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Sample records for alcohol reduction website

  1. A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial of primary care-based facilitated access to an alcohol reduction website (EFAR Spain): the study protocol

    PubMed Central

    López-Pelayo, Hugo; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Miquel, Laia; Díaz, Estela; Teixidó, Lidia; Baena, Begoña; Struzzo, Pierliugio; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Casajuana, Cristina; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Early identification (EI) and brief interventions (BIs) for risky drinkers are effective tools in primary care. Lack of time in daily practice has been identified as one of the main barriers to implementation of BI. There is growing evidence that facilitated access by primary healthcare professionals (PHCPs) to a web-based BI can be a time-saving alternative to standard face-to-face BIs, but there is as yet no evidence about the effectiveness of this approach relative to conventional BI. The main aim of this study is to test non-inferiority of facilitation to a web-based BI for risky drinkers delivered by PHCP against face-to-face BI. Method and analysis A randomised controlled non-inferiority trial comparing both interventions will be performed in primary care health centres in Catalonia, Spain. Unselected adult patients attending participating centres will be given a leaflet inviting them to log on to a website to complete the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) alcohol screening questionnaire. Participants with positive results will be requested online to complete a trial module including consent, baseline assessment and randomisation to either face-to-face BI by the practitioner or BI via the alcohol reduction website. Follow-up assessment of risky drinking will be undertaken online at 3 months and 1 year using the full AUDIT and D5-EQD5 scale. Proportions of risky drinkers in each group will be calculated and non-inferiority assessed against a specified margin of 10%. Assuming reduction of 30% of risky drinkers receiving standard intervention, 1000 patients will be required to give 90% power to reject the null hypothesis. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the Ethics Commmittee of IDIAP Jordi Gol i Gurina P14/028. The findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conference presentations. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02082990. PMID

  2. Real use or "real cool": adolescents speak out about displayed alcohol references on social networking websites.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Briner, Leslie R; Williams, Amanda; Walker, Leslie; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2009-10-01

    Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on social networking Websites (SNSs). We conducted focus groups to determine adolescents' interpretations of these displayed alcohol references. Regardless of whether displayed alcohol references represent actual use, adolescents typically interpret these references as representing actual use and acknowledge their potential influence on peer behavior. PMID:19766949

  3. Alcohol policy and harm reduction in Australia.

    PubMed

    Loxley, Wendy; Gray, Dennis; Wilkinson, Celia; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Midford, Richard; Moore, David

    2005-11-01

    With consultations having been held across Australia this year as part of the process of developing a new National Alcohol Strategy, it seemed timely to invite my colleagues from the National Drug Research Institute who are experts in the alcohol field to write this Harm Reduction Digest. The authors have canvassed a range of alcohol policy options and discussed their effectiveness in reducing harm for what is arguably Australia's number one drug problem. Australia's response to alcohol and other drug problems has, historically, been based on 'harm minimization--incorporating supply reduction, demand reduction and harm reduction'. At this time where the policy options for alcohol are being set for the next 5 years in a climate of 'small government', removing restrictions of 'fair competition' in business and a belief in the free market, what does the research have to say about recommended policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm? PMID:16361215

  4. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  5. Oxo-rhenium catalyzed reductive coupling and deoxygenation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Kasner, Gabrielle R; Boucher-Jacobs, Camille; Michael McClain, J; Nicholas, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Representative benzylic, allylic and α-keto alcohols are deoxygenated to alkanes and/or reductively coupled to alkane dimers by reaction with PPh3 catalyzed by (PPh3)2ReIO2 (1). The newly discovered catalytic reductive coupling reaction is a rare C-C bond-forming transformation of alcohols. PMID:27174412

  6. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  7. College Alcohol Citations Result in Modest Reductions in Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, John T.P.; Eaton, Erica M.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2010-01-01

    College students who are cited for violating campus alcohol policy are often fined or sanctioned to complete an intervention or public service. While some interventions have been found efficacious for mandated students, it is possible that being cited for an alcohol-related incident alone may be sufficient to reduce alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the course of alcohol consumption patterns following a citation for an alcohol policy violation. Participants were college students (N = 445) who received a citation for a campus alcohol policy violation at a small northeastern liberal arts college. Participants completed a Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB) indicating their daily alcohol use 2 weeks prior to the citation through 2 weeks after the citation. Results indicated that participants decreased their alcohol use following a citation event. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption was modest, suggesting that the citation event itself has a very temporary influence on the drinking of college students. Additional research is needed to reconcile these findings with those from other studies that found a more meaningful citation effect. PMID:21193284

  8. Negative Evaluations of Negative Alcohol Consequences Lead to Subsequent Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  9. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol.

  10. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-19

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  11. Behavior Change Techniques in Popular Alcohol Reduction Apps: Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Claire; Brown, James; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile phone apps have the potential to reduce excessive alcohol consumption cost-effectively. Although hundreds of alcohol-related apps are available, there is little information about the behavior change techniques (BCTs) they contain, or the extent to which they are based on evidence or theory and how this relates to their popularity and user ratings. Objective Our aim was to assess the proportion of popular alcohol-related apps available in the United Kingdom that focus on alcohol reduction, identify the BCTs they contain, and explore whether BCTs or the mention of theory or evidence is associated with app popularity and user ratings. Methods We searched the iTunes and Google Play stores with the terms “alcohol” and “drink”, and the first 800 results were classified into alcohol reduction, entertainment, or blood alcohol content measurement. Of those classified as alcohol reduction, all free apps and the top 10 paid apps were coded for BCTs and for reference to evidence or theory. Measures of popularity and user ratings were extracted. Results Of the 800 apps identified, 662 were unique. Of these, 13.7% (91/662) were classified as alcohol reduction (95% CI 11.3-16.6), 53.9% (357/662) entertainment (95% CI 50.1-57.7), 18.9% (125/662) blood alcohol content measurement (95% CI 16.1-22.0) and 13.4% (89/662) other (95% CI 11.1-16.3). The 51 free alcohol reduction apps and the top 10 paid apps contained a mean of 3.6 BCTs (SD 3.4), with approximately 12% (7/61) not including any BCTs. The BCTs used most often were “facilitate self-recording” (54%, 33/61), “provide information on consequences of excessive alcohol use and drinking cessation” (43%, 26/61), “provide feedback on performance” (41%, 25/61), “give options for additional and later support” (25%, 15/61) and “offer/direct towards appropriate written materials” (23%, 14/61). These apps also rarely included any of the 22 BCTs frequently used in other health behavior change

  12. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Bendimerad, Patrick; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Perney, Pascal; Dematteis, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. PMID:25402563

  13. Marked reduction of alcohol dehydrogenase in keratoconus corneal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kanoff, J.M.; Shankardas, J.; Dimitrijevich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify differentially expressed genes in keratoconus (KC) corneal fibroblasts. Methods Stromal keratocytes (having a fibroblast morphology) from KC keratoplasty specimens and eye bank donor corneas were isolated and expanded using a serum containing medium. RNA was isolated from three KC fibroblast cultures and five eye bank donor cornea fibroblast cultures. The targets from the cultured fibroblasts were hybridized to the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Western blot analyses of cell lysates were performed to examine protein levels of interest in the two groups. Protein levels of select differentially expressed genes were further examined by immunohistochemistry. Keratocyte staining of archived KC keratoplasty specimens were graded using a 0 to 3+ scale and compared to five archived whole globes having normal corneas as well as to 10 Fuchs’ dystrophy keratoplasty specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed up to a 212 fold reduction in the mRNA levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (class 1) beta polypeptide (ADH1B) in KC fibroblasts (p=0.04). Decreased alcohol dehydrogenase in KC fibroblasts was confirmed by western blot analysis of early passage primary keratocyte cell lysates. Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) against human liver alcohol dehydrogenase revealed a dramatic difference in protein staining in the keratocytes of the KC group compared to the normal cornea group. Immunohistochemistry also showed decreased immunostaining against alcohol dehydrogenase in the KC stromal sections compared to those obtained from Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy samples. Conclusions Decreased alcohol dehydrogenase in KC corneal fibroblasts represents a strong marker and possible mediator of keratoconus. PMID:19365573

  14. The tmRNA website: reductive evolution of tmRNA in plastids and other endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Gueneau de Novoa, Pulcherie; Williams, Kelly P

    2004-01-01

    tmRNA combines tRNA- and mRNA-like properties and ameliorates problems arising from stalled ribosomes. Research on the mechanism, structure and biology of tmRNA is served by the tmRNA website (http://www.indiana.edu/~ tmrna), a collection of sequences, alignments, secondary structures and other information. Because many of these sequences are not in GenBank, a BLAST server has been added; another new feature is an abbreviated alignment for the tRNA-like domain only. Many tmRNA sequences from plastids have been added, five found in public sequence data and another 10 generated by direct sequencing; detection in early-branching members of the green plastid lineage brings coverage to all three primary plastid lineages. The new sequences include the shortest known tmRNA sequence. While bacterial tmRNAs usually have a lone pseudoknot upstream of the mRNA segment and a string of three or four pseudoknots downstream, plastid tmRNAs collectively show loss of pseudoknots at both postions. The pseudoknot-string region is also too short to contain the usual pseudoknot number in another new entry, the tmRNA sequence from a bacterial endosymbiont of insect cells, Tremblaya princeps. Pseudoknots may optimize tmRNA function in free-living bacteria, yet become dispensible when the endosymbiotic lifestyle relaxes selective pressure for fast growth.

  15. Alcohol and Tension Reduction: Cognitive and Physiological Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This research examines separately the cognitive and pharmacological effects of alcohol by manipulating subjects' expectancies. It was found that although alcohol is a pharmacologic sedative and reduces anxiety, the cognition that one is drinking alcohol increases anxiety. (Editor/RK)

  16. Implementing referral to an electronic alcohol brief advice website in primary healthcare: results from the ODHIN implementation trial

    PubMed Central

    Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika; Karlsson, Nadine; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Palacio-Vieira, Jorge; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni; Reynolds, Jillian; Wallace, Paul; Segura, Lidia; Anderson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to explore whether the possibility of offering facilitated access to an alcohol electronic brief intervention (eBI) instead of delivering brief face-to-face advice increased the proportion of consulting adults who were screened and given brief advice. Design The study was a 12-week implementation study. Sixty primary healthcare units (PHCUs) in 5 jurisdictions (Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden) were asked to screen adults who attended the PHCU for risky drinking. Setting A total of 120 primary healthcare centres from 5 jurisdictions in Europe. Participants 746 individual providers (general practitioners, nurses or other professionals) participated in the study. Primary outcome Change in the proportion of patients screened and referred to eBI comparing a baseline 4-week preimplementation period with a 12-week implementation period. Results The possibility of referring patients to the eBI was not found to be associated with any increase in the proportion of patients screened. However, it was associated with an increase in the proportion of screen-positive patients receiving brief advice from 70% to 80% for the screen-positive sample as a whole (p<0.05), mainly driven by a significant increase in brief intervention rates in England from 87% to 96% (p<0.01). The study indicated that staff displayed a low level of engagement in this new technology. Staff continued to offer face-to-face advice to a larger proportion of patients (54%) than referral to eBI (38%). In addition, low engagement was seen among the referred patients; on average, 18% of the patients logged on to the website with a mean log-on rate across the different countries between 0.58% and 36.95%. Conclusions Referral to eBI takes nearly as much time as brief oral advice and might require more introduction and training before staff are comfortable with referring to eBI. Trial registration number NCT01501552; Post-results. PMID:27311902

  17. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  18. Deoxygenation of Unhindered Alcohols via Reductive Dealkylation of Derived Phosphate Esters

    DOE PAGES

    Chowdhury, Sarwat; Standaert, Robert F.

    2016-09-15

    Primary alcohols can be deoxygenated cleanly and in high yield by reduction of derived diphenyl phosphate esters with lithium triethylborohydride in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. Selective deoxygenation of a primary alcohol in the presence of a secondary alcohol was demonstrated. The two-step process can be performed in one pot, making it both simple and convenient.

  19. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess University Students' Intentions to Use Behavioral Alcohol-Reduction Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…

  20. Evaluation of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life) in Young Swedish Military Conscripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…

  1. Changes in private alcohol importation after alcohol tax reductions and import allowance increases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Grittner, Ulrike; Bloomfield, Kim

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: This paper examines changes in alcohol import in Denmark between 2003 and 2006, after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on October 1, 2003 and travellers' allowances for alcohol import were increased on January1, 2004. Additionally, the paper seeks to develop a profile of alcohol importers and analyse the relation between the distance to the German border and import behaviour, as Germany is the main alcohol import country for Denmark. DATA: Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark, from 2003 to 2006, were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews, using random digit dialing. RESULTS: While the percentage of people who imported alcohol fell over time, the amount of alcohol purchased rose for those who did import. Distance to the German border was inversely related to the likelihood of importing and the level of imported amounts. Heavy drinkers and those with higher incomes were more likely to import, and heavy drinkers imported higher amounts than moderate drinkers or abstainers. CONCLUSION: Distance of residence from the German border, socio-economic status and drinking behaviour are related to private alcohol import in Denmark. Policy changes resulted in a shift to fewer people importing higher amounts of alcohol so that the overall import level did not change substantially.

  2. Direct Electrochemical Addressing of Immobilized Alcohol Dehydrogenase for the Heterogeneous Bioelectrocatalytic Reduction of Butyraldehyde to Butanol

    PubMed Central

    Schlager, S; Neugebauer, H; Haberbauer, M; Hinterberger, G; Sariciftci, N S

    2015-01-01

    Modified electrodes using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes for the efficient electroreduction of butyraldehyde to butanol are presented as an important step for the utilization of CO2-reduction products. Alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized, embedded in an alginate–silicate hybrid gel, on a carbon felt (CF) electrode. The application of this enzyme to the reduction of an aldehyde to an alcohol with the aid of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), in analogy to the final step in the natural reduction cascade of CO2 to alcohol, has been already reported. However, the use of such enzymatic reductions is limited because of the necessity of providing expensive NADH as a sacrificial electron and proton donor. Immobilization of such dehydrogenase enzymes on electrodes and direct pumping of electrons into the biocatalysts offers an easy and efficient way for the biochemical recycling of CO2 to valuable chemicals or alternative synthetic fuels. We report the direct electrochemical addressing of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase for the reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol without consumption of NADH. The selective reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol occurs at room temperature, ambient pressure and neutral pH. Production of butanol was detected by using liquid-injection gas chromatography and was estimated to occur with Faradaic efficiencies of around 40 %. PMID:26113881

  3. Is expectancy reality? Associations between tension reduction beliefs and mood following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated whether tension reduction expectancies were uniquely associated with self-reported mood following in-lab alcohol administration, given that little research has addressed this association. We also tested whether level of experience with alcohol, which may influence the learning of expectancies, moderated expectancy-mood associations. Regularly drinking college students (N = 145) recruited through advertisements completed self-report measures of positive alcohol expectancies, alcohol involvement, demographics, and pre- and post-drinking mood, and then consumed alcohol ad libitum up to four drinks in the laboratory. Regression analyses controlling for pre-consumption mood, blood alcohol concentration, and all other positive expectancies showed tension reduction expectancies to be a marginally significant positive predictor of negative mood post-drinking. This association was significant only for those who achieved lower blood alcohol concentrations in lab and those who reported less involvement with alcohol (i.e., lower typical quantity, heavy episodic drinking frequency, and years of regular drinking). Findings suggest that associations between expectations for mood and actual post-drinking mood outcomes may operate differently for less versus more involved drinkers. Clinical implications pertain to early intervention, when expectancies may be less ingrained and perhaps more readily modified.

  4. Clinical relevance of nalmefene versus placebo in alcohol treatment: Reduction in mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Roerecke, Michael; Sørensen, Per; Laramée, Philippe; Rahhali, Nora; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of long-term mortality risk, an important clinical outcome for people in alcohol dependence treatment, can rarely be established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We calculated the reduction in all-cause mortality risk using data from short-term (6 and 12 months) double-blind RCTs comparing as-needed nalmefene treatment to placebo, and mortality risks from meta-analyses on all-cause-mortality risk by reduction of drinking in people with alcohol dependence. A reduction in drinking in the RCTs was defined by shifts in drinking risk levels established by the European Medicines Agency. Results showed that the reduction of drinking in the nalmefene group was associated with a reduction in mortality risk by 8% (95% CI: 2%, 13%) when compared to the placebo group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed a significant effect. Thus comparing the difference between nalmefene and placebo in reduction in drinking levels with results on all-cause mortality risk from meta-analyses indicated a clinically relevant reduction in mortality risk. Given the high mortality risk of people with alcohol dependence, abstinence or a reduction in drinking have been shown to reduce mortality risk and should be considered treatment goals. PMID:26349557

  5. Clinical relevance of nalmefene versus placebo in alcohol treatment: reduction in mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Roerecke, Michael; Sørensen, Per; Laramée, Philippe; Rahhali, Nora; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Reduction of long-term mortality risk, an important clinical outcome for people in alcohol dependence treatment, can rarely be established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We calculated the reduction in all-cause mortality risk using data from short-term (6 and 12 months) double-blind RCTs comparing as-needed nalmefene treatment to placebo, and mortality risks from meta-analyses on all-cause-mortality risk by reduction of drinking in people with alcohol dependence. A reduction in drinking in the RCTs was defined by shifts in drinking risk levels established by the European Medicines Agency. Results showed that the reduction of drinking in the nalmefene group was associated with a reduction in mortality risk by 8% (95% CI: 2%, 13%) when compared to the placebo group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed a significant effect. Thus comparing the difference between nalmefene and placebo in reduction in drinking levels with results on all-cause mortality risk from meta-analyses indicated a clinically relevant reduction in mortality risk. Given the high mortality risk of people with alcohol dependence, abstinence or a reduction in drinking have been shown to reduce mortality risk and should be considered treatment goals.

  6. Pharmacological ceramide reduction alleviates alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Correnti, Jason M.; Juskeviciute, Egle; Swarup, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatosteatosis, the ectopic accumulation of lipid in the liver, is one of the earliest clinical signs of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Alcohol-dependent deregulation of liver ceramide levels as well as inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) activity are thought to contribute to hepatosteatosis development. Adiponectin can regulate lipid handling in the liver and has been shown to reduce ceramide levels and activate AMPK and PPAR-α. However, the mechanisms by which adiponectin prevents alcoholic hepatosteatosis remain incompletely characterized. To address this question, we assessed ALD progression in wild-type (WT) and adiponectin knockout (KO) mice fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet or isocaloric control diet. Adiponectin KO mice relative to WT had increased alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly, similar modest increases in serum alanine aminotransferase, and reduced liver TNF. Restoring circulating adiponectin levels using recombinant adiponectin ameliorated alcohol-induced hepatosteatosis and hepatomegaly in adiponectin KO mice. Alcohol-fed WT and adiponectin KO animals had equivalent reductions in AMPK protein and PPAR-α DNA binding activity compared with control-fed animals. No difference in P-AMPK/AMPK ratio was detected, suggesting that alcohol-dependent deregulation of AMPK and PPAR-α in the absence of adiponectin are not primary causes of the observed increase in hepatosteatosis in these animals. By contrast, alcohol treatment increased liver ceramide levels in adiponectin KO but not WT mice. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of de novo ceramide synthesis in adiponectin KO mice abrogated alcohol-mediated increases in liver ceramides, steatosis, and hepatomegaly. These data suggest that adiponectin reduces alcohol-induced steatosis and hepatomegaly through regulation of liver ceramides, but its absence does not exacerbate alcohol-induced liver damage. PMID

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  8. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  9. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535

  10. Website Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Larry S.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation reports the results of an exploratory data analysis investigation of the relationship between the structures used for information organization and access and the associated storage structures within state government websites. Extending an earlier claim that hierarchical directory structures are both the preeminent information…

  11. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  15. Is Readiness to Change Drinking Related to Reductions in Alcohol Use and Consequences? A Week-to-Week Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The literature on whether readiness to change (RTC) alcohol use translates into actual change among college students is both limited and mixed, despite the importance of understanding naturalistic change processes. Few studies have used fine-grained, prospective data to examine the link between RTC and subsequent drinking behavior, and alcohol consequences in particular. The present study involves tests of whether (a) intraindividual changes in RTC are negatively associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences from week to week, (b) the effect of RTC on use and consequences is direct versus mediated by change in alcohol use, and (c) the association between RTC and drinking behavior is moderated by gender. Method: Participants were 96 college student drinkers who completed a baselinesurvey and 10 weekly web-based assessments of RTC, alcohol use, and consequences. Results: Hierarchical linear models indicated that, as hypothesized, reporting greater RTC on a given week (relative to one’s average level of RTC) was negatively associated with alcohol use (measured by either drinks per week or frequency of heavy episodic drinking) and alcohol consequences the following week. Changes in use fully mediated the relationship between RTC and consequences. The prospective association between RTC and both alcohol use and consequences did not differ by gender. Conclusions: Findings suggest that higher RTC translates into short-term reductions in alcohol use and in turn alcohol consequences, and highlight important avenues for future research. PMID:26402360

  16. Factors associated with reductions in alcohol use between high school and college: an analysis of data from the College Alcohol Study

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Christopher A; Sheran, Michelle; Phelps, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of alcohol by college students is a significant public health concern, and a large amount of literature explores this issue. Much of the focus is on the prevalence and correlates of binge drinking. Relatively few studies explore reductions in drinking, and these generally focus on reductions that occur during college. Aims We examined the transition between high school and college and sought to understand the characteristics and behaviors of students that are related to reductions in the consumption of alcohol during this transition. Methods We used data from all four rounds of the Harvard School of Public Health’s College Alcohol Survey and logistic regression models to relate the status of reduced alcohol consumption to five groups of variables: demographic and parental variables, other substance use, social environment, student activities, and alcohol policies. Results A number of characteristics were related to reductions in drinking. Students whose fathers did not attend college were more likely to reduce alcohol consumption (odds ratio [OR] =1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06–1.55), whereas students who prioritize parties (OR =0.35; CI =0.30–0.43) and who have recently smoked cigarettes (OR =0.52; CI =0.41–0.64) or marijuana (OR =0.52; CI =0.40–0.67) or whose fathers are moderate (OR =0.73; CI =0.55–0.96) or heavy (OR =0.72; CI =0.53–0.96) drinkers were less likely to reduce alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results highlight the importance of family background and social environment on reductions in drinking. PMID:24648793

  17. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  18. Investigation of asymmetric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) reduction of acetophenone derivatives: effect of charge density.

    PubMed

    Naik, Hemantkumar G; Yeniad, Bahar; Koning, Cor E; Heise, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    In an effort to study the effect of substituent groups of the substrate on the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) reductions of aryl-alkyl ketones, several derivatives of acetophenone have been evaluated against ADHs from Lactobacillus brevis (LB) and Thermoanaerobacter sp. (T). Interestingly, ketones with non-demanding (neutral) para-substituents were reduced to secondary alcohols by these enzymes in enantiomerically pure form whereas those with demanding (ionizable) substituents could not be reduced. The effect of substrate size, their solubility in the reaction medium, electron donating and withdrawing properties of the ligand and also the electronic charge density distribution on the substrate molecules have been studied and discussed in detail. From the results, it is observed that the electronic charge distribution in the substrate molecules is influencing the orientation of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme and hence the ability to reduce the substrate.

  19. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  20. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  1. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  2. Brief Motivational Interventions Are Associated With Reductions in Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among College Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Teeters, Jenni B.; Borsari, Brian; Martens, Matthew P.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol-impaired (AI) driving among college students remains a significant public health concern and may be the single most risky drinking outcome among young adults. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been shown to reduce alcohol use and problems, but their specific efficacy for decreasing AI driving among college students is unknown. The present study analyzed data from three randomized controlled trials of BMI (Murphy et al., 2010: n = 74; Borsari et al., 2012: n = 530; and Martens et al., 2013: n = 365) to evaluate whether BMIs are associated with reductions in AI driving among college student drinkers. Method: Participants in all three studies were randomized to BMI or control conditions. Participants reported whether they had driven under the influence (yes/no) following the BMI over the follow-up period. Results: Separate binary logistic regression analyses were conducted for each study. For Studies 1 and 2, these analyses revealed that a BMI was significantly associated with reductions in AI driving at the final (6-month and 9-month, respectively) follow-up compared with the control condition. For Study 3, analyses revealed that a single-component BMI focused on the correction of misperceptions of descriptive norms was significantly associated with reductions in AI driving compared with the control group at the final (6-month) follow-up, whereas a single-component BMI focused on the use of protective behavioral strategies was not. Change in drinking level did not mediate the relationship between the condition and the change in AI driving. Conclusions: Counselor-administered BMIs that include descriptive normative feedback are associated with significant reductions in AI driving compared with control. PMID:26402350

  3. Testing the Effects of the Addition of Videos to a Website Promoting Environmental Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Practices: Are Videos Worth It?

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Evan K.; Silk, Kami J.

    2013-01-01

    Searching for ways to reach wider audiences in more comprehensible ways, health promotion agencies might add videos to their current web offerings. While potentially costly and time consuming to create, the effect of these videos on websites has not received much attention. This study translated research about the potential breast cancer risk for young girls associated with the household chemical PFOA into two websites mothers with young daughters were randomly assigned to view (website with videos vs. website without videos). Results revealed participants in the video condition found the advocated risk protective behaviors easier to perform and stated they were more likely to perform them than those in the non-video condition. Approximately 15 days after exposure, those in the video condition performed on average one more protective behavior than those in the non-video condition. Results also suggest that agencies’ efforts should focus on creating one quality video to place on a homepage, as video views declined the deeper people navigated into the site. Behaviors advocated should also be ones that can have lasting impacts with one-time actions, as effects wore away over time. Additional strategies are discussed for health promoters seeking to create videos to add to their current websites. PMID:25143661

  4. Stability and activity of alcohol dehydrogenases in W/O-microemulsions: enantioselective reduction including cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlich, B; Berger, H; Lade, M; Schomäcker, R

    2000-12-20

    Microemulsions provide an interesting alternative to classical methods for the conversion of less water-soluble substrates by alcohol dehydrogenase, but until now stability and activity were too low for economically useful processes. The activity and stability of the enzymes are dependent on the microemulsion composition, mostly the water and the surfactant concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the exact phase behavior of a given microemulsion reaction system and the corresponding enzyme behavior therein. Because of their economic and ecologic suitability polyethoxylated fatty alcohols were investigated concerning their phase behavior and their compatibility with enzymes in ternary mixtures. The phase behavior of Marlipal O13-60 (C13EO6 in industrial quality)/cyclohexane/water and its effect on the activity and stability of alcohol dehydrogenase from Yeast (YADH) and horse liver (HLADH) and the carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR) is presented in this study. Beside the macroscopic phase behavior of the reaction system, the viscosity of the system indicates structural changes of aggregates in the microemulsion. The changes of the enzyme activities with the composition are discussed on the basis of transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and finally, the transition to the phase separation. The formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii was used for the NADH-regeneration during reduction reactions. While the formate dehydrogenase did not show any kinetic effect on the microemulsion composition, the other enzymes show significant changes of activity and stability varying the water or surfactant concentration of the microemulsion. Under certain conditions, stability could be maintained with HLADH for several weeks. Successful experiments with semi-batch processes including cofactor regeneration and product separation were performed.

  5. Furfural reduction mechanism of a zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Cupriavidus necator JMP134

    PubMed Central

    Kang, ChulHee; Hayes, Robert; Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Webb, Brian N.; Li, Qunrui; Hooper, Travis; Nissen, Mark S.; Xun, Luying

    2012-01-01

    Summary FurX is a tetrameric Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from Cupriavidus necator JMP134. The enzyme rapidly reduces furfural with NADH as the reducing power. For the first time among characterized ADHs, the high-resolution structures of all reaction steps were obtained in a time-resolved manner, thereby illustrating the complete catalytic events of NADH-dependent reduction of furfural and the dynamic Zn2+ coordination among Glu66, water, substrate and product. In the fully closed conformation of the NADH complex, the catalytic turnover proved faster than observed for the partially closed conformation due to an effective proton transfer network. The domain motion triggered by NAD(H) association/dissociation appeared to facilitate dynamic interchanges in Zn2+ coordination with substrate and product molecules, ultimately increasing the enzymatic turnover rate. NAD+ dissociation appeared to be a slow process, involving multiple steps in concert with a domain opening and reconfiguration of Glu66. This agrees with the report that the cofactor is not dissociated from FurX during ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural, in which ethanol reduces NAD+ to NADH that is subsequently used for furfural reduction. PMID:22081946

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  8. [Total abstinence or harm reduction--different strategies of alcohol treatment in research studies and international guidelines].

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use is considered to be one of the major factors contributing to global health burden as well as social and economic harm. Only about 16% of alcohol dependent individuals enter addiction treatment programs in Poland, with only a few more in Western Europe. The aim of the paper was to present two main treatment strategies of alcohol dependence: total abstinence and harm reduction. The advantages and disadvantages of both treatment goals are presented, pointing to a possibility of treating them as complementary strategies. A need to choose a proper, personalised patient-oriented aim of a treatment program is emphasised, with an option to revise the objective during long-term therapy. The paper describes implications from investigating the problem of alcohol dependence from a population health perspective. The surprisingly high amount of individuals remitting spontaneously from alcohol dependence without treatment is also discussed, and a possible bias resulting from analysing data on alcoholic subjects coming only from addiction centres, not from general population is taken into consideration. In the second part of the paper, American as well as British alcohol treatment guidelines are presented.

  9. Catalytic asymmetric reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes: enantioselective synthesis of allylic alcohols and alpha-hydroxy ketones.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karen M; Huang, Wei-Sheng; Jamison, Timothy F

    2003-03-26

    A highly enantioselective method for catalytic reductive coupling of alkynes and aldehydes is described. Allylic alcohols are afforded with complete E/Z selectivity, generally >95:5 regioselectivity, and in up to 96% ee. In conjunction with ozonolysis, this process is complementary to existing methods of enantioselective alpha-hydroxy ketone synthesis. PMID:12643701

  10. Incongruent reduction of dopamine transporter availability in different subgroups of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Yen, Che-Hung; Shih, Mei-Chen; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD), and males have more risk factors for the development of AD. However, imaging studies on brain DAT availability in males with AD comorbid with MD (AD/MD) are limited, and the association of DAT availability with cognitive function and depressive scores in patients with AD/MD has not been analyzed. Hence, this study examined the relationship between brain DAT availability, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms in different subgroups of males with AD.Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with Tc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure striatal DAT availability in 49 patients with AD (28 pure AD and 21 AD/MD) and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to assess neurocognitive function and depressive scores, respectively. Patients with AD showed a significant reduction of DAT availability in 3 brain regions (P < 0.001), and this reduction was more pronounced in the patients with pure AD compared to healthy controls. The patients with AD showed significantly poorer performance on the WCST, but only in the control group was DAT availability significantly negatively correlated with total errors and perseverative errors (P < 0.001).These preliminary findings suggest that DAT availability is associated with neurocognitive function, and incongruent reduction of DAT may play a pathophysiological role in different subgroups of AD. In addition, decreased DAT availability may be associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with AD/MD. PMID:27537550

  11. Oxidation, reduction, and isomerization of allyl alcohol and 1-propanol over Cu[sub 2]O(100)

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, K.H.; Cox, D.F. )

    1993-01-21

    The reactivity of allyl alcohol and 1-propanol has been studied with TDS and XPS on the polar, Cu[sup +]-terminated, Cu[sub 2]O(100) surface. Allyl alcohol reacts on the (100) surface to give selective and nonselective oxidation products (acrolein, CO, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]O), an isomerization product (propionaldehyde), and a reduction product (propene). 1-Propanol also reacts on the (100) surface to give selective and nonselective oxidation products (acrolein, propionaldehyde, CO, CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]O) and a reduction product (propene). Both alcohols dissociatively adsorb to form alkoxides. The alkoxide species undergo hydride elimination on the carbon [alpha] to the oxygen to form the corresponding aldehydes. The acrolein and propionaldehyde formed from the alcohols are linked by a common surface enolate intermediate which explains the similarity in C[sub 3] products observed from the two alcohols. A low-temperature reaction to propene is attributed to pathways involving C-O bond scission from unsaturated surface oxygenates to give a surface allyl. Hydrogenation of the resulting allyl produces propene at low temperature. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Professional pilots' evaluation of the extent, causes, and reduction of alcohol use in aviation.

    PubMed

    Ross, L E; Ross, S M

    1992-09-01

    Pilots holding the ATP rating were surveyed to obtain judgments concerning the seriousness of the alcohol problem in various areas of aviation, the reasons for alcohol use, and the probable effectiveness of strategies intended to reduce alcohol use in aviation. Alcohol use was judged to be a more serious problem in general aviation than in corporate, charter, regional, and major airline activities. Respondents identified the individual's inability to control alcohol use as a primary reason for drinking and flying, and they endorsed remedies that are directed toward those individuals who are seen as the source of the problem. Other factors considered important causes of drinking and flying included pilots' beliefs that they can compensate for alcohol's effects and their lack of knowledge about the rate of decrease in blood alcohol concentration (BAC) that occurs as a function of time and amount consumed. PMID:1524538

  13. School Executive Website Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiede, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The School Executive Website will be a one-stop, online site for officials who are looking for educational data, best practices, product reviews, school documents, professional opinions, and/or job-related networking. The format of the website is designed in certain sections similar to other current and popular websites, such as Angie's List.com,…

  14. Alcohol stress response dampening: Selective reduction of anxiety in the face of uncertain threat

    PubMed Central

    Hefner, K. R.; Curtin, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Problematic alcohol use and stress-response dampening (SRD) are intimately interconnected. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol produces selective SRD during uncertain but not certain threat. We systematically varied shock probability in a novel task assessing alcohol SRD during low probable/uncertain threat, while holding temporal precision of threat constant. Intoxicated (0.08% target blood alcohol concentration) and placebo participants completed a cued shock threat task in which probability of shock administration at the offset of brief visual cues varied parametrically. High probability (100%) shock cues represented certain threat as used in earlier research, while lower probability (20% & 60%) shock cues provided novel uncertain threat conditions. Startle potentiation during cues and inter-trial-intervals (ITIs) served as the measure of affective response. General linear model analysis indicated that alcohol SRD magnitude increased monotonically as threat uncertainty increased. Alcohol SRD was significantly greater during 20% and 60% shock threat relative to 100% shock threat. Alcohol also significantly reduced startle potentiation during distal threat in shock-free ITIs. Alcohol SRD magnitude during distal/uncertain threat was meaningfully moderated by individual differences in negative affectivity and weekly alcohol consumption. This work advances understanding of which properties of uncertainty are relevant to anxiety and anxiolytic effects of alcohol. PMID:21937686

  15. Palladium and gold nanotubes as oxygen reduction reaction and alcohol oxidation reaction catalysts in base.

    PubMed

    Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan

    2014-06-01

    Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6 nm, outer diameters of 60 nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20 μm, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7 times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0 times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236 V), ethanol (0.215 V), and ethylene glycol (0.251 V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR.

  16. Men's Health: Alcohol and Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Alcohol and drug abuse More information on alcohol and ... to you. Return to top More information on Alcohol and drug abuse Explore other publications and websites ...

  17. The Stereoselective Reductions of Ketones to the Most Thermodynamically Stable Alcohols Using Lithium and Hydrated Salts of Common Transition Metals.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Nicole; Cohen, Theodore

    2015-08-21

    A simple method is presented for the highly stereoselective reductions of ketones to the most thermodynamically stable alcohols. In this procedure, the ketone is treated with lithium dispersion and either FeCl2·4H2O or CuCl2·2H2O in THF at room temperature. This protocol is applied to a large number and variety of ketones and is both more convenient and efficient than those commonly reported for the diastereoselective reduction of five- and six-membered cyclic ketones. PMID:26226182

  18. Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G

    1994-01-01

    The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling. Images Figure 1 PMID:8068002

  19. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas. PMID:16180408

  20. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.

  1. Alcohol consumption in the Arab region: What do we know, why does it matter, and what are the policy implications for youth harm reduction?

    PubMed

    Ghandour, Lilian; Chalak, Ali; El-Aily, Aida; Yassin, Nasser; Nakkash, Rima; Tauk, Mitra; El Salibi, Noura; Heffron, Meghan; Afifi, Rima

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol is a recognized global risk factor for many diseases and injury types and a major contributor to disability and death. While cost-effective interventions do exist, many countries lack a comprehensive national alcohol harm reduction policy. The Arab world includes 22 diverse countries stretching from North Africa to Western Asia having varying dispositions with regards to alcohol sale and consumption. Epidemiological data is scattered and the picture on alcohol consumption remains blurry. This paper presents the findings of an extensive review conducted on all 22 Arab countries, specifically describing: (1) the density and methodology of alcohol-related peer-reviewed publications over the last two decades (1993-2013); (2) the epidemiology of alcohol consumption given all available data; and (3) the current status of policies in the region. Our search revealed a strikingly low number of alcohol-related peer-reviewed published studies - a total of 81 publications across 22 countries and two decades. Most studies are based on clinical or student samples. Where data is available, age of onset is low and drinking is frequent, in the absence of any available or enforced harm reduction policies. We submit that countries in the Arab region can be divided into four categories by alcohol ban and published data. One category includes countries where alcohol is not banned but data is absent, suggesting an ostrich-like response to a controversial behavior, or reflecting a weak research infrastructure and/or policy landscape. Evidence-informed recommendations and future directions for policy and research are discussed and tailored to countries' current stance on alcohol legislation and consumption. Given the particular vulnerability of youth to uptake of alcohol as well as the resulting short and long term consequences, the paper concludes by focusing on the implications of the findings for youth alcohol harm reduction.

  2. Evaluation of Non-Saccharomyces Yeasts for the Reduction of Alcohol Content in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Henschke, P. A.; Chambers, P. J.; Curtin, C.

    2014-01-01

    Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the perceived complexity of flavors and aromas. In addition, for health and economic reasons, the wine sector is actively seeking technologies to facilitate the production of wines with lower ethanol content. Nonconventional yeast species, in particular, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeast species, which are largely associated with grapes preharvest, are present in the early stages of fermentation but, in general, are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 50 different non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 24 different genera for their capacity to produce wine with a lower ethanol concentration when used in sequential inoculation regimes with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. A sequential inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 followed by an S. cerevisiae wine strain was best able to produce wine with an ethanol concentration lower than that achieved with the single-inoculum, wine yeast control. Sequential fermentations utilizing AWRI1149 produced wines with 0.9% (vol/vol) and 1.6% (vol/vol) (corresponding to 7.1 g/liter and 12.6 g/liter, respectively) lower ethanol concentrations in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines, respectively. In Chardonnay wine, the total concentration of esters and higher alcohols was higher for wines generated from sequential inoculations, whereas the total concentration of volatile acids was significantly lower. In sequentially inoculated Shiraz wines, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher and the total concentration of volatile acids was reduced compared with those in

  3. Reduction in Suicide Mortality Following a New National Alcohol Policy in Slovenia: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Aleksandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact on suicide mortality of a new national policy in Slovenia that limits the availability of alcohol. Methods. We obtained monthly total, male, and female suicide counts in Slovenia between January 1997 and December 2005 and then employed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in March 2003). Results. There was a significant decrease in the total number of monthly suicides following the policy's implementation. Subsequent analyses revealed this association to be caused solely by the impact on male suicides. Specifically, there was an immediate and permanent reduction of 3.6 male suicides per month (95% confidence interval = −0.4, −6.9), or approximately 10% of the preintervention average. The policy had no statistically significant effect on female suicides. Conclusions. Our results show the effectiveness of this specific policy in reducing male suicides in Slovenia and also hint at the potential of public policy in reducing the public health burden of alcohol-related harm more generally. PMID:19299669

  4. ILRS Website Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, Carey E.; Torrence, Mark H.; Pollack, Nathan H.; Tyahla, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    The ILRS website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of the ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components data, and products. Furthermore, the website provides an entry point to the archive of these data products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assesments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of suported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The website was reently redesigned. Content was reviewed during the update process, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will provide specific examples of key sections, applicaitons, and webpages.

  5. Emergency Contraception Website

    MedlinePlus

    Text Only Full media Version Get Emergency Contraception NOW INFO about Emergency Contraception Q&A about Emergency Contraception Español | Arabic Find a Morning After Pill Provider Near You This website is ...

  6. Biocatalytic reduction of short-chain carboxylic acids into their corresponding alcohols with syngas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Perez, Jose M; Richter, Hanno; Loftus, Sarah E; Angenent, Largus T

    2013-04-01

    Short-chain carboxylic acids generated by various mixed- or pure-culture fermentation processes have been considered valuable precursors for production of bioalcohols. While conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols is routinely performed with catalytic hydrogenation or with strong chemical reducing agents, here, a biological conversion route was explored. The potential of carboxydotrophic bacteria, such as Clostridium ljungdahlii and Clostridium ragsdalei, as biocatalysts for conversion of short-chain carboxylic acids into alcohols, using syngas as a source of electrons and energy is demonstrated. Acetic acid, propionic acid, n-butyric acid, isobutyric acid, n-valeric acid, and n-caproic acid were converted into their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, biomass yields and fermentation stoichiometry from the experimental data were modeled to determine how much metabolic energy C. ljungdahlii generated during syngas fermentation. An ATP yield of 0.4-0.5 mol of ATP per mol CO consumed was calculated in the presence of hydrogen. The ratio of protons pumped across the cell membrane versus electrons transferred from ferredoxin to NAD(+) via the Rnf complex is suggested to be 1.0. Based on these results, we provide suggestions how n-butyric acid to n-butanol conversion via syngas fermentation can be further improved. PMID:23172270

  7. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  8. Reduction of Nfia gene expression and subsequent target genes by binge alcohol in the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyung Tae; Seo, Hyemyung; Chung, Il Yup; Choi, Ihn Geun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in gene expression in the fetal brain (forebrain and hippocampus) caused by maternal binge alcohol consumption. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with distilled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ethanol (2.9 g/kg) from embryonic day (ED) 8-12. Microarray analysis revealed that a significant number of genes were altered at ED 18 in the developing brain. Specifically, in hippocampus, nuclear factor one alpha (Nfia) and three N-methyl-D-aspartate (Nmda) receptors (Nmdar1, Nmdar2b, and Nmdar2d) were down-regulated. The transcription factor Nfia controls gliogenesis, cell proliferation and Nmda-induced neuronal survival by regulating the expression of target genes. Some of the Nfia-target gene (Aldh1a, Folh1, Gjb6, Fgf1, Neurod1, Sept4, and Ntsr2) expressions were also altered as expected. These results suggest that the altered expression of Nfia and Nmda receptors may be associated with the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The data presented in this report will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of alcohol in FASD individuals.

  9. Reduction of Nfia gene expression and subsequent target genes by binge alcohol in the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyung Tae; Seo, Hyemyung; Chung, Il Yup; Choi, Ihn Geun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu

    2015-06-26

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in gene expression in the fetal brain (forebrain and hippocampus) caused by maternal binge alcohol consumption. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with distilled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ethanol (2.9 g/kg) from embryonic day (ED) 8-12. Microarray analysis revealed that a significant number of genes were altered at ED 18 in the developing brain. Specifically, in hippocampus, nuclear factor one alpha (Nfia) and three N-methyl-D-aspartate (Nmda) receptors (Nmdar1, Nmdar2b, and Nmdar2d) were down-regulated. The transcription factor Nfia controls gliogenesis, cell proliferation and Nmda-induced neuronal survival by regulating the expression of target genes. Some of the Nfia-target gene (Aldh1a, Folh1, Gjb6, Fgf1, Neurod1, Sept4, and Ntsr2) expressions were also altered as expected. These results suggest that the altered expression of Nfia and Nmda receptors may be associated with the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The data presented in this report will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of alcohol in FASD individuals. PMID:25982323

  10. Interpersonal Climate of 12-step Groups Predicts Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Rynes, Kristina N.; Tonigan, J. Scott; Rice, Samara L.

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that increases in the size of abstinence-based social networks helps explain the association between 12-step attendance and increased abstinence. This study investigated whether the quality of social interaction in 12-step groups also predicts reduced substance use. Participants reported their perceptions of engagedness, avoidance, and conflict in their 12-step groups and their substance use in four assessments. Results showed that perceptions of group engagedness, but not avoidance or conflict, decreased over time. Despite this, engagedness predicted increased 12-step-related behavior and decreased alcohol use. Findings suggest that positive group interaction plays an important role in 12-step affiliates’ recovery efforts. PMID:24039338

  11. Reductive Etherification of Fatty Acids or Esters with Alcohols using Molecular Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J

    2016-06-22

    In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step. PMID:27214823

  12. ILRS Website Redesign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, C.; Lee, L.; Torrence, M.

    2011-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) website, http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov, is the central source of information for all aspects of the service. The website provides information on the organization and operation of ILRS and descriptions of ILRS components, data, and products. Furthermore, the website and provides an entry point to the archive of these data and products available through the data centers. Links are provided to extensive information on the ILRS network stations including performance assessments and data quality evaluations. Descriptions of supported satellite missions (current, future, and past) are provided to aid in station acquisition and data analysis. The current format for the ILRS website has been in use since the early years of the service. Starting in 2010, the ILRS Central Bureau began efforts to redesign the look and feel for the website. The update will allow for a review of the contents, ensuring information is current and useful. This poster will detail the proposed design including specific examples of key sections and webpages.

  13. Competitive Oxidation and Reduction of Aliphatic Alcohols over (WO3)3 Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu K.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kay, Bruce D.; Rousseau, Roger J.

    2009-06-04

    The reactions of C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols over (WO3)3 clusters were studied experimentally and theoretically using temperature-programmed desorption, infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and density functional theory. The results reveal that all C1 to C4 aliphatic alcohols readily react with (WO3)3 clusters by heterolytic cleavage of the RO-H bond to give alkoxy (RO ) bound to W(VI) centers and a proton (H+) attached to the terminal oxygen atom of a tungstyl group (W=O). Two protons adsorbed onto the cluster readily react with the doubly-bonded oxygen to from a water molecule that desorbs at 200-300 K and the alkoxy that undergoes decomposition at higher temperatures into the corresponding alkene, aldehyde, and/or ether. Our theory predicts that all three channels proceed over the W(VI) Lewis acid site with energy barriers of 30-40 kcal/mol, where dehydration is favored over the others. We also present further analysis of the yield and reaction temperature as a function of the alkyl substituents and discuss the origin of the reaction selectivity among the three reaction channels.

  14. GRIK1 genotype and daily expectations of alcohol's positive effects moderate the reduction of heavy drinking by topiramate.

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Using retrospective reports obtained during treatment visits in 138 heavy drinkers, we found that topiramate's reduction of heavy drinking was moderated by a polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes the GluK1 kainate subunit (Kranzler et al., 2014a). A subsequent analysis of that 12-week topiramate treatment trial showed similar effects of medication and genotype on daily drinking reports obtained via interactive voice response technology (IVR; Kranzler et al., 2014b). Specifically, rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate reported lower levels of drinking than those receiving placebo. This group also had the largest decreases in the expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., expectancies) and desire to drink. To extend that analysis, which focused on how mean levels of desire and expectancies changed over time with treatment, we used a within-person approach to examine whether daily variation in expectancies and desire to drink interact with topiramate treatment and genotype to predict nighttime drinking levels. In contrast to the previous analysis (Kranzler et al., 2014b), here we focus on whether alcohol expectancies and desire to drink moderate the effects of topiramate on drinking. Results showed a 3-way interaction of daily expectancies with genotype and medication, such that the protective effect of topiramate on nighttime drinking among rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes was decreased on days characterized by relatively high levels of anticipated positive effects of alcohol. There was no moderating effect of desire to drink or negative alcohol expectancies. Thus, there is specific moderation of the effects of topiramate by both genotype and cognitive process.

  15. School Library Website Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkowski, Odin

    2004-01-01

    School library websites are a necessity. The earliest adopters have now had almost 10 years for development and redesign. Many sites have gone through numerous iterations with major improvements each time. Issues of cost, time, technology and training have made the discussion more a matter of deciding what to include and how to structure the sites…

  16. Websites of Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parslow, Graham R.

    2011-01-01

    This article features websites related to biochemistry and molecular biology education. They include: (1) Scitable (www.nature.com/scitable); (2) Educause (www.educause.edu); (3) The Journal of Computer Assisted Learning (onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2729); (4) European Conference on eLearning…

  17. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  18. Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A; Vadasz, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD.

  19. Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, John F.; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N.; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A.; Vadasz, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10–13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. PMID:26252988

  20. Selective reduction of cerebral cortex GABA neurons in a late gestation model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Smiley, John F; Saito, Mariko; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Masiello, Kurt; Ardekani, Babak; Guilfoyle, David N; Gerum, Scott; Wilson, Donald A; Vadasz, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits, and decreased volume of the whole brain and cerebral cortex. Rodent models have shown that early postnatal treatments, which mimic ethanol toxicity in the third trimester of human pregnancy, acutely induce widespread apoptotic neuronal degeneration and permanent behavioral deficits. However, the lasting cellular and anatomical effects of early ethanol treatments are still incompletely understood. This study examined changes in neocortex volume, thickness, and cellular organization that persist in adult mice after postnatal day 7 (P7) ethanol treatment. Post mortem brain volumes, measured by both MRI within the skull and by fluid displacement of isolated brains, were reduced 10-13% by ethanol treatment. The cerebral cortex showed a similar reduction (12%) caused mainly by lower surface area (9%). In spite of these large changes, several features of cortical organization showed little evidence of change, including cortical thickness, overall neuron size, and laminar organization. Estimates of total neuron number showed a trend level reduction of about 8%, due mainly to reduced cortical volume but unchanged neuron density. However, counts of calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) subtypes of GABAergic neurons showed a striking >30% reduction of neuron number. Similar ethanol effects were found in male and female mice, and in C57BL/6By and BALB/cJ mouse strains. Our findings indicate that the cortex has substantial capacity to develop normal cytoarchitectonic organization after early postnatal ethanol toxicity, but there is a selective and persistent reduction of GABA cells that may contribute to the lasting cognitive and behavioral deficits in FASD. PMID:26252988

  1. Does Lysosomial Acid Lipase Reduction Play a Role in Adult Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Baratta, Francesco; Pastori, Daniele; Polimeni, Licia; Tozzi, Giulia; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco; Del Ben, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal Acid Lipase (LAL) is a key enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, responsible for hydrolysing the cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Wolman Disease represents the early onset phenotype of LAL deficiency rapidly leading to death. Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease is a late onset phenotype that occurs with fatty liver, elevated aminotransferase levels, hepatomegaly and dyslipidaemia, the latter characterized by elevated LDL-C and low HDL-C. The natural history and the clinical manifestations of the LAL deficiency in adults are not well defined, and the diagnosis is often incidental. LAL deficiency has been suggested as an under-recognized cause of dyslipidaemia and fatty liver. Therefore, LAL activity may be reduced also in non-obese patients presenting non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), unexplained persistently elevated liver transaminases or with elevation in LDL cholesterol. In these patients, it could be indicated to test LAL activity. So far, very few studies have been performed to assess LAL activity in representative samples of normal subjects or patients with NAFLD. Moreover, no large study has been carried out in adult subjects with NAFLD or cryptogenic cirrhosis. PMID:26602919

  2. Reduction of illness absenteeism in elementary schools using an alcohol-free instant hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    White, C G; Shinder, F S; Shinder, A L; Dyer, D L

    2001-10-01

    Hand washing is the most effective way to prevent the spread of communicable disease. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to assess whether an alcohol-free, instant hand sanitizer containing surfactants, allantoin, and benzalkonium chloride could reduce illness absenteeism in a population of 769 elementary school children and serve as an effective alternative when regular soap and water hand washing was not readily available. Prior to the study, students were educated about proper hand washing technique, the importance of hand washing to prevent transmission of germs, and the relationship between germs and illnesses. Children in kindergarten through the 6th grade (ages 5-12) were assigned to the active or placebo hand-sanitizer product and instructed to use the product at scheduled times during the day and as needed after coughing or sneezing. Data on illness absenteeism were tracked. After 5 weeks, students using the active product were 33% less likely to have been absent because of illness when compared with the placebo group. PMID:11885342

  3. Reductive Umpolung of Carbonyl Derivatives with Visible‐Light Photoredox Catalysis: Direct Access to Vicinal Diamines and Amino Alcohols via α‐Amino Radicals and Ketyl Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Eleonora; Millet, Anthony; Nakajima, Masaki; Loescher, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Visible‐light‐mediated photoredox‐catalyzed aldimine–aniline and aldehyde–aniline couplings have been realized. The reductive single electron transfer (SET) umpolung of various carbonyl derivatives enabled the generation of intermediary ketyl and α‐amino radical anions, which were utilized for the synthesis of unsymmetrically substituted 1,2‐diamines and amino alcohols. PMID:27136443

  4. NASA Propagation Studies Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angkasa, Krisjani S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an Internet website which provides information to enable the development of new commerical satellite systems and services by providing timely data and models about the propagation of satellite radio signals. In partnership with industry and academia, the program leverages NASA assets, currently the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), to obtain propagation data. The findings of the study are disseminated through refereed journals, NASA reference publications, workshops, electronic media, and direct interface with industry.

  5. Craniofacial Surgery Fellowship Websites.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Jason; Agarwal, Divyansh; Taylor, Jesse A

    2016-06-01

    Applicants for craniofacial surgery fellowships utilize Internet-based resources like the San Francisco (SF) Match to manage applications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accessibility and content of craniofacial surgery fellowship websites (CSFWs). A list of available craniofacial surgery fellowships was compiled from directories of the American Society of Craniofacial Surgery (ACSFS) and SF Match. Accessibility of CSFWs was assessed via links from these directories and a Google search. Craniofacial surgery fellowship websites were evaluated on education and recruitment content and compared via program characteristics. Twenty-four of the 28 US-based craniofacial surgery fellowship programs had a CSFW (86%). The ACSFS and SF Match databases had limited CSFW accessibility, but a Google search revealed most CSFWs had the top search result (76%). In total, CSFWs provided an average of 39% of education and recruitment variables. While most programs provided fellowship program descriptions (96%), application links (96%), and faculty listings (83%), relatively few provided rotation schedules (13%), fellow selection process information (13%), or interview dates (8%). CSFW content did not vary by program location, faculty size, accreditation status, or institutional affiliations (P > 0.05). Craniofacial surgery fellowships often lack readily accessible websites from national program lists and have limited information for interested applicants. The consistent lack of online information across programs suggests future opportunities exist to improve these educational resources. PMID:27285892

  6. N-, O-, and S-tridoped nanoporous carbons as selective catalysts for oxygen reduction and alcohol oxidation reactions.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuying; Voiry, Damien; Goswami, Anandarup; Zou, Xiaoxin; Huang, Xiaoxi; Chhowalla, Manish; Liu, Zhongwu; Asefa, Tewodros

    2014-10-01

    Replacing rare and expensive metal catalysts with inexpensive and earth-abundant ones is currently among the major goals of sustainable chemistry. Herein we report the synthesis of N-, O-, and S-tridoped, polypyrrole-derived nanoporous carbons (NOSCs) that can serve as metal-free, selective electrocatalysts and catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and alcohol oxidation reaction (AOR), respectively. The NOSCs are synthesized via polymerization of pyrrole using (NH4)2S2O8 as oxidant and colloidal silica nanoparticles as templates, followed by carbonization of the resulting S-containing polypyrrole/silica composite materials and then removal of the silica templates. The NOSCs exhibit good catalytic activity toward ORR with low onset potential and low Tafel slope, along with different electron-transfer numbers, or in other words, different ratios H2O/H2O2 as products, depending on the relative amount of colloidal silica used as templates. The NOSCs also effectively catalyze AOR at relatively low temperature, giving good conversions and high selectivity.

  7. The kinetics behavior of the reduction of formaldehyde catalyzed by Alcohol Dehydrogenase (ADH) and partial uncompetitive substrate inhibition by NADH.

    PubMed

    Wen, Nuan; Liu, Wenfang; Hou, Yanhui; Zhao, Zhiping

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of methanol from CO2. Here, we report the steady-state kinetics for ADH, using a homogeneous enzyme preparation with formaldehyde as the substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) as the cofactor. When changing NADH concentrations with the fixed concentrations of HCHO (more or less than NADH), kinetic studies revealed a particular zigzag phenomenon for the first time. Increasing formaldehyde concentration can weaken substrate inhibition and improve catalytic efficiency. The kinetic mechanism of ADH was analyzed using the secondary fitting method. The double reciprocal plots (1/v∼1/[HCHO] and 1/[NADH]) strongly demonstrated that the substrate inhibition by NADH was uncompetitive versus formaldehyde and partial. In the direction of formaldehyde reduction, ADH has an ordered kinetic mechanism with formaldehyde adding to enzyme first and product methanol released last. The second reactant NADH can combine with the enzyme-methanol complex and then methanol dissociates from it at a slower rate than from enzyme-methanol. The reaction velocity depends on the relative rates of the alternative pathways. The addition of NADH also accelerates the releasing of methanol. As a result, substrate inhibition and activation occurred intermittently, and the zigzag double reciprocal plot (1/v∼1/[NADH]) was obtained.

  8. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  9. Trajectory Browser Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Cyrus; Jaroux, Belgacem A.

    2012-01-01

    The Trajectory Browser is a web-based tool developed at the NASA Ames Research Center to be used for the preliminary assessment of trajectories to small-bodies and planets and for providing relevant launch date, time-of-flight and V requirements. The site hosts a database of transfer trajectories from Earth to asteroids and planets for various types of missions such as rendezvous, sample return or flybys. A search engine allows the user to find trajectories meeting desired constraints on the launch window, mission duration and delta V capability, while a trajectory viewer tool allows the visualization of the heliocentric trajectory and the detailed mission itinerary. The anticipated user base of this tool consists primarily of scientists and engineers designing interplanetary missions in the context of pre-phase A studies, particularly for performing accessibility surveys to large populations of small-bodies. The educational potential of the website is also recognized for academia and the public with regards to trajectory design, a field that has generally been poorly understood by the public. The website is currently hosted on NASA-internal URL http://trajbrowser.arc.nasa.gov/ with plans for a public release as soon as development is complete.

  10. Hexavalent chromium reduction by tartaric acid and isopropyl alcohol in Mid-Atlantic soils and the role of Mn(III,IV)(hydr)oxides.

    PubMed

    Brose, Dominic A; James, Bruce R

    2013-11-19

    Chromium is a naturally occurring transition metal and a soil contaminant in the Cr(VI) oxidation state, but reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) mitigates its toxicity. Tartaric acid reduces Cr(VI) via a termolecular complex with isopropyl alcohol and Cr(VI), but its efficacy in soils has not been demonstrated. Five Mid-Atlantic soils from Maryland, U.S. were examined for their potential to enhance the reduction of Cr(VI). A control treatment (no soil +12 mM tartaric acid + 0.29 M isopropyl alcohol) reduced 0.37 mM Cr(VI) (19%) in 99 h. Reduction was enhanced to 1.97 mM (99%) with addition of a Russett Ap soil horizon (fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, mesic Typic Hapludult). With a half-life of 18.7 h, the rate of reduction of Cr(VI) with the Russett soil sample was 20 times faster than with no soil (371 h). Soil Mn was solubilized in this reaction and plays a role in the enhanced reduction of Cr(VI). Mn(III/IV)(hydr)oxide-coated quartz sand reduced 1.24 mM (62%) Cr(VI), with all of the Mn(III,IV)(hydr)oxides solubilized. The addition of isopropyl alcohol and tartaric acid to soils enhances the reduction of Cr(VI), and this reduction is further enhanced by the catalytic behavior of Mn(II) from easily reducible Mn(III,IV)(hydr)oxides in soil.

  11. [Websites of dental practices evaluated].

    PubMed

    Poorterman, J H G; Tjiook, S P; Moeijes, S F S; Brand, H S

    2014-05-01

    In 2013, a dental practice without a website is almost unthinkable. Using a sample of309 dentists drawn from the list of members of the Dutch Dental Association in 2012, a study was carried out to find out whether the dental practice of the general dental practitioner had a website. The content of each website was subsequently inventoried using a questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the dental practices had a website. The content of the websites, however, varied enormously. An element such as the professional registration number with a reference to the professional register were absent in 73% of the websites and the date of the most recent update of the website was mentioned only once. The name of the dentist, his or her professional qualification and an email address were missing on respectively 9%, 20% and 9% of the websites. Contracts of the practice with insurance companies were rarely clearly indicated. The websites of many practices would benefit considerably from a significant improvement. PMID:24881254

  12. Successful Statewide Walking Program Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teran, Bianca Maria; Hongu, Nobuko

    2012-01-01

    Statewide Extension walking programs are making an effort to increase physical activity levels in America. An investigation of all 20 of these programs revealed that 14 use websites as marketing and educational tools, which could prove useful as the popularity of Internet communities continues to grow. Website usability information and an analysis…

  13. Reduction of 3-chlorobenzoate, 3-bromobenzoate, and benzoate to corresponding alcohols by Desulfomicrobium escambiense, isolated from a 3-chlorobenzoate-dechlorinating coculture.

    PubMed Central

    Genthner, B R; Townsend, G T; Blattmann, B O

    1997-01-01

    An anaerobic bacterial coculture which dechlorinated 3-chlorobenzoate (3CB) to benzoate was obtained by single-colony isolation from an anaerobic bacterial consortium which completely degraded 3CB in defined medium. Of 29 additional halogenated aromatic compounds tested, the coculture removed the meta halogen from 2,3- and 2,5-dichlorobenzoate, 3-bromobenzoate (3BB), 5-chlorovanillate (5CV), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate. Dechlorinating activity in the coculture required the presence of pyruvate. 5CV was also O-demethoxylated. The coculture contained two cell types: a short, straight gram-negative rod and a long, thin, curved gram-positive rod. The short rod, Desulfomicrobium escambiense, was recently isolated and identified as a new sulfate-reducing bacterial species (B. R. Sharak Genthner, S. D. Friedman, and R. Devereux, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:889-892, 1997; B. R. Sharak Genthner, G. Mundfrom, and R. Devereux, Arch. Microbiol. 161:215-219, 1994). D. escambiense did not dehalogenate any of the compounds dehalogenated by the coculture, nor dit it O-demethoxylate 5CV or vanillate. However, D. escambiense reduced 3CB, EBB, and benzoate to their respective benzyl alcohols. Reduction to alcohols required the presence of pyruvate, which was transformed to acetate, lactate, and succinate in the presence of absence of 3CB, 3BB, or benzoate. Alcohol formation did not occur in pyruvate-sulfate medium. Under these conditions, sulfate was preferentially reduced. Other electron donors that supported the growth of D. escambiense during sulfate reduction did not support benzoate reduction to benzyl alcohol. PMID:9471962

  14. Legal Aspects of a School Library Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tom

    2009-01-01

    School library websites enhance and explain the services provided by the library. Most schools have a library website. Jurkowski (2004) reviewed thirty-four school library websites and ranked the most common features: website links, databases, policies, Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), and websites by subject. These features give patrons a…

  15. Reducing drinking to cope among heavy episodic drinking college women: Secondary outcomes of a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Bountress, Kaitlin E

    2016-10-01

    College students are at high risk for engaging in heavy episodic drinking and for experiencing sexual assault. Further, drinking to cope with anxiety motives are associated with sexual assault history and drinking, and thus should be examined when targeting both sexual assault and drinking in college populations. The current study examined the effectiveness of decreasing coping with anxiety drinking motives among underage heavy episodic drinking college women (n=264). Results indicate that a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention was effective at decreasing drinking to cope with anxiety motives among those with stronger drinking to cope with anxiety motives at baseline. However, the alcohol-only and sexual assault-only interventions were not. Decreases in drinking motives were associated with decreases in heavy episodic drinking. This suggests that alcohol interventions in college populations may not be effectively targeting drinking motives and this preliminary study provides evidence indicating that targeting alcohol and sexual assault together may decrease drinking to cope motives among a high risk population.

  16. Reducing drinking to cope among heavy episodic drinking college women: Secondary outcomes of a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Bountress, Kaitlin E

    2016-10-01

    College students are at high risk for engaging in heavy episodic drinking and for experiencing sexual assault. Further, drinking to cope with anxiety motives are associated with sexual assault history and drinking, and thus should be examined when targeting both sexual assault and drinking in college populations. The current study examined the effectiveness of decreasing coping with anxiety drinking motives among underage heavy episodic drinking college women (n=264). Results indicate that a web-based combined alcohol use and sexual assault risk reduction intervention was effective at decreasing drinking to cope with anxiety motives among those with stronger drinking to cope with anxiety motives at baseline. However, the alcohol-only and sexual assault-only interventions were not. Decreases in drinking motives were associated with decreases in heavy episodic drinking. This suggests that alcohol interventions in college populations may not be effectively targeting drinking motives and this preliminary study provides evidence indicating that targeting alcohol and sexual assault together may decrease drinking to cope motives among a high risk population. PMID:27262965

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Alcohol and Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions among People Living in Russia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chiao-Wen; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Johnson, Blair T.; Carey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and is experiencing one of the fastest-growing HIV epidemics in the world. Given these co-occurring health problems, we systematically reviewed combined alcohol and sexual risk interventions to reduce HIV among Russians. We completed comprehensive electronic searches to locate studies that (a) sampled people living in Russia, (b) used a behavioral intervention, and (c) assessed both alcohol and sexual risk behavior. These searches yielded 584 studies, of these, 2 were included. Compared with controls, intervention participants reported increasing their condom use (ds ranged from 0.12 to 0.85). Within-group improvements in sexual behaviors were found for both groups (ds ranged from 0.19 to 1.94); participants reported fewer sexual partners, more condom use, and reduced alcohol or drug use before sex. These findings support the need and potential benefits for alcohol and HIV interventions among Russians, and suggest directions for public policy. PMID:24104461

  19. Website for popularization of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, K.; Rasol, D.

    2012-04-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is an educational project that has started in 2007 at the Science Festival in Zagreb, Croatia. In 2009 began a new phase of the project which was introduction of the LMW as an extracurricular school activity for pupils. To reach more users the authors of the LMW published a booklet of experiments which were conducted at the workshops in schools. Furthermore, a website (www.malameteo.com) that shows how to make those experiments was developed. The website has some more educational information as well. Here, the content of the website will be presented.

  20. Building Websites for Science Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welborn, Victoria; Kanar, Bryn

    2000-01-01

    Suggests guidelines for evaluating and organizing Websites on scientific concepts that are developed from definitions of science literacy and science information literacy. Includes a sample webilography and a sample search strategy on the topic of acoustical oceanography. (Author/LRW)

  1. Website Redesign: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Brown, Janis F

    2016-01-01

    A library website redesign is a complicated and at times arduous task, requiring many different steps including determining user needs, analyzing past user behavior, examining other websites, defining design preferences, testing, marketing, and launching the site. Many different types of expertise are required over the entire process. Lessons learned from the Norris Medical Library's experience with the redesign effort may be useful to others undertaking a similar project. PMID:27054533

  2. Technical Information/Website Preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PintoRey, Christian R.

    2010-01-01

    This document reviews the work of the author in NASA's Motivating Undergraduates in Science and Technology (MUST) internship. The intern worked on the Space Shuttles hydraulic systems (i.e., Auxiliary Power Units (APU's) and Hydraulic Pump Units (HPU's)), and website preservation of the hydraulic technology captured in websites relating to the coming.the Space Shuttle Retirement. Several figures and pictures show an overview of the orbiter's hydraulic systems

  3. Readiness to Change and Reasons for Intended Reduction of Alcohol Consumption in Emergency Department versus Trauma Population

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Craig; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Anderson, Craig L.; Roumani, Samer; Weiss, Jie; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The primary objective was to identify the most common reasons for intending to cut back on alcohol use, in emergency department (ED) and trauma patient populations. The secondary objective was to determine the association between reason to cut back on alcohol and education level. Methods We conducted the study at a level one trauma center in California between 2008 and 2012. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI). We excluded patients who drank too little, and those whose scores were consistent with dependency (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]>19). The CASI database includes the patient’s age, gender, language, education level, an AUDIT score (1–40 scale), a readiness to change score (1–10), and the option to choose any of 10 “reasons to cut back” on their alcohol consumption. Results From 10,537 patients, 1,202 met criteria for the study (848 ED, 354 trauma). Overall, the most common reasons cited for cutting back on alcohol were “To avoid health problems” (68.5%), “To avoid getting a DUI” (43.6%), “It could save me money” (42.0%), and “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (41.0%). Trauma patients cited the following reasons significantly more than ED patients: “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (46.3% versus 38.8%, respectively), “So I can be in control of my behavior” (40.7% versus 32.2%), and “My partner or spouse wants me to stop” (20.1% versus 15.0%). Additionally, those patients who cited “To avoid health problems” reported 1.2 points higher than average (p<0.001) on the 10-point readiness to change scale. Those who have completed some college or an associate degree cited “To avoid health problems” less often than high school graduates (odds ratio [OR] 0.45), while they cited “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (OR 2.5) and “To avoid being in a car crash caused by alcohol use

  4. Impact of the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer in the home on reduction in probability of infection by respiratory and enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, A H; Maxwell, S; Edmonds, S L; Gerba, C P

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the reduction in risk of infection by viruses with the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, used in addition to routine hand washing, in family members in households. A quantitative microbial risk model was used to determine the probability of infection from the concentration of virus on the hands. The model incorporated variation in hand size, frequency of touching orifices (nose, mouth, eyes), and percent transfer to the site of infection, as well as, dose-response for each virus. Data on the occurrence of virus on household members' hands from an intervention study using MS-2 coliphage was used to determine the reduction of viruses on the hands pre- and post-intervention. It was found that the risk of rhinovirus, rotavirus or norovirus infection after the intervention was reduced by 47-98% depending upon the initial concentration of virus on the hands. PMID:25825988

  5. Impact of the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer in the home on reduction in probability of infection by respiratory and enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, A H; Maxwell, S; Edmonds, S L; Gerba, C P

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the reduction in risk of infection by viruses with the use of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, used in addition to routine hand washing, in family members in households. A quantitative microbial risk model was used to determine the probability of infection from the concentration of virus on the hands. The model incorporated variation in hand size, frequency of touching orifices (nose, mouth, eyes), and percent transfer to the site of infection, as well as, dose-response for each virus. Data on the occurrence of virus on household members' hands from an intervention study using MS-2 coliphage was used to determine the reduction of viruses on the hands pre- and post-intervention. It was found that the risk of rhinovirus, rotavirus or norovirus infection after the intervention was reduced by 47-98% depending upon the initial concentration of virus on the hands.

  6. Electroacupuncture decreases excessive alcohol consumption involving reduction of FosB/ΔFosB levels in reward-related brain regions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sun, Yanan; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    New therapies are needed for alcohol abuse, a major public health problem in the U.S. and worldwide. There are only three FDA-approved drugs for treatment of alcohol abuse (naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfuram). On average these drugs yield only moderate success in reducing long-term alcohol consumption. Electroacupuncture has been shown to alleviate various drugs of abuse, including alcohol. Although previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture reduced alcohol consumption, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors implicated in neural plasticity in drug addiction; a connection between electroacupuncture's treatment of alcohol abuse and the Fos family has not been established. In this study, we trained rats to drink large quantities of ethanol in a modified intermittent access two-bottle choice drinking procedure. When rats achieved a stable baseline of ethanol consumption, electroacupuncture (100 Hz or 2 Hz, 30 min each day) was administered at Zusanli (ST36) for 6 consecutive days. The level of FosB/ΔFosB in reward-related brain regions was assessed by immunohistochemistry. We found that the intake of and preference for ethanol in rats under 100 Hz, but not 2 Hz electroacupuncture regiment were sharply reduced. The reduction was maintained for at least 72 hours after the termination of electroacupuncture treatment. Conversely, 100 Hz electroacupuncture did not alter the intake of and preference for the natural rewarding agent sucrose. Additionally, FosB/ΔFosB levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatal region and the posterior region of ventral tegmental area were increased following excessive ethanol consumption, but were reduced after six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture. Thus, this study demonstrates that six-day 100 Hz electroacupuncture treatment effectively reduces ethanol consumption and preference in rats that chronically drink excessive amount of ethanol. This

  7. The Effects of as-Needed Nalmefene on Patient-Reported Outcomes and Quality of Life in Relation to a Reduction in Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    François, Clément; Rahhali, Nora; Chalem, Ylana; Sørensen, Per; Luquiens, Amandine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this article was to investigate the effect of as-needed nalmefene on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with alcohol dependence, and to relate changes in drinking behavior and status to HRQoL outcomes. Methods This post hoc analysis was conducted on a pooled subgroup of patients with at least a high drinking risk level (men: >60 g/day; women: >40 g/day) who participated in one of two randomized controlled 6-month studies, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2. Patients received nalmefene 18 mg or placebo on an as-needed basis, in addition to a motivational and adherence-enhancing intervention (BRENDA). At baseline and after 12 and 24 weeks questionnaires for the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), European Quality of life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DrInC-2R) were completed. Results The pooled population consisted of 667 patients (nalmefene: 335; placebo: 332), with no notable between-group differences in baseline patient demographics/characteristics. At week 24, nalmefene had a superior effect compared to placebo in improving SF-36 mental component summary scores (mean difference [95% CI], p-value: 3.09 [1.29, 4.89]; p=0.0008), SF-36 physical component summary scores (1.23 [0.15, 2.31]; p=0.026), EQ-5D utility index scores (0.03 [0.00, 0.06]; p=0.045), EQ-5D health state scores (3.46 [0.75, 6.17]; p=0.012), and DrInC-2R scores (-3.22 [-6.12, 0.33]; p=0.029). The improvements in SF-36 mental component summary scores at week 24, and the DrInC-2R total score change from baseline to week 24, were significantly correlated to reductions in heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at week 24. Conclusions As-needed nalmefene significantly improved almost all patient-reported HRQoL measures included in SF-36 and EQ-5D compared with placebo. These HRQoL gains were significantly correlated to reduced drinking behavior, as determined by reductions in heavy drinking days

  8. Health Websites and Reliability Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Wayne; Skinner, James

    2008-01-01

    One of the factors that have contributed to the explosive popularity of the World Wide Web (WWW) is the ease with which almost anyone can become a web publisher. It has been estimated that 30 million new websites are created every day on the WWW, with a vast majority of these being health related. It is further asserted that there is a healthy…

  9. Better Public Relations on Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Raven

    2006-01-01

    Some school websites resemble the larger district site; others take on the personality of the school itself. Some have a more serious tone; others incorporate fun activities. The key is to find balance and be visually appealing. "Appearance helps makes it more user-friendly as well as including links to other district and student services," said…

  10. Fast and Easy Website Tuneups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisniewski, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article presents fast, easy and helpful hints for making web sites that people will want to use over and over again. These tips include: (1) Making sure that the website's copyright statement is up-to-date; (2) Adding "last updated" code to each webpage at the site; (3) Adding photos to the site's contact information; (4) Turning boring old…

  11. The Science Teacher Festival Website.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a website that is used to present information, text, and images about science teaching dating from 1901 to the present. Topics include the subject teaching associations; the science classroom; science teachers; the science curriculum; pupils' work in science lessons; and science teaching, learning, and assessment. Describes the benefits…

  12. A novel reductive graphene oxide-based magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) polymers for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish samples.

    PubMed

    Lin, Saichai; Gan, Ning; Zhang, Jiabin; Chen, Xidong; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2015-06-01

    The novel reductive graphene oxide-based magnetic molecularly imprinted poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) polymers (rGO@m-MIPs) were successfully synthesized as adsorbents for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish samples. rGO@m-MIPs was prepared by surface molecular imprinting technique. Besides, Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were employed as magnetic supporters, and rGO@Fe3 O4 was in situ synthesis. Different from functional monomer and cross-linker in traditional molecularly imprinted polymer, here, 3,4-dichlorobenzidine was employed as dummy molecular and poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) was adopted as the imprinted polymers. After morphology and inner structure of the magnetic adsorbent were characterized, the adsorbent was employed for disperse solid phase extraction toward PCBs and exhibited great selectivity and high adsorption efficiency. This material was verified by determination of PCBs in fish samples combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. According to the detection, the low detection limits (LODs) of PCBs were 0.0035-0.0070 µg l(-1) and spiked recoveries ranged between 79.90 and 94.23%. The prepared adsorbent can be renewable for at least 16 times and expected to be a new material for the enrichment and determination of PCBs from contaminated fish samples. PMID:25736423

  13. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment.

  14. We-Language and Sustained Reductions in Drinking in Couple-Based Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S

    2016-03-01

    Couple-based treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) produce higher rates of abstinence than individual-based treatments and posit that active involvement of both identified patients (IPs) and significant others (SOs) is partly responsible for these improvements. Separate research on couples' communication has suggested that pronoun usage can indicate a communal approach to coping with health-related problems. The present study tested whether communal coping, indicated by use of more first-person plural pronouns ("we" language), fewer second-person pronouns ("you" language), and fewer first-person singular pronouns ("I" language), predicted improvements in abstinence in couple-based AUD treatment. Pronoun use was measured in first- and mid-treatment sessions for 188 heterosexual couples in four clinical trials of alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT). Percentages of days abstinent were assessed during treatment and over a 6-month follow-up period. Greater IP and SO "we" language during both sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinent days during treatment. Greater SO "we" language during first- and mid-treatment sessions was correlated with greater improvement in abstinence at follow-up. Greater use of IP and SO "you" and "I" language had mixed correlations with abstinence, typically being unrelated to or predicting less improvement in abstinence. When all pronoun variables were entered into regression models, only greater IP "we" langue and lower IP "you" language predicted improvements in abstinence during treatment, and only SO "we" language predicted improvements during follow-up. Most pronoun categories had little or no association with baseline relationship distress. Results suggest that communal coping predicts better abstinence outcomes in couple-based AUD treatment. PMID:25809790

  15. Heuristic Evaluation of Three Jordanian University Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Layla

    2013-01-01

    Generally, universities have complex and large websites, which include a collection of many sub-sites related to the different parts of universities (e.g. registration unit, faculties, departments). Managers of academic institutions and educational websites need to know types of usability problems that could be found on their websites. This would…

  16. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  17. Characteristics and Quality of Autism Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichow, Brian; Halpern, Jason I.; Steinhoff, Timothy B.; Letsinger, Nicole; Naples, Adam; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The World Wide Web is a common method for obtaining information on autism spectrum disorders, however, there are no guidelines for finding websites with high quality. We conducted two studies examining the characteristics and/or quality of autism websites in 2009 and 2010. We found websites with a .gov top-level domain had a statistically…

  18. Theoretical Foundations for Website Design Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kristin

    2002-01-01

    Considers how theoretical foundations in website design courses can facilitate students learning the genres of Internet communication. Proposes ways that theories can be integrated into website design courses. Focuses on two students' website portfolios and ways they utilize genre theory and activity theory discussed in class to produce websites…

  19. Five Steps to an Accessible Classroom Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    When teachers or technology coordinators publish a website, they are providing a product for a diverse group of people. That's why website design should follow accessibility guidelines. Websites should be accessible to those with visual, hearing, movement, cognitive, and speech disabilities. Good design means greater accessibility for all. This…

  20. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  1. Accessible Websites--What Is Out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waight, Mary; Oldreive, Warren

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to outline a time-related study to identify UK websites providing information for people with learning disabilities and to evaluate the websites to determine strengths and weaknesses. Following a brief review of literature, a series of criteria were drawn up to evaluate websites for people with learning disabilities. Eighty-three…

  2. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    PubMed

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  3. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  4. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  5. Impact of Perceived Website Service Quality on Customer E-Loyalty on a Lodging Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Myunghee

    2009-01-01

    Customer loyalty on websites, "e-loyalty", is reflected on customer behavior, regardless of online or offline business. Specifically, it is believed that customer loyalty on a website is strongly associated with website service quality. This study rigorously reviewed previously reported research in the website service quality dimensions and…

  6. A convenient method for the preparation of inverted tert-alkyl carboxylates from chiral tert-alcohols by a new type of oxidation-reduction condensation using 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Mukaiyama, Teruaki; Shintou, Taichi; Fukumoto, Kentaro

    2003-09-01

    Oxidation-reduction condensation using in situ-formed alkoxydiphenylphosphines, 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and carboxylic acids provided a new and efficient method for the preparation of inverted tert-alkyl carboxylates from various chiral tertiary alcohols.

  7. Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Methods A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life. Results Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death. Conclusions While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population. PMID:22545586

  8. Application of integrated ozone and granular activated carbon for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand reduction of vinasse from alcohol distilleries.

    PubMed

    Hadavifar, Mojtaba; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar; Mahdad, Faezeh; Li, Qin; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the treatment of the distilleries vinasse using a hybrid process integrating ozone oxidation and granular activated carbons (GAC) in both batch and continuous operation mode. The batch-process studies have been carried out to optimize initial influent pH, GAC doses, the effect of the ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal of the distilleries vinasse. The continuous process was carried out on GAC and ozone treatment alone as well as the hybrid process comb both methods to investigate the synergism effectiveness of the two methods for distilleries vinasse COD reduction and color removal. In a continuous process, the Yan model described the experimental data better than the Thomas model. The efficiency of ozonation of the distilleries vinasse was more effective for color removal (74.4%) than COD removal (25%). O3/H2O2 process was not considerably more effective on COD and color removal. Moreover, O3/GAC process affected negatively on the removal efficiency by reducing COD and color from distilleries vinasse. The negative effect decreased by increasing pH value of the influent. PMID:26789200

  9. Application of integrated ozone and granular activated carbon for decolorization and chemical oxygen demand reduction of vinasse from alcohol distilleries.

    PubMed

    Hadavifar, Mojtaba; Younesi, Habibollah; Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar; Mahdad, Faezeh; Li, Qin; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the treatment of the distilleries vinasse using a hybrid process integrating ozone oxidation and granular activated carbons (GAC) in both batch and continuous operation mode. The batch-process studies have been carried out to optimize initial influent pH, GAC doses, the effect of the ozone (O3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal of the distilleries vinasse. The continuous process was carried out on GAC and ozone treatment alone as well as the hybrid process comb both methods to investigate the synergism effectiveness of the two methods for distilleries vinasse COD reduction and color removal. In a continuous process, the Yan model described the experimental data better than the Thomas model. The efficiency of ozonation of the distilleries vinasse was more effective for color removal (74.4%) than COD removal (25%). O3/H2O2 process was not considerably more effective on COD and color removal. Moreover, O3/GAC process affected negatively on the removal efficiency by reducing COD and color from distilleries vinasse. The negative effect decreased by increasing pH value of the influent.

  10. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  11. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  12. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  13. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  14. Dissociation between exercise-induced reduction in liver fat and changes in hepatic and peripheral glucose homoeostasis in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Richardson, Paul; Kemp, Graham J; Barrett, Mark; Jackson, Nicola C; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Umpleby, A Margot

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multi-organ (hepatic, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance (IR). Exercise is an effective treatment for lowering liver fat but its effect on IR in NAFLD is unknown. We aimed to determine whether supervised exercise in NAFLD would reduce liver fat and improve hepatic and peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin sensitivity. Sixty nine NAFLD patients were randomized to 16 weeks exercise supervision (n=38) or counselling (n=31) without dietary modification. All participants underwent MRI/spectroscopy to assess changes in body fat and in liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride, before and following exercise/counselling. To quantify changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, a pre-determined subset (n=12 per group) underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp pre- and post-intervention. Results are shown as mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Fifty participants (30 exercise, 20 counselling), 51 years (IQR 40, 56), body mass index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2) (IQR 29, 35) with baseline liver fat/water % of 18.8% (IQR 10.7, 34.6) completed the study (12/12 exercise and 7/12 counselling completed the clamp studies). Supervised exercise mediated a greater reduction in liver fat/water percentage than counselling [Δ mean change 4.7% (0.01, 9.4); P<0.05], which correlated with the change in cardiorespiratory fitness (r=-0.34, P=0.0173). With exercise, peripheral insulin sensitivity significantly increased (following high-dose insulin) despite no significant change in hepatic glucose production (HGP; following low-dose insulin); no changes were observed in the control group. Although supervised exercise effectively reduced liver fat, improving peripheral IR in NAFLD, the reduction in liver fat was insufficient to improve hepatic IR. PMID:26424731

  15. Dissociation between exercise-induced reduction in liver fat and changes in hepatic and peripheral glucose homoeostasis in obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Sprung, Victoria S; Jones, Helen; Pugh, Christopher J A; Richardson, Paul; Kemp, Graham J; Barrett, Mark; Jackson, Nicola C; Thomas, E Louise; Bell, Jimmy D; Umpleby, A Margot

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with multi-organ (hepatic, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue) insulin resistance (IR). Exercise is an effective treatment for lowering liver fat but its effect on IR in NAFLD is unknown. We aimed to determine whether supervised exercise in NAFLD would reduce liver fat and improve hepatic and peripheral (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue) insulin sensitivity. Sixty nine NAFLD patients were randomized to 16 weeks exercise supervision (n=38) or counselling (n=31) without dietary modification. All participants underwent MRI/spectroscopy to assess changes in body fat and in liver and skeletal muscle triglyceride, before and following exercise/counselling. To quantify changes in hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, a pre-determined subset (n=12 per group) underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp pre- and post-intervention. Results are shown as mean [95% confidence interval (CI)]. Fifty participants (30 exercise, 20 counselling), 51 years (IQR 40, 56), body mass index (BMI) 31 kg/m(2) (IQR 29, 35) with baseline liver fat/water % of 18.8% (IQR 10.7, 34.6) completed the study (12/12 exercise and 7/12 counselling completed the clamp studies). Supervised exercise mediated a greater reduction in liver fat/water percentage than counselling [Δ mean change 4.7% (0.01, 9.4); P<0.05], which correlated with the change in cardiorespiratory fitness (r=-0.34, P=0.0173). With exercise, peripheral insulin sensitivity significantly increased (following high-dose insulin) despite no significant change in hepatic glucose production (HGP; following low-dose insulin); no changes were observed in the control group. Although supervised exercise effectively reduced liver fat, improving peripheral IR in NAFLD, the reduction in liver fat was insufficient to improve hepatic IR.

  16. The Development of the Tobacco Tactics Website

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Karen E; Flanagan, Petra S; Ronis, David L; Ewing, Lee A; Waltje, Andrea H

    2013-01-01

    Background Web-based cessation interventions have been shown to reduce tobacco use, be more efficacious than self-help booklets, be more efficacious if they provide tailored messages, and enhance quit rates in conjunction with nicotine replacement therapy. Objective The objective of this study was to usability test and pilot test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. Methods Both formative and summative evaluations were used across three small successive studies to develop and test the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans, which was based on a prior face-to-face smoking cessation intervention. Once the website was developed, the research team and Web developers usability tested the website with 5 veteran smokers and former smokers. Feedback from the veterans was collected as they navigated each webpage, then used to revise the website. In pilot study 1, 9 veteran smokers were provided access to the website, and given a baseline and 30-day follow-up survey. In pilot study 2, 18 veteran smokers, who were also motivated to quit smoking, were recruited and randomized to either the Tobacco Tactics website plus nicotine replacement therapy or to the 1-800-QUIT-NOW telephone line. Results As a result of usability testing, more than 27 modifications were made to improve the website. In pilot study 1, 50% (3/6) veterans who entered the website had cut down on the number of cigarettes and 83% (5/6) found the website enjoyable, easy to read, easy to navigate, and would recommend the website to others. In pilot study 2, which included only smokers motivated to quit and also offered nicotine replacement therapy, seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 30-day follow-up was 40% (4/10) in the intervention group compared to 13% (1/8) in the control group. Conclusions These preliminary results are promising and suggest the need for wider-scale testing of the Tobacco Tactics website for veterans. PMID:23811612

  17. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  18. The tmRNA website

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from themore » same organism.« less

  19. The tmRNA website

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    We report that the transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http: //bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism.

  20. [The Military Medical Academy's website].

    PubMed

    Kuvakin, V I; Vasil'ev, G G

    2013-12-01

    The article deals with the organization of work, evaluation and optimization of the official web site of the Kirov Military Medical Academy. The website of the Kirov Academy is presented as a multifunctional IT tool for support of its activity. Tasks and functions of the Kirov Academy web site, as well as technological features of its work are listed. Some of its quantitative characteristics as a user tool for the access to information resources of the Kirov Academy are given. The description of the site structure and its pages are presented. The requirements for information materials submitted for posting on the site are set out. The data of webometric ranking of Russian institutions of higher education and research institutes are analyzed, the location of the Academy web site in this rating is shown. The areas for further improvement of the Academy web site, its structure and services are stated. PMID:24738276

  1. The tmRNA website.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Corey M; Williams, Kelly P

    2015-01-01

    The transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) and its partner protein SmpB act together in resolving problems arising when translating bacterial ribosomes reach the end of mRNA with no stop codon. Their genes have been found in nearly all bacterial genomes and in some organelles. The tmRNA Website serves tmRNA sequences, alignments and feature annotations, and has recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/tmrna/. New features include software used to find the sequences, an update raising the number of unique tmRNA sequences from 492 to 1716, and a database of SmpB sequences which are served along with the tmRNA sequence from the same organism.

  2. Reduction of CO2 to low carbon alcohols on CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peiqiang; Wang, Huying; Xu, Jinfeng; Jing, Hua; Zhang, Jun; Han, Haixiang; Lu, Fusui

    2013-11-01

    cm-2 after 6 h, respectively. This high-efficiency catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces has a great guidance and reference significance for CO2 reduction to liquid carbon fuels. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Reduction of CO2 to low carbon alcohols on CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03352j

  3. The Effects of Website Information Utility on the Outcomes of User-Website Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasley, Joseph Paul

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between website information content utility and various outcomes of user interactions with e-tail websites. Although previous research has consistently identified high quality information content as a critical factor of successful e-commerce websites, those studies have not reported how to identify the…

  4. Using School Websites to Support Parent Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A middle school of 1,000 students is a busy place. With dwindling resources and increased accountability, a well-designed school website is vital. Students and parents visit high quality websites through a variety of devices and expect equally high quality school-to-home communication. With the support of a professional web design company, the…

  5. What Websites Are on My Favorite List?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    This column highlights websites that the author thinks are interesting, well designed, and useful to classroom teachers, college-level methods instructors, and other social studies professionals. When reviewing these websites mostly the author tries to look at them through the eyes of a classroom teacher. Does it have relevant, accurate…

  6. Creating Dynamic Websites Using jQuery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Francisco, Emily

    2010-01-01

    As e-resource systems and web coordinator for Southern Oregon University, the author is deeply involved with the university library's website. In the latest revision of this website, the author knew she needed to jazz it up a little. With screen real estate on the main page at a premium, the author hoped to use a tabbed box and an accordion-style…

  7. Developing Multiple Literacies in a Website Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Lucy K.

    2009-01-01

    Jacky, an 11-year-old biliterate Latina, was the subject of this case study. She used her home funds of knowledge to become computer literate through the development of a website focused on Mexican heritage. The website, created via funds of knowledge drawn from the community, in turn involved families and the local community in computer…

  8. Exploring the Use and Effects of Deliberate Self-Harm Websites: An Internet-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Isobel Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background In the United Kingdom, rates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) are rising. Alongside this, there has been an increase in the number of websites available with DSH content, and the Internet is known as a valuable resource for those who feel isolated by their condition(s). However, there is little and contradictory evidence available on the effects of using such websites. Further research is therefore required to examine the use and effects of DSH websites. Objective Our objectives were to explore (1) the reasons people engage in the use of self-harm forums/websites, (2) the beliefs of users of self-harm forums regarding the role of such websites, (3) how the use of self-harm forums/websites modulates self-harm behaviors, and (4) other ways that self-harm forums affect the lives of individuals who use them. Methods Data were collected by a questionnaire hosted on 20 websites with self-harm content. Participants were self-selected from users of these sites. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and simple thematic analysis. Results In total, 329 responses were received with 91.8% (302/329) from female site users. The majority of participants (65.6%, 187/285) visited these sites at least twice per week, and most participants used the sites to find information (78.2%, 223/285) or participate in the forums (68.4%, 195/285). Positive effects of website use such as gaining help and support, isolation reduction, and a reduction in self-harm behaviors were reported by a large number of participants. However, smaller but important numbers reported negative effects including worsened self-harm, being triggered to self-harm, and additional negative physical and psychological effects. Conclusions This is the first multisite study to explore DSH website use in depth. There are clear and important benefits to engaging in website use for many individuals; however, these are not experienced by all website users. Negative effects were experienced by moderate

  9. The impact of virtual reality functions of a hotel website on travel anxiety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook; Oh, Ji-Eun

    2007-08-01

    This study deals with the impact of virtual reality (VR) features that are embedded in a hotel website on travelers' anxiety. Having more information is thought to be a factor in relieving anxiety in travel. A hotel website can be a good place for gathering information about the accommodation. In this study, we posit that a hotel website with VR functions should lead to a reduction in travelers' anxiety about travel. We built a website of a hotel and used VR functions to show the exterior, the lobby, a guest room, and a restaurant through an interactive and spatial shot of the hotel images. The experiment was conducted with a premise that the subjects were about to embark on a journey to an unknown place and to stay at an unknown hotel whose website contained VR functions. The subjects were asked to play with VR functions of the hotel website and then to complete a survey with questions regarding the degree of anxiety on the travel and psychological relief that might have been perceived by the subjects. The result confirms our hypothesis that there is a statistically significant relationship between the degree of travel anxiety and psychological relief caused by the use of VR functions of a hotel website.

  10. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20 000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100 000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Conclusions

  11. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  12. Explore Mars from the NASA Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhaoyao, Meng

    2005-01-01

    Here we show how to explore Mars based on data obtainable from the NASA website. The analysis and calculations of some physics questions provide interesting and useful examples of inquiry-based learning.

  13. How the Website Usability Elements Impact Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljukhadar, Muhammad; Senecal, Sylvain

    This research builds on the results of a large scale study in which participants performed an informational task on one of 59 websites spanning various industries to examine how the website usability elements (graphical attractiveness, information, interactivity, trust, and ease of use) drive users’ attitudes and intentions toward the website and how these effects vary according to site experience and end product tangibility. Results show that while the effects of site interactivity and graphical attractiveness were more influential for services sites, the effects of site information and trust were stronger for tangibles sites. Alternatively, compared to returning site visitors, first-time visitors perceived the website as less easy to use, needed more time to accomplish the online task, and based positive attitudes and intentions more strongly on the site information and interactivity. The results of a second study performed in a proximate culture largely corroborate these findings.

  14. Got Web? Investing in a District Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    School and school district websites began to mushroom in the mid-1990s in what looked like a rush to stake a cyber-claim in a new frontier. As a byproduct, these early experiments also seemed like a good place to let parents know what is going on in the local school district. Today, it is all too easy to find district websites that are little more…

  15. [Resources for qualitative research: the DIPEx website].

    PubMed

    Cura Della Redazione, A

    2013-01-01

    Resources for qualitative research: the DIPEX website. DIPEx (Personal Experiences of Health & Illness) produces a website giving personal accounts of health and illness. These accounts are in written, audio and video format and aim to give information and support so that people are better informed about the life choices they might need to make when encountering a new health experience, serious illness or health problem. Modules on 75 illnessess/problems are available.

  16. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  17. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  18. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  19. Community pharmacy-delivered interventions for public health priorities: a systematic review of interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management, including meta-analysis for smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tamara J; Todd, Adam; O'Malley, Claire; Moore, Helen J; Husband, Andrew K; Bambra, Clare; Kasim, Adetayo; Sniehotta, Falko F; Steed, Liz; Smith, Sarah; Nield, Lucie; Summerbell, Carolyn D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the effectiveness of community pharmacy-delivered interventions for alcohol reduction, smoking cessation and weight management. Design Systematic review and meta-analyses. 10 electronic databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Study design: randomised and non-randomised controlled trials; controlled before/after studies, interrupted times series. Intervention: any relevant intervention set in a community pharmacy, delivered by the pharmacy team. No restrictions on duration, country, age, or language. Results 19 studies were included: 2 alcohol reduction, 12 smoking cessation and 5 weight management. Study quality rating: 6 ‘strong’, 4 ‘moderate’ and 9 ‘weak’. 8 studies were conducted in the UK, 4 in the USA, 2 in Australia, 1 each in 5 other countries. Evidence from 2 alcohol-reduction interventions was limited. Behavioural support and/or nicotine replacement therapy are effective and cost-effective for smoking cessation: pooled OR was 2.56 (95% CI 1.45 to 4.53) for active intervention vs usual care. Pharmacy-based interventions produced similar weight loss compared with active interventions in other primary care settings; however, weight loss was not sustained longer term in a range of primary care and commercial settings compared with control. Pharmacy-based weight management interventions have similar provider costs to those delivered in other primary care settings, which are greater than those delivered by commercial organisations. Very few studies explored if and how sociodemographic or socioeconomic variables moderated intervention effects. Insufficient information was available to examine relationships between effectiveness and behaviour change strategies, implementation factors, or organisation and delivery of interventions. Conclusions Community pharmacy-delivered interventions are effective for smoking cessation, and demonstrate that the pharmacy is a

  20. Perceptions of Special Education Doctoral Websites: A Multiyear Investigation of Website Usability and Navigability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundeen, Todd; Garland, Krista Vince; Wienke, Wilfred

    2015-01-01

    Today's graduate students are highly skilled in using technology, so university websites are often the most influential resource students access for gathering information about university programs. Graduate students in special education reviewed select university and special education doctoral program websites across the United States. An…

  1. Promoting Diversity through Program Websites: A Multicultural Content Analysis of School Psychology Program Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leann V.; Blake, Jamilia J.; Graves, Scott L.; Vaughan-Jensen, Jessica; Pulido, Ryne; Banks, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    The recruitment of culturally and linguistically diverse students to graduate programs is critical to the overall growth and development of school psychology as a field. Program websites serve as an effective recruitment tool for attracting prospective students, yet there is limited research on how school psychology programs use their websites to…

  2. United States Federal Health Care Websites: A Multimethod Evaluation of Website Accessibility for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brobst, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The problem addressed by this study is the observed low levels of compliance with federal policy on website accessibility. The study examines the two key federal policies that promote website accessibility, using a side-by-side policy analysis technique. The analysis examines the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and Section 508 of the…

  3. How to improve medical education website design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Discussion Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow established principles of curriculum development; 2) Perform a needs assessment and repeat the needs assessment regularly after curriculum implementation; 3) Include in the needs assessment targeted learners, educators, institutions, and society; 4) Use principles of adult learning and behavioral theory when developing content and website function; 5) Design the website and curriculum to demonstrate educational effectiveness at an individual and programmatic level; 6) Include a mechanism for sustaining website operations and updating content over a long period of time. Summary Interactive, online education programs are effective for medical training, but require planning, implementation, and maintenance that follow established principles of curriculum development, adult learning, and behavioral theory. PMID:20409344

  4. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  5. Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23388302

  6. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  7. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  8. Cyberchase: A Website for Parents and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Cyberchase is an animated television series airing on public broadcasting stations throughout the United States. It focuses on mathematics for elementary-level students ages 8-11 and is designed to engage young people with math concepts in a highly stimulating multimedia format. As part of continuing program improvement, a website for parents and…

  9. Evaluating School Counseling Websites: An Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Glenda P.; Kitchens, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of a webpage evaluation for embedding technology in classes for teaching school counseling and counseling program development. The instructors created the Website Evaluation Form to help students recognize qualities of webpages that would enhance the school counseling program, broaden their…

  10. Welcome to the Poster Website | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Melissa Porter, Executive Editor The Poster newsletter staff is pleased to present you with the all-new Poster website. Now you can access all the latest information from the National Cancer Institute at Frederick from your smart phone, tablet, notebook, or any other device with an Internet connection.

  11. Rising Tides: Faculty Expectations of Library Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, Erica Carlson; O'English, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Looking at 2003-2009 LibQUAL+ responses at research-oriented universities in the United States, faculty library users report a significant and consistent rise in desires and expectations for library-provided online tools and websites, even as student user groups show declining or leveling expectations. While faculty, like students, also report…

  12. Textbook Websites: User Technology Acceptance Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Gregory A.; Norman, Carolyn Strand

    2011-01-01

    Compared with course management software (e.g. Blackboard and WebCT), the content and technology offered by a textbook website (TBW) is relatively costless to universities and professors, and is a potentially valuable tool that can be leveraged to help students learn course material. The present study uses the extended Technology Acceptance Model…

  13. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  14. Teaching about Bioethics through Authoring of Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Christopher J. R.; Wellens, Jane

    2004-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the need to equip students to think through the ethical implications of developments in biology. We describe an exercise in which students work in teams to produce websites about current controversial issues within the subject. Participants report a significant improvement in their knowledge of bioethics and…

  15. Taxonomy of Scientifically Oriented Educational Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachmias, Rafi; Tuvi, Inbal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses science educators' interest in Web-based learning (WBL). Provides a classification scheme by which scientifically-oriented educational websites can be evaluated for content level. Presents an example of site evaluation in the field of atomic structure and discusses the potential embedded in this taxonomy to assist the web site developer,…

  16. The Educational Software/Website Effectiveness Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Joseph M.; Daigle, Debra

    2004-01-01

    In today's growing technological age of educational software and interactive Internet teaching/learning websites, it is important to note that educators must take the time to see that the interactive electronic experiences their students are involved meet the appropriate standards, hence been evaluated. This article provides the readers with an…

  17. User Satisfaction Evaluation of an Educational Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akilli, Goknur Kaplan

    2005-01-01

    This study focuses on one particular aspect of usability, namely, user satisfaction, for an educational website used as a supportive tool for various courses by employing only one specific usability testing technique, a questionnaire. The researcher aimed to find out whether eighth semester undergraduate students of Computer Education and…

  18. Websites for Primary Sources and Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulli, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article features a list of websites for primary sources and civics education. The World Wide Web has become an excellent source for facsimiles, images, and transcriptions of primary sources. As it would be impossible to provide a comprehensive list of all the sites, this annotated list highlights selective sites that provide access to…

  19. ASA24® Respondent Website Features

    Cancer.gov

    The ASA24 Respondent Website guides the participant through the completion of either a 24-hour recall for the previous day (from midnight-to-midnight or for the past 24-hours) or for a single or multiple day food record.

  20. Development and validation of a tool to evaluate the quality of medical education websites in pathology

    PubMed Central

    Alyusuf, Raja H.; Prasad, Kameshwar; Abdel Satir, Ali M.; Abalkhail, Ali A.; Arora, Roopa K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The exponential use of the internet as a learning resource coupled with varied quality of many websites, lead to a need to identify suitable websites for teaching purposes. Aim: The aim of this study is to develop and to validate a tool, which evaluates the quality of undergraduate medical educational websites; and apply it to the field of pathology. Methods: A tool was devised through several steps of item generation, reduction, weightage, pilot testing, post-pilot modification of the tool and validating the tool. Tool validation included measurement of inter-observer reliability; and generation of criterion related, construct related and content related validity. The validated tool was subsequently tested by applying it to a population of pathology websites. Results and Discussion: Reliability testing showed a high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92), high inter-observer reliability (Pearson's correlation r = 0.88), intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85 and κ =0.75. It showed high criterion related, construct related and content related validity. The tool showed moderately high concordance with the gold standard (κ =0.61); 92.2% sensitivity, 67.8% specificity, 75.6% positive predictive value and 88.9% negative predictive value. The validated tool was applied to 278 websites; 29.9% were rated as recommended, 41.0% as recommended with caution and 29.1% as not recommended. Conclusion: A systematic tool was devised to evaluate the quality of websites for medical educational purposes. The tool was shown to yield reliable and valid inferences through its application to pathology websites. PMID:24392243

  1. Alcoholic abstinence in elderly subjects with misuse of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Verny, Marc; Fernandez, Lydia; Ploton, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder does not disappear with aging, neither the associated induced-suffering. While the prevalence of alcohol use disorder still remains around 10% in the subjects over 65 year old age, and daily encountered by hospital or nursing-home caregivers. Alcohol misuse is often overlooked in elderly people, which then obtain lesser care than younger adults although the care prognosis remains as good as or better than before the age of 65, alcoholic abstinence gets always a place among care offers to elders suffering of alcohol use disorders and dependence. However abstinence is a complex notion gathering various representations or meanings, and induces necessary psychological changes. Alcoholic abstinence seems thus to be feared by families or caregivers, because of lack of knowledge about the addictive dimension of the disorder. On behalf of ultimate freedom, and allowing a last pleasure, alcohol use disorders and its associated suffering can be neglected because abstinence is considered as aggressive and harmful. However, modalities of reduction of alcohol consumption as well as access control or regulated supply of alcoholic beverages, keep having a place in graduate care offers. Beyond the choice of decreasing or suppress drinking alcohol beverages, which only are terms or conditions of improvement, the main point remains the improvement of well-fare, quality of life and elders' health. PMID:27277151

  2. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  4. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  5. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  6. Cloning and overexpression of an NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Candida maris involved in (R)-selective reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Shigeru; Yano, Miho; Hasegawa, Junzo; Yasohara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    5-((R)-1-Hydroxyethyl)-furo[2,3-c]pyridine ((R)-FPH) is a useful chiral building block in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals. An NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (AFPDH) isolated from Candida maris catalyzed the reduction of 5-acetylfuro[2,3-c]pyridine (AFP) to (R)-FPH with 100% enantiomeric excess. The gene encoding AFPDH was cloned and sequenced. The AFPDH gene comprises 762 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 27,230 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a high degree of similarity to those of other members of the short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase superfamily. The AFPDH gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli under the control of the lac promoter. One L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant coexpressing AFPDH and the glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) gene reduced 250 g of AFP to (R)-FPH in an organic solvent two-phase system. Under coupling with NADH regeneration using 2-propanol, 1 L of the cultured broth of an E. coli transformant expressing the AFPDH gene reduced 150 g of AFP to (R)-FPH. The optical purity of the (R)-FPH formed was 100% enantiomeric excess under both reaction conditions.

  7. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  8. Determining the Effectiveness of a Culturally Customized School Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garabedian Stork, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This applied dissertation was designed to determine the extent to which the website of the targeted middle school was culturally responsive. Data collected were the number and percentage of participants who perceived the website information as helpful, the number and percentage of participants who believed that the website provided opportunities…

  9. Investigating a Student-Driven Taxonomy for Library Website Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Libraries spend countless hours developing websites to connect users and resources. However, how much do we really know about what website terminology and features are meaningful to our patrons? And how can we best organize websites to facilitate access to resources? This article examines these questions by presenting a case study of a…

  10. American History Websites for Use in Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, William P.

    1999-01-01

    Provides a list of U.S. history Internet sites for secondary school social studies teachers that are suitable for students. Explains that the websites are categorized by time period and includes brief descriptions of their features. Gives a general list of U.S. history websites and a list of questions for website evaluation. (CMK)

  11. The Community College Website as Virtual Advisor: A Usability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Jonathan; Miller, Shazia Rafiullah; Rosenbaum, James E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether community college websites are a useful medium for providing knowledge relevant to degree completion. Ten community students used one of three community college websites to answer 10 questions about occupational degree programs. A facilitator asked participants to think aloud while using the website to answer these…

  12. College Students' Perceived Attributes of Internet Websites and Online Shopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seock, Yoo-Kyoung; Norton, Marjorie J. T.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of attributes of clothing retailers' Internet websites in relation to previous and intended future purchase from the websites. Survey data from 414 U.S. college students, non-married and aged 18-22 with online clothing shopping experience and favorite clothing websites were used. Five clothing…

  13. A recommender system for prostate cancer websites.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Holly; Chignell, Mark; Krahn, Murray

    2008-11-06

    One of the challenges for people seeking health information online is the difficulty in locating health Websites that are personally relevant, credible and useful. We developed a Web-based recommender system in order to help address this problem in the context of prostate cancer. We are conducting an online randomized controlled trial to evaluate the accuracy of its recommendations and to compare the efficacy of content-based and collaborative filtering.

  14. Physician recruitment websites: the territory ahead.

    PubMed

    DuPont, R E

    2001-01-01

    Recruitment is no longer just a face-to-face interaction between a recruiter and a job-seeker. To remain up-to-date with current technology, physicians should use the various electronic tools available today, including recruitment websites, video previews, and PC-to-PC interviews to get the job they've been looking for. This article discusses the pros and cons of these interfaces. PMID:11497311

  15. A review of public opinion towards alcohol controls in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support. PMID:21272368

  16. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites.

  17. Measuring interactivity on tobacco control websites.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-01

    With the increased reach of Web 2.0, Internet users expect webpages to be interactive. No studies have been conducted to assess whether tobacco control-relevant sites have implemented these features. The authors conducted an analysis of an international sample of tobacco control-relevant websites to determine their level of interactivity. The sample included 68 unique websites selected from Google searches in 5 countries, on each country's Google site, using the term smoking. The 68 sites were analyzed for 10 categories of interactive tools. The most common type of interactive content found on 46 (68%) of sites was for multimedia featuring content that was not primarily text based, such as photo galleries, videos, or podcasts. Only 11 (16%) websites-outside of media sites-allowed people to interact and engage with the site owners and other users by allowing posting comments on content and/or hosting forums/discussions. Linkages to social networking sites were low: 17 pages (25%) linked to Twitter, 15 (22%) to Facebook, and 11 (16%) to YouTube. Interactivity and connectedness to online social media appears to still be in its infancy among tobacco control-relevant sites. PMID:22574732

  18. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  19. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    PubMed

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality. PMID:16954055

  20. Alzheimer's disease dietary supplements in websites.

    PubMed

    Palmour, Nicole; Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Zimmerman, Emma; Gauthier, Serge; Racine, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Consumer demand for health information and health services has rapidly evolved to capture and even propel the movement to online health information seeking. Seventeen percent (52 million) of health information internet users will look for information about memory loss, dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Fox Pew Internet & American life project: Online health search. Report. Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2006/Online-Health-Search-2006.aspx 2006, Pew Research Center. http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2011/HealthTopics.aspx 2011). We examined the content of the 25 most frequently retrieved websites marketing AD dietary supplements. We found that the majority of websites and their products claimed AD-related benefits, including improvement and enhancement of function, treatment for AD, prevention of AD, maintenance of function, delayed progression of AD, and decreased symptoms. Supplements were described as effective, natural, powerful or strong, dependable and pure or of high quality. Peer reviewed references to proper scientific studies were infrequent on websites. Statements highlighting the risks of dietary supplements were as common as statements mitigating or minimizing these risks. Different strategies were used to promote supplements such as popular appeals and testimonials. Further enforcement of relevant policy is needed and preparation of clinicians to deal with requests of patients and caregivers is indicated. PMID:23765585

  1. Understanding self-harm and suicide websites: a qualitative interview study of young adult website users.

    PubMed

    Baker, Darren; Fortune, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Self-harm and suicide websites have been heavily criticized both in the literature and the wider media, despite the fact that very little is known about them. To date, no study has interviewed users of these sites about them. This qualitative study aims to explore the accounts of young adults who engage in self-harming and suicidal behaviors and use websites dedicated to these issues, in order to develop a broader understanding of these websites and to identify potential implications for future research. In-depth interviews were conducted via e-mail with 10 participants, who were recruited directly from self-harm and suicide websites. Using discourse analysis, we identified three main ways in which participants wrote about the sites. They constructed them as sources of empathy and understanding, as communities, and as a way of coping with social and psychological distress. These discourses gave users access to important, socially valued identities, such as being understood, belonging to a community and coping with their problems. If health professionals and researchers hope to understand people who use self-harm and suicide websites, and engage them in their services, they must take a more balanced view and not focus solely on the possible risks associated with using such sites.

  2. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C.; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J. Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr−/− mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:27545964

  3. Reduction of obesity-associated white adipose tissue inflammation by rosiglitazone is associated with reduced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in LDLr-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Petra; Morrison, Martine C; Verschuren, Lars; Liang, Wen; van Bockel, J Hajo; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y; Kleemann, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that drives the development of metabolic diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We recently showed that white adipose tissue (WAT) constitutes an important source of inflammatory factors. Hence, interventions that attenuate WAT inflammation may reduce NAFLD development. Male LDLr-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks followed by 7 weeks of HFD with or without rosiglitazone. Effects on WAT inflammation and NAFLD development were analyzed using biochemical and (immuno)histochemical techniques, combined with gene expression analyses. Nine weeks of HFD feeding induced obesity and WAT inflammation, which progressed gradually until the end of the study. Rosiglitazone fully blocked progression of WAT inflammation and activated PPARγ significantly in WAT. Rosiglitazone intervention did not activate PPARγ in liver, but improved liver histology and counteracted the expression of genes associated with severe NAFLD in humans. Rosiglitazone reduced expression of pro-inflammatory factors in WAT (TNF-α, leptin) and increased expression of adiponectin, which was reflected in plasma. Furthermore, rosiglitazone lowered circulating levels of pro-inflammatory saturated fatty acids. Together, these observations provide a rationale for the observed indirect hepatoprotective effects and suggest that WAT represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity-associated NAFLD. PMID:27545964

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder-associated depression: evidence for reductions in the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Kevin K.; Sheema, S.; Paz, Rodrigo D; Samudio-Ruiz, Sabrina L.; Laughlin, Mary H.; Spence, Nathan E.; Roehlk, Michael J; Alcon, Sara N.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with an increased incidence of depressive disorders in patient populations. However, the mechanisms that link prenatal ethanol exposure and depression are unknown. Several recent studies have implicated reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampal formation and frontal cortex as important contributors to the etiology of depression. In the present studies, we sought to determine whether prenatal ethanol exposure is associated with behaviors that model depression, as well as with reduced BDNF levels in the hippocampal formation and/or medial frontal cortex, in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Compared to control adult mice, prenatal ethanol-exposed adult mice displayed increased learned helplessness behavior and increased immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test. Prenatal ethanol exposure was associated with decreased BDNF protein levels in the medial frontal cortex, but not the hippocampal formation, while total BDNF mRNA and BDNF transcripts containing exon III, IV or VI were reduced in both the medial frontal cortex and the hippocampal formation of prenatal ethanol-exposed mice. These results identify reduced BDNF levels in the medial frontal cortex and hippocampal formation as potential mediators of depressive disorders associated with FASD. PMID:18558427

  5. Collective Efficacy, Alcohol Outlet Density, and Young Men's Alcohol Use in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction. PMID:26071651

  6. Website Sharing in Online Health Communities: A Descriptive Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Chinmoy; Huh, Jina; Adupa, Abhishek Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Background An increasing number of people visit online health communities to seek health information. In these communities, people share experiences and information with others, often complemented with links to different websites. Understanding how people share websites can help us understand patients’ needs in online health communities and improve how peer patients share health information online. Objective Our goal was to understand (1) what kinds of websites are shared, (2) information quality of the shared websites, (3) who shares websites, (4) community differences in website-sharing behavior, and (5) the contexts in which patients share websites. We aimed to find practical applications and implications of website-sharing practices in online health communities. Methods We used regular expressions to extract URLs from 10 WebMD online health communities. We then categorized the URLs based on their top-level domains. We counted the number of trust codes (eg, accredited agencies’ formal evaluation and PubMed authors’ institutions) for each website to assess information quality. We used descriptive statistics to determine website-sharing activities. To understand the context of the URL being discussed, we conducted a simple random selection of 5 threads that contained at least one post with URLs from each community. Gathering all other posts in these threads resulted in 387 posts for open coding analysis with the goal of understanding motivations and situations in which website sharing occurred. Results We extracted a total of 25,448 websites. The majority of the shared websites were .com (59.16%, 15,056/25,448) and WebMD internal (23.2%, 5905/25,448) websites; the least shared websites were social media websites (0.15%, 39/25,448). High-posting community members and moderators posted more websites with trust codes than low-posting community members did. The heart disease community had the highest percentage of websites containing trust codes compared to

  7. Towards catalyst compartimentation in combined chemo- and biocatalytic processes: immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases for the diastereoselective reduction of a β-hydroxy ketone obtained from an organocatalytic aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Giuseppe; Heidlindemann, Marcel; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2013-11-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from Lactobacillus kefir and Rhodococcus sp., which earlier turned out to be suitable for a chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis with organocatalysts, were immobilized with their cofactors on a commercially available superabsorber based on a literature known protocol. The use of the immobilized ADH from L. kefir in the reduction of acetophenone as a model substrate led to high conversion (>95%) in the first reaction cycle, followed by a slight decrease of conversion in the second reaction cycle. A comparable result was obtained when no cofactor was added although a water rich reaction media was used. The immobilized ADHs also turned out to be suitable catalysts for the diastereoselective reduction of an organocatalytically prepared enantiomerically enriched aldol adduct, leading to high conversion, diastereomeric ratio and enantioselectivity for the resulting 1,3-diols. However, at a lower catalyst and cofactor amount being still sufficient for biotransformations with "free" enzymes the immobilized ADH only showed high conversion and >99% ee for the first reaction cycle whereas a strong decrease of conversion was observed already in the second reaction cycle, thus indicating a significant leaching effect of catalyst and/or cofactor.

  8. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  9. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  10. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride–Molecular Ni Catalyst System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride (NCNCNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The NCNCNx–NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)−1 h–1 toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h–1, and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of NCNCNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited NCNCNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived “trapped electrons”, which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel. PMID:27337491

  11. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride-Molecular Ni Catalyst System.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Hatice; Caputo, Christine A; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Godin, Robert; Lau, Vincent Wing-Hei; Lotsch, Bettina V; Durrant, James R; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-07-27

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride ((NCN)CNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The (NCN)CNx-NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)(-1) h(-1) toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h(-1), and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of (NCN)CNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited (NCN)CNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived "trapped electrons", which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel.

  12. Solar-Driven Reduction of Aqueous Protons Coupled to Selective Alcohol Oxidation with a Carbon Nitride-Molecular Ni Catalyst System.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Hatice; Caputo, Christine A; Martindale, Benjamin C M; Godin, Robert; Lau, Vincent Wing-Hei; Lotsch, Bettina V; Durrant, James R; Reisner, Erwin

    2016-07-27

    Solar water-splitting represents an important strategy toward production of the storable and renewable fuel hydrogen. The water oxidation half-reaction typically proceeds with poor efficiency and produces the unprofitable and often damaging product, O2. Herein, we demonstrate an alternative approach and couple solar H2 generation with value-added organic substrate oxidation. Solar irradiation of a cyanamide surface-functionalized melon-type carbon nitride ((NCN)CNx) and a molecular nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) H2-evolution catalyst (NiP) enabled the production of H2 with concomitant selective oxidation of benzylic alcohols to aldehydes in high yield under purely aqueous conditions, at room temperature and ambient pressure. This one-pot system maintained its activity over 24 h, generating products in 1:1 stoichiometry, separated in the gas and solution phases. The (NCN)CNx-NiP system showed an activity of 763 μmol (g CNx)(-1) h(-1) toward H2 and aldehyde production, a Ni-based turnover frequency of 76 h(-1), and an external quantum efficiency of 15% (λ = 360 ± 10 nm). This precious metal-free and nontoxic photocatalytic system displays better performance than an analogous system containing platinum instead of NiP. Transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the photoactivity of (NCN)CNx is due to efficient substrate oxidation of the material, which outweighs possible charge recombination compared to the nonfunctionalized melon-type carbon nitride. Photoexcited (NCN)CNx in the presence of an organic substrate can accumulate ultralong-lived "trapped electrons", which allow for fuel generation in the dark. The artificial photosynthetic system thereby catalyzes a closed redox cycle showing 100% atom economy and generates two value-added products, a solar chemical, and solar fuel. PMID:27337491

  13. Internet filters and entry pages do not protect children from online alcohol marketing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C; Thom, Jeffrey A; Davoren, Sondra; Barrie, Lance

    2014-02-01

    We review programs and policies to prevent children from accessing alcohol marketing online. To update the literature, we present our recent studies that assess (i) in-built barriers to underage access to alcohol brand websites and (ii) commercial internet filters. Alcohol websites typically had poor filter systems for preventing entry of underage persons; only half of the sites required the user to provide a date of birth, and none had any means of preventing users from trying again. Even the most effective commercial internet filters allowed access to one-third of the sites we examined.

  14. A website dedicated to ionizing radiation metrology.

    PubMed

    Dulieu, Christophe; Chisté, Vanessa; Bé, Marie-Martine

    2004-01-01

    In order to disseminate information about decay data and their evaluation, as well as other topics in the field of ionizing radiation, the Bureau National de Métrologie-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (BNM-LNHB) has published a website. Most of the web pages are concerned with the international working groups in which the BNM-LNHB takes part. In particular, a library of uranium and plutonium spectra is now available, as well as the results of evaluation of decay data of nuclides of special interest.

  15. Reduction of CO2 to low carbon alcohols on CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqiang; Wang, Huying; Xu, Jinfeng; Jing, Hua; Zhang, Jun; Han, Haixiang; Lu, Fusui

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, the CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst was obtained after Fe2O3 nanotubes (Fe2O3 NTs) were decorated with CuO flower clusters (CuO FCs) by the pulse electrochemical deposition method. The in situ vertically aligned Fe2O3 NTs were prepared on the ferrous substrate by a potentiostatic anodization method. The SEM result showed the volcano-like Fe2O3 NTs were arranged in order and the CuO FCs constituted of flaky CuO distributed on the Fe2O3 NTs surface uniformly. After CuO FCs were loaded on Fe2O3 NTs, the absorption of visible light was enhanced noticeably, and its band gap narrowed to 1.78 eV from 2.03 eV. The conduction band and valence band locating at -0.73 eV and 1.05 eV, respectively were further obtained. In the PEC reduction of CO2 process, methanol and ethanol were two major products identified by chromatography. Their contents reached 1.00 mmol L(-1) cm(-2) and 107.38 μmol L(-1) cm(-2) after 6 h, respectively. This high-efficiency catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces has a great guidance and reference significance for CO2 reduction to liquid carbon fuels.

  16. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  17. Health websites: accessibility and usability for American sign language users.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users.

  18. Health Websites: Accessibility and Usability for American Sign Language Users

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R.; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts towards creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our paper focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users’ perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (N=32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to: 1) navigation to find the task, 2) website usability, and 3) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This paper also describes the participants’ preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350

  19. Social anxiety and alcohol consumption: the role of alcohol expectancies and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Hasking, Penelope

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been the subject of extensive exploration, previous studies have failed to draw consistent conclusions about the nature of this relationship. Gray [Gray, J.A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] suggested that individuals who are sensitive to reward are likely to place themselves in potentially rewarding environments (e.g. pubs and clubs). As such these individuals will have a greater chance to experience and vicariously observe the effects of alcohol in these environments, leading to the formation and modification of alcohol expectancies. Consequently, reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol expectancies are inherently related, yet have remained disparate areas of research. In this study, a total of 454 young adults responded to a questionnaire assessing social anxiety, alcohol consumption, reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity, expectations of tension reduction and increased confidence, and alcohol consumption. Expectations of tension reduction were observed to moderate the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. In addition, three-way relationships between reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies and social anxiety were observed to predict alcohol consumption. Overall, these results suggest that both reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies play a role in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption, and that inclusion of these constructs in further research may aid in further clarifying the mechanisms underlying comorbid social anxiety and alcohol abuse.

  20. Website Interface Design: Similarity and Differences between Saudi Arabian and United States University Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyahya, Dalia Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The expansion of the Internet and online learning around the globe makes it more important to understand the differences in website design among cultures. Furthermore, the members of educational institutions around the world rely on the Internet more than ever before in a variety of aspects. Also, web design differs from culture to culture. Saudi…

  1. The Accessibility and Usability of College Websites: Is Your Website Presenting Barriers to Potential Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, William; Trerise, Sharon; Lee, Camille; VanLooy, Sara; Knowlton, Samuel; Bruyère, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Thirty community college websites were evaluated for compliance with federal web accessibility standards found in Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 794d). Two typical sites were tested for usability by individuals with visual impairments, individuals with reading-related learning disabilities (LD), and a control group of…

  2. Technology Review: Website Usability Testing Software-Improving User Experience and Satisfaction with Community College Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Marcie

    2015-01-01

    The Internet is a critical tool for higher education institutions as they rely upon their web presence for interaction with multiple stakeholders, including current and prospective students, parents, faculty and staff, and the community (Hong & Kiousis, 2007). As colleges count upon their websites to serve as the primary medium for presenting…

  3. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  4. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  5. Defining the Content of an Online Sexual Health Intervention: The MenSS Website

    PubMed Central

    Gerressu, Makeda; Michie, Susan; Estcourt, Claudia; Anderson, Jane; Ang, Chee Siang; Murray, Elizabeth; Rait, Greta; Stephenson, Judith; Bailey, Julia V

    2015-01-01

    Background Health promotion and risk reduction are essential components of sexual health care. However, it can be difficult to prioritize these within busy clinical services. Digital interventions may provide a new method for supporting these. Objective The MenSS (Men’s Safer Sex) website is an interactive digital intervention developed by a multidisciplinary team, which aims to improve condom use in men who have sex with women (MSW). This paper describes the content of this intervention, and the rationale for it. Methods Content was informed by a literature review regarding men’s barriers to condom use, workshops with experts in sexual health and technology (N=16) and interviews with men in sexual health clinics (N=20). Data from these sources were analyzed thematically, and synthesized using the Behavior Change Wheel framework. Results The MenSS intervention is a website optimized for delivery via tablet computer within a clinic waiting room setting. Key targets identified were condom use skills, beliefs about pleasure and knowledge about risk. Content was developed using behavior change techniques, and interactive website features provided feedback tailored for individual users. Conclusions This paper provides a detailed description of an evidence-based interactive digital intervention for sexual health, including how behavior change techniques were translated into practice within the design of the MenSS website. Triangulation between a targeted literature review, expert workshops, and interviews with men ensured that a range of potential influences on condom use were captured. PMID:26142304

  6. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites.

  7. Design and implementation of website information disclosure assessment system.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people's lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website's information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites. PMID:25768434

  8. Online capillary solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of chiral secondary alcohol products in yeast catalyzed stereoselective reduction cell culture.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Nian, Yu-Chuan

    2015-02-01

    An online solid-phase microextraction coupled liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of trace R- and S-4-phenyl-2-butanol (R- and S-pbol) in salt rich cell culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzed stereoselective reduction of 4-pheny-2-butanone (pbone). A Supel-Q PLOT capillary column was used for the extraction and deionized distilled water was used as the extraction mobile phase. The extraction flow rate and extraction time were at 0.1 mL min(-1) and 0.95 min, respectively. The three target analytes, pbone, R-pbol, and S-4-pbol, were desorbed and eluted by the mobile phase of water/methanol/isopropanol (55/25/20, v/v/v) with a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1) and analyzed by a chiral column. The mass spectrometric detection of the three target analytes was in positive ion mode with the signal [M+Na](+). The matrix-matched external standard calibration curves with linear concentration range between 0 and 50 μg mL(-1) were used for quantitative analysis. The linear regression correlation coefficients (r(2)) of the standard calibration curves were between 0.9950 and 0.9961. The yeast mediated reduction was performed with a recation culture of yeast incubation culture/glycerol (70/30, v/v) for 4 days. This biotransformation possessed 82.3% yield and 92.9% S-enantomeric excess. The limit of detection (LOD)/limit of quantification (LOQ) for pbone, R-pbol, and S-pbol was 0.02/0.067, 0.01/0.033, and 0.01/0.033 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions from repeated measurements were 10.8-21.1% and 11.6-18.7%, respectively. The analysis accuracy from spike recovery was 84-91%.

  9. ▼Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ▼Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy.

  10. Alcoholic myopathy: biochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Preedy, V R; Paice, A; Mantle, D; Dhillon, A S; Palmer, T N; Peters, T J

    2001-08-01

    Between one- and two-thirds of all alcohol abusers have impairment of muscle function that may be accompanied by biochemical lesions and/or the presence of a defined myopathy characterised by selective atrophy of Type II fibres. Perturbations in protein metabolism are central to the effects on muscle and account for the reductions in muscle mass and fibre diameter. Ethanol abuse is also associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate (as well as lipid) metabolism in skeletal muscle. Ethanol-mediated insulin resistance is allied with the inhibitory effects of ethanol on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism. It acutely impairs insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism, although it is not known whether it has an analogous effect on insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, insulin resistance occurs with respect to carbohydrate metabolism, although the actions of insulin to suppress protein degradation and stimulate amino acid uptake are unimpaired. In acute alcohol-dosing studies defective rates of protein synthesis occur, particularly in Type II fibre-predominant muscles. The relative amounts of mRNA-encoding contractile proteins do not appear to be adversely affected by chronic alcohol feeding, although subtle changes in muscle protein isoforms may occur. There are also rapid and sustained reductions in total (largely ribosomal) RNA in chronic studies. Loss of RNA appears to be related to increases in the activities of specific muscle RNases in these long-term studies. However, in acute dosing studies (less than 1 day), the reductions in muscle protein synthesis are not due to overt loss of total RNA. These data implicate a role for translational modifications in the initial stages of the myopathy, although changes in transcription and/or protein degradation may also be superimposed. These events have important implications for whole-body metabolism.

  11. Online Sellers’ Website Quality Influencing Online Buyers’ Purchase Intention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea Lee, Tan; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase adoption of Internet among young users in Malaysia provides high prospect for online seller. Young users aged between 18 and 25 years old are important to online sellers because they are actively involved in online purchasing and this group of online buyers is expected to dominate future online market. Therefore, examining online sellers’ website quality and online buyers’ purchase intention is crucial. Based on the Theory of planned behavior (TPB), a conceptual model of online sellers’ website quality and purchase intention of online buyers was developed. E-tailQ instrument was adapted in this study which composed of website design, reliability/fulfillment, security, privacy & trust, and customer service. Using online questionnaire and convenience sampling procedure, primary data were obtained from 240 online buyers aged between 18 to 25 years old. It was discovered that website design, website reliability/fulfillment, website security, privacy & trust, and website customer service positively and significantly influence intention of online buyers to continuously purchase via online channels. This study concludes that online sellers’ website quality is important in predicting online buyers’ purchase intention. Recommendation and implication of this study were discussed focusing on how online sellers should improve their website quality to stay competitive in online business.

  12. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic subjects with and without liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, F; Perez, J; Morancho, J; Pinto, B; Richart, C

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was measured in samples of liver tissue from a group of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects to determine whether decreased liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity is a consequence of ethanol consumption or liver damage. The alcoholic patients were classified further into the following groups: control subjects with no liver disease (group 1), subjects with non-cirrhotic liver disease (group 2), and subjects with cirrhotic liver disease (group 3). The non-alcoholic subjects were also divided, using the same criteria, into groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The analysis of the results showed no significant differences when mean alcohol dehydrogenase activities of alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients with similar degrees of liver pathology were compared (groups 1 v 4, 2 v 5, and 3 v 6. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was, however, severely reduced in patients with liver disease compared with control subjects. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption does not modify hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The reduction in specific alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic liver disease is a consequence of liver damage. PMID:2379876

  13. Astrobiology and Microbial Diversity Websites at MBL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, M.; Bordenstein, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) mission is to study the origin, evolution and future of life in the Universe. The MBL Astrobiology team explores the evolution and interaction of genomes of diverse organisms that play significant roles in environmental biology over evolutionary time scales. Communication about our research includes the personal contact of teacher workshops, and the development of web-based resources. Microbial Life Educational Resources (MLER) provides an expanding internet resource about the ecology, diversity and evolution for students, K-12 teachers, university faculty, and the general public. MLER includes websites, PowerPoint presentations, teaching activities, data sets, and other useful materials for creating or enhancing courses related to astrobiology. Our second site, micro*scope (http://microscope.mbl.edu), has images of microbes, classification schemes, descriptions of organisms, talks and other educational resources to improve awareness of the biodiversity of our microbial partners.

  14. SPRITE: the Spitzer proposal review website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Megan K.; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Silbermann, Nancy A.; Rebull, Luisa M.

    2008-07-01

    The Spitzer Science Center (SSC), located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology, supports the science operations of NASA's infrared Spitzer Space Telescope. The SSC issues an annual Call for Proposals inviting investigators worldwide to submit Spitzer Space Telescope proposals. The Spitzer Proposal Review Website (SPRITE) is a MySQL/PHP web database application designed to support the SSC proposal review process. Review panel members use the software to view, grade, and write comments about the proposals, and SSC support team members monitor the grading and ranking process and ultimately generate a ranked list of all the proposals. The software is also used to generate, edit, and email award letters to the proposers. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. Design of software engineering teaching website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuxiang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Guangbin; Liu, Xingshun; Gao, Zhenbo

    "􀀶oftware engineering" is different from the general professional courses, it is born for getting rid of the software crisis and adapting to the development of software industry, it is a theory course, especially a practical course. However, due to the own characteristics of software engineering curriculum, in the daily teaching process, concerning theoretical study, students may feel boring, obtain low interest in learning and poor test results and other problems. ASPNET design technique is adopted and Access 2007 database is used for system to design and realize "Software Engineering" teaching website. System features mainly include theoretical teaching, case teaching, practical teaching, teaching interaction, database, test item bank, announcement, etc., which can enhance the vitality, interest and dynamic role of learning.

  16. A website for astronomical news in Spanish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2008-06-01

    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  17. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  18. Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable catalyst for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and reduction of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Karimi, Hirbod

    2016-03-01

    The CoFe2O4 nanoparticles (NPs) performance was studied in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BzOH) to benzaldehyde (BzH) with hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant under solvent-free conditions. The influences of reaction conditions like the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of H2O2:BzOH, reaction temperature and times on the oxidation of BzOH by using CoFe2O4 NPs were investigated in details. Under optimum conditions, excellent result, >99% conversation of BzOH to BzH as the only product, was obtained. The nanocatalyst was also used for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Congo red (CR), Methylene blue (MB) in water at room temperature. The magnetic properties of the catalyst provided a convenient and easy route for the separation of the catalyst from the reaction mixture by an external bar magnet. No obvious loss of activity was observed when the spent catalyst reused in three consecutive runs.

  19. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  20. Neuroimaging and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Andria L.; Crocker, Nicole; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    The detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain include structural brain anomalies as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits. Initial neuroimaging studies of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed previous autopsy reports of overall reduction in brain volume and…

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. Examination and Evaluation of Websites of Science Centres in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Bozdogan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    Science centres which have a considerable importance and functions in developed countries are intended to be popularized in Turkey. At this point considering the fact that the first contact between science centres and visitors is usually provided with websites, it is quite important that the content of these websites should be designed and…

  4. Opinions of English Major Students about Their Departments' Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zengin, Bugra; Arikan, Arda; Dogan, Duygu

    2011-01-01

    University websites serve as sharing information with students whether prospective or enrolled. Often, before entering their departments, students visit them to have an idea as to what it would be like to be a part of that university and/or department. In that sense, websites help students in deciding whether the university matches their…

  5. A Model for Assessing the Quality of Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Dran, Gisela; Zhang, Ping

    2000-01-01

    Uses Kano's Model of Quality to develop a conceptual framework regarding the quality expectations and needs of Website users and reports on empirical investigations of features in the Web environment that satisfy basic, performance, and excitement needs of customers. Suggests implications for research and Website design. (Contains 12 references.)…

  6. High and low spatial frequencies in website evaluations.

    PubMed

    Thielsch, Meinald T; Hirschfeld, Gerrit

    2010-08-01

    Which features of websites are important for users' perceptions regarding aesthetics or usability? This study investigates how evaluations of aesthetic appeal and usability depend on high vs. low spatial frequencies. High spatial frequencies convey information on fine details, whereas low spatial frequencies convey information about the global layout. Participants rated aesthetic appeal and usability of 50 website screenshots from different domains. Screenshots were presented unfiltered, low-pass filtered with blurred targets or high-pass filtered with high-pass filtered targets. The main result is that low spatial frequencies can be seen to have a unique contribution in perceived website aesthetics, thus confirming a central prediction from processing fluency theory. There was no connection between low spatial frequencies and usability evaluations, whereas strong correlations were found between ratings of high-pass filtered websites and those of unfiltered websites in aesthetics and usability. This study thus offers a new perspective on the biological basis of users' website perceptions. This research links ergonomics to neurocognitive models of visual processing. This paper investigates how high and low spatial frequencies, which are neurologically processed in different visual pathways, independently contribute to users' perceptions of websites. This is very relevant for theories of website perceptions and for practitioners of web design. PMID:20658391

  7. The School Website: Facilitating Communication Engagement and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taddeo, Carmel; Barnes, Alan

    2016-01-01

    School websites are providing education settings with the opportunity to transform and enhance the schooling experience. However, the perceived importance of school websites and the resources invested in developing and maintaining them varies considerably across settings. There is a need to better understand what constitutes an effective website…

  8. Why Should I Use University Library Website Resources? Discipline Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Mi

    2011-01-01

    Users across academic disciplines utilize different information sources based on the resource's usefulness and relevance. This study's findings show that users from arts and sciences disciplines are much more likely to utilize university library website resources and printed materials than business users who heavily rely on commercial websites.…

  9. Designing Public Library Websites for Teens: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Robin Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop a conceptual model for the design of public library websites for teens (TLWs) that would enable designers and librarians to create library websites that better suit teens' information needs and practices. It bridges a gap in the research literature between user interface design in…

  10. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  11. An Evaluation of Secondary School Physical Education Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant M.; Tucker, Michael; Hannon, James

    2010-01-01

    Websites will become increasingly important to physical education departments as they seek to communicate the goals and content of their programs. A well developed website is an educational tool physical educators can use in their efforts to teach students about physical activity and health. The purpose of this study was to determine the…

  12. Pedagogical over Punitive: The Academic Integrity Websites of Ontario Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This study is a snapshot of how Ontario universities are currently promoting academic integrity (AI) online. Rather than concentrating on policies, this paper uses a semiotic methodology to consider how the websites of Ontario's publicly funded universities present AI through language and image. The paper begins by surveying each website and…

  13. Canadian Educational Development Centre Websites: More Ebb than Flow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines information portrayed on Canadian educational development (ED) centre websites and, in particular, whether information that corresponds to questions compiled from a literature search of ED centre practices is readily available from centre websites. This study phase is part of a larger national study of Canadian educational…

  14. Measuring Website Quality: Asymmetric Effect of User Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincl, Tomas; Strach, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Website quality measurement tools have been largely static and have struggled to determine relevant attributes of user satisfaction. This study compares and contrasts attributes of user satisfaction based on usability guidelines seeking to identify practical easy-to-administer measurement tools. The website users assessed business school homepages…

  15. The impact of career websites: what's the evidence?

    PubMed

    Howieson, Cathy; Semple, Sheila

    2013-06-01

    Careers provision for young people in the UK is being re-formulated on the basis of a central role for career websites but this policy is based on unproven assumptions about their value. In this article we consider the use and impact of the two main career websites in Scotland on pupils' career management skills. We found that pupils at risk of not achieving positive post-school destinations were less likely to use the websites, as were minority ethnic pupils. Although similar in functions, the two websites differed in their effect: one had no impact while the other impacted on only one aspect of pupils' career management skills. Careers policy needs to be informed by more extensive research on career websites. PMID:24009406

  16. Visibility and findability of the nursing home compare website.

    PubMed

    Liu, Darren; Lu, Chi-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Nursing Home Compare (NHC) is a federal government website providing information for selecting a nursing home. However, not many consumers were aware of or can locate the site. This study analyzed 50 official state and District of Columbia websites from September through December 2013. Using Google "inlink:" operator, this study evaluated the visibility and findability of NHC links in each state-level website. The results show that a link to NHC is available in all states except for Connecticut, Florida, and Michigan. Although it took only 4.7 clicks on average to the page with a NHC link, consumers may still have difficulty to find NHC from a state website. This article provides a snapshot of the visibility and findability of NHC and indicates a need for further investigation of promising website dissemination strategies not yet adequately evaluated.

  17. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  19. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  20. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  1. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  2. The Expectancy Challenge Alcohol Literacy Curriculum (ECALC): a single session group intervention to reduce alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Fried, Abigail B; Dunn, Michael E

    2012-09-01

    The Expectancy Challenge Alcohol Literacy Curriculum (ECALC) is a single session group-delivered program designed to modify alcohol expectancy processes and reduce alcohol use among children and young adults. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of the ECALC in reducing risky alcohol use among heavy drinking college men. Four fraternities at a large state university were randomly assigned to receive either the single session ECALC or a control presentation (2 fraternity houses per condition, n=250). Alcohol expectancies were assessed before and immediately after program presentation. Results demonstrated significant changes on 5 of the 7 subscales of the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Scale (CEOA) among students who received the ECALC when compared with control participants. Alcohol use data were collected for 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after program presentation. Compared with those in the control condition, students who received the ECALC demonstrated significant reductions in all facets of alcohol use measured, including decreased mean and peak blood alcohol content (BAC), decreased mean number of days drinking per week, decreased mean drinks per sitting, and decreased number of binge-drinking episodes per month. This study represents 2 important advances. First is the significant reduction in risky alcohol use produced by a single session group-delivered program. The second important advance is the success in changing expectancy processes without using impractical elements common in previous expectancy challenge methods (e.g., a "barlab" environment and actual alcohol administration).

  3. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  4. Quality of Prostate Cancer Treatment Information on Cancer Center Websites

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Olivia Claire; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Wakefield, Daniel; Fiveash, John; Dobelbower, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cancer center websites are trusted sources of internet information about treatment options for prostate cancer. The quality of information on these websites is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of information on cancer center websites addressing prostate cancer treatment options, outcomes, and toxicity. Materials and methods We evaluated the websites of all National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers to determine if sufficient information was provided to address eleven decision-specific knowledge questions from the validated Early Prostate Cancer Treatment Decision Quality Instrument. We recorded the number of questions addressed, the number of clicks to reach the prostate cancer-specific webpage, evaluation time, and Spanish and mobile accessibility. Correlation between evaluation time and questions addressed were calculated using the Pearson coefficient. Results Sixty-three websites were reviewed. Eighty percent had a prostate cancer-specific webpage reached in a median of three clicks. The average evaluation time was 6.5 minutes. Information was available in Spanish on 24% of sites and 59% were mobile friendly. Websites provided sufficient information to address, on average, 19% of questions. No website addressed all questions. Evaluation time correlated with the number of questions addressed (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.001). Conclusions Cancer center websites provide insufficient information for men with localized prostate cancer due to a lack of information about and direct comparison of specific treatment outcomes and toxicities. Information is also less accessible in Spanish and on mobile devices. These data can be used to improve the quality and accessibility of prostate cancer treatment information on cancer center websites. PMID:27226941

  5. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  6. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data. PMID:27391180

  9. Content Analysis of Virtual Reference Data: Reshaping Library Website Design.

    PubMed

    Fan, Suhua Caroline; Welch, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    An academic health sciences library wanted to redesign its website to provide better access to health information in the community. Virtual reference data were used to provide information about user searching behavior. This study analyzed three years (2012-2014) of virtual reference data, including e-mail questions, text messaging, and live chat transcripts, to evaluate the library website for redesigning, especially in areas such as the home page, patrons' terminology, and issues prompting patrons to ask for help. A coding system based on information links in the current library website was created to analyze the data.

  10. Medical teaching websites: do they reflect the learning paradigm?

    PubMed

    Alur, Pradeep; Fatima, Kaniz; Joseph, Roy

    2002-07-01

    Phenomenal evolution of the Internet in recent times is shifting the mode of distribution of medical knowledge from conventional lecture rooms to one that is web based. No guidelines are yet set for medical teaching websites. Hence, the authors set out to determine whether these sites uniformly reflected the Learning Paradigm. Most of the medical teaching websites were endowed with good technical support but were surprisingly falling short in reflecting the principles of learning. It is strongly suggested that a team consisting of a clinician as content provider, a web designer and a medical educationist is required to create an ideal medical teaching website.

  11. Alcohol consumption and negative sex-related consequences among college women: the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS-controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction strategies-on the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior and sexual victimization. Participants were 459 undergraduate women (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Both types of PBS significantly qualified the alcohol-sexual victimization link, but neither type of PBS qualified the alcohol-risky sexual behavior link.

  12. Overview of the ASA24® Researcher Website

    Cancer.gov

    The Researcher Website allows researchers, clinicians, and teachers to register to use ASA24 for research, clinical practice, or teaching; to manage logistics of data collection; and to obtain analytic output files.

  13. Design of the Resources and Environment Monitoring Website in Kashgar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Lin, Q. Z.; Wang, Q. J.

    2014-03-01

    Despite the development of the web geographical information system (web GIS), many useful spatial analysis functions are ignored in the system implementation. As Kashgar is rich in natural resources, it is of great significance to monitor the ample natural resource and environment situation in the region. Therefore, with multiple uses of spatial analysis, resources and environment monitoring website of Kashgar was built. Functions of water, vegetation, ice and snow extraction, task management, change assessment as well as thematic mapping and reports based on TM remote sensing images were implemented in the website. The design of the website was presented based on database management tier, the business logic tier and the top-level presentation tier. The vital operations of the website were introduced and the general performance was evaluated.

  14. e-Perceptions: personality impressions based on personal websites.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Gosling, Samuel D

    2004-07-01

    This research examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on personal websites, a rapidly growing medium for self-expression, where identity claims are predominant. Eighty-nine websites were viewed by 11 observers, who rated the website authors' personalities. The ratings were compared with an accuracy criterion (self- and informant reports) and with the authors' ideal-self ratings. The websites elicited high levels of observer consensus and accuracy, and observers' impressions were somewhat enhanced for Extraversion and Agreeableness. The accuracy correlations were comparable in magnitude to those found in other contexts of interpersonal perception and generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance contexts. These findings suggest that identity claims are used to convey valid information about personality.

  15. At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups

    MedlinePlus

    ... At last, a medical website designed for grown-ups Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. For up-to-date health information tailor-made just for ...

  16. e-Perceptions: personality impressions based on personal websites.

    PubMed

    Vazire, Simine; Gosling, Samuel D

    2004-07-01

    This research examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on personal websites, a rapidly growing medium for self-expression, where identity claims are predominant. Eighty-nine websites were viewed by 11 observers, who rated the website authors' personalities. The ratings were compared with an accuracy criterion (self- and informant reports) and with the authors' ideal-self ratings. The websites elicited high levels of observer consensus and accuracy, and observers' impressions were somewhat enhanced for Extraversion and Agreeableness. The accuracy correlations were comparable in magnitude to those found in other contexts of interpersonal perception and generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance contexts. These findings suggest that identity claims are used to convey valid information about personality. PMID:15250797

  17. Assessing Website Pharmacy Drug Quality: Safer Than You Think?

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Roger; Hess, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Background Internet-sourced drugs are often considered suspect. The World Health Organization reports that drugs from websites that conceal their physical address are counterfeit in over 50 percent of cases; the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) works with the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) to regularly update a list of websites likely to sell drugs that are illegal or of questionable quality. Methods and Findings This study examines drug purchasing over the Internet, by comparing the sales of five popular drugs from a selection of websites stratified by NABP or other ratings. The drugs were assessed for price, conditions of purchase, and basic quality. Prices and conditions of purchase varied widely. Some websites advertised single pills while others only permitted the purchase of large quantities. Not all websites delivered the exact drugs ordered, some delivered no drugs at all; many websites shipped from multiple international locations, and from locations that were different from those advertised on the websites. All drug samples were tested against approved U.S. brand formulations using Raman spectrometry. Many (17) websites substituted drugs, often in different formulations from the brands requested. These drugs, some of which were probably generics or perhaps non-bioequivalent copy versions, could not be assessed accurately. Of those drugs that could be assessed, none failed from “approved”, “legally compliant” or “not recommended” websites (0 out of 86), whereas 8.6% (3 out of 35) failed from “highly not recommended” and unidentifiable websites. Conclusions Of those drugs that could be assessed, all except Viagra® passed spectrometry testing. Of those that failed, few could be identified either by a country of manufacture listed on the packaging, or by the physical location of the website pharmacy. If confirmed by future studies on other drug samples, then U.S. consumers should be able to reduce their risk by

  18. Secondary Prevention with College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prevention approaches for young adults (n=36) at risk for alcohol problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral alcohol skills training, didactic alcohol information program, or assessment only. Found significant reduction over one year in alcohol consumption for total sample; directional findings consistently favored…

  19. Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia

    2014-01-01

    Babies' parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement's websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords "vaccine" and "vaccination," with the function "OR" in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author's name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don't use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums.: National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy.

  20. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  1. Internet poker websites and pathological gambling prevention policy.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Bouvard, Audrey; Khiari, Hiba; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele

    2013-03-01

    Despite the widespread increase in online poker playing and the risk related to excessive poker playing, research on online poker websites is still lacking with regard to pathological gambling prevention strategies offered by the websites. The aim of the present study was to assess the pathological gambling-related prevention strategies of online poker websites. Two keywords ("poker" and "poker help") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. The first 20 links related to French and English online poker websites were assessed. Seventy-four websites were assessed with a standardized tool designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, interactivity, prevention strategies, marketing, and messages related to poker strategies. Prevention strategies appeared to be lacking. Whereas a substantial proportion of the websites offered incitation to gambling such as betting "tips," few sites offered strategies to prevent or address problem gambling. Furthermore, strategies related to poker, such as probability estimation, were mostly reported without acknowledging their limitations. Results of this study suggest that more adequate prevention strategies for risky gambling should be developed for online poker.

  2. Users' information-seeking behavior on a medical library Website

    PubMed Central

    Rozic-Hristovski, Anamarija; Hristovski, Dimitar; Todorovski, Ljupco

    2002-01-01

    The Central Medical Library (CMK) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, started to build a library Website that included a guide to library services and resources in 1997. The evaluation of Website usage plays an important role in its maintenance and development. Analyzing and exploring regularities in the visitors' behavior can be used to enhance the quality and facilitate delivery of information services, identify visitors' interests, and improve the server's performance. The analysis of the CMK Website users' navigational behavior was carried out by analyzing the Web server log files. These files contained information on all user accesses to the Website and provided a great opportunity to learn more about the behavior of visitors to the Website. The majority of the available tools for Web log file analysis provide a predefined set of reports showing the access count and the transferred bytes grouped along several dimensions. In addition to the reports mentioned above, the authors wanted to be able to perform interactive exploration and ad hoc analysis and discover trends in a user-friendly way. Because of that, we developed our own solution for exploring and analyzing the Web logs based on data warehousing and online analytical processing technologies. The analytical solution we developed proved successful, so it may find further application in the field of Web log file analysis. We will apply the findings of the analysis to restructuring the CMK Website. PMID:11999179

  3. Attrition of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites: what are the implications?

    PubMed Central

    Veronin, Michael A; Clancy, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    Background The unavailability of Internet pharmacy websites may impact a consumer’s drug purchases and health care. Objective To address the issue of attrition, a defined set of Canadian Internet pharmacy websites was examined at three separate time intervals. Methods In February to March 2006, 117 distinct, fully functional “Canadian Internet pharmacy” websites were located using the advanced search options of Google and the uniform resource locator (URL) for each website was recorded. To determine website attrition, each of the 117 websites obtained and recorded from the previous study was revisited at two later periods of time within a 4-year period. Results After approximately 4 years and 5 months, only 59 (50.4%) sites were found in the original state. Thirty-four sites (29.1%) had moved to a new URL address and were not functioning as the original Internet pharmacy. For 24 sites (20.5%) the viewer was redirected to another Canadian Internet pharmacy site. Conclusion Of concern for patients if Internet pharmacy sites were suddenly inaccessible would be the disruption of continuity of care. PMID:23983491

  4. A framework for automatic information quality ranking of diabetes websites.

    PubMed

    Belen Sağlam, Rahime; Taskaya Temizel, Tugba

    2015-01-01

    Objective: When searching for particular medical information on the internet the challenge lies in distinguishing the websites that are relevant to the topic, and contain accurate information. In this article, we propose a framework that automatically identifies and ranks diabetes websites according to their relevance and information quality based on the website content. Design: The proposed framework ranks diabetes websites according to their content quality, relevance and evidence based medicine. The framework combines information retrieval techniques with a lexical resource based on Sentiwordnet making it possible to work with biased and untrusted websites while, at the same time, ensuring the content relevance. Measurement: The evaluation measurements used were Pearson-correlation, true positives, false positives and accuracy. We tested the framework with a benchmark data set consisting of 55 websites with varying degrees of information quality problems. Results: The proposed framework gives good results that are comparable with the non-automated information quality measuring approaches in the literature. The correlation between the results of the proposed automated framework and ground-truth is 0.68 on an average with p < 0.001 which is greater than the other proposed automated methods in the literature (r score in average is 0.33).

  5. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R.; Martin, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. Method: A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. Results: A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non–alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Conclusions: Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives. PMID:26098040

  6. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  7. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  8. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  9. What Do Veterans Service Organizations’ Websites Say About Tobacco Control?

    PubMed Central

    Poston, Walker S.C.; Haddock, Christopher K.; Jahnke, Sara A.; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about Veterans Service Organizations (VSOs) and their perspectives on veterans smoking or military tobacco control. Veterans have high smoking rates and many started smoking in the military, where a culture promoting use exists. Design We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative content analysis of VSO websites to classify health topics and identify tobacco-related information. Setting Websites were coded by trained raters from January-June of 2011. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed from July 2011-January 2012. Participants 24 active VSO websites meeting inclusion criteria were rated independently. Method A comprehensive form was used to code 15 veteran-relevant health topics across multiple content areas/domains within the websites. Raters achieved 94.5% inter-rater agreement over nearly 5,000 data-points. Results A total of 277 health topics were addressed with the top five being Insurance/Tricare/VA issues (28.2%), PTSD (15.5%), disability/amputation/wounds (13.4%), Agent Orange (10.5%), and traumatic brain injury (TBI; 9.0%). Tobacco was mentioned four times (1.4%) across all 24 VSO websites and smoking cessation was never addressed. Conclusions VSO websites provide little information on tobacco-related topics and none offered information about smoking cessation. Given the high rates of tobacco use among veterans and active duty service members, and the interaction between smoking and PTSD symptoms and treatment outcomes, VSOs should consider making tobacco control and smoking cessation higher priority health issues on their websites. PMID:23631454

  10. How to evaluate the quality of health related websites.

    PubMed

    Gattoni, Filippo; Sicola, Chiara

    2005-03-01

    To establish reliable quality criteria for medical websites is of foremost importance in relation to the increasing number of Internet users, both health professionals and lay people, searching for medical information in the mass of these sites. Quality in general refers to a set of features that distinguish one person or thing from others of the same type. The quality of a website is usually related to its content and usability. The first criteria we considered are contents and readability, which must be targeted to the intended type of user. Other important criteria include: transparency, consistency, honesty, references to sources, accountability, respect of privacy, currency of content material, responsibility, and accessibility. Technical criteria are the use of consolidated and standard technologies, soft colours, short page download time. Good medical websites should also follow the suggestions of organizations such as the World Health Organization, the Food and Drug Administration, the European Communities. Another organization, Health On Net Foundation, has issued some guidelines for medical websites, summarized in eight points, fundamental to assign real scientific value to a site. We believe, in agreement with the literature, that it is unnecessary to apply strict rules to medical website developers. We want to stress the importance of guidelines and recommendations to be modified with the development of web technology and the cultural evolution of patient and physicians. In the near future the presence on the Internet of websites certified by national or international medical web authorities will lead users to trust and give their preference to such sites, leading to the self-regulation of website developers and users.

  11. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  12. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene

    PubMed Central

    Luquiens, Amandine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients’ preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies. PMID:25302021

  13. Patient preferences and perspectives regarding reducing alcohol consumption: role of nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Luquiens, Amandine; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a major public health issue. The absolute mortality burden of alcohol-attributable death has increased over the last 20 years. However, access to care remains very poor and many people with alcohol use disorder are untreated. The main limiting factor for access to care in alcohol use disorder appears to be the reluctance to engage in abstinence. Risk reduction is a developing approach in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, drawing its inspiration, with quite a delay, from the decades-long dominant approach in other substance use disorders. A paradigm shift has recently occurred that places more of an emphasis on reducing alcohol as a therapeutic strategy for patients with alcohol use disorder, to better meet the patients' preferences and needs. The development and recent approval of nalmefene, in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level, contributes to enlarging the therapeutic arsenal for alcohol dependence, strengthening the legitimacy of alcohol reduction strategies.

  14. Design and Implementation of Website Information Disclosure Assessment System

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Internet application technologies, such as cloud computing and cloud storage, have increasingly changed people’s lives. Websites contain vast amounts of personal privacy information. In order to protect this information, network security technologies, such as database protection and data encryption, attract many researchers. The most serious problems concerning web vulnerability are e-mail address and network database leakages. These leakages have many causes. For example, malicious users can steal database contents, taking advantage of mistakes made by programmers and administrators. In order to mitigate this type of abuse, a website information disclosure assessment system is proposed in this study. This system utilizes a series of technologies, such as web crawler algorithms, SQL injection attack detection, and web vulnerability mining, to assess a website’s information disclosure. Thirty websites, randomly sampled from the top 50 world colleges, were used to collect leakage information. This testing showed the importance of increasing the security and privacy of website information for academic websites. PMID:25768434

  15. 'Total girlfriend experience': examining marketplace mythologies on sex tourism websites.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Levitt, Alexis; Ghaffarian, Roxane

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic content analysis of sex tour websites to understand how sex tours are marketed to potential clients. A total of 380 web pages from 21 sex tour websites were reviewed. The sex tour websites sought to promote privacy and hassle-free travel with a local 'escort' and the opportunity for 'hooks-ups' with no strings attached. Three themes emerged around the description of sex workers: (1) enjoyment and complete acceptance, (2) a 'total girlfriend experience' and (3) exoticisation of the 'Third World' woman. The majority of the sex tourism websites used marketplace mythologies concerning racism, sexism and imperialism to appeal to sex tourists' desires for fantasy experiences, power and domination, and a renewed sense of identity. Legal and STI-related information was largely missing from the websites, and when it was included it was aimed at protecting sex tourists, not sex workers. It is of importance for researchers, social workers and others engaging with sex workers and sexscapes to recognise the power of language, cultural myths and framings and their ability to generate real-world social and health implications.

  16. 'Total girlfriend experience': examining marketplace mythologies on sex tourism websites.

    PubMed

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Levitt, Alexis; Ghaffarian, Roxane

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic content analysis of sex tour websites to understand how sex tours are marketed to potential clients. A total of 380 web pages from 21 sex tour websites were reviewed. The sex tour websites sought to promote privacy and hassle-free travel with a local 'escort' and the opportunity for 'hooks-ups' with no strings attached. Three themes emerged around the description of sex workers: (1) enjoyment and complete acceptance, (2) a 'total girlfriend experience' and (3) exoticisation of the 'Third World' woman. The majority of the sex tourism websites used marketplace mythologies concerning racism, sexism and imperialism to appeal to sex tourists' desires for fantasy experiences, power and domination, and a renewed sense of identity. Legal and STI-related information was largely missing from the websites, and when it was included it was aimed at protecting sex tourists, not sex workers. It is of importance for researchers, social workers and others engaging with sex workers and sexscapes to recognise the power of language, cultural myths and framings and their ability to generate real-world social and health implications. PMID:26760690

  17. Websites and Advocacy Campaigns: Decision Making, Implementation, and Audience in an Environmental Advocacy Group's Use of Websites as Part of Its Communication Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sehmel, Heather

    2002-01-01

    Explores the planning processes a grassroots environmental group used to determine its goals for its Websites; examines the rhetoric of two of the group's Websites; and studies the reactions of audiences of the Websites to their Web rhetoric. Provides people working in small organizations with information about how they might improve the…

  18. Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): a Study on Persian Language Websites

    PubMed Central

    BIGDELI, Imanollah; CORAZZA, Ornella; ASLANPOUR, Zoe; SCHIFANO, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Background During the past few years, there has been an increasing recognition that Internet is playing a significant role in the synthesis, the distribution and the consumption of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS).The aim of this study was to assess the online availability of NPS in Persian language websites. Methods: The Google search engine was used to carry out an accurate qualitative assessment of information available on NPS in a sample of 104 websites. Results: The monitoring has led to the identification of 14 NPS including herbal, synthetic, pharmaceutical and combination drugs that have been sold online. Conclusion: The availability of online marketing of NPS in Persian language websites may constitute a public health challenge at least across three Farsi-speaking countries in the Middle East. Hence, descriptions of this phenomenon are valuable to clinicians and health professional in this region. Further international collaborative efforts may be able to tackle the growth and expansion of regular offer of NPS. PMID:23802109

  19. The Effect of Brand on the Evaluation of Websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angeli, Antonella; Hartmann, Jan; Sutcliffe, Alistair

    The effect of brand on consumer attitudes towards real and virtual goods is largely documented in consumer psychology and marketing. There is an obvious link between the design of a website and its brand. Yet, this effect has attracted little attention from the HCI community. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that brand attitude influences the evaluation of websites. The effect was reliable across different measures: people holding better attitudes were more positive in the evaluation of aesthetics, pleasure and usability. A sample of students (N=145) with a background in HCI was tested, suggesting that brand may influence the output of expert evaluators. The study provides support to the proposition of UX as a contextual-dependent response to the interaction with computing systems and has important implications for the design and evaluation of websites which are discussed in the conclusion.

  20. The future of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shida, R. Y.; Russo, P.; Christensen, L. L.

    2008-06-01

    The internet will, without doubt, be one of the most important channels connecting the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) activities with the general public. The IYA2009 website went online in December 2006 and since then has served as the main communication tool between all the countries and agencies that are taking part in this event. Recently a new strategy has been applied to the IYA2009 project and its communication. The project has changed from catering mainly to internal communication needs (IAU <-> Single Points of Contacts) to communicating more with external groups and the wider world, including lay people. Some features of the current website will be demonstrated, and ways of using web tools to empower astronomy communication will be suggested. Plans for the future evolution of the IYA2009 website as new events and ideas come up before 2009 will also be discussed.

  1. Website Service Quality in Ireland: An Empirical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Regina

    Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.

  2. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications.

  3. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications. PMID:26453285

  4. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  5. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  6. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  7. Feasibility Study: Potential Enhancements for the LLNL Renewables Website

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, F; Krawchuk, M; Moritz, M; Stephens, S; Goldstein, N

    2008-01-25

    This feasibility study investigates additional improvements/extensions to the LLNL Renewables Website. Currently, the Renewables Website focuses on wind energy in California. Future enhancements will include other renewable energy sources. The extensions described below are focused along two separate yet related avenues: (1) Forecasting wildfire risk in the regions of California where new development may occur, as a part of the 'Million Solar Roofs' program. (2) Gaining a better understanding of the ecological components and potential of biofuels from forests in California. These two avenues are further described in the report. Following is a technical description of the Center for Fire Research and Outreach computing and web service capabilities.

  8. IAEA experience in communicating radiation risks through the RPOP website.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M; Holmberg, O

    2015-07-01

    The authors report here their successful experience of communicating information to health professionals, patients and the public on benefits and risks of ionising radiation in medical applications. The approaches used have been based on giving importance to clinical benefits against risks, as well as safety in use against risk of use. Communicating brief messages against catchy questions with positive and pragmatic approach resulted in making website on radiation protection of patients (RPOP) as the top website of the world in this area. Credibility of information has been maintained. The results show immense outreach in 213 countries/territories. PMID:25813478

  9. Recent Developments on the Turbulence Modeling Resource Website (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumssey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Turbulence Model Resource (TMR) website has been active for over five years. Its main goal of providing a one-stop, easily accessible internet site for up-to-date information on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models remains unchanged. In particular, the site strives to provide an easy way for users to verify their own implementations of widely-used turbulence models, and to compare the results from different models for a variety of simple unit problems covering a range of flow physics. Some new features have been recently added to the website. This paper documents the site's features, including recent developments, future plans, and open questions.

  10. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  11. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  12. Website Quality, Expectation, Confirmation, and End User Satisfaction: The Knowledge-Intensive Website of the Korean National Cancer Information Center

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Chulmo; Wati, Yulia; Park, Keeho

    2011-01-01

    Background The fact that patient satisfaction with primary care clinical practices and physician-patient communications has decreased gradually has brought a new opportunity to the online channel as a supplementary service to provide additional information. Objective In this study, our objectives were to examine the process of cognitive knowledge expectation-confirmation from eHealth users and to recommend the attributes of a “knowledge-intensive website.”. Knowledge expectation can be defined as users’ existing attitudes or beliefs regarding expected levels of knowledge they may gain by accessing the website. Knowledge confirmation is the extent to which user’s knowledge expectation of information systems use is realized during actual use. In our hypothesized research model, perceived information quality, presentation and attractiveness as well as knowledge expectation influence knowledge confirmation, which in turn influences perceived usefulness and end user satisfaction, which feeds back to knowledge expectation. Methods An empirical study was conducted at the National Cancer Center (NCC), Republic of Korea (South Korea), by evaluating its official website. A user survey was administered containing items to measure subjectively perceived website quality and expectation-confirmation attributes. A study sample of 198 usable responses was used for further analysis. We used the structural equation model to test the proposed research model. Results Knowledge expectation exhibited a positive effect on knowledge confirmation (beta = .27, P < .001). The paths from information quality, information presentation, and website attractiveness to knowledge confirmation were also positive and significant (beta = .24, P < .001; beta = .29, P < .001; beta = .18, P < .001, respectively). Moreover, the effect of knowledge confirmation on perceived usefulness was also positively significant (beta = .64, P < .001). Knowledge expectation together with knowledge confirmation

  13. Nalmefene for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a current update.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2014-04-01

    To date, few pharmacotherapies have been established for the treatment of alcoholism. There is a plethora of research concerning the involvement of the opioid-endorphin system in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been found to be effective in alcohol treatment. In addition, the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene was recently approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of alcoholism. The relevant studies followed a harm-reduction, 'as needed' approach and showed a reduction in alcohol consumption with nalmefene 20 mg rather than increased abstinence rates, (which was not the primary goal of the relevant studies). The available literature is reviewed and discussed. Nalmefene appears to be a safe and effective treatment for alcohol dependence.

  14. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  15. Developing a Content Strategy for an Academic Library Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakiston, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Academic library websites contain a vast amount of complex content and, all too often, there is a lack of established process for creating, updating, and deleting that content. There is no clear vision or purpose to the content, and numerous staff members are expected to maintain content with little guidance. Because of this, many library websites…

  16. Students' Attitudes toward the Introduction of a Course Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonds-Raacke, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current experiment was to determine how students at a university with no course management system (and very little use of technology in general) would respond to the introduction of a course website. Participants (67) in the current experiment were students enrolled in an Introductory Psychology course at a small, Midwestern…

  17. Dialogistic Presence on Community College Websites in Nine Megastates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadinger, David

    2013-01-01

    Use of Internet websites as a communication tool by community college is nearly universal. Exactly what information, functions, and links are offered varies widely among institutions. Research has reported that high school juniors and seniors, prefer to find information on the Internet during their college search process, and Noel Levitz (2006,…

  18. An Application of Fuzzy AHP for Evaluating Course Website Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsiu-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies have identified various influences on course website effectiveness, the evaluation of the relative importance of these factors across different online learning experience groups has not been empirically determined. This study develops an evolution model that integrates triangular fuzzy numbers and analytic hierarchy…

  19. Information Found and Not Found: What University Websites Tell Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Jones, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how graduate students experience their university websites, or the institutional "virtual face." The sample included graduate students admitted to online and blended higher education programs at Texas Tech University and the University of Memphis. A total of 42 students provided open-ended answers to questions about…

  20. Your Voice, Your Vote: A Lesson with Website Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathys, Lori; Bennett, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article describes several websites that can be used to encourage students to vote. These include "The Democracy Project: Inside the Voting Booth" sponsored by PBS. This site addresses three elementary topics: how one vote has made a difference in U.S. history, how the right to vote has gradually been expanded to include minorities (African…

  1. Using Web Metric Software to Drive: Mobile Website Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidal, Junior

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have developed mobile versions of their websites. In order to understand their users, web developers have conducted both usability tests and focus groups, yet analytical software and web server logs can also be used to better understand users. Using data collected from these tools, the Ursula C. Schwerin Library has made informed…

  2. Community Websites: Linking the Personal to Urban History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wildt, Annemarie

    2013-01-01

    New technology enables museums and other heritage institutions to establish more personal links with their audience, and hopefully by doing so make history more compelling to them. The author explores some Dutch practices with interactive community websites and other ways of making connections between personal stories and urban history.

  3. Evaluating a Website to Teach Children Safety with Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; McClure, Leslie A.; Severson, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Pediatric dog bites are a significant public health problem worldwide. Existing prevention programs focused on altering children’s risky behavior with pet dogs tend to be atheoretical and only moderately effective. Objective Test efficacy of a website to train young children in relevant cognitive skills to be safe with pet dogs in their home. Setting Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Methods A randomized trial will be conducted with an expected sample of two groups of 34 children ages 4-6 (total N = 68). One group will engage in the newly-designed website at home for two weeks and the other group will engage in a control website on transportation safety for an equivalent amount of time. All participants will complete a battery of laboratory-based tests to assess safety with dogs and cognitive functioning both at baseline and post-intervention. Outcome Measures Primary analyses will be conducted through linear mixed models testing change over time. Children’s cognitive functioning, knowledge about safety with dogs, and behavior with dogs in simulation and in vivo will serve as the primary outcomes. Clinical Trial Registration This study is exempt from registry at the US government website, www.clinicaltrials.gov, based on being a behavioral trial in the early phases of testing. PMID:24871960

  4. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  5. Evaluating and Recommending Greek Newspapers' Websites Using Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Kotsiantis, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate Greek newspaper websites using clustering and a number of criteria obtained from the Alexa search engine. Furthermore, a recommendation approach is proposed for matching Greek online newspapers with the profiles of potential readers. The paper presents the implementation and validation of a recommender…

  6. Creating a Responsive Website: PPLD Friends--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklyn, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The Friends of the Pikes Peak Library District (PPLD) had a legacy website that was remotely hosted and maintained by a volunteer. They wanted a more significant presence on PPLD.org and an easier interface with which to update information. The developers decided to create a new Friends site in Drupal, using RWD, CSS3, and HTML5. The plan was to…

  7. 508 Compliance: Preparing Presentations, Excel Files, Websites, and Multimedia Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    PowerPoint presentations, Excel documents, Web pages, and videos posted on federal websites must meet the requirements of the 1998 amendment to Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act. Doing so ensures that these materials are accessible to a wide range of people with disabilities, including visual, auditory, sensory, and motor impairments. These…

  8. Migrating the Barnard Library Zine Collection Website to Drupal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalkos, Lia

    2012-01-01

    In winter 2009, Barnard College began the process of adopting Drupal 7 as its content management system. The move included Barnard Library's Zine Collection website, an information resource dedicated to the library's special collection of do-it-yourself (DIY) publications by women. Recently, as a Barnard Zine intern, the author had the challenging…

  9. Brand and Usability in Content-Intensive Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Our connections to the digital world are invoked by brands, but the intersection of branding and interaction design is still an under-investigated area. Particularly, current websites are designed not only to support essential user tasks, but also to communicate an institution's intended brand values and traits. What we do not yet know, however,…

  10. Oil field waste disposal in salt caverns: An information website

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, D.; Veil, J. A.

    1999-12-10

    Argonne National Laboratory has completed the construction of a Website for the US Department of Energy (DOE) that provides detailed information on salt caverns and their use for disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes (NOW) and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Specific topics in the Website include the following: descriptions of salt deposits and salt caverns within the US, salt cavern construction methods, potential types of wastes, waste emplacement, regulatory issues, costs, carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic human health risks associated with postulated cavern release scenarios, new information on cavern disposal (e.g., upcoming meetings, regulatory issues, etc.), other studies supported by the National Petroleum Technology Office (NPTO) (e.g., considerations of site location, cavern stability, development issues, and bedded salt characterization in the Midland Basin), and links to other associated Web sites. In addition, the Website allows downloadable access to reports prepared on the topic that were funded by DOE. Because of the large quantities of NOW and NORM wastes generated annually by the oil industry, information presented on this Website is particularly interesting and valuable to project managers, regulators, and concerned citizens.

  11. New Website Helps You Find What You Need | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Karen Surabian, Contributing Writer The National Cancer Institute’s Technology Transfer Center (NCI’s TTC) recently launched a redesign of its website. New graphics, color scheme, and updated features provide a user-friendly environment for finding information related to technology transfer at NCI.

  12. @Prevention: a website project for prevention in the healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, R; Onesti, A; Martini, M; Cartiglia, C; Sticchi, L; Alberti, M

    2011-06-01

    In the field of prevention, Internet websites and their related instruments constitute valuable tools for healthcare facilities, and particularly for Local Healthcare Authorities (LHA). As yet, however, their undoubted potential remains largely unexploited. Many LHA websites currently operating in Italy are organized in such a way that they fail to make adequate use of this precious resource. Indeed, communication regarding prevention is all too often limited to the simple reproduction of information and indications in a static and heterogeneous manner, so much so that it resembles a mere "online notice-board". The aim of the present research was to analyze the current situation and the various innovative proposals that have been made, in order to construct a more effective website model that could be used nationwide. To this end, the research was carried out through a two-pronged approach: on the one hand, all 190 LHA websites in Italy were analyzed; on the other, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of habitual users of the most modern and widespread social network, Facebook. Analysis and elaboration of the data gathered led to the creation of the model "@Prevention". This project is intended to introduce an innovative perspective into the field of online communication for healthcare prevention by providing a highly useful tool for the LHA, healthcare workers and, obviously, citizens. PMID:21842707

  13. Disciplinary Representation on Institutional Websites: Changing Knowledge, Changing Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Kate; Yates, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses shifts in the representation of history and physics as named organisational units on Australian university websites over the last 15 years in the context of broader questions about the production of knowledge in contemporary times. It derives from a broader project concerned with disciplinarity, changing university contexts and…

  14. Assessing the Motivational Quality of World Wide Websites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Ruth V.

    As the number of World Wide Web sites continues to grow at an explosive rate, the need for design guidelines also increases. Although there are a number of resources that provide guidance on structure and content, few address the motivational aspects of Web sites. The Website Motivational Analysis Checklist (WebMAC) was developed to help diagnose…

  15. Interacting Online: A Content Analysis of Museum Education Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiki, Diana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the degree of viewer interaction capabilities of features found on the education portion of museum websites. A content analysis was completed where features were categorized by learning levels including: narrative (the learner is a passive recipient), interactive (the learner chooses what he/she views),…

  16. Fostering Civic Science Literacy with NASA's Global Climate Change Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, L. F.; Jackson, R.; Greene, W. M.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change science is a complicated subject that can be both confusing and intimidating to non-scientists. Nevertheless, fostering public understanding of the science and the evidence for an anthropogenic cause is essential to motivating behavioral change. In response to the need for engaging and accessible materials in the area of climate science, NASA launched the Global Climate Change website http://climate.nasa.gov/ in 2008. The site makes extensive use of interactive media, immersive visualizations, ground-based and remote images, narrated and time lapse videos, time series animations, and real-time scientific data, plus maps and user friendly graphics that make the scientific content both accessible and engaging to the public. NASA's Global Climate Change Website has become a top search result for "climate change" for all major search engines and has won two consecutive Webby Awards for Best Science Website. The website's interactive and visually exciting style enhances public engagement, scientific curiosity and interest in Earth and climate science across diverse populations, thus promoting broader civic science literacy.

  17. Using the Internet to Educate the World: The "Earthlearningidea" Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The website "Earthlearningidea" was developed for the International Year of Planet Earth in 2007 and continues with one new activity per fortnight. Activities are devised to catch the attention of students and to enable them to enjoy the science of the Earth. Many activities require minimal equipment, for schools in developing countries, but there…

  18. Designing a School Website: Contents, Structure, and Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubin, Dorit; Klein, Sarit

    2007-01-01

    Over the past few years, as part of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) reform on the one hand, and the increased demands for school accountability on the other, more and more schools have launched a school website aimed at enhancing educational activities, supporting student-teacher communication, contributing to school marketing…

  19. A two-dimensional assessment of selected medical websites.

    PubMed

    Koong, Kai S; Liu, Lai C; Zeng, Mingying

    2006-01-01

    Two major dimensions are commonly used for assessing the breadth and depth of the information content in medical websites. The first dimension deals with quality characteristics consisting of authorship, attribution, confidentiality, currency, disclosure, legitimacy and purpose. Functional variables such as access to medical libraries, reference books, health organisations, information sites, guidelines and reviews, clinical trial sites, drug questions, locating an expert and alternative medicine make up the second dimension. The trend is toward the use of both dimensions for evaluating medical websites. This study examines the breadth and depth of the medical information in the websites of the top 51 medical schools in the USA. The results of this study indicate that there are certain quality-standard measures that are present in all medical websites. However, there are also clear distinctions in quality as well as functional attributes that separate the higher-ranked medical schools from the lower ones. Medical professionals, computer system developers, and end-users of medical information will find the results of this study useful. PMID:18048233

  20. Evaluation of internet websites about retinopathy of prematurity patient education

    PubMed Central

    Martins, E N; Morse, L S

    2005-01-01

    Background/aims: The success of the treatment in patients with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is mainly associated with timely diagnosis and appropriate management. Information dissemination is crucial for the outcome of ROP. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the information about ROP available for patients on the internet. Methods: Cross sectional study. In March 2004 the ROP information available on the internet was evaluated using two search engines (MetaCrawler and MSN) and four key terms (“retinopathy of prematurity,” “premature eye,” “premature retina,” and “ROP”). The quality of each website was evaluated using a score system. The sites were classified as academic, organisational, or commercial. Readability, general quality of the website (based on ownership, purpose, authorship, author qualification, attribution, interactivity, and currency), and quality of the content specific to ROP (definition, causes, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, classification, treatment, and prognosis) were analysed. Results: Of 114 websites evaluated, 40 were included. 10 sites (25.0%) were academic, eight (20.0%) organisational, and 22 (55.0%) commercial. In the majority of the sites (62.5%) the ROP information was fair or poor. Conclusions: A large amount of information about ROP is available on the internet. However, most websites were considered incomplete. PMID:15834086

  1. Consumer-Centered Extension Education Website Increases Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franics, Sarah L.; Martin, Peggy; Taylor, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Concern about young families' ability to cope with rising food prices resulted in creating Spend Smart. Eat Smart (SSES), a website focused on budget-friendly nutrition information for limited resource audiences (LRA). SSES was redesigned using LRAs needs and preferences to increase use by LRAs. SSES usage increased after it was revised to…

  2. Designing Websites for ESL Learners: A Usability Testing Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…

  3. The Advanced Labs Website: resources for upper-level laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Isea, Ramon

    2012-03-01

    The Advanced Labs web resource collection is an effort to create a central, comprehensive information base for college/university faculty who teach upper-level undergraduate laboratories. The website is produced by the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT). It is a part of ComPADRE, the online collection of resources in physics and astronomy education, which itself is a part of the National Science Foundation-funded National Science Digital Library (NSDL). After a brief review of its history, we will discuss the current status of the website while describing the various types of resources available at the site and presenting examples of each. We will detail a step-by-step procedure for submitting resources to the website. The resource collection is designed to be a community effort and thus welcomes input and contributions from its users. We will also present plans, and will seek audience feedback, for additional website services and features. The constraints, roadblocks, and rewards of this project will also be addressed.

  4. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  5. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  6. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  7. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravina, Teresita; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2015-04-01

    Environmental news mainly reach not specialist people by mass media, which generally focuses on fascinating or catastrophic events without reporting scientific data. Otherwise, scientific data on environment are published in peer-reviewed journals with specific language, so they could be not understandable to common people. In the last decade, Internet spread made easier to divulge environmental information. This allows everyone (scientist or not) to publish information without revision. In fact, World Wide Web includes many scientific sites with different levels of confidence. Within Italian scientific websites, there are those of University and Research Centre, but they mainly contain didactic and bureaucratic information, generally lacking in research news, or reporting them in peer-reviewed format. University and Research Centre should have an important role to divulge certified information, but news should be adapted to a general audience without scientific skills, in order to help population to gain knowledge on environmental issues and to develop responsible behavior. Therefore, an attractive website (www.sunability.unina2.it) has been created in order to divulge research products of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies Department (DiSTABiF) of Second University of Naples-SUN (Campania, Southern Italy). This website contains divulgation articles derived from peer-reviewed publications of DiSTABiF researchers and concerning studies on environmental, nutrition, and health issues, closely related topics. Environmental studies mainly referred to Caserta district (Southern Italy), where DiSTABiF is located. Divulgation articles have been shared by main social networks (Facebook: sunability, Twitter: @SUNability) and accesses have been monitored for 28 days in order to obtain demographic and geographic information about users and visualization number of both DiSTABiF website and social network pages. Demographic and geographic

  8. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  9. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  10. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  11. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions.

  12. A Content Analysis of Displayed Alcohol References on a Social Networking Web Site

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Briner, Leslie R; Williams, Amanda; Brockman, Libby; Walker, Leslie; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Exposure to alcohol use in media is associated with adolescent alcohol use. Adolescents frequently display alcohol references on Internet media such as social networking websites (SNSs). The purpose of this study was to conduct a theoretically-based content analysis of older adolescents’ displayed alcohol references on a SNS. Methods We evaluated 400 randomly selected public MySpace profiles of self-reported 17 to 20-year-olds from zip codes representing urban, suburban and rural communities in one Washington county. Content was evaluated for alcohol references suggesting: 1) explicit versus figurative alcohol use, 2) alcohol-related motivations, associations and consequences, including references that met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria. We compared profiles from four target zip codes for prevalence and frequency of alcohol display. Results Of 400 profiles, 225 profiles (56.3%) contained 341 references to alcohol. Profile owners who displayed alcohol references were mostly male (54.2%) and White (70.7%). The most frequent reference category was explicit use (49.3%), the most commonly displayed alcohol use motivation was peer pressure (4.7%). Few references met CRAFFT problem drinking criteria (3.2%). There were no differences in prevalence or frequency of alcohol display among the four sociodemographic communities. Conclusions Despite alcohol use being illegal and potentially stigmatizing in this population, explicit alcohol use is frequently referenced on adolescents’ MySpace profiles across several sociodemographic communities. Motivations, associations and consequences regarding alcohol use referenced on MySpace appear consistent with previous studies of adolescent alcohol use. These references may be a potent source of influence on adolescents, particularly given that they are created and displayed by peers. PMID:20638009

  13. Vaccination Persuasion Online: A Qualitative Study of Two Provaccine and Two Vaccine-Skeptical Websites

    PubMed Central

    Hausman, Bernice L; Cashion, Margaret; Lucchesi, Nicholas; Patel, Kelsey; Roberts, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Current concerns about vaccination resistance often cite the Internet as a source of vaccine controversy. Most academic studies of vaccine resistance online use quantitative methods to describe misinformation on vaccine-skeptical websites. Findings from these studies are useful for categorizing the generic features of these websites, but they do not provide insights into why these websites successfully persuade their viewers. To date, there have been few attempts to understand, qualitatively, the persuasive features of provaccine or vaccine-skeptical websites. Objective The purpose of this research was to examine the persuasive features of provaccine and vaccine-skeptical websites. The qualitative analysis was conducted to generate hypotheses concerning what features of these websites are persuasive to people seeking information about vaccination and vaccine-related practices. Methods This study employed a fully qualitative case study methodology that used the anthropological method of thick description to detail and carefully review the rhetorical features of 1 provaccine government website, 1 provaccine hospital website, 1 vaccine-skeptical information website focused on general vaccine safety, and 1 vaccine-skeptical website focused on a specific vaccine. The data gathered were organized into 5 domains: website ownership, visual and textual content, user experience, hyperlinking, and social interactivity. Results The study found that the 2 provaccine websites analyzed functioned as encyclopedias of vaccine information. Both of the websites had relatively small digital ecologies because they only linked to government websites or websites that endorsed vaccination and evidence-based medicine. Neither of these websites offered visitors interactive features or made extensive use of the affordances of Web 2.0. The study also found that the 2 vaccine-skeptical websites had larger digital ecologies because they linked to a variety of vaccine-related websites

  14. Alcoholic steatohepatitis: management and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2007-03-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is a disease with a wide range of severity. Patients with severe disease have short-term mortality rates above 35%. In these high-risk patients, pharmacologic therapy is an important adjunct to supportive medical care and has been proved to improve survival. Given the benefit of drug treatment, it is important to identify patients at risk of early mortality from alcoholic hepatitis. A number of validated scoring systems are useful for this purpose, including the Maddrey Discriminant Function, the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score, and the Glasgow Alcoholic Hepatitis score. Patients judged by one or more of these criteria to have severe alcoholic hepatitis should be treated with corticosteroids or pentoxifylline, provided they have no contraindications for this treatment. Adequate nutrition is also critical and should be provided by tube feeding if necessary. A prompt decline in serum bilirubin indicates a favorable response to therapy. Patients who do not exhibit a reduction in serum bilirubin within 1 week are considered nonresponders and have a 6-month mortality rate of 50% or higher. PMID:17335676

  15. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  16. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  17. Academic health sciences library Website navigation: an analysis of forty-one Websites and their navigation tools

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Stewart M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The analysis included forty-one academic health sciences library (HSL) Websites as captured in the first two weeks of January 2001. Home pages and persistent navigational tools (PNTs) were analyzed for layout, technology, and links, and other general site metrics were taken. Methods: Websites were selected based on rank in the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, with regional and resource libraries given preference on the basis that these libraries are recognized as leaders in their regions and would be the most reasonable source of standards for best practice. A three-page evaluation tool was developed based on previous similar studies. All forty-one sites were evaluated in four specific areas: library general information, Website aids and tools, library services, and electronic resources. Metrics taken for electronic resources included orientation of bibliographic databases alphabetically by title or by subject area and with links to specifically named databases. Results: Based on the results, a formula for determining obligatory links was developed, listing items that should appear on all academic HSL Web home pages and PNTs. Conclusions: These obligatory links demonstrate a series of best practices that may be followed in the design and construction of academic HSL Websites. PMID:15494756

  18. Comparison of Parent and Teacher Perceptions of Essential Website Features and Elementary Teacher Website Use: Implications for Teacher Communication Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Tiffany A.; Ottenbreit-Leftwich, Anne T.

    2016-01-01

    Within the United States, there has been a call for timely, effective, and targeted communication between home and school environments to increase student achievement and engage parents (Project Tomorrow, 2011a). Although teachers can use websites as a means of communication to connect with parents online (Dunn, 2011; Janicki &…

  19. College student employment and drinking: a daily study of work stressors, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B; Dodge, Kama D; Faurote, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by sex. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  2. "Natural Recovery" from Alcohol Abuse among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    As they progress through college, a significant number of students reduce their abusive alcohol consumption without formal interventions on the part of the university, other agencies, or counseling/mental health services. Such "natural recovery" may offer important clues as to both the etiology and reduction of alcohol abuse on campus. The author…

  3. Alcohol Outlet Densities and Alcohol Price: The British Columbia Experiment in the Partial Privatization of Alcohol Sales Off-Premise

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Ponicki, William R.; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Methods This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply–demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Results Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Conclusions Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. PMID:23316802

  4. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  5. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  6. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  7. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  8. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  9. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  10. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  11. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  12. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  13. Using the Genetics Home Reference Website | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 Using the Genetics Home Reference Website Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... as the GHR website keeps growing. What Is Genetic Counseling? Genetic counseling provides information and support to ...

  14. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  15. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  16. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  17. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  18. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  19. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  20. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  1. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  2. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  3. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  4. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  5. Effects of Website Interactivity on Online Retail Shopping Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Hafizul

    Motivations to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of interactive web utilities and features, offering not only utilitarian benefits and attributes but also providing hedonic benefits of enjoyment. Since the effect of interactive websites has proven to stimulate online consumer’s perceptions, this study presumes that websites with multimedia rich interactive utilities and features can influence online consumers’ shopping motivations and entice them to modify or even transform their original shopping predispositions by providing them with attractive and enhanced interactive features and controls, thus generating a positive attitude towards products and services offered by the retailer. This study seeks to explore the effects of Web interactivity on online consumer behavior through an attitudinal model of technology acceptance.

  6. Surfing for history: dental library and dental school websites.

    PubMed

    Kreinbring, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Library and academic websites are among the most reliable Internet resources available today. Schools of all types use the Internet as a means of sharing information; and libraries provide broader access to their collections via the Web. For researchers seeking specific, authoritative resources on dental history, library and dental school websites are most helpful in identifying print and online resources, in describing manuscript collections, and in presenting a history of the host institution. A library site often can provide sufficient information online to eliminate the need for an in-person visit to the library. On the other hand, a library site may tantalize the historian with enough information on unique collections that a trip can be justified.

  7. Using the Teach Astronomy Website to Enrich Introductory Astronomy Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardegree-Ullman, K. K.; Impey, C. D.; Patikkal, A.; Austin, C. L.

    2013-04-01

    This year we implemented Teach Astronomy as a free online resource to be used as a teaching tool for non-science major astronomy courses and for a general audience interested in the subject. The comprehensive astronomy content of the website includes: an introductory text book, encyclopedia articles, images, two to three minute topical video clips, podcasts, and news articles. Teach Astronomy utilizes a novel technology to cluster, display, and navigate search results, called a Wikimap. We will present an overview of how Teach Astronomy works and how instructors can use it as an effective teaching tool in the classroom. Additionally, we will gather feedback from science instructors on how to improve the features and functionality of the website, as well as develop new assignment ideas using Teach Astronomy.

  8. Surfing for history: websites featuring dental history object collections.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Research is a key activity for any individual interested in dental history. It should come as no surprise that the ever-evolving Internet has become a major resource for those who seek the latest information available on this (or almost any other) subject. As a curator in a dental history museum, the author frequently checks other sources that feature dental objects while cataloging and identifying newly-acquired objects or those under consideration for exhibition. "Surfing" by computer is often the author's first activity in pursuing any research task. This paper is a tour of websites written in English that include historical dental objects. At the risk of stating the obvious, the author would like to point out that the accuracy and reliability of information on websites varies widely, depending on the source. Therefore, most of the sites listed here have been developed by institutions.

  9. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  10. What College and University Websites Reveal about the Purposes of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saichaie, Kem; Morphew, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    College and university websites play an important role in the college search process. This study examines the textual and visual elements on the websites of 12 colleges and universities. Findings suggest that websites communicate a message consistent with private purposes of education and inconsistent with those linked to public purposes.

  11. Communicating Sustainability: A Content Analysis of Website Communications in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade, Aurali; Hassenzahl, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how institutions of higher education (IHEs) in the USA communicate sustainability through their websites. Specifically, the authors compare how and to what extent sustainability is communicated through an institution-wide sustainability website versus operational and academic department websites.…

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation Criteria for English Learning Websites Using Expert Validity Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting C.; Chan, Chia-Ying

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a set of evaluation criteria for English learning websites. These criteria can assist English teachers/web designers in designing effective websites for their English courses and can also guide English learners in screening for appropriate and reliable websites to use in increasing their English ability. To fulfill our…

  13. Better Educational Website Interface Design: The Implications from Gender-Specific Preferences in Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Yu-chang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated graduate students gender-specific preferences for certain website interface design features, intending to generate useful information for instructors in choosing and for website designers in creating educational websites. The features investigated in this study included colour value, major navigation buttons placement, and…

  14. From the Field and into the Classroom: Information Architecture Assessment and Website Usability Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael J.; Hettche, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Although it is difficult these days to find a company that does not have a website, you do not have to look very far for to find a website with significant design and architecture flaws. Getting a visitor to your website is one thing, making the experience effortless and allowing them to find exactly what they need is another story. That being…

  15. 32 CFR 701.2 - Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook. 701.2 Section...) Program § 701.2 Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook. (a) The Navy FOIA website (http://www.ogc.secnav.hq.navy.... It features a FOIA Handbook which provides: guidance on how and where to submit requests;...

  16. 32 CFR 701.2 - Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook. 701.2 Section...) Program § 701.2 Navy FOIA website/FOIA handbook. (a) The Navy FOIA website (http://www.ogc.secnav.hq.navy.... It features a FOIA Handbook which provides: guidance on how and where to submit requests;...

  17. Sharing Control, Embracing Collaboration: Cross-Campus Partnerships for Library Website Design and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kimberley

    2012-01-01

    Cross-campus collaboration for library website design and management can be challenging, but the process can produce stronger, more attractive, and more usable library websites. Collaborative library website design and management can also lead to new avenues for marketing library tools and services; expert consultation for library technology…

  18. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  19. 75 FR 79385 - Submission for OMB; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... Collection: Title: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III. Type of...

  20. 'Schizophrenia' as a metaphor in greek newspaper websites.

    PubMed

    Athanasopoulou, Christina; Välimäki, Maritta

    2014-01-01

    Often, newspapers use the term 'schizophrenia' as a metaphor with negative connotations. The use of the term in Greek newspapers, has never been investigated. The aim of this study is to examine how the term 'schizophrenia' is used in Greek newspaper websites. For 2014, 'To Vima', 'Kathimerini', and 'Eleftherotypia', were the most popular newspaper websites. By searching the term 'schizophrenia' in Greek ('σχιζoφρενεια'), the first fifty results were collected from the three websites (N=150). Deductive content analysis was applied. Out of the included articles (N=140), the majority were news (n=39, 28%), while more than a third (n=48, 34%) reported schizophrenia as a metaphor. The metaphoric use of 'schizophrenia' indicated predominately incoherence/contradiction/split (n=43, 90%). Monitoring how schizophrenia is presented within popular media is crucial, since it could influence public perceptions regarding the disorder. Continual use of schizophrenia as a metaphor could contribute to maintaining the stigma attached to mental illness.

  1. Health websites in Italy: use, classification and international policy.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Paola; Maceratini, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    In this paper, we discuss international policy in relation to the use of health websites and we describe the results obtained from application of a search engine to the recognition and classification of health websites in Italy. We then compare the results with health websites in other countries. Effective use of technology has led to medical advances that have not only extended life expectancy, but also fuelled an increasingly well-informed public to expect more and more from today's healthcare providers. As a consequence of the Web's rapid, chaotic growth, the resulting network of information lacks organization and structure and the quest for a method of quickly finding relevant and reliable information is spawning the growth of Internet portal sites. The US and the European Union and now Italy, have established the importance of rules to check the quality of health sites both for the non-professional users (citizens), mainly for privacy and security (for example, of medical records); and for health operators (physicians and others), where the most important thing is to evaluate the quality of content. In June 2001, the search engine used here found 2627 Italian health sites, of which only 46 exhibited the HON Code, and they can be classified into: 1% personal medical sites, 17% health portals, 18%, metasites, 27% documental sites and 37% information sites for health operators and/or for citizens.

  2. Characteristics of international websites with information on developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reichow, Brian; Gelbar, Nicholas W; Mouradjian, Keri; Shefcyk, Allison; Smith, Isaac C

    2014-10-01

    The Internet often serves as a primary resource for individuals seeking health-related information, and a large and growing number of websites contain information related to developmental disabilities. This paper presents the results of an international evaluation of the characteristics and content of the top 10 ranked results (i.e., not including sponsored results - pay-per-click) returned when one of five terms related to developmental disabilities (i.e., ADHD, autism, down syndrome, learning disability, intellectual disability) was entered into one of six country specific Google online search engines (i.e., Australia (https://www.google.com.au), Canada (https://www.google.ca), Ireland (https://www.google.ie), New Zealand (https://www.google.co.nz), the United Kingdom (https://www.google.co.uk), and the United States (https://www.google.com)) on October 22, 2013. Collectively, we found that international consumers of websites related to developmental disabilities will encounter different websites with differing content and terminology, and should be critical consumers to ensure they locate the information they are seeking.

  3. eMeteorNews: website and PDF journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggemans, P.; Kacerek, R.; Koukal, J.; Miskotte, K.; Piffl, R.

    2016-01-01

    Amateur meteor workers have always been interested to exchange information and experience. In the past this was only possible via personal contacts by letter or by specialized journals. With internet a much faster medium became available and plenty of websites, mailing lists, Facebook groups, etc., have been created in order to communicate about meteors. Today there is a wealth of meteor data circulating on internet, but the information is very scattered and not directly available to everyone. The authors have been considering how to organize an easy access to the many different meteor related publications. The best solution for the current needs of amateur meteor observers proved to be a dedicated website combined with a PDF journal, both being free available without any subscription fee or registration requirement. The authors decided to start with this project and in March 2016 the website meteornews.org has been created. A first issue of eMeteorNews was prepared in April 2016. The year 2016 will be a test period for this project. The mission statement of this project is: "Minimizing overhead and editorial constraints to assure a swift exchange of information dedicated to all fields of active amateur meteor work."

  4. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  5. Improved production of fatty alcohols in cyanobacteria by metabolic engineering

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fatty alcohols are widely used in industrial chemicals. The biosynthetic pathways for fatty alcohols are diverse and widely existing in nature. They display a high capacity to produce fatty alcohols by the metabolic engineering of different microbe hosts. Direct recycling of carbon dioxide to fatty alcohols can be achieved by introducing a fatty alcohol-producing pathway into photosynthetic cyanobacteria. According to our precious reports, a relatively low yield of fatty alcohols was obtained in the genetically engineered cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Results The photosynthetic production of fatty alcohols in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was improved through heterologously expressing fatty acyl-Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) reductase gene maqu_2220 from the marine bacterium Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Maqu_2220 has been proved to catalyze both the four-electron reduction of fatty acyl-CoA or acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein (acyl-ACP) and the two-electron reduction of fatty aldehyde to fatty alcohol. The knockout of the aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase gene (sll0208) efficiently blocked the hydrocarbon accumulation and redirected the carbon flux into the fatty alcohol-producing pathway. By knocking-out both sll0208 and sll0209 (encoding an acyl-ACP reductase), the productivity of fatty alcohols was further increased to 2.87 mg/g dry weight. Conclusions The highest yield of fatty alcohols was achieved in cyanobacteria by expressing the prokaryotic fatty acyl-CoA reductase Maqu_2220 and knocking-out the two key genes (sll0208 and sll0209) that are involved in the alka(e)ne biosynthesis pathway. Maqu_2220 was demonstrated as a robust enzyme for producing fatty alcohols in cyanobacteria. The production of fatty alcohols could be significantly increased by blocking the hydrocarbon biosynthesis pathway. PMID:25024742

  6. Creating Patient and Family Education Websites: Design and Content of the Home Parenteral Nutrition Family Caregivers Website

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Sharon; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Werkowitch, Marilyn; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Smith, Carol

    2011-01-01

    When managing chronic illnesses, caregivers repeatedly seek online information about providing complex, long-term care but often neglect to find information about how to care for themselves. Poor health among caregivers is not only detrimental to their own well-being but may also result in harm to those for whom they care. For this reason, caregivers need access to information and activities about caring for themselves in addition to the information about managing home care they were already likely to seek. The HPN Family Caregivers Website was developed to guide caregivers through the process of caring for themselves by establishing a caregiving routine, self-monitoring their mental and physical health, practicing good sleep hygiene, etc., while also managing the complexities of home care. While website information, activities and algorithms for managing chronic illnesses need to be specific to each population, the content guiding caregivers to care for their own health is universal. PMID:21825970

  7. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  8. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  9. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  10. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  11. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  12. Examining the presence of problem gambling awareness messages on college counseling center websites.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Christopher J; Wright, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    College students are more at-risk for developing a gambling problem than the general adult U.S. population. Information behavior and information seeking theories, as well as empirical evidence, indicate that one resource that may provide guidance for students dealing with this issue is the college counseling center website (CCW). This study addressed the presence and nature of problem gambling messages on CCWs. As a random sample, 203 CCWs were selected to assess how frequently they provided any information about problem gambling, as well as the specific types of communications CCWs offered on this topic. Results showed that CCWs rarely included any messages about problem gambling. Specifically, only 15% of all CCWs contained information about problem gambling. Furthermore, messages about problem gambling were presented significantly less frequently than messages involving alcohol abuse, substance abuse, depression, anxiety/stress, and psychological struggles with food. Given the prevalence of problem gambling among college students, as well as the value that college students place on information provided on CCWs, it is important that these sites offer more information concerning this issue.

  13. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  14. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  15. Potential for alcohol policy to decrease the mortality crisis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria A; Korotayev, Andrey V

    2008-09-01

    Post-Soviet Russia experiences among the world's highest prevalence of alcohol-related problems, which contributes to high mortality rates in this region. Reduction in alcohol-related problems in Russia can have strong effects on mortality decline. This article considers the plausibility of application of general principles of alcohol policy translated in the Russian Federation. We conclude that alcohol policy approaches could be implemented in the same ways as they have been in other countries. In addition, there should be special attention to decreasing distilled spirits consumption, illegal alcohol production, nonbeverage alcohol consumption, and enforcement of current governmental regulations. PMID:18662923

  16. Evaluating the quality of websites offering information on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Touchet, Bryan K; Warnock, Julia K; Yates, William R; Wilkins, Kirsten M

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates websites relevant to female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Its primary aim is to evaluate the quality of Internet HSDD information. One hundred and one websites, identified through simple Google searches, were scored using a tool incorporating expert consensus-derived quality criteria for HSDD. The tool included structural criteria such as currency, authorship, and disclosure of competing interests. It also included performance criteria, evaluating accuracy, and comprehensiveness, and was adapted from a published website evaluation tool for diabetes. For each website, a quality index score with a potential range from 1 to 5 (1 = poor, 5 = excellent) was calculated, and the websites were rank ordered using this score. Quality index scores ranged from 1.68 to 4.64, with 75% of websites scoring at or below 3.27. Test-retest reliability was moderate (n = 24, r = 0.6601, P = .0004). Rank ordering of the websites by quality index allowed identification of the top five highest quality websites. The majority of HSDD websites' quality scores fell in the score range from 1 to 3, indicating room for improvement in the quality of websites that address HSDD. Website evaluation tools utilizing both structural and performance quality criteria may help clinicians to assist their patients in assessing the quality of Internet health information. PMID:17541851

  17. Communication Assessment of the Most Frequented Breast Cancer Websites: Evaluation of Design and Theoretical Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Pamela; Smith, Sandi; Munday, Samantha; LaPlante, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    The internet is a prominent source of health information for the public. This research evaluated both basic use and design tenets and the presence of theoretical components to motivate healthy breast cancer behavior for users of the most frequented breast cancer websites. Methodology Each website was evaluated with 2 sets of questions. The first attends to the basic use and design tenets of the website. The second coding form assessed the websites use of 3 behavior change theories. Results The majority of the websites fared well with regards to their use of basic tenet and design principles. Theoretical components were used sparingly on the majority of websites. Discussion The most frequented breast cancer websites are currently well equipped with basic use and design tenets. However, their lack of behavioral change components is likely to impede users’ motivations to protect themselves against breast cancer. PMID:26478694

  18. Drive for muscularity and drive for thinness: the impact of pro-anorexia websites.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Lilia; Soto, Ernesto; Pritchard, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, websites that stress the message of thinness as the ideal and only choice have surfaced on the internet. The possibility that pro-anorexia websites may reinforce restrictive eating and exercise behaviors is an area of concern. In addition, friends may be influencing one another to view these websites, further contributing to drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men. Three hundred male and female undergraduate psychology students responded to questionnaires assessing: internalization of pro-anorexia website content, internalization of general media content, influence of friends to view pro-anorexia websites, peer influence, drive for muscularity, and drive for thinness. Results showed internalization of pro-anorexia website content was positively correlated with drive for thinness in women, and negatively correlated with drive for muscularity in men. Internalization of pro-anorexia website content was found to be related to both drive for thinness in women and drive for muscularity in men.

  19. The Effect of Credibility-Related Design Cues on Responses to a Web-Based Message About the Breast Cancer Risks From Alcohol: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, Elizabeth; Briggs, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background Internet sites typically contain visual design elements that are unrelated to the quality of the health information presented but that could influence credibility judgments and responses to health advice. To assess the effects of such design elements, or credibility cues, experimentally, we exposed women with different levels of weekly alcohol consumption to a website containing high quality but unpalatable information about a related health risk (breast cancer). The information was presented alongside either positive or negative credibility cues unrelated to information content. Objectives We explored four research questions: (1) Did the cues influence how the women engaged with the site? (2) Did they influence how the women responded cognitively and emotionally? (3) Did they influence whether the women subsequently acted on the advice? (4) Did the impact of the cues vary with how much alcohol the women reported drinking? Method A total of 85 women were randomly assigned to view one of two versions of a website containing the same high-quality content but different cues. One version had positive credibility cues (trustmarks), the other had negative ones (adverts, pharmaceutical sponsorship, and a donation button). Objective measures included visual attention (using eye-tracking equipment), time studying the material, and recall. Subjective measures included cognitive and affective responses and intention to change. Measures of subsequent behavior were taken 1 week later. Results First, the cues did not affect how long the women spent on the site or how long they spent reading the text. However, women in the negative cues condition spent more time looking at a donation button than those in the positive cues condition spent looking at a TRUSTe seal (β = −.43, P < .001) but less time looking at a logo (β = .43, P < .001) or at certain other features of the site. Those in the negative cues condition also recalled more site content (β = −.22, P = .048

  20. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  1. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious.

  2. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  3. Alcohol liver disease: A review of current therapeutic approaches to achieve long-term abstinence

    PubMed Central

    García, María Luisa Gutiérrez; Blasco-Algora, Sara; Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M

    2015-01-01

    Harmful alcohol drinking may lead to significant damage on any organ or system of the body. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe. In ALD, only alcohol abstinence was associated with a better long-term survival. Therefore, current effective therapeutic strategy should be oriented towards achieving alcohol abstinence or a significant reduction in alcohol consumption. Screening all primary care patients to detect those cases with alcohol abuse has been proposed as population-wide preventive intervention in primary care. It has been suggested that in patients with mild alcohol use disorder the best approach is brief intervention in the primary care setting with the ultimate goal being abstinence, whereas patients with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder must be referred to specialized care where detoxification and medical treatment of alcohol dependence must be undertaken. PMID:26229395

  4. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  5. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  6. eEurope 2002: Quality Criteria for Health related Websites

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background A number of organisations have begun to provide specific tools for searching, rating, and grading this information, while others have set up codes of conduct by which site providers can attest to their high quality services. The aim of such tools is to assist individuals to sift through the mountains of information available so as to be better able to discern valid and reliable messages from those which are misleading or inaccurate. Objective Recognising that European citizens are avid consumers of health related information on the internet and recognising that they are already using the types of rating system described above, the European Council at Feira on June 19-20 2000 supported an initiative within eEurope 2002 to develop a core set of Quality Criteria for Health Related Websites. The specific aim was to draw up a commonly agreed set of simple quality criteria on which Member States, as well as public and private bodies, may draw in the development of quality initiatives for health related websites. These criteria should be applied in addition to relevant Community law. Methods A meeting was held during 2001 which drew together key players from Government departments, International Organisations, non-governmental organisations and industry, to explore current practices and experiments in this field. Some sixty invited participants from all the Member States, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States of America took part in the meeting of June 7-8, 2001: they included delegates from industrial, medical, and patient interest groups, delegates from Member States' governments, and key invited speakers from the field of health information ethics. These individuals, and many others, also took part in the web-based consultation which was open from august to November 2001. Results The broad headings for quality criteria identified include Transparency and Honesty, Authority, Privacy and data protection, Updating of information, Accountability

  7. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  8. A clinical laboratory paradigm for evaluating medication effects on alcohol consumption: naltrexone and nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Anton, Raymond F; Thomas, Suzanne E; Voronin, Konstantin

    2003-04-01

    Opiate antagonist medications have been shown to improve alcoholism treatment, but few human laboratory-based studies investigating mechanisms for these effects have been conducted on alcohol dependent persons. The present study was designed to determine the impact of two opiate antagonists on alcohol consumption among nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (n=125) and social drinkers (n=90). Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, naltrexone (titrated to 50 mg/day), or nalmefene (titrated to 40 mg/day) for 8 days with an alcohol laboratory session on the final day. Alcohol consumption was monitored in the natural environment during the first 5 medication days, and during a choice consumption paradigm following a standard 'priming' alcohol dose in a bar-laboratory setting. Social drinkers consumed less alcohol than alcoholics during the prelab medication period and the laboratory choice consumption paradigm, and they attained lower blood alcohol levels than alcoholics following the priming drink. Both opiate antagonist medications equally reduced drinking amounts and frequency among alcoholics but not social drinkers, relative to placebo, during natural environment and bar-lab alcohol consumption evaluations. Greater medication side effects, mostly mild in nature, were observed in participants taking nalmefene. These findings demonstrate that both naltrexone and nalmefene can lead to reductions in alcohol consumption among alcoholics who are not attempting to reduce drinking. Similar laboratory paradigms may offer substantial advantages for observing these effects during evaluation of other medications as well.

  9. Behavioral Economic Predictors of Brief Alcohol Intervention Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Martens, Matthew P.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; MacKillop, James; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study attempted to determine if behavioral economic indices of elevated alcohol reward value, measured before and immediately after a brief alcohol intervention, predict treatment response. Method Participants were 133 heavy drinking college students (49.6% female, 51.4% male; 64.3% Caucasian, 29.5% African American) who were randomized to one of three conditions: motivational interviewing plus personalized feedback (BMI), computerized personalized feedback intervention (e-CHUG), and assessment only. Results Baseline levels of alcohol demand significantly predicted drinks per week and alcohol problems at 1-month (demand intensity= maximum expenditure) and 6-month (relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol) follow-up. BMI and e-CHUG were associated with an immediate post-session reduction in alcohol demand (p < .001, ηρ2 = .29) that persisted at the 1-month follow-up, with greater post-session reductions in the BMI condition (p = .02, ηρ2 = .06). Reductions in demand intensity and Omax (maximum expenditure) immediately post-intervention significantly predicted drinking reductions at one-month follow up (p = .04, ΔR2 = .02 & p = .01, ΔR2 = .03, respectively). Reductions in relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol at 1-month significantly predicted drinking (p = .002, ΔR2 = .06,) and alcohol problem (p < .001, ΔR2 = .13) reductions at the 6-month follow-up. Conclusions These results suggest that behavioral economic reward value indices may function as risk factors for poor intervention response and as clinically-relevant markers of change in heavy drinkers. PMID:26167945

  10. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  11. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  12. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  13. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  14. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Tagle Arrospide, Martín

    2003-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more agressive form, non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are entities that are becoming subject of interest of the medical community in general, especially because of the increased prevalence of diabetes and obesity in the world population. There is solid evidence linking NAFLD with the so called metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, to the point of accepting hepatic steatosis and its spectrum as one more element of the latter, along with diabetes, hipertension, hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. Insulin resistance seems to be the common link between these entities. Clinical evaluation of every patient with abnormal aminotransferase levels should take into account non alcoholic fatty liver and its spectrum, especially if the subject is obese or diabetic. Despite the important developments in the field of imaging, currenty the only way to differentiate NASH from simple NAFLD is by performing a liver biopsy, which should be discussed extensively with the patient. The prognosis of simple NAFLD is generally benign, but if there is fibrosis, ballooning of the hepatocytes, inflammation and Mallory bodies there is risk to progression to cirrhosis. Liver histology in NAFLD is indistinguishable from alcoholic hepatitis, although the clinical course is generally more benign. Despite this long and protracted clinical course, an important number of subjects have complications of cirrhosis including hepatocellular carcinoma, and many patients require a liver transplantation. There is no specific treatment for this condition, although every therapeutic regimen should include a gradual and supervised weight reduction, a balanced diet and exercise, as well as correction of precipitant factors. There is currently no specific pharmacologic treatment for NASH or NAFLD. Current body of evidence and some pilot studies suggest that the future might be concentrated in agents improving insulin resistance. Meanwhile, we should do our best to

  15. Near Real Time website for IASI observations of atmospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayer, Catherine; Grainger, Don; Marsh, Kevin; Carboni, Elisa; Ventress, Lucy; Smith, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Rapid analysis of satellite observations of the state of the atmosphere and the contaminant levels within it can be used for pollution monitoring, forest fire detection and volcanic activity monitoring. There are numerous operational satellite instruments for which this is possible. The IASI instruments, currently flying on board the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellite platforms, are used to produce Near Real Time (NRT) data using analysis algorithms developed by Oxford University. The data is then displayed on a website within 3 hours of measurement. This allows for the semi-continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere over most of the globe, both in daylight and at night. Global coverage is achieved 4 times per day, which is a significant advantage over most of the alternatives, either geostationary, giving limited spatial coverage, or UV instruments which are only able to observe during the daylight side of the orbit. The website includes flags for atmospheric contaminants detectable by IASI, including dust, biomass burning-derived species and volcanic ash and SO2. In the near future, the website will be developed to also include a quantitative estimate of the mass loading of SO2 contained within any volcanic cloud. Emissions of volcanic products, such as ash and SO2, are useful indicators of a change in the activity level of a volcano. Since many volcanoes are only monitored by remote sensing methods, such as satellite instruments, this can be the only such indicator available. These emissions are also dangerous to passing aircraft, causing damage to external surfaces of the plane and to the engines, sometimes leading to failure. Evacuation of regions surrounding volcanoes, and cessation or diversion of air traffic around actively erupting volcanoes is costly and highly disruptive but is sometimes required. Up to date information is of critical importance as to when to make these sensitive decisions. An archive of data will be available to allow for easy

  16. The PhEDEx next-gen website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, R.; Huang, C.-H.; Rossman, P.; Sundarrajan, P.; Wildish, T.

    2012-12-01

    PhEDEx is the data-transfer management solution written by CMS. It consists of agents running at each site, a website for presentation of information, and a web-based data-service for scripted access to information. The website allows users to monitor the progress of data-transfers, the status of site agents and links between sites, and the overall status and behaviour of everything about PhEDEx. It also allows users to make and approve requests for data-transfers and for deletion of data. It is the main point-of-entry for all users wishing to interact with PhEDEx. For several years, the website has consisted of a single perl program with about 10K SLOC. This program has limited capabilities for exploring the data, with only coarse filtering capabilities and no context-sensitive awareness. Graphical information is presented as static images, generated on the server, with no interactivity. It is also not well connected to the rest of the PhEDEx codebase, since much of it was written before the data-service was developed. All this makes it hard to maintain and extend. We are re-implementing the website to address these issues. The UI is being rewritten in Javascript, replacing most of the server-side code. We are using the YUI toolkit to provide advanced features and context-sensitive interaction, and will adopt a Javascript charting library for generating graphical representations client-side. This relieves the server of much of its load, and automatically improves server-side security. The Javascript components can be re-used in many ways, allowing custom pages to be developed for specific uses. In particular, standalone test-cases using small numbers of components make it easier to debug the Javascript than it is to debug a large server program. Information about PhEDEx is accessed through the PhEDEx data-service, since direct SQL is not available from the clients’ browser. This provides consistent semantics with other, externally written monitoring tools, which

  17. [Is drinking alcohol good for your health?].

    PubMed

    Drory, Y

    2001-11-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have disclosed documented evidence that light to moderate consumption of any alcoholic beverage is associated with approximately 20% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk. This finding applies to both men and women and to healthy individuals as well as those with coronary heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, or heart failure. Nevertheless, the issue of including a recommendation for mild to moderate alcohol consumption within the routine recommendations for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease is still controversial. The controversy is derived partly from methodological issues and partly from documented adverse health effects of excessive alcohol drinking. The key issue is the definition of the optimal dose of alcohol which guarantees a positive benefit-risk ratio, i.e. enjoying the benefits of alcohol without substantial risk. The accumulating scientific evidence shows that a daily consumption of less than 30 grams of alcohol for men and less than 15 grams for women is compatible with the above goal and is not associated with health risks. Therefore, for most individuals it is appropriate to recommend mild to moderate alcohol consumption as part of a healthy life style for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Recommendations should be given on an individual basis, taking into account the patient's age, gender, physical and mental health status, personality and past drinking habits. The desirable quantity and its upper limit as well as drinking patterns should be clearly defined. All persons should be warned to avoid heavy drinking. Awareness of indications for abstinence from alcohol such as pregnancy, sport activity and the use of certain medications is highly important.

  18. Minimum Alcohol Prices and Outlet Densities in British Columbia, Canada: Estimated Impacts on Alcohol-Attributable Hospital Admissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Vallance, Kate; Treno, Andrew; Ponicki, William; Tu, Andrew; Buxton, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether periodic increases in minimum alcohol prices were associated with reduced alcohol-attributable hospital admissions in British Columbia. Methods. The longitudinal panel study (2002–2009) incorporated minimum alcohol prices, density of alcohol outlets, and age- and gender-standardized rates of acute, chronic, and 100% alcohol-attributable admissions. We applied mixed-method regression models to data from 89 geographic areas of British Columbia across 32 time periods, adjusting for spatial and temporal autocorrelation, moving average effects, season, and a range of economic and social variables. Results. A 10% increase in the average minimum price of all alcoholic beverages was associated with an 8.95% decrease in acute alcohol-attributable admissions and a 9.22% reduction in chronic alcohol-attributable admissions 2 years later. A Can$ 0.10 increase in average minimum price would prevent 166 acute admissions in the 1st year and 275 chronic admissions 2 years later. We also estimated significant, though smaller, adverse impacts of increased private liquor store density on hospital admission rates for all types of alcohol-attributable admissions. Conclusions. Significant health benefits were observed when minimum alcohol prices in British Columbia were increased. By contrast, adverse health outcomes were associated with an expansion of private liquor stores. PMID:23597383

  19. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  20. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  2. Alkyne-aldehyde reductive C-C coupling through ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation: direct regio- and stereoselective carbonyl vinylation to form trisubstituted allylic alcohols in the absence of premetallated reagents.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joyce C; Patman, Ryan L; Sam, Brannon; Krische, Michael J

    2011-10-24

    Nonsymmetric 1,2-disubstituted alkynes engage in reductive coupling to a variety of aldehydes under the conditions of ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation by employing formic acid as the terminal reductant and delivering the products of carbonyl vinylation with good to excellent levels of regioselectivity and with complete control of olefin stereochemistry. As revealed in an assessment of the ruthenium counterion, iodide plays an essential role in directing the regioselectivity of C-C bond formation. Isotopic labeling studies corroborate reversible catalytic propargyl C-H oxidative addition in advance of the C-C coupling, and demonstrate that the C-C coupling products do not experience reversible dehydrogenation by way of enone intermediates. This transfer hydrogenation protocol enables carbonyl vinylation in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents. PMID:21953608

  3. Alkyne–Aldehyde Reductive C–C Coupling through Ruthenium-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation: Direct Regio- and Stereoselective Carbonyl Vinylation to Form Trisubstituted Allylic Alcohols in the Absence of Premetallated Reagents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joyce C.; Patman, Ryan L.; Sam, Brannon

    2011-01-01

    Nonsymmetric 1,2-disubstituted alkynes engage in reductive coupling to a variety of aldehydes under the conditions of ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation by employing formic acid as the terminal reductant and delivering the products of carbonyl vinylation with good to excellent levels of regioselectivity and with complete control of olefin stereochemistry. As revealed in an assessment of the ruthenium counterion, iodide plays an essential role in directing the regioselectivity of C–C bond formation. Isotopic labeling studies corroborate reversible catalytic propargyl C–H oxidative addition in advance of the C–C coupling, and demonstrate that the C–C coupling products do not experience reversible dehydrogenation by way of enone intermediates. This transfer hydrogenation protocol enables carbonyl vinylation in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents. PMID:21953608

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  5. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  7. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  8. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  9. Creating a Pilot Educational Psychiatry Website: Opportunities, Barriers, and Next Steps

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Ryan; Franzen, Jamie; Snow, Caitlin; Boland, Robert; Kitts, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background While medical students and residents may be utilizing websites as online learning resources, medical trainees and educators now have the opportunity to create such educational websites and digital tools on their own. However, the process and theory of building educational websites for medical education have not yet been fully explored. Objective To understand the opportunities, barriers, and process of creating a novel medical educational website. Methods We created a pilot psychiatric educational website to better understand the options, opportunities, challenges, and processes involved in the creation of a psychiatric educational website. We sought to integrate visual and interactive Web design elements to underscore the potential of such Web technology. Results A pilot website (PsychOnCall) was created to demonstrate the potential of Web technology in medical and psychiatric education. Conclusions Creating an educational website is now technically easier than ever before, and the primary challenge no longer is technology but rather the creation, validation, and maintenance of information for such websites as well as translating text-based didactics into visual and interactive tools. Medical educators can influence the design and implementation of online educational resources through creating their own websites and engaging medical students and residents in the process. PMID:27731837

  10. How well do websites concerning children's anxiety answer parents' questions about treatment choices?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Walsh, Kate

    2015-10-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the quality of information concerning anxiety disorders in children that is available on the Internet and to evaluate changes in the quality of website information over time. The authors identified websites addressing child anxiety disorders (N = 26) using a Google search and recommendations from an expert in child anxiety. Each website was evaluated on the extent to which it addressed questions that parents consider important, the quality of information, and the reading level. All websites provided adequate information describing treatment options; however, fewer websites had information addressing many questions that are important to parents, including the duration of treatment, what happens when treatment stops, and the benefits and risks of various treatments. Many websites provided inadequate information on pharmacological treatment. Most websites were of moderate quality and had more difficult reading levels than is recommended. Five years after the initial assessment, authors re-analyzed the websites in order to investigate changes in content over time. The content of only six websites had been updated since the original analysis, the majority of which improved on the three aforementioned areas of evaluation. Websites could be strengthened by providing important information that would support parent decision-making.

  11. Internationalization and localization: evaluating and testing a Website for Asian users.

    PubMed

    Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max

    2003-01-15

    The objective of this study was to combine internationalization and localization of Websites and improvement of Website usability with user-centred design methods. This study designed for internationalization and localization of Websites for Asian users, and implemented usability engineering into every phase of Website usability testing, based on the internationalization and localization perspectives of the honeywell.com/your home Website. The first step was to develop the usage scenarios. Three Asian usability specialists carried out one heuristic evaluation session for the current honeywell.com/your home Website. The usability problems were analysed and possible solutions to these problems were discussed. In the next phase, cluster analysis was utilized to test current information architecture. The results provided options for future information architecture development for this Website. Finally, a performance measurement test was conducted to investigate the performance for Asian users. Based on the results, suggestions for improving the Website usability from the localization perspective were provided. The results demonstrate the user-centred design (UCD) approach and stress international and local issues in Website development to Website designers.

  12. Electronic Interventions for Alcohol Misuse and Alcohol Use Disorders A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Dedert, Eric. A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Stein, Roy; McNiel, J. Murray; Kosinski, Andrzej S.; Freiermuth, Caroline E.; Hemminger, Adam; Williams, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of electronic interventions (e-interventions) may improve treatment of alcohol misuse. Purpose To characterize treatment intensity and systematically review the evidence for efficacy of e-interventions, relative to controls, for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related impairment in adults and college students. Data Sources MEDLINE (via PubMed) from January 2000 to March 2015 and the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and PsycINFO from January 2000 to August 2014. Study Selection English-language, randomized, controlled trials that involved at least 50 adults who misused alcohol; compared an e-intervention group with a control group; and reported outcomes at 6 months or longer. Data Extraction Two reviewers abstracted data and independently rated trial quality and strength of evidence. Data Synthesis In 28 unique trials, the modal e-intervention was brief feedback on alcohol consumption. Available data suggested a small reduction in consumption (approximately 1 drink per week) in adults and college students at 6 months but not at 12 months. There was no statistically significant effect on meeting drinking limit guidelines in adults or on binge-drinking episodes or social consequences of alcohol in college students. Limitations E-interventions that ranged in intensity were combined in analyses. Quantitative results do not apply to short-term outcomes or alcohol use disorders. Conclusion Evidence suggests that low-intensity e-interventions produce small reductions in alcohol consumption at 6 months, but there is little evidence for longer-term, clinically significant effects, such as meeting drinking limits. Future e-interventions could provide more intensive treatment and possibly human support to assist persons in meeting recommended drinking limits. Primary Funding Source U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:26237752

  13. Molecular and cellular events in alcohol-induced muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Solà, Joaquim; Preedy, Victor R; Lang, Charles H; Gonzalez-Reimers, Emilio; Arno, M; Lin, J C I; Wiseman, H; Zhou, S; Emery, P W; Nakahara, T; Hashimoto, K; Hirano, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F; González-Hernández, T; Fatjó, Francesc; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Nicolás, José M; Urbano-Márquez, Alvaro

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol consumption induces a dose-dependent noxious effect on skeletal muscle, leading to progressive functional and structural damage of myocytes, with concomitant reductions in lean body mass. Nearly half of high-dose chronic alcohol consumers develop alcoholic skeletal myopathy. The pathogenic mechanisms that lie between alcohol intake and loss of muscle tissue involve multiple pathways, making the elucidation of the disease somewhat difficult. This review discusses the recent advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the development of alcohol-induced muscle disease. The main areas of recent research interest on this field are as follows: (i) molecular mechanisms in alcohol exposed muscle in the rat model; (ii) gene expression changes in alcohol exposed muscle; (iii) the role of trace elements and oxidative stress in alcoholic myopathy; and (iv) the role of apoptosis and preapoptotic pathways in alcoholic myopathy. These aforementioned areas are crucial in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. For example, there is overwhelming evidence that both chronic alcohol ingestion and acute alcohol intoxication impair the rate of protein synthesis of myofibrillar proteins, in particular, under both postabsorptive and postprandial conditions. Perturbations in gene expression are contributory factors to the development of alcoholic myopathy, as ethanol-induced alterations are detected in over 400 genes and the protein profile (i.e., the proteome) of muscle is also affected. There is supportive evidence that oxidative damage is involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic myopathy. Increased lipid peroxidation is related to muscle fibre atrophy, and reduced serum levels of some antioxidants may be related to loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. Finally, ethanol induces skeletal muscle apoptosis and increases both pro- and antiapoptotic regulatory mechanisms.

  14. Effects of placement point of background music on shopping website.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Jung; Chiang, Chia-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Consumer on-line behaviors are more important than ever due to highly growth of on-line shopping. The purposes of this study were to design placement methods of background music for shopping website and examine the effect on browsers' emotional and cognitive response. Three placement points of background music during the browsing, i.e. 2 min., 4 min., and 6 min. from the start of browsing were considered for entry points. Both browsing without music (no music) and browsing with constant music volume (full music) were treated as control groups. Participants' emotional state, approach-avoidance behavior intention, and action to adjust music volume were collected. Results showed that participants had a higher level of pleasure, arousal and approach behavior intention for the three placement points than for no music and full music. Most of the participants for full music (5/6) adjusted the background music. Only 16.7% (3/18) participants for other levels turn off the background music. The results indicate that playing background music after the start of browsing is benefit for on-line shopping atmosphere. It is inappropriate to place background music at the start of browsing shopping website. The marketer must manipulated placement methods of background music for a web store carefully.

  15. The EFSUMB website, a guide for better understanding.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Rudd, Lynne

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to introduce readers to EFSUMB's wide ranging activities which have embraced modern technology. The most recent is the Atlas www.efsumb-atlas.org primarily introduced to accompany the Elastography, CEUS Liver and Non Liver Guidelines but intended to expand to all areas to offer a database of images which can be freely downloaded. Hosting eBooks on our website is another new departure, most importantly the EFSUMB Course Book on Ultrasound which is also in a printed form but allowing chapters to be updated online, an online Student Edition of the ECB to be launched at EUROSON 2013. EFSUMB has been active with updating Guidelines; those mentioned above have all been revised or written in the last two years. The EFSUMB Newsletter in the EJU promotes our activities and topical articles intended to reach all our members with the mailing of Issue 1. The Case of the Month continues to be one of EFSUMB's most visited sites and in the last few years has been translated into seven different languages including Chinese. IN CONCLUSION this article aims to provide a guide to the website educational sites of the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB).

  16. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  17. The Fleet Application for Scheduling and Tracking (FAST) Management Website

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero-Perez, Radames J.

    2014-01-01

    The FAST application was designed to replace the paper and pen method of checking out and checking in GSA Vehicles at KSC. By innovating from a paper and pen based checkout system to a fully digital one, not only the resources wasted by printing the checkout forms have been reduced, but it also reduces significantly the time that users and fleet managers need to interact with the system as well as improving the record accuracy for each vehicle. The vehicle information is pulled from a centralized database server in the SPSDL. In an attempt to add a new feature to the FAST application, the author of this report (alongside the FAST developers) has been designing and developing the FAST Management Website. The GSA fleet managers had to rely on the FAST developers in order to add new vehicles, edit vehicles and previous transactions, or for generating vehicles reports. By providing an easy-to-use FAST Management Website portal, the GSA fleet managers are now able to easily move vehicles, edit records, and print reports.

  18. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  19. Evaluation of Web-Based Consumer Medication Information: Content and Usability of 4 Australian Websites

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Amina; Richardson, Lauren; Byrne, Mary; Robinson, Maureen; Li, Ling; Westbrook, Johanna I; Baysari, Melissa T

    2016-01-01

    Background Medication is the most common intervention in health care, and written medication information can affect consumers’ medication-related behavior. Research has shown that a large proportion of Australians search for medication information on the Internet. Objective To evaluate the medication information content, based on consumer medication information needs, and usability of 4 Australian health websites: Better Health Channel, myDr, healthdirect, and NPS MedicineWise . Methods To assess website content, the most common consumer medication information needs were identified using (1) medication queries to the healthdirect helpline (a telephone helpline available across most of Australia) and (2) the most frequently used medications in Australia. The most frequently used medications were extracted from Australian government statistics on use of subsidized medicines in the community and the National Census of Medicines Use. Each website was assessed to determine whether it covered or partially covered information and advice about these medications. To assess website usability, 16 consumers participated in user testing wherein they were required to locate 2 pieces of medication information on each website. Brief semistructured interviews were also conducted with participants to gauge their opinions of the websites. Results Information on prescription medication was more comprehensively covered on all websites (3 of 4 websites covered 100% of information) than nonprescription medication (websites covered 0%-67% of information). Most websites relied on consumer medicines information leaflets to convey prescription medication information to consumers. Information about prescription medication classes was less comprehensive, with no website providing all information examined about antibiotics and antidepressants. Participants (n=16) were able to locate medication information on websites in most cases (accuracy ranged from 84% to 91%). However, a number of

  20. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Recent Neuroimaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Moore, Eileen M; Migliorini, Robyn; Infante, M Alejandra; Riley, Edward P

    2014-09-01

    Since the identification of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome over 40 years ago, much has been learned about the detrimental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing brain. This review highlights recent neuroimaging studies, within the context of previous work. Structural magnetic resonance imaging has described morphological differences in the brain and their relationships to cognitive deficits and measures of facial dysmorphology. Diffusion tensor imaging has elaborated on the relationship between white matter microstructure and behavior. Atypical neuromaturation across childhood and adolescence has been observed in longitudinal neuroimaging studies. Functional imaging has revealed differences in neural activation patterns underlying sensory processing, cognition and behavioral deficits. A recent functional connectivity analysis demonstrates reductions in global network efficiency. Despite this progress much remains unknown about the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on the brain, and continued research efforts are essential. PMID:25346882

  2. Work-family conflict and alcohol use: examination of a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little research focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  3. Work-family Conflict and Alcohol Use: Examination of a Moderated Mediation Model

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Richman, Judith A.; Liu, Li; Milner, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    Research consistently documents the negative effects of work-family conflict; however, little focuses on alcohol use. This study embraces a tension-reduction theory of drinking, wherein alcohol use is thought to reduce the negative effects of stress. The purpose of the present study was to test a moderated mediation model of the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use in a Chicagoland community sample of 998 caregivers. Structural equation models showed that distress mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and alcohol use. Furthermore, tension reduction expectancies of alcohol exacerbated the relationship between distress and alcohol use. The results advance the study of work-family conflict and alcohol use, helping explain this complicated relationship using sophisticated statistical techniques. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23480251

  4. Diversity cues on recruitment websites: investigating the effects on job seekers' information processing.

    PubMed

    Walker, H Jack; Feild, Hubert S; Bernerth, Jeremy B; Becton, J Bret

    2012-01-01

    Although job seekers' motivation to process the information encountered during recruitment partially influences recruitment success, little is known about what motivates more thorough information processing. To address this issue, we integrated recruitment and social information processing theories to examine the possibility that diversity cues on recruitment websites influence website viewers' processing of presented information. Utilizing a controlled experiment and a hypothetical organization, Study 1 revealed that both Blacks and Whites spent more time viewing recruitment websites and better recalled website information when the sites included racial diversity cues. These relationships were stronger for Blacks, and organizational attractiveness perceptions mediated these effects for Blacks but not for Whites. Study 2 found similar relationships for Black and White participants viewing real organizational recruitment websites after taking into account perceived organizational attributes and website design effects. Implications of these findings for recruiting organizations are discussed.

  5. Analysis and Research on Haier Group's Website Construction Based on Cybermarketing-orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhao; Yintao, Bao

    At present, many large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises have established their own e-commerce websites. But there are still many shortcomings in the aspects of website constructions of these enterprises, especially can't reflect the value of cybermarketing in full. Haier is one of the world's top 500 enterprises,and its website has distinct advantages and disadvantages, so it is a classic case for studying. During the same time of analyzing and researching Haier's website on cybermarketing- oriented website construction, this paper reveals the subsistent problems of our large-scaled and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, and put forward reasonable countermeasures and advices, which make large-scale and medium-sized enterprises to enhance the cognition of cybermarketing-oriented website construction.

  6. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  7. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  8. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  10. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  13. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  14. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  15. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  16. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  17. Alcohol myopathy: impairment of protein synthesis and translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Lang, C H; Kimball, S R; Frost, R A; Vary, T C

    2001-05-01

    Alcohol consumption leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in skeletal and cardiac muscle. One such change observed in both tissues after either acute alcohol intoxication or chronic alcohol consumption is a characteristic decrease in the rate of protein synthesis. A decrease in translation efficiency appears to be responsible for at least part of the reduction. This review highlights advances in determining the molecular mechanisms by which alcohol impairs protein synthesis and places these observations in context of earlier studies on alcoholic myopathy. Both acute and chronic alcohol administration impairs translational control by modulating various aspects of peptide-chain initiation. Moreover, this alcohol-induced impairment in initiation is associated with a decreased availability of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E in striated muscle, as evidenced by an increase in the amount of the inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex and decrease in the active eIF4E.eIF4G complex. In contrast, alcohol does not produce consistent alterations in the control of translation initiation by the eIF2 system. The etiology of these changes remain unresolved. However, defects in the availability or effectiveness of various anabolic hormones, particularly insulin-like growth factor-I, are consistent with the alcohol-induced decrease in protein synthesis and translation initiation.

  18. [Alcohol--when it's beneficial to your health?].

    PubMed

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmumt; Pypno, Damian; Bugaj, Bartosz; Cabała, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Ethyl alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive agent. It's average consumption in Poland totaled 9.67 liters per capita in 2013. Ethanol's biotransformation rate in an adult ranges from 7 to 10 grams per hour. The basic metabolism takes place in the liver through the oxidation involving NAD+. The alcohol is transformed first into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid. In higher blood concentrations or in alcoholism, cytochrome's P-450 coenzyme CYP2E1 also plays an important role in this process. Alcohol is responsible for nearly 50% of annual deaths, mostly caused by an accident due to alcohol intoxication while driving. Studies were performed to determine the influence ethanol has on the human body and how it impacts the progression of illnesses such as senile dementia, cardiovascular diseases or osteoporosis. Scientists' attention was drawn to the possibility of ethyl alcohol's usage resulting in a reduction in an overall mortality rate, however the beneficial effects were observed only during a slight and moderate consumption. Higher doses of alcohol were associated with a decline in patient's condition. The purpose of this dissertation is an attempt to answer the question, whether the alcohol can be beneficial to the user's health and if so, in what doses? The importance of this topic comes from the fact that due to the alcohol being widely available, determining the influence it has on human body is vital for public health. Original articles and reviews were used to summarize the results of studies regarding the topic.

  19. Why has alcohol consumption declined in countries of southern Europe?

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Colom, J

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol consumption seems to be decreasing in the traditional wine countries of southern Europe. This paper describes the evolution of alcohol consumption over the last 30 years in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. For this purpose, data on alcohol production and per capita alcohol consumption in southern Europe are examined, and their reliability discussed. To analyse alcohol-related mortality, liver cirrhosis death rates are also reviewed. Since 1980 overall alcohol production has increased by 10%, while wine production has decreased by 13%. The consumption of pure alcohol equivalent per capita has continually decreased, from a peak of 14 litres per year in 1974 to 10.4 litres in 1992. The reduction is dramatic for wine (42.3%) and slight for spirits (4.7%), while beer consumption has grown by 36.6%. These data seem to confirm a European trend towards the homogenization of drinking patterns. Marketing factors, public health policies, the evolution of prices and taxation, European Union agricultural policies, a growing awareness of public opinion about the toxicity of alcohol and competition from non-alcoholic drinks are all factors that may partially explain these observed changes. PMID:9167284

  20. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making.

  1. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Raj, S.; Sharma, V. L.; Singh, A. J.; Goel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words “Health” and “Information” were used on search engines “Google” and “Yahoo.” Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making. PMID:27119025

  2. Evaluation of Quality and Readability of Health Information Websites Identified through India's Major Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Raj, S; Sharma, V L; Singh, A J; Goel, S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The available health information on websites should be reliable and accurate in order to make informed decisions by community. This study was done to assess the quality and readability of health information websites on World Wide Web in India. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014. The key words "Health" and "Information" were used on search engines "Google" and "Yahoo." Out of 50 websites (25 from each search engines), after exclusion, 32 websites were evaluated. LIDA tool was used to assess the quality whereas the readability was assessed using Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), and SMOG. Results. Forty percent of websites (n = 13) were sponsored by government. Health On the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification was present on 50% (n = 16) of websites. The mean LIDA score (74.31) was average. Only 3 websites scored high on LIDA score. Only five had readability scores at recommended sixth-grade level. Conclusion. Most health information websites had average quality especially in terms of usability and reliability and were written at high readability levels. Efforts are needed to develop the health information websites which can help general population in informed decision making. PMID:27119025

  3. Alcohol-Focused Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings. PMID:27369809

  4. Alcohol-Focused Behavioral Couple Therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S; Wilson, Adam D; Muñoz, Rosa E; Fink, Brandi C; Fokas, Kathryn; Borders, Adrienne

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) has emerged over the last 30 years as a highly efficacious treatment for those with alcohol use disorders. This review highlights the historical and conceptual underpinnings of ABCT, as well as the specific treatment elements and structure. Proposed active ingredients, moderators, and mediators of treatment outcome are discussed. Efficacy is evaluated for reductions in identified patient drinking, improved relationship functioning, and reductions in intimate partner violence. Adaptations of ABCT for substances other than alcohol are described. Other adaptations, including brief interventions, interventions addressing PTSD and TBI along with alcohol use, and interventions deliverable via technology platforms are described. Additional cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness findings supporting the economic value of ABCT are noted. Future directions for research in this area include possible adaptations for female identified patients, nontraditional couples, LGBT partners and dyads involving nonintimate partner relationships. The development of more flexible models and enhanced dissemination strategies may improve clinical uptake and utility as well as increasing the feasibility of this treatment for integrated healthcare settings.

  5. Association between alcohol and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xia; Chen, Wei-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by dense deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein in the brain, failure of the memory and dementia. At present, there is no cure for AD and current treatments only provide a temporary reduction of symptoms. Thus, there is a need for effective preventive/curative strategic approaches. Accordingly, epidemiological studies have reported a reduction in the prevalence of AD in individuals ingesting low amounts of alcohol, while a moderate consumption of ethanol may protect against Aβ. These data are conflicting with other observations that assigned detrimental effects of heavy alcohol use on brain function, which are apparently similar to those observed in AD. These discrepancies questioned whether or not alcohol is a protective agent against the development of AD, whether the probable protective effects are influenced by the quantity and/or frequency of drinking. These issues are addressed in this review with the aim to suggest the real risk of alcohol for developing or preventing AD. PMID:27588045

  6. Alcohol in New Zealand road trauma.

    PubMed

    Guria, Jagadish; Jones, Wayne; Leung, Joanne; Mara, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving is one of the major contributing factors to fatal and serious crashes in New Zealand. To curb the high level of road trauma resulting from drink-driving, a compulsory breath test (CBT) programme was introduced in 1993 and a supplementary road safety package (SRSP) in 1995/1996. The SRSP aimed to enhance road safety enforcement and advertising activities, and focused primarily on drink-driving and speeding. These interventions have resulted in a substantial reduction in alcohol-related road trauma. Subsequently, in 1999, the drinking age was lowered from 20 to 18 years. This paper examines the impacts of these drink-driving interventions. The analysis shows that the CBT programme and the SRSP have contributed to the reduction in alcohol-related crashes in recent years. There is also some evidence that, following the lowering of the drinking age, there has been an increase in drink-driving and subsequent alcohol-related crash involvement for drivers under 18 years.

  7. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

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  8. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-15

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  9. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-15

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  10. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-06

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  11. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-09-21

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  12. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-05

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  13. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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  14. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-12-14

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  15. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-02

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  16. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-11-23

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  17. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-09

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  18. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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  19. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-16

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  20. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...