR 292.311 - Reinstatement of obligation to purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... electric energy, a qualifying cogeneration facility, a qualifying small power production facility, a State... utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section...

  19. 18 CFR 292.311 - Reinstatement of obligation to purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... electric energy, a qualifying cogeneration facility, a qualifying small power production facility, a State... utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to purchase electric energy under this section...

  20. 48 CFR 453.303-838 - Purchase Order (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purchase Order (AD-838). 453.303-838 Section 453.303-838 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 453.303-838 Purchase Order (AD-838)....

  1. 48 CFR 453.303-838 - Purchase Order (AD-838).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purchase Order (AD-838). 453.303-838 Section 453.303-838 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 453.303-838 Purchase Order (AD-838)....

  2. Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescent Smokers: Free or Purchased?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Paul; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Forster, Jean L.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have described youth cigarette sources in terms of whether the cigarettes were free or purchased. Understanding the different ways youth obtain tobacco can guide development of interventions to more effectively reduce youth smoking. Purpose: To determine the propensity for youth to purchase cigarettes versus obtain cigarettes for free,…

  3. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  4. 48 CFR 1313.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. The Department's procedures for the use and control of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are set forth in CAM 1313.301....

  5. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  6. 48 CFR 413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial....301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. USDA policy and procedures on use of the Governmentwide commercial purchase card are established in Departmental Regulation Series 5000....

  7. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Governmentwide commercial... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the use of the government-wide commercial purchase card are contained in its Handbook on the...

  8. 48 CFR 2413.301 - Governmentwide commercial purchase card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Governmentwide commercial... Acquisition Methods 2413.301 Governmentwide commercial purchase card. (c) HUD's procedures concerning the use of the government-wide commercial purchase card are contained in its Handbook on the...

  9. 7 CFR 1962.13 - Notification to potential purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Security § 1962.13 Notification to potential purchasers. (a) In States without a Central Filing System (CFS... requested, to these potential purchasers to protect the Government's security interest. (1) The name and address of the debtor. (2) The name and address of any secured party. (3) The Social Security number...

  10. 48 CFR 970.5244-1 - Contractor purchasing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5244-1 Contractor purchasing system. As prescribed in 970... transaction and the price paid. The Contractor's purchasing performance will be evaluated against...

  11. 48 CFR 208.7005 - Military interdepartmental purchase requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Military interdepartmental... Coordinated Acquisition 208.7005 Military interdepartmental purchase requests. Follow the procedures at— (a) PGI 253.208-1 when using DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request; and (b) PGI...

  12. 48 CFR 208.7005 - Military interdepartmental purchase requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Military interdepartmental... Coordinated Acquisition 208.7005 Military interdepartmental purchase requests. Follow the procedures at— (a) PGI 253.208-1 when using DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request; and (b) PGI...

  13. 48 CFR 208.7005 - Military interdepartmental purchase requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Military interdepartmental... Coordinated Acquisition 208.7005 Military interdepartmental purchase requests. Follow the procedures at— (a) PGI 253.208-1 when using DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request; and (b) PGI...

  14. 48 CFR 208.7005 - Military interdepartmental purchase requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Military interdepartmental... Coordinated Acquisition 208.7005 Military interdepartmental purchase requests. Follow the procedures at— (a) PGI 253.208-1 when using DD Form 448, Military Interdepartmental Purchase Request; and (b) PGI...

  15. 12 CFR 612.2270 - Purchase of System obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of System obligations. 612.2270 Section 612.2270 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM STANDARDS OF CONDUCT AND REFERRAL OF KNOWN OR SUSPECTED CRIMINAL VIOLATIONS Standards of Conduct § 612.2270 Purchase of...

  16. Realignment of the Army Government Purchase Card Program in Japan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    17  c.  Data Mining ............................................................................17  d.  Risk Assessment ...Purchase Card On-line System PCPMO Purchase Card Program Management Office RA Risk Assessment RM resource manager ROK Republic of Korea SCCS...coding process that identifies the type of business a merchant provides. A few examples of blocked merchants are antique shops, casinos , escort services

  17. Practical Applications of Data Processing to School Purchasing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Association of School Business Officials, San Diego. Imperial Section.

    Electronic data processing provides a fast and accurate system for handling large volumes of routine data. If properly employed, computers can perform myriad functions for purchasing operations, including purchase order writing; equipment inventory control; vendor inventory; and equipment acquisition, transfer, and retirement. The advantages of…

  18. 12 CFR 616.6700 - Stock purchase requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stock purchase requirements. 616.6700 Section 616.6700 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6700 Stock purchase requirements. (a) Each System institution, except the Farm Credit Leasing Services...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix D to Part 599 - CARS Purchaser Survey

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CARS Purchaser Survey D Appendix D to Part 599 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... RECYCLE AND SAVE ACT PROGRAM Pt. 599, App. D Appendix D to Part 599—CARS Purchaser Survey ER29JY09.008...

  4. 50 CFR 622.250 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Section 622.250 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.250 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) A female golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ may not be sold or purchased. (b) A golden...

  5. 50 CFR 622.250 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Section 622.250 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ATLANTIC Golden Crab Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.250 Restrictions on sale/purchase. (a) A female golden crab in or from the South Atlantic EEZ may not be sold or purchased. (b) A golden...

  6. 5 CFR 831.407 - Purchase of additional annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purchase of additional annuity. 831.407 Section 831.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.407 Purchase of additional annuity. (a)...

  7. 5 CFR 831.407 - Purchase of additional annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purchase of additional annuity. 831.407 Section 831.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.407 Purchase of additional annuity. (a)...

  8. 5 CFR 831.407 - Purchase of additional annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purchase of additional annuity. 831.407 Section 831.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.407 Purchase of additional annuity. (a)...

  9. 5 CFR 831.407 - Purchase of additional annuity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purchase of additional annuity. 831.407 Section 831.407 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Voluntary Contributions § 831.407 Purchase of additional annuity. (a)...

  10. 18 CFR 292.304 - Rates for purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... capacity or energy from a qualifying facility during the system daily and seasonal peak periods, including... facilities on the electric utility's system; and (vii) The smaller capacity increments and the shorter lead... purchasing electric utility generated an equivalent amount of energy itself or purchased an equivalent...

  11. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... or refining capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors,...

  12. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... or refining capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors,...

  13. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... or refining capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors,...

  14. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... or refining capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors,...

  15. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  16. University students' drinking patterns and problems: examining the effects of raising the purchase age.

    PubMed Central

    Engs, R C; Hanson, D J

    1988-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature on college students' drinking patterns and problems since the mid-1930s revealed no radical changes over the past several decades. However, during the past 10 years, drinking and problems related to drinking and driving have gradually decreased among college students. Results of a study of students at the same 56 colleges and universities throughout the United States (3,145 in 1982-83, 2,797 in 1984-85, and 3,375 in 1987-88) revealed few changes in collegiate drinking patterns and problems attributable to the nationwide increase in the minimum age for alcohol purchase. There was a decline in the proportion of students who drank in the period during which the law changed. However, the proportion of students categorized as heavy drinkers remained constant over time and the proportion of underage students (81 percent) who drank was higher than the proportion of legal age students who drank (75 percent). Of 17 problems related to drinking, all but 5 remained stable over the time periods. Three of the problems represent the continuum of an established trend of fewer students to indicating drinking and driving-related problems. As discussed in this paper, creative alcohol programming can assist in controlling alcohol abuse among college students. PMID:3141963

  17. Mood, cue and gender influences on motivation, craving and liking for alcohol in recreational drinkers.

    PubMed

    Willner, P; Field, M; Pitts, K; Reeve, G

    1998-11-01

    The effects of exposure to an alcohol-related cue (drinking low-alcohol beer) and a musical depression/elation mood induction procedure, on craving, motivation and liking for alcohol, were studied in male and female recreational drinkers. Alcohol craving was assessed using the multidimensional desires for alcohol questionnaire (DAQ), motivation for alcohol was assessed by performance on a progressive ratio (PR) task reinforced with small volumes (25 ml) of low-alcohol beer, and liking for the reinforcers earned in the PR task was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Consumption of a half-pint of low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in male subjects but had no effect or decreased craving in female subjects. Subsequent induction of a depressed mood increased craving scores, relative to elated or neutral mood groups, but these effects were confined to abstinent (non-cued) subjects, both male and female. Performance on the PR task correlated significantly with one of the four factors of the DAQ, negative reinforcement, and was increased by induction of a depressed mood in abstinent female and cued male subjects. Reinforcer liking was unchanged following mood induction in male subjects, but decreased in both groups of female subjects. To summarize, the cue of drinking low-alcohol beer increased alcohol craving in men but not in women, and induction of a depressed mood increased alcohol craving and motivation, but also decreased alcohol liking. These effects were present to different extents in different cue/gender subgroups, and were partially independent.

  18. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.

  19. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...

  20. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  1. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  3. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing.

  4. Prefrontal correlates of approach preferences for alcohol stimuli in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lena H; Plichta, Michael M; Dresler, Thomas; Zesewitz, Anna K; Tupak, Sara V; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fischer, Matthias; Polak, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-05-01

    An approach bias for alcohol stimuli (i.e. faster approach than avoidance reactions) might facilitate relapses in alcohol dependence. Neurobiological models suggest hypersensitivity in the reward system [inter alia nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] to cause pathologically enhanced approach impulses towards alcohol stimuli. At the same time, in alcohol dependence, these structures are only insufficiently controlled by a hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study investigated the cortical aspects of this model with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in 21 alcohol-dependent in-patients and 21 healthy controls (HC; comparable in age, gender and education) during performance of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for the first time. Complementing previous findings, in reaction times (RTs), patients showed stronger approach preferences for alcohol than non-alcohol stimuli. For non-alcohol stimuli, patients even displayed avoidance preferences. The reversed pattern was found in HC. Group differences in activity of the OFC were identical to those in RTs, revealing patients to assign higher subjective value to approaching alcohol stimuli. In both groups, regulatory activity in the right DLPFC was stronger during avoiding than approaching alcohol pictures. Probable awareness of the behavioural hypotheses due to explicit task instructions and patients' deficient prefrontal function might account for this equally aligned pattern. Results are discussed with regard to recent findings revealing a reduced behavioural approach bias and risk for relapse by applying a retraining version of the AAT. Functional measurements might serve as a method for monitoring the corresponding neurobiological changes and-possibly-predicting the success of such a training.

  5. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  7. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  8. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.

  9. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O; Martins, Isabelle Christine V S; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C B; Souza, Givago S; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M; Rodrigues, Anderson R; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject's ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject's colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants.

  10. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  11. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  12. 16 CFR 1406.4 - Requirements to provide performance and technical notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: Creosote Formation and Need for Removal When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar and other vapors, which... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING APPLIANCES... notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers. Manufacturers, including importers, of coal and...

  13. 16 CFR 1406.4 - Requirements to provide performance and technical notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Creosote Formation and Need for Removal When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar and other vapors, which... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING APPLIANCES... notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers. Manufacturers, including importers, of coal and...

  14. 16 CFR 1406.4 - Requirements to provide performance and technical notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: Creosote Formation and Need for Removal When wood is burned slowly, it produces tar and other vapors, which... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS COAL AND WOOD BURNING APPLIANCES... notice to prospective purchasers and purchasers. Manufacturers, including importers, of coal and...

  15. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  16. Alcohol and aggression in a group interaction.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, D; Pihl, R O

    1985-01-01

    Forty-four volunteer male subjects participated in groups of four along with two experimental confederates in a group interaction after consuming either 1.32 mg/kg of 95% USP alcohol or placebo. According to a balanced-placebo design, subjects were told they were either consuming alcohol or placebo. The task of one confederate was to initiate conversation and distract subjects from monitoring their state of intoxication while the second confederate's role was to antagonize subjects at a prescribed time. Sessions were videotaped and rated for frequency of positive and negative interactions and subjects completed rating scales evaluating each other. The results failed to show an expectancy effect on any measures; however, there was an alcohol effect seen in an increase in negative interactions as well as positive interactions and a significant expectancy X alcohol interaction for negative ratings of the provocative confederate. In those groups where the manipulation matched the expectation, alcohol-told alcohol and placebo-told placebo the confederate was seen more negatively than in the mixed groups. An attributional explanation for the results is offered and the generality of the alcohol-expectancy phenomenon questioned.

  17. 78 FR 17673 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews. A... Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews, by any of the following...

  18. 77 FR 51783 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Contractors' Purchasing Systems Reviews AGENCY: Department of Defense... previously approved information collection requirement concerning contractors' purchasing systems reviews...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0132, Contractors' Purchasing Systems...

  19. ERP Correlates of Simulated Purchase Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Patrick D.; Drizinsky, Jessica; Zülch, Joachim; Falkenstein, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Decision making in economic context is an everyday activity but its neuronal correlates are poorly understood. The present study aimed at investigating the electrophysiological brain activity during simulated purchase decisions of technical products for a lower or higher price relative to a mean price estimated in a pilot study. Expectedly, participants mostly decided to buy a product when it was cheap and not to buy when it was expensive. However, in some trials they made counter-conformity decisions to buy a product for a higher than the average price or not to buy it despite an attractive price. These responses took more time and the variability of the response latency was enhanced relative to conformity responses. ERPs showed enhanced conflict related fronto-central N2 during both types of counter-conformity compared to conformity decisions. A reverse pattern was found for the P3a and P3b. The response-locked P3 (r-P3) was larger and the subsequent CNV smaller for counter-conformity than conformity decisions. We assume that counter-conformity decisions elevate the response threshold (larger N2), intensify response evaluation (r-P3) and attenuate the preparation for the next trial (CNV). These effects were discussed in the framework of the functional role of the fronto-parietal cortex in economic decision making. PMID:27551258

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure and miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposures and conditions. Consequently, attributing poor birth outcomes to prenatal alcohol exposure is a complicated and ongoing task, requiring continued attention to validated methodology and to identifying specific biological mechanisms.

  1. The relative relativity of material and experiential purchases.

    PubMed

    Carter, Travis J; Gilovich, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to spending disposable income, experiential purchases tend to make people happier than material purchases (Van Boven & Gilovich, 2003). But why are experiences more satisfying? We propose that the evaluation of experiences tends to be less comparative than that of material possessions, such that potentially invidious comparisons have less impact on satisfaction with experiences than with material possessions. Support for this contention was obtained in 8 studies. We found that participants were less satisfied with their material purchases because they were more likely to ruminate about unchosen options (Study 1); that participants tended to maximize when selecting material goods and satisfice when selecting experiences (Study 2); that participants examined unchosen material purchases more than unchosen experiential purchases (Study 3); and that, relative to experiences, participants' satisfaction with their material possessions was undermined more by comparisons to other available options (Studies 4 and 5A), to the same option at a different price (Studies 5B and 6), and to the purchases of other individuals (Study 5C). Our results suggest that experiential purchase decisions are easier to make and more conducive to well-being.

  2. Determinants of consumer intention to purchase animal-friendly milk.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, Sophie; Van Loo, Ellen J; Bijttebier, Jo; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Lauwers, Ludwig; Tuyttens, Frank A M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-10-01

    Concern about the welfare of production animals is growing among various stakeholders, including the general public. Citizens can influence the market for premium welfare products by expressing public concerns, and consumers-the actors who actually purchase products-can do so through their purchasing behavior. However, current market shares for premium welfare products are small in Europe. To better align purchase behavior with public and individuals' concerns, insight is needed into determinants that influence the intention to purchase premium welfare products. A cross-sectional online survey of 787 Flemish milk consumers was conducted to investigate attitudes toward and intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. More than half of the sample (52.5%) expressed the intention to purchase animal-friendly milk. Linear regression modeling indicated that intention was positively influenced by (1) higher perceived product benefits from animal-friendly milk (milk with more health benefits and higher quality); (2) higher personal importance of extrinsic product attributes such as local production and country of origin; (3) higher personal importance of animal welfare; (4) a more natural living oriented attitude toward cows; and (5) a more positive general attitude toward milk. Intention was negatively influenced by (1) a stronger business-oriented attitude toward cows; and (2) by a higher personal importance attached to price. These insights in key components of purchase intention can assist producers, the dairy industry, and retailers to position and market animal-friendly milk.

  3. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  4. Disinhibited personality and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement: independent correlates of drinking behavior in sons of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Conrod, P J; Petersen, J B; Pihl, R O

    1997-10-01

    Thirty nonalcoholic young (18 to 30 years) males with extensive multigenerational family histories of male alcoholism and 29 age-matched, family history-negative controls completed a variety of trait personality questionnaires, participated in a competitive stress task (while sober and alcohol-intoxicated), and were assessed for self-report and laboratory drinking behavior. Low academic achievement, disinhibited personality (as measured by the P Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were significant and powerful independent predictors of self-report (approximate R2 = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and laboratory (approximate R2 = 0.20, p < 0.0001) drinking behavior. There seemed to be some specificity with respect to the facets of drinking behavior accounted for by each independent variable: low academic achievement and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were more related to quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of excessive consumption, whereas psychoticism was more related to self-reported negative consequences with alcohol. A cluster analysis on three identified correlates of drinking behavior indicated that the two experimental groups could be more accurately subdivided into three homogeneous types. Multigenerational family history males were disproportionately represented in two of these groups: one characterized by enhanced sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement and the other characterized by high psychoticism scores and alcohol-related problems.

  5. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  6. THE SHEFFIELD ALCOHOL POLICY MODEL - A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel; Angus, Colin; Holmes, John

    2014-09-30

    This methodology paper sets out a mathematical description of the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.0, a model to evaluate public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction in the UK. Policies that can be appraised include a minimum price per unit of alcohol, restrictions on price discounting, and broader public health measures. The model estimates the impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers, retailers and government tax revenues. The synthesis of public and commercial data sources to inform the model structure is described. A detailed algebraic description of the model is provided. This involves quantifying baseline levels of alcohol purchasing and consumption by age and gender subgroups, estimating the impact of policies on consumption, for example, using evidence on price elasticities of demand for alcohol, quantification of risk functions relating alcohol consumption to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and finally monetary valuation of the consequences. The results framework, shown for a minimum price per unit of alcohol, has been used to provide policy appraisals for the UK government policy-makers. In discussion and online appendix, we explore issues around valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions, and ongoing plans for further development. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  8. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  9. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  10. 42 CFR 413.98 - Purchase discounts and allowances, and refunds of expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... they are due. Trade discounts are reductions from list prices granted to a class of customers before... individual or aggregate purchase transactions. Whatever the classification of purchase discounts,...

  11. Alcoholism and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Heine, M W

    1981-01-01

    A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.

  12. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1984-01-10

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  13. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  15. A Dynamic Panel Model of the Associations of Sweetened Beverage Purchases With Dietary Quality and Food-Purchasing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Ng, Shu Wen; Mendez, Michelle A.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the association between consumption of sweetened beverages and dietary quality is challenging because issues such as reverse causality and unmeasured confounding might result in biased and inconsistent estimates. Using a dynamic panel model with instrumental variables to address those issues, we examined the independent associations of beverages sweetened with caloric and low-calorie sweeteners with dietary quality and food-purchasing patterns. We analyzed purchase data from the Homescan survey, an ongoing, longitudinal, nationally representative US survey, from 2000 to 2010 (n = 34,294). Our model included lagged measures of dietary quality and beverage purchases (servings/day in the previous year) as exposures to predict the outcomes (macronutrient (kilocalories per capita per day; %), total energy, and food purchases) in the next year after adjustment for other sociodemographic covariates. Despite secular declines in purchases (kilocalories per capita per day) from all sources, each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage type resulted in higher purchases of total daily kilocalories and kilocalories from food, carbohydrates, total sugar, and total fat. Each 1-serving/day increase in consumption of either beverage was associated with more purchases of caloric-sweetened desserts or sweeteners, which accounted for a substantial proportion of the increase in total kilocalories. We concluded that consumers of both beverages sweetened with low-calorie sweeteners and beverages sweetened with caloric sweeteners had poorer dietary quality, exhibited higher energy from all purchases, sugar, and fat, and purchased more caloric-sweetened desserts/caloric sweeteners compared with nonconsumers. PMID:25834139

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  17. "Task" as Research Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  18. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social... may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  19. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  20. Leftward lighting in advertisements increases advertisement ratings and purchase intention.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Jennifer; Thomas, Nicole A; Elias, Lorin

    2011-07-01

    It has been reliably shown that light is assumed to come from above. There is also some suggestion that light from the left might be preferred. Leftward lighting biases have been observed across various mediums such as paintings, portraits, photographs, and advertisements. As advertisements are used to persuade the public to purchase products, it was of interest to better understand whether leftward lighting would influence future intention to purchase. Participants gave preference ratings for pairs of advertisements with opposing lighting directions. Attitude towards the advertisement and the brand as well as future purchase intention was then rated. Overall, participants indicated that they preferred advertisements with leftward lighting and were more likely to purchase these products in the future than when the same products were lit from the right. Findings are consistent with previously observed leftward lighting biases and suggest that advertisements with a leftward lighting bias might be more effective.

  1. U.S. Green Building Council - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  2. 50 CFR 622.40 - Restrictions on sale/purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.40 Restrictions on sale/purchase. The...

  3. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)

  4. National Association of State Procurement Officials - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  5. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social... may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  6. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social... may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  7. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social... may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  8. 45 CFR 400.148 - Purchase of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Social... may purchase services from public or private service providers. Conditions of Eligibility for...

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    monthly AO and CH account statements (GSA, n.d.-d). The government has partnerships with Citibank , JP Morgan Chase, and U.S. Bank (GSA, n.d.-b), and... Citibank to process all types of transactions, including those made with the purchase, travel, and fleet card. However, the DoD’s independent agencies also...purchase card training. Furthermore, DoD annual ethics training is required as well. Initial training with Citibank is required, and NPS also requires that

  11. NPS Government Purchase Card Program: An Analysis of Internal Controls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    statements (GSA, n.d.-d). The government has partnerships with Citibank , JP Morgan Chase, and U.S. Bank (GSA, n.d.-b), and these institutions serve...currently uses Citibank to process all types of transactions, including those made with the purchase, travel, and fleet card. However, the DOD’s...or online DON purchase card training. Furthermore, DOD annual ethics training is required as well. Initial training with Citibank is required, and

  12. Comparison of Alcohol Impairment of Behavioral and Attentional Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the impairing effects of alcohol on behavioral inhibition, less is known regarding effects of the drug on attentional inhibition (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting stimuli in the environment in order to focus attention on relevant information). The current study examined alcohol impairment of both behavioral and attentional inhibition, as well as potential associations between the two mechanisms of inhibitory control. Methods Men (n = 27) and women (n = 21) performed a measure of behavioral inhibition (cued go/no-go task) and a measure of attentional inhibition (delayed ocular return task) following three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Results Alcohol impaired both behavioral and attentional inhibition relative to placebo; however, correlational analyses revealed no associations between measures of behavioral and attentional inhibition following any dose. Additionally, men committed more inhibitory failures on the behavioral inhibition task, whereas women committed more inhibitory failures on the attentional inhibition task. Conclusions These findings suggest that behavioral and attentional inhibition are equally sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol, yet represent distinct components of inhibitory control. Additionally, the observed gender differences in control of behavior and attention could have important implications regarding negative consequences associated with alcohol-induced disinhibition in men and women. PMID:22673197

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  14. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafetz, Morris E.

    1979-01-01

    It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)

  15. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  16. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  17. Epidemiology of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helzer, John E.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  19. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  20. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  1. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  2. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  3. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bagga, D; Singh, N; Modi, S; Kumar, P; Bhattacharya, D; Garg, M L; Khushu, S

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological studies have shown that alcohol dependence is associated with neurocognitive deficits in tasks requiring memory, perceptual motor skills, abstraction and problem solving, whereas language skills are relatively spared in alcoholics despite structural abnormalities in the language-related brain regions. To investigate the preserved mechanisms of language processing in alcohol-dependents, functional brain imaging was undertaken in healthy controls (n=18) and alcohol-dependents (n=16) while completing a lexical semantic judgment task in a 3 T MR scanner. Behavioural data indicated that alcohol-dependents took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. fMRI data analysis revealed that while performing the task, the alcoholics showed enhanced activations in left supramarginal gyrus, precuneus bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus as compared to control subjects. The extensive activations observed in alcoholics as compared to controls suggest that alcoholics recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioural demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance or decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks. However, on direct comparison of the two groups, the results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons; therefore, the present findings need further exploration.

  4. Acute Alcohol Effects on Contextual Memory BOLD Response: Differences Based on Fragmentary Blackout History

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Schnyer, David M.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Background Contextual memory, or memory for source details, is an important aspect of episodic memory and has been implicated in alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts (FB). Little is known, however, about how neural functioning during contextual memory processes may differ between individuals with and without a history of fragmentary blackouts. This study examined whether neural activation during a contextual memory task differed by history of fragmentary blackout and acute alcohol consumption. Methods Twenty-four matched individuals with (FB+; n = 12) and without (FB−; n = 12) a history of FBs were recruited from a longitudinal study of alcohol use and behavioral risks and completed a laboratory beverage challenge followed by two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions under no alcohol and alcohol [breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) = 0.08%] conditions. Task performance and brain hemodynamic activity during a block design contextual memory task were examined across 48 fMRI sessions. Results Groups demonstrated no differences in performance on the contextual memory task, yet exhibited different brain response patterns after alcohol intoxication. A significant FB group by beverage interaction emerged in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex with FB− individuals showing greater BOLD response after alcohol exposure (p < .05). Conclusions Alcohol had differential effects on neural activity for FB+ and FB− individuals during recollection of contextual information, perhaps suggesting a neurobiological mechanism associated with alcohol-induced fragmentary blackouts. PMID:22420742

  5. Executive Functioning in Alcohol Use Studies: A Brief Review of Findings and Challenges in Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ahern, David C.; Clark, Uraina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance. An additional goal was to identify and describe commonly used EF measures with the intention of providing alcohol researchers information on the assessment of different EF domains. Our findings indicate that there is strong evidence supporting a relation between EF difficulties (particularly response inhibition and information updating) and alcohol use, with additional evidence of a significant interaction between EF and implicit associations on alcohol use. In contrast, research supporting a link between set shifting abilities and later alcohol use is scarce. Additionally, this review found evidence of alcohol acutely affecting many EF processes (particularly response inhibition). Overall, there is a need to replicate these findings with commonly used EF tasks (versus developing numerous tasks within individual laboratories) to better advance our understanding of the relation between EF and alcohol use. PMID:25877524

  6. Distillation for alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.

    1983-02-22

    A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.

  7. Alcohol and fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.R.

    1981-12-22

    Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.

  8. Midbrain-driven emotion and reward processing in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, E M; Jung, Y-C; Sullivan, E V; Hawkes, W C; Pfefferbaum, A; Schulte, T

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired control over emotionally motivated actions, possibly associated with abnormalities in the frontoparietal executive control network and midbrain nodes of the reward network associated with automatic attention. To identify differences in the neural response to alcohol-related word stimuli, 26 chronic alcoholics (ALC) and 26 healthy controls (CTL) performed an alcohol-emotion Stroop Match-to-Sample task during functional MR imaging. Stroop contrasts were modeled for color-word incongruency (eg, word RED printed in green) and for alcohol (eg, BEER), positive (eg, HAPPY) and negative (eg, MAD) emotional word content relative to congruent word conditions (eg, word RED printed in red). During color-Stroop processing, ALC and CTL showed similar left dorsolateral prefrontal activation, and CTL, but not ALC, deactivated posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus. An interaction revealed a dissociation between alcohol-word and color-word Stroop processing: ALC activated midbrain and parahippocampal regions more than CTL when processing alcohol-word relative to color-word conditions. In ALC, the midbrain region was also invoked by negative emotional Stroop words thereby showing significant overlap of this midbrain activation for alcohol-related and negative emotional processing. Enhanced midbrain activation to alcohol-related words suggests neuroadaptation of dopaminergic midbrain systems. We speculate that such tuning is normally associated with behavioral conditioning to optimize responses but here contributed to automatic bias to alcohol-related stimuli.

  9. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  10. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  11. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  12. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  13. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  14. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  15. Alcohol and Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  16. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  17. Recalling academic tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Franklin Gno

    This study was focused on what students remembered about five middle school science tasks when they were juniors and seniors in high school. Descriptions of the five tasks were reconstructed from available artifacts and teachers' records, notes and recollections. Three of the five tasks were "authentic" in the sense that students were asked to duplicate the decisions practitioners make in the adult world. The other two tasks were more typical school tasks involving note taking and preparation for a quiz. All five tasks, however, involved use of computers. Students were interviewed to examine what and how well they recalled the tasks and what forms or patterns of recall existed. Analysis of their responses indicated that different kinds of tasks produced different levels of recall. Authentically situated tasks were remembered much better than routine school tasks. Further, authentic tasks centered on design elements were recalled better than those for which design was not as pivotal. Patterns of recall indicated that participants most often recalled the decisions they made, the scenarios of the authentically situated tasks, the consequences of their tasks and the social contexts of the classroom. Task events, in other words, appeared to form a framework upon which students constructed stories of the tasks. The more salient the events, the richer the story, the deeper and more detailed the recall of the task. Thus, authentic tasks appeared to lend themselves to creating stories better than regular school tasks and therefore such tasks were recalled better. Implications of these patterns of recall are discussed with respect to issues of school learning and assessment.

  18. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  19. Automatic Avoidance Tendencies for Alcohol Cues Predict Drinking After Detoxification Treatment in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:27935726

  20. Enhanced enforcement of laws to prevent alcohol sales to underage persons--New Hampshire, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-06-04

    In 1984, the National Minimum Drinking Age Act (Public Law 98-363) was passed, requiring states to raise to 21 years the minimum age to purchase and publicly possess alcohol. Although the law has contributed to substantial reductions in underage drinking and alcohol-related motor-vehicle crashes, alcohol use and binge drinking rates among youths remain high in the United States, and efforts by youths to purchase alcohol from licensed establishments frequently are successful. To reduce alcohol sales to persons aged <21 years in Concord (2000 population: 40,687), New Hampshire, the Concord Police Department (CPD) and New Hampshire Liquor Commission (NHLC) conducted a pilot program of enhanced law enforcement with quarterly compliance checks of alcohol licenses during March 2002-February 2004. This report summarizes the results of that program, which indicated that enhanced enforcement 1) resulted in a 64% reduction in retail alcohol sales to underage youths and 2) was temporally associated with declines in alcohol use and binge drinking among Concord high school students. These findings emphasize the potential effectiveness of enhanced enforcement of minimum drinking age laws to reduce consumption of alcohol by underage youths.

  1. Physical and social availability of alcohol for young enlisted naval personnel in and around home port

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B

    2007-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption rates are higher in the young adult military enlisted population than among civilians of the same age. The literature on alcohol availability, both generally and specifically with respect to work-related drinking, establishes clear links between ease of access, alcohol consumption rates and alcohol-related problems. Methods In this paper, a qualitative analysis of 50 semi-structured interviews with U.S. Navy personnel was combined with quantitative findings from a mail survey of 713 young enlisted men and women in order to shed light on alcohol availability and its correlates in the home port environments of young adult enlisted personnel. The interviews were analyzed by two anthropologists seeking recurring themes or topics related to alcohol availability. These qualitative data were contextualized by descriptive statistics of the survey responses regarding ease of obtaining alcohol on and around naval bases, and from friends in and out of the Navy. Results Findings associated with social and physical availability of alcohol include low prices in Navy Exchange base stores, frequent barracks parties, drink promotions in bars surrounding bases, and multiple opportunities for underage drinking despite age limits on alcohol purchases and official efforts to deglamorize alcohol use in the Navy. Both qualitative and qualitative findings suggest that respondents found alcohol and opportunities to drink overwhelmingly available in both on-base and off-base settings, and from friends both in and out of the Navy. Conclusion There is qualitative and quantitative evidence for extensive physical and social availability of alcohol in and around bases for young adults in the military. Policy implications include raising the presently tax-free alcohol prices in base stores and enforcing existing policies regarding underage drinking, particularly the provision of alcohol by people of legal drinking age, and by bars in and around bases

  2. The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09. Participants A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients. Measurements Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK unit 8 g ethanol), purchase place and price. Findings Patients consumed mean 197.7 UK units/week. The mean price paid per unit was £0.43 (lowest £0.09/unit) (£1 = 1.6 US$ or 1.2€), which is below the mean unit price, £0.71 paid in Scotland in 2008. Of units consumed, 70.3% were sold at or below £0.40/unit (mid-range of price models proposed for minimum pricing legislation by the Scottish Government), and 83% at or below £0.50/unit proposed by the Chief Medical Officer of England. The lower the price paid per unit, the more units a patient consumed. A continuous increase in unit price from lower to higher social status, ranked according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (based on postcode), was not seen; patients residing in postcodes in the mid-quintile paid the highest price per unit. Cheapness was quoted commonly as a reason for beverage choice; ciders, especially ‘white’ cider, and vodka were, at off-sales, cheapest per unit. Stealing alcohol or drinking alcohol substitutes was only very rarely reported. Conclusions Because patients with serious alcohol problems tend to purchase very cheap alcohol, elimination of the cheapest sales by minimum price or other legislation might reduce their consumption. It is unknown whether proposed price legislation in Scotland will encourage patients with serious alcohol problems to start stealing alcohol or drinking substitutes or will reduce the recruitment of new drinkers with serious alcohol problems and produce predicted longer-term gains in

  3. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  4. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  5. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  6. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  7. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  8. 48 CFR 301.608 - Training requirements for purchase cardholders, Approving Officials, and Agency/Organization...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Coordinators are listed in the following table: HHS Purchase Card Training Program, by Authority Level... cardholders and Approving Officials Basic purchase card training (HHS University course or an OPDIV equivalent course). Purchase card holders and Approving Officials Yearly refresher purchase card training. $3,001...

  9. 7 CFR 1435.602 - Eligible sugar to be purchased by CCC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible sugar to be purchased by CCC. 1435.602... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Feedstock Flexibility Program § 1435.602 Eligible sugar to be purchased by CCC. (a) CCC will only purchase raw...

  10. 12 CFR 221.4 - Employee stock option, purchase, and ownership plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee stock option, purchase, and ownership... OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) § 221.4 Employee stock option, purchase, and... eligible plan. (2) Eligible plan. An eligible plan means any employee stock option, purchase, or...

  11. First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

  12. Supermarket Choice, Shopping Behavior, Socioeconomic Status, and Food Purchases

    PubMed Central

    Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Methods Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households’ supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Results Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Conclusions Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. PMID:26163172

  13. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  14. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  15. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  16. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  17. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  18. The Path to Savings: Understanding the Federal Purchase of Energy-Consuming Products

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2012-09-17

    Energy efficiency has been a federal procurement policy objective since at least 1992, with the origin of the Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) program within the larger Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Today, the EEPP program’s mandate is based on requirements that 95% of new contract actions, task orders, and delivery orders for products and services be energy and water efficient, as laid out in Executive Order 13514 in 2009. Facilitating full compliance with EO 13514 presents a significant strategic planning challenge to the FEMP EEPP program, given the size of the federal government, the range of missions of its many agencies, the mix of management approaches for its buildings, and the diverse set of roughly 80 energy efficient products which has been established through preceding legislation and executive orders. The goal of this report is to aid the program in prioritizing its resources by providing an overview of how the purchase of energy-consuming products occurs in today’s evolving federal procurement system, as well as identify likely intervention points and compliance review mechanisms. Through a synthesis of the literature on U.S. federal sector procurement and two dozen primary interviews, the report particularly focuses on the importance of price in determining the actor(s) responsible for any given purchase of an energy-consuming product. This identification is important, as the relevant actors are trained and reviewed in different ways that the FEMP EEPP program can prioritize for targeting, based on the decision criteria such as the potential energy savings associated with the actor’s purchases or the administrative ease of the intervention.

  19. Control Characteristics of Alcohol-Impaired Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.; McRuer, Duane T.; Allen, R. Wade; Klein, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Although the operation of vehicles like airplanes, cars, and bicycles involves a complex array of perceptual, decision and control activities, most accident statistics clearly show that intoxicated operators are a dominant cause of accidents, and not the difficulty of the task itself. This paper summarizes some recent research on the nature of the impairment of operator control under blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to above 0.16 percent. Alcohol toxicity is shown to be quite specific with respect to visual-motor functions involved in control of a vehicle, and experiments with a generalized workload task and special driving simulator show how these are reflected in terms of changes in operator control parameters such as response latency, gains, stability margins, and coherency.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired