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Sample records for alcohol related mortality

  1. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  2. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol-related mortality have been documented in several European countries, but it is unknown whether the magnitude of these inequalities differs between countries and whether these inequalities increase or decrease over time. Methods and Findings We collected and harmonized data on mortality from four alcohol-related causes (alcoholic psychosis, dependence, and abuse; alcoholic cardiomyopathy; alcoholic liver cirrhosis; and accidental poisoning by alcohol) by age, sex, education level, and occupational class in 20 European populations from 17 different countries, both for a recent period and for previous points in time, using data from mortality registers. Mortality was age-standardized using the European Standard Population, and measures for both relative and absolute inequality between low and high socioeconomic groups (as measured by educational level and occupational class) were calculated. Rates of alcohol-related mortality are higher in lower educational and occupational groups in all countries. Both relative and absolute inequalities are largest in Eastern Europe, and Finland and Denmark also have very large absolute inequalities in alcohol-related mortality. For example, for educational inequality among Finnish men, the relative index of inequality is 3.6 (95% CI 3.3–4.0) and the slope index of inequality is 112.5 (95% CI 106.2–118.8) deaths per 100,000 person-years. Over time, the relative inequality in alcohol-related mortality has increased in many countries, but the main change is a strong rise of absolute inequality in several countries in Eastern Europe (Hungary, Lithuania, Estonia) and Northern Europe (Finland, Denmark) because of a rapid rise in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups. In some of these countries, alcohol-related causes now account for 10% or more of the socioeconomic inequality in total mortality. Because our study relies on routinely collected underlying causes of

  3. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  4. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men. PMID:26467937

  5. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  6. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  7. What underlies the high alcohol related mortality of the disadvantaged: high morbidity or poor survival?

    PubMed Central

    Makela, P; Keskimaki, I; Koskinen, S

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate whether the large socioeconomic differences in alcohol related mortality can be explained by differences in morbidity or differences in survival. Design: Register linkage study. A nationwide hospital discharge register was linked to population censuses for socioeconomic data and to the cause of death register for mortality follow up. Setting: Finland. Participants: Men and women aged 15 years and older discharged from hospitals with an alcohol related diagnosis in 1991–1996. Measurements: Mortality hazard up to the end of 1997 by socioeconomic category was estimated with Cox's regression model. Main results: Socioeconomic differences in alcohol related hospitalisation rates were almost as large as those that have been observed for alcohol related mortality. For example, the rate ratio among male unspecialised workers for any alcohol related hospitalisations was 3.6 as compared with upper white collar workers; among women the rate ratio was 2.7. Depending on gender, age, hospitalisation diagnosis, and cause of death, survival after discharge either showed no socioeconomic differences or it was worse among better off groups. Conclusions: The study suggests that differences in survival after hospitalisation do not cause the high socioeconomic differences in alcohol related mortality. PMID:14652266

  8. Effects of prices, civil and criminal sanctions, and law enforcement on alcohol-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Sloan, F A; Reilly, B A; Schenzler, C

    1994-07-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to several causes of death. This study provides an empirical analysis of the effects of various public policies on mortality rates by state and year for the years 1982-88. Causes of death analyzed are: alcohol primary cause; traffic accident; homicides; suicides; falls, fires and other accidents; and contributory cause deaths (cancers of the alimentary tract). We find that increasing the price of alcohol decreases mortality rates for some of the causes, but not for primary cause deaths. Higher excise taxes on cigarettes reduce contributory cause mortality. Dram shop laws have negative and statistically significant effects not only on mortality rates from traffic accidents, but for several of the other causes. There is a need for further analysis to determine how these reductions are achieved. We find no evidence that imposing mandatory minimum jail terms, fines or license revocation for a DUI conviction affects alcohol-related mortality. However, increased police protection decreases mortality rates for several categories, especially homicides and traffic accidents. We find that imposing the death penalty reduces homicide rates. Reductions in alcohol-related mortality may be achieved by implementing a mix of public policies. No single policy is a panacea.

  9. Differential alcohol-related mortality among American Indian tribes in Oklahoma, 1968-1978.

    PubMed

    Christian, C M; Dufour, M; Bertolucci, D

    1989-01-01

    Tribal differences in alcohol-related mortality were examined among 11 Indian tribes living in Oklahoma. Data on alcohol-related deaths from 1968 to 1978 were compiled and assigned to various tribes on the basis of population distributions by county. Results showed significant differences in alcohol-related mortality among the various tribes. Of the 267,238 total deaths in Oklahoma during the study period, 9.3% of Indian deaths were alcohol-related while only 3.2% of those among blacks and 2.4% of those among whites were classified as such. Indian males and females are far more likely to die of alcohol-related deaths than their black and white counterparts. Cheyenne-Arapaho, Comanche and Kiowa areas (located in the western++ part of the state) have higher alcohol-related deaths than Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole and Pawnee areas (located in eastern Oklahoma). Indian residents of the Seminole area have the lowest percentage of deaths identified as alcohol-related. The patterns which emerge may be due to different cultural and historical factors among the Indian tribes. PMID:2784011

  10. Contribution of deaths related to alcohol use of socioeconomic variation in mortality: register based follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, P.; Valkonen, T.; Martelin, T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the contribution of excessive alcohol use to socioeconomic variation in mortality among men and women in Finland. DESIGN: Register based follow up study. SUBJECTS: The population covered by the 1985 and 1990 censuses, aged > or = 20 in the follow up period 1987-93. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total mortality and alcohol related mortality from all causes, from diseases, and from accidents and violence according to socioeconomic position. The excess mortality among other classes compared with upper non-manual employees and differences in life expectancy between the classes were used to measure mortality differentials. RESULTS: Alcohol related mortality constituted 11% of all mortality among men aged > or = 20 and 2% among women and was higher among manual workers than among other classes. It accounted for 14% of the excess all cause mortality among manual workers over upper non-manual employees among men and 4% among women and for 24% and 9% of the differences in life expectancy, respectively. Half of the excess mortality from accidents and violence among male manual workers and 38% among female manual workers was accounted for by alcohol related deaths, whereas in diseases the role of alcohol was modest. The contribution of alcohol related deaths to relative mortality differentials weakened with age. CONCLUSIONS: Class differentials in alcohol related mortality are an important factor in the socioeconomic mortality differentials in Finland, especially among men, among younger age groups, and in mortality from accidents and violence. PMID:9253268

  11. Chronic alcoholism-mediated impairment in the medulla oblongata: a mechanism of alcohol-related mortality in traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p < 0.01); and (3) compensatory increase in PSD-95 expression (p < 0.01). Rats in the EtOH-TBI group showed: (1) high mortality (50%, p < 0.01); (2) inhibited respiration before death; (3) severe axonal injury; and (4) decrease in PSD-95 expression (p < 0.05). Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.

  12. U.S. mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease in 1999-2004: regional and state variation in relation to per capita alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Apparent per-capita alcohol consumption in 2001 in four U.S. regions (West, Northeast, South, and Midwest), and in 50 states was examined in relation to mortality rates (1999-2004) from liver cirrhosis and for the subcategory alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol consumption and mortality rates were highest in the west. The alcoholic liver disease mortality rate by state was strongly correlated with alcohol consumption, but several outlier or mismatch states were identified. Per-capita alcohol consumption should be useful for US public health policy, as suggested for Europe and Canada, but outlier states require further study.

  13. Alcohol-related mortality in deprived UK cities: worrying trends in young women challenge recent national downward trends

    PubMed Central

    Shipton, Deborah; Whyte, Bruce; Walsh, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Glasgow, the largest city in Scotland, has high levels of deprivation and a poor-health profile compared with other parts of Europe, which cannot be fully explained by the high levels of deprivation. The ‘excess’ premature mortality in Glasgow is now largely attributable to deaths from alcohol, drugs, suicide and violence. Methods Alcohol-related mortality in Glasgow from 1980 to 2011 was examined relative to the equally deprived UK cities of Manchester and Liverpool with the aim of identifying differences across the cities, with respect to gender, age and birth cohort, that could help explain the ‘excess’ mortality in Glasgow. Results In the 1980s, alcohol-related mortality in Glasgow was three times higher than in Manchester and Liverpool. Alcohol-related mortality increased in all three cities over the subsequent three decades, but a sharp rise in deaths in the early 1990s was unique to Glasgow. The increase in numbers of deaths in Glasgow was greater than in Manchester and Liverpool, but there was little difference in the pattern of alcohol-related deaths, by sex or birth cohort that could explain the excess mortality in Glasgow. The recent modest decrease in alcohol-related mortality was largely experienced by all birth cohorts, with the notable exception of the younger cohort (born between 1970 and 1979): women in this cohort across all three cities experienced disproportionate increases in alcohol-related mortality. Conclusions It is imperative that this early warning sign in young women in the UK is acted on if deaths from alcohol are to reduce in the long term. PMID:23868526

  14. Alcohol and Cannabis Use and Mortality in People with Schizophrenia and Related Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew; McMahon, Robert P.; Wehring, Heidi J.; Liu, Fang; Mackowick, Kristen M.; Warren, Kimberly R.; Feldman, Stephanie; Shim, Joo-Cheol; Love, Raymond C.; Kelly, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of co-morbid substance use on mortality is not well studied in psychotic disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of substance use on mortality in people with psychotic disorders and alcohol and/or drug use. We examined the rate of substance use and the risk of substance use on mortality risk over a 4–10 year period in 762 people with psychotic disorders. Deceased patients were identified from the Social Security Death Index and the Maryland Division of Vital Records. Substance use was defined as regular and heavy use or abuse or dependence. Seventy seven percent had co-morbid lifetime substance use, with co-morbid cannabis and alcohol use occurring most commonly. Out of 762 subjects, 62 died during follow up. In a Cox model, predicted mortality risk was higher in age group 35–55 compared to <35 years and in males, but reduced in cannabis users. Overall five- (3.1% vs 7.5%) and ten-year mortality risk (5.5% vs. 13.6%) was lower in cannabis users than in non-users with psychotic disorders (p=0.005) in a survival model. Alcohol use was not predictive of mortality. We observed a lower mortality risk in cannabis-using psychotic disorder patients compared to cannabis non-users despite subjects having similar symptoms and treatments. Future research is warranted to replicate these findings and to shed light on the anti-inflammatory properties of the endocannabinoid system and its role in decreased mortality in people with psychotic disorders. PMID:22595870

  15. Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancer mortality among men: to what extent do they differ between Western European populations?

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Stirbu, Irina; Borrell, Carme; Bopp, Matthias; Regidor, Enrique; Heine Strand, Bjørn; Deboosere, Patrick; Lundberg, Olle; Leclerc, Annette; Costa, Giuseppe; Chastang, Jean-Francois; Esnaola, Santiago; Martikainen, Pekka; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2007-01-01

    We aim to study socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol related cancers mortality (upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus) and liver) in men and to investigate whether the contribution of these cancers to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality differs within Western Europe. We used longitudinal mortality datasets including causes of death. Data were collected during the 1990s among men aged 30–74 years in 13 European populations (Madrid, the Basque region, Barcelona, Turin, Switzerland (German and Latin part), France, Belgium (Walloon and Flemish part, Brussels), Norway, Sweden, Finland). Socioeconomic status was measured using the educational level declared at the census at the beginning of the follow-up period. We conducted Poisson regression analyses and used both relative (Relative index of inequality (RII)) and absolute (mortality rates difference) measures of inequality. For UADT cancers, the RII’s were above 3.5 in France, Switzerland (both parts) and Turin whereas for liver cancer they were the highest (around 2.5) in Madrid, France and Turin. The contribution of alcohol related cancer to socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality was 29–36% in France and the Spanish populations, 17–23% in Switzerland and Turin, and 5–15% in Belgium and the Nordic countries. We did not observe any correlation between mortality rates differences for lung and UADT cancers, confirming that the pattern found for UADT cancers is not only due to smoking. This study suggests that alcohol use substantially influences socioeconomic inequalities in male cancer mortality in France, Spain and Switzerland but not in the Nordic countries and nor in Belgium. PMID:17415714

  16. Contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths to the gender gap in mortality: evidence from 30 European countries

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Gerry; Mahmood, Lamia; Leyland, Alastair H; Batty, G David

    2011-01-01

    Background Women now outlive men throughout the globe, a mortality advantage that is very established in developed European countries. Debate continues about the causes of the gender gap, although smoking is known to have been a major contributor to the difference in the past. Objectives To compare the magnitude of the gender gap in all-cause mortality in 30 European countries and assess the contribution of smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths. Methods Data on all-cause mortality, smoking-related mortality and alcohol-related mortality for 30 European countries were extracted from the World Health Organization Health for All database for the year closest to 2005. Rates were standardised by the direct method using the European population standard and were for all age groups. The proportion of the gender gap in all-cause mortality attributable to smoking-related and alcohol-related deaths was then calculated. Results There was considerable variation in the magnitude of the male ‘excess’ of all-cause mortality across Europe, ranging from 188 per 100 000 per year in Iceland to 942 per 100 000 per year in Ukraine. Smoking-related deaths accounted for around 40% to 60% of the gender gap, while alcohol-related mortality typically accounted for 20% to 30% of the gender gap in Eastern Europe and 10% to 20% elsewhere in Europe. Conclusions Smoking continues to be the most important cause of gender differences in mortality across Europe, but its importance as an explanation for this difference is often overshadowed by presumptions about other explanations. Changes in smoking patterns by gender suggest that the gender gap in mortality will diminish in the coming decades. PMID:21228431

  17. A population-based study of premature mortality in relation to neighbourhood density of alcohol sales and cheque cashing outlets in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Flora I; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Park, Alison L; Ray, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol overuse and poverty, each associated with premature death, often exist within disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cheque cashing places (CCPs) may be opportunistically placed in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, where customers abound. We explored whether neighbourhood density of CCPs and alcohol outlets are each related to premature mortality among adults. Design Retrospective population-based study. Setting 140 neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, 2005–2009. Participants Adults aged 20–59 years. Measures Our primary outcome was premature all-cause mortality among adults aged 20–59 years. Across neighbourhoods we explored neighbourhood density, in km2, of CCPs and alcohol outlets, and the relation of each to premature mortality. Poisson regression provided adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for material deprivation quintile (Q), crime Q and number of banks. Results Intentional self-harm, accidental poisoning and liver disease were among the top five causes of premature death among males aged 20–59 years. The overall premature mortality rate was 96.3/10 000 males and 55.9/10 000 females. Comparing the highest versus lowest CCP density Q, the aRR for death was 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) among males and 1.11 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.24) among females. The corresponding aRR comparing the highest Q versus lowest Q alcohol outlet density in relation to premature mortality was 1.36 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.48) for males and 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) for females. The pattern of the relation between either CCPs or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality was typically J shaped. Conclusions There is a J-shaped relation between CCP or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality, even on controlling for conventional measures of poverty. Formal banking and alcohol reduction strategies might be added to health promotion policies aimed at reducing premature mortality in highly affected neighbourhoods. PMID:25518874

  18. IQ and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality among Swedish men and women: the importance of socioeconomic position

    PubMed Central

    Sjölund, Sara; Hemmingsson, Tomas; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Allebeck, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association between intelligence in childhood and later risk of alcohol-related disease and death by examining (1) the mediating effect of social position as an adult and (2) gender as a possible moderator. Design Cohort study. Setting and participants 21 809 Swedish men and women, born in 1948 and 1953, from the Swedish “Evaluation Through Follow-up” database were followed until 2006/2007. Measurements IQ was measured in school at the age of 13 and alcohol-related disease and death (International Classification of Disease codes) were followed from 1971 and onwards. Findings We found an increased crude HR of 1.23 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.29) for every decrease in group of IQ test results for alcohol-related admissions and 1.14 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.24) for alcohol-related death. Social position as an adult was found to mediate both outcomes. Gender was not found to moderate the association. However, adjusting for socioeconomic position lowered the risk more among men than among women. Conclusions There was an inverse, graded association between IQ and alcohol-related disease and death, which at least partially was mediated by social position as an adult. For alcohol-related death, complete mediation by socioeconomic position as an adult was found. Gender does not moderate this association. The role of socioeconomic position may differ between the genders. PMID:26163557

  19. Alcohol Policies and Alcoholic Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Swahn, Monica H.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stronger alcohol policies predict decreased alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the United States. We examined the relationship between the strength of states’ alcohol policies and alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Methods We used the Alcohol Policy Scale (APS), a validated assessment of policies of the 50 US states and Washington DC, to quantify the efficacy and implementation of 29 policies. State APS scores (theoretical range, 0–100) for each year from 1999 through 2008 were compared with age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis death rates that occurred 3 years later. We used Poisson regression accounting for state-level clustering and adjusting for race/ethnicity, college education, insurance status, household income, religiosity, policing rates, and urbanization. Results Age-adjusted alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates varied significantly across states; they were highest among males, among residents in states in the West census region, and in states with a high proportion of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Higher APS scores were associated with lower mortality rates among females (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.91 per 10-point increase in APS score; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.84–0.99) but not among males (adjusted IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.90–1.04). Among non-AI/AN decedents, higher APS scores were also associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates among both sexes combined (adjusted IRR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82–0.97). Policies were more strongly associated with lower mortality rates among those living in the Northeast and West census regions than in other regions. Conclusions Stronger alcohol policy environments are associated with lower alcoholic cirrhosis mortality rates. Future studies should identify underlying reasons for racial/ethnic and regional differences in this relationship. PMID:26469950

  20. Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices

    PubMed Central

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s – about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951–2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design Time series for Greenland 1951–2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding time series for Denmark 1906–2010 are presented for comparison. Results The trends in alcohol prices and consumption followed each other rather closely until the 1990s in Greenland and the 1980s in Denmark. At this time, consumption stabilised while prices decreased further, but the effect of prices upon consumption is strong, also in recent years. A trend in Greenlandic mortality similar to consumption is discernible, but not significant. Among alcohol-related deaths cirrhosis of the liver is less prevalent whilst accidents are more prevalent than in Denmark. Conclusions The effect of alcohol excise taxes and rationing upon consumption is evident. The stabilisation and subsequent decline in consumption since the mid-1990s, while alcohol prices decreased persistently, does not preclude continued effects of prices. On the contrary, price effects have been neutralised by other stronger causes. Whether these are government anti-alcohol campaigns or a cultural change is not clear. PMID:23256091

  1. Beverage-Specific Alcohol Sale and Cardiovascular Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Razvodovsky, Y. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Recent research evidence suggests that the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverage may have a differential effect on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality rates. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the consumption of different beverage types and CVD mortality rates in Russia across the later-Soviet and post-Soviet periods. Method. Age-standardized male and female CVD mortality data for the period 1970–2005 and data on beverage-specific alcohol sales were obtained Russian State Statistical Committee (Rosstat). Time-series analytical modeling techniques (ARIMA) were used to examine the relation between the sales of different alcoholic beverages and CVD mortality rates. Results. Vodka consumption as measured by sales was significantly associated with both male and female CVD mortality rates: a 1 liter increase in vodka sales would result in a 5.3% increase in the male CVD mortality rate and a 3.7% increase in the female rate. The consumption of beer and wine were not associated with CVD mortality rates. Conclusions. The findings from this study suggest that public health efforts should focus on both reducing overall consumption and changing beverage preference away from distilled spirits in order to reduce cardiovascular mortality rates in Russia. PMID:21318145

  2. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  3. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  4. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia's Mortality Crisis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina; Miller, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia's 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985-1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978-2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested.

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  6. [Alcohol sales and pulmonary tuberculosis mortality in the Republic of Belarus in 1981 to 2001].

    PubMed

    Razvodovskiĭ, Iu E

    2006-01-01

    The fact that there is an association of alcohol abuse with pulmonary tuberculosis is well documented. The effect of alcohol sales per capita on tuberculosis mortality rates is considerably less known. The aim of the study was to evaluate the beverage-specific effect of alcohol on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. Trends in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in Belarus from 1981 to 2001 were analyzed in relation to those in the level of sales of various alcoholic beverages per capita, by applying the time series analysis. The analysis demonstrated a positive and statistically significant effect of changes in per capita alcohol sale levels on pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates. It suggests that a 1% increase in alcohol sales per capita might cause 0.49 and 0.36% increases in pulmonary tuberculosis mortality rates in males and females, respectively. This study also indicates that tuberculosis prevention programs should place more emphasis on alcohol problems.

  7. Potential for alcohol policy to decrease the mortality crisis in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaltourina, Daria A; Korotayev, Andrey V

    2008-09-01

    Post-Soviet Russia experiences among the world's highest prevalence of alcohol-related problems, which contributes to high mortality rates in this region. Reduction in alcohol-related problems in Russia can have strong effects on mortality decline. This article considers the plausibility of application of general principles of alcohol policy translated in the Russian Federation. We conclude that alcohol policy approaches could be implemented in the same ways as they have been in other countries. In addition, there should be special attention to decreasing distilled spirits consumption, illegal alcohol production, nonbeverage alcohol consumption, and enforcement of current governmental regulations. PMID:18662923

  8. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  9. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  10. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  11. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tobacco-Related Disparities African Americans and Tobacco Use American Indians/Alaska Natives and Tobacco Use Asian Americans, Pacific ... YTS) Alaska Native Adult Tobacco Survey Guidance Manual American Indian Adult Tobacco Survey Implementation Manual Hispanic/Latino ATS ...

  12. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24966592

  13. [Incidence of alcoholic psychoses, mortality from alcoholic poisonings and diseases of the liver and in Russia].

    PubMed

    Shelygin, K V

    2015-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of availability of beer on mortality from alcoholic poisonings, diseases of a liver and incidence of alcoholic psychoses in Russia during 1995-2011. Time series analysis was performed using the method of ARIMA. There were no significant associations between the availability of beer and levels of mortality and morbidity. PMID:26356620

  14. [Incidence of alcoholic psychoses, mortality from alcoholic poisonings and diseases of the liver and in Russia].

    PubMed

    Shelygin, K V

    2015-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of availability of beer on mortality from alcoholic poisonings, diseases of a liver and incidence of alcoholic psychoses in Russia during 1995-2011. Time series analysis was performed using the method of ARIMA. There were no significant associations between the availability of beer and levels of mortality and morbidity.

  15. Effects of Alcohol Tax and Price Policies on Morbidity and Mortality: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We systematically reviewed the effects of alcohol taxes and prices on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality to assess their public health impact. Methods. We searched 12 databases, along with articles’ reference lists, for studies providing estimates of the relationship between alcohol taxes and prices and measures of risky behavior or morbidity and mortality, then coded for effect sizes and numerous population and study characteristics. We combined independent estimates in random-effects models to obtain aggregate effect estimates. Results. We identified 50 articles, containing 340 estimates. Meta-estimates were r = −0.347 for alcohol-related disease and injury outcomes, −0.022 for violence, −0.048 for suicide, −0.112 for traffic crash outcomes, −0.055 for sexually transmitted diseases, −0.022 for other drug use, and −0.014 for crime and other misbehavior measures. All except suicide were statistically significant. Conclusions. Public policies affecting the price of alcoholic beverages have significant effects on alcohol-related disease and injury rates. Our results suggest that doubling the alcohol tax would reduce alcohol-related mortality by an average of 35%, traffic crash deaths by 11%, sexually transmitted disease by 6%, violence by 2%, and crime by 1.4%. PMID:20864710

  16. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  17. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  18. Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern and mortality in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gea, Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Toledo, Estefania; Garcia-Lopez, Martin; Beunza, Juan J; Estruch, Ramon; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2014-05-28

    Moderate alcohol intake has been related to lower mortality. However, alcohol use includes other dimensions beyond the amount of alcohol consumed. These aspects have not been sufficiently studied as a comprehensive entity. We aimed to test the relationship between an overall alcohol-drinking pattern and all-cause mortality. In a Mediterranean cohort study, we followed 18 394 Spanish participants up to 12 years. A validated 136-item FFQ was used to assess baseline alcohol intake. We developed a score assessing simultaneously seven aspects of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP). It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, wine preference, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. During the follow-up, 206 deaths were identified. For each 2-point increment in a 0-9 score of adherence to the MADP, we observed a 25% relative risk reduction in mortality (95% CI 11, 38%). Within each category of alcohol intake, a higher adherence to the MADP was associated with lower mortality. Abstainers (excluded from the calculations of the MADP) exhibited higher mortality (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% CI 1·14, 2·90) than participants highly adherent to the MADP. In conclusion, better adherence to an overall healthy alcohol-drinking pattern was associated with reduced mortality when compared with abstention or departure from this pattern. This reduction goes beyond the inverse association usually observed for moderate alcohol drinking. Even moderate drinkers can benefit from the advice to follow a traditional MADP.

  19. Influence of sex, age, body mass index, and smoking on alcohol intake and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Grønbaek, M.; Deis, A.; Sørensen, T. I.; Becker, U.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Müller, C.; Schnohr, P.; Jensen, G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the association between self reported alcohol intake and subsequent mortality from all causes and if the effect of alcohol intake on the risk of death is modified by sex, age, body mass index, and smoking. DESIGN--Prospective population study with baseline assessment of alcohol and tobacco consumption and body mass index, and 10-12 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING--Copenhagen city heart study, Denmark. SUBJECTS--7234 women and 6051 men aged 30-79 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Number and time of deaths from 1976 to 1988. RESULTS--A total of 2229 people died, 1398 being men. A U shaped curve described the relation between alcohol intake and mortality. The lowest risk was observed at one to six alcoholic beverages a week (relative risk set at 1). Abstainers had a relative risk of 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.56) whereas those drinking more than 70 beverages a week had a relative risk of 2.29 (1.75 to 3.00). Among the drinkers, the risk was significantly increased only among those drinking more than 42 beverages a week. Sex, age, body mass index, and smoking did not significantly modify the risk function. The risk among heavy drinkers was slightly reduced when smoking was controlled for. The risk function was similar in the first and second period of six years of observation. CONCLUSION--Alcohol intake showed a U shaped relation to mortality with the nadir at one to six beverages a week. The risk function was not modified by sex, age, body mass index, or smoking and remained stable over 12 years. PMID:8124118

  20. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  1. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  2. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a population based study of premature mortality rates in the mothers.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Fisher, Wayne W; Peng, Chun-Zi; Williams, Andrew D; Burd, Larry

    2012-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are associated with an increase in risk for mortality for people with an FASD and their siblings. In this study we examine mortality rates of birth mothers of children with FASD, using a retrospective case control methodology. We utilized the North Dakota FASD Registry to locate birth certificates for children with FASD which we used to identify birth mothers. We then searched for mothers' death certificates. We then compared the mortality rates of the birth mothers with an age matched control group comprised of all North Dakota women who were born and died in the same year as the birth mother. The birth mothers of children with FASD had a mortality rate of 15/304 = 4.93%; (95% CI 2.44-7.43%). The mortality rate for control mothers born in same years as the FASD mothers was 126/114,714 = 0.11% (95% CI 0.09-0.13%). Mothers of children with an FASD had a 44.82 fold increase in mortality risk and 87% of the deaths occurred in women under the age of 50. Three causes of death (cancer, injuries, and alcohol related disease) accounted for 67% of the deaths in the mothers of children with FASD. A diagnosis of FASD is an important risk marker for premature death in the mothers of children diagnosed with an FASD. These women should be encouraged to enter substance abuse treatment.

  3. Follow up study of moderate alcohol intake and mortality among middle aged men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474

  4. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  5. Per capita alcohol consumption and IHD mortality in a panel of US states from 1950 to 2002

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Aims To estimate the overall impact of alcohol on IHD mortality in the United States using aggregate-level models and to consider beverage-specific effects that may better represent changes in drinking patterns over time that are related to both harmful and protective impacts of alcohol consumption on IHD. Design Several model specifications are estimated, including state-specific ARIMA models and generalized least squares (GLS) panel models on first-differenced data. Setting US states from 1950 to 2002. Participants US general population. Measurements Per capita alcohol sales and cigarette sales, age-standardized IHD and cirrhosis mortality rates. Findings IHD mortality rates were significantly positively related to apparent consumption of total alcohol, with an overall increase in IHD of about 1% per liter of ethanol. Beverage-specific models found that spirits consumption was significantly positively related to IHD mortality overall, for both genders and in three regions defined by drinking culture (or “wetness”), while beer was found to have a significant protective relationship overall and in the wet region. Results for wine also suggest a protective relationship, but only marginally significant effects were found. Cirrhosis mortality rates were consistently positively related to IHD mortality. Combined results from state-specific ARIMA models including both cigarette sales and cirrhosis rates were generally consistent with the GLS results. Conclusions Population-level models confirm individual-level findings of both harmful and protective relationships between alcohol use patterns and IHD mortality. However, an overall harmful impact of per capita alcohol consumption on IHD mortality was found for the US. PMID:21059185

  6. Alcoholism and rising mortality in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Russian Federation today the high incidence of alcoholism and drunkenness helps to account for rising death rates, more particularly among the male population. During the mid-1980s a significant reduction in deaths from alcohol related diseases was achieved by state action in curtailing the supply of alcohol. However, official data disclose a pattern of sharply increased consumption per head since 1987, with high proof drinks--especially vodka--now forming a larger share in the total. In current economic conditions the effects of a traditional macho drinking culture are exacerbated by a reduction of state control over the quality of alcohol available for purchase. A substantial increase has occurred in deaths from most principal causes, with a disproportionate increase in deaths from non-natural causes, including deaths caused predominantly by alcohol. Average expectation of life at birth has fallen especially sharply for men; by 1993 it had slumped to 59.0 years--that is, to below the age at which a pension starts to be paid. Images p647-a PMID:7703754

  7. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  8. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  9. Alcohol- or drug-use disorders and motor vehicle accident mortality: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Russell C; Gatley, Jodi M; Veldhuizen, Scott; Lev-Ran, Shaul; Mann, Robert; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A large body of research has linked alcohol consumption and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), but far fewer studies have estimated the risk of MVA fatality among drug users. Our study addresses this gap. We identified cohorts of individuals hospitalized in California from 1990 to 2005 with ICD-9 diagnoses of methamphetamine- (n=74,170), alcohol- (n=592,406), opioids- (n=68,066), cannabis- (n=47,048), cocaine- (n=48,949), or polydrug-related disorders (n=411,175), and these groups were followed for up to 16 years. Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for deaths due to MVAs were generated in relation to the California general population. Standardized MVA mortality ratios were elevated across all drug cohorts: alcohol (4.5, 95% CI, 4.1-4.9), cocaine (3.8, 95% CI, 2.3-5.3), opioids (2.8, 95% CI, 2.1-3.5), methamphetamine (2.6, 95% CI, 2-3.1), cannabis (2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.2) and polydrug (2.6, 95% CI, 2.4-2.9). Males and females had similar MVA SMRs. Our large, population-based study found elevated risk of MVA mortality across all cohorts of individuals with alcohol- or drug-use disorders. Given that illicit drug users are often unaware of or misperceive the impacts of drug use on safe driving, it may be important for health-service or public-health interventions to address such biases and improve road safety.

  10. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations.

  11. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  12. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; García-Barcina, María; Juan, Virginia Gutiérrez-de; Bidaurrazaga, Joseba; de Luco, Marian Fernández; Gutiérrez-Stampa, Marian; Larzabal, Mikel; Hijona, Elisabeth; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Echenique-Elizondo, Miguel; Arenas, Juan I

    2006-01-01

    Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol). Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p < 0.05). IL-1 levels were significantly reduced in the alcohol plus resveratrol group compared with the alcohol group (p < 0.05). TNF-α was not detected in any group. Histologically, the liver lesions were more severe in the alcohol group, though no significant differences between groups were observed. Mortality in the alcohol group was 78% in the seventh week, versus 22% in the alcohol plus resveratrol group (p < 0.001). All mice in the alcohol group died before the ninth week. Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice. PMID:17105669

  13. Weighing social and economic determinants related to inequalities in mortality.

    PubMed

    Pasarín, M Isabel; Borrell, Carme; Brugal, M Teresa; Díaz-Quijano, Estela

    2004-09-01

    It is well known that there are social inequalities in health. Following the ecological approach, unemployment has been one of the most used indicators to study social inequalities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between indicators of extreme poverty and social unrest, along with unemployment, and mortality in Barcelona, during the years 1989 to 1993. A cross-sectional ecological study was carried out using Primary Health Care Areas (PHCAs) as the unit of analysis. The study population consisted of residents in Barcelona City. The indicators studied as dependent variables were the age-standardized mortality rates of the following causes of death: total mortality; lung cancer; bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma; cirrhosis; cerebrovascular disease; ischemic heart disease; breast cancer; traffic accidents; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); and drug overdose. Independent variables were male unemployment rate of the primary health care areas and indicators of extreme poverty and social conflict. A descriptive analysis, a bivariate analysis using Spearman correlation coefficients, and a multivariate analysis fitting Poisson regression models were carried out. For the main results, one group of causes of death was associated only with unemployment: bronchitis, emphysema and asthma, cerebrovascular disease, and ischemic heart disease (both men and women); lung cancer (only among men); total mortality and cirrhosis (only among women). Among men, another group of causes of death was associated with extreme poverty and/or social unrest, as well as unemployment: total mortality, cirrhosis, and drug overdose. AIDS in men was only associated with extreme poverty and social unrest. We concluded that we see different types of relationships between deprivation and mortality. Unemployment has been related to mortality because of pathologies with socially accepted risk factors (tobacco and alcohol). Causes of death with risk factors not

  14. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  15. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption.

  16. Alcohol Craving and Demand Mediate the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Teeters, Jenni B.; Pickover, Alison; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. Method We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol problems. Results Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI = .01 – .10), demand intensity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .0009 – .17), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .006 – .03) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 – .19). Conclusions Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  17. Recognizing and preventing epilepsy-related mortality

    PubMed Central

    Spruill, Tanya; Thurman, David; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is associated with a high rate of premature mortality from direct and indirect effects of seizures, epilepsy, and antiseizure therapies. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the second leading neurologic cause of total lost potential life-years after stroke, yet SUDEP may account for less than half of all epilepsy-related deaths. Some epilepsy groups are especially vulnerable: individuals from low socioeconomic status groups and those with comorbid psychiatric illness die more often than controls. Despite clear evidence of an important public health problem, efforts to assess and prevent epilepsy-related deaths remain inadequate. We discuss factors contributing to the underestimation of SUDEP and other epilepsy-related causes of death. We suggest the need for a systematic classification of deaths directly due to epilepsy (e.g., SUDEP, drowning), due to acute symptomatic seizures, and indirectly due to epilepsy (e.g., suicide, chronic effects of antiseizure medications). Accurately estimating the frequency of epilepsy-related mortality is essential to support the development and assessment of preventive interventions. We propose that educational interventions and public health campaigns targeting medication adherence, psychiatric comorbidity, and other modifiable risk factors may reduce epilepsy-related mortality. Educational campaigns regarding sudden infant death syndrome and fires, which kill far fewer Americans than epilepsy, have been widely implemented. We have done too little to prevent epilepsy-related deaths. Everyone with epilepsy and everyone who treats people with epilepsy need to know that controlling seizures will save lives. PMID:26674330

  18. Black–White Differences in the Relationship Between Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Mortality Among US Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Frank B.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, David R.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated Black–White differences in the association between average alcohol drinking patterns and all-cause mortality. Methods. We pooled nationally representative samples of 152 180 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 1997 to 2002 with mortality follow-up through 2006. Usual drinking days per week and level of alcohol consumed per day were based on self-report. We used race- and gender-specific Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to adjust for physical activity, smoking status, and other potential confounders. Results. Over 9 years, 13 366 deaths occurred from all causes. For men, the lowest multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for total mortality among drinkers was 0.81 among White men who consumed 1 to 2 drinks 3 to 7 days per week (compared with abstainers) and Black men who abstained. For women, the lowest mortality risk was among White women (HR = 0.71) consuming 1 drink per day 3 to 7 days per week and Black women (HR = 0.72) consuming 1 drink on 2 or fewer days per week. Conclusions. Risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in relation to mortality risk were dependent on race- and gender-specific drinking patterns. PMID:25905819

  19. Clinical relevance of nalmefene versus placebo in alcohol treatment: Reduction in mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Roerecke, Michael; Sørensen, Per; Laramée, Philippe; Rahhali, Nora; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of long-term mortality risk, an important clinical outcome for people in alcohol dependence treatment, can rarely be established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We calculated the reduction in all-cause mortality risk using data from short-term (6 and 12 months) double-blind RCTs comparing as-needed nalmefene treatment to placebo, and mortality risks from meta-analyses on all-cause-mortality risk by reduction of drinking in people with alcohol dependence. A reduction in drinking in the RCTs was defined by shifts in drinking risk levels established by the European Medicines Agency. Results showed that the reduction of drinking in the nalmefene group was associated with a reduction in mortality risk by 8% (95% CI: 2%, 13%) when compared to the placebo group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed a significant effect. Thus comparing the difference between nalmefene and placebo in reduction in drinking levels with results on all-cause mortality risk from meta-analyses indicated a clinically relevant reduction in mortality risk. Given the high mortality risk of people with alcohol dependence, abstinence or a reduction in drinking have been shown to reduce mortality risk and should be considered treatment goals. PMID:26349557

  20. Clinical relevance of nalmefene versus placebo in alcohol treatment: reduction in mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Roerecke, Michael; Sørensen, Per; Laramée, Philippe; Rahhali, Nora; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    Reduction of long-term mortality risk, an important clinical outcome for people in alcohol dependence treatment, can rarely be established in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We calculated the reduction in all-cause mortality risk using data from short-term (6 and 12 months) double-blind RCTs comparing as-needed nalmefene treatment to placebo, and mortality risks from meta-analyses on all-cause-mortality risk by reduction of drinking in people with alcohol dependence. A reduction in drinking in the RCTs was defined by shifts in drinking risk levels established by the European Medicines Agency. Results showed that the reduction of drinking in the nalmefene group was associated with a reduction in mortality risk by 8% (95% CI: 2%, 13%) when compared to the placebo group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed a significant effect. Thus comparing the difference between nalmefene and placebo in reduction in drinking levels with results on all-cause mortality risk from meta-analyses indicated a clinically relevant reduction in mortality risk. Given the high mortality risk of people with alcohol dependence, abstinence or a reduction in drinking have been shown to reduce mortality risk and should be considered treatment goals.

  1. Alcohol use by urban bicyclists is associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Monica; Heyer, Jessica H; Wall, Stephen; DiMaggio, Charles; Shinseki, Matthew; Slaughter, Dekeya; Frangos, Spiros G

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use is a risk factor for severe injury in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. Our objective was to investigate alcohol use by bicyclists and its effects on riding behaviors, medical management, injury severity, and mortality within a congested urban setting. A hospital-based, observational study of injured bicyclists presenting to a Level I regional trauma center in New York City was conducted. Data were collected prospectively from 2012 to 2014 by interviewing all bicyclists presenting within 24 h of injury and supplemented with medical record review. Variables included demographic characteristics, scene-related data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), computed tomography (CT) scans, and clinical outcomes. Alcohol use at the time of injury was determined by history or blood alcohol level (BAL) >0.01 g/dL. Of 689 bicyclists, 585 (84.9%) were male with a mean age of 35.2. One hundred four (15.1%) bicyclists had consumed alcohol prior to injury. Alcohol use was inversely associated with helmet use (16.5% [9.9-25.1] vs. 43.2% [39.1-47.3]). Alcohol-consuming bicyclists were more likely to fall from their bicycles (42.0% [32.2-52.3] vs. 24.2% [20.8-27.9]) and less likely to be injured by collision with a motor vehicle (52.0% [41.7-62.1] vs. 67.5% [63.5-71.3]). 80% of alcohol-consuming bicyclists underwent CT imaging at presentation compared with 51.5% of non-users. Mortality was higher among injured bicyclists who had used alcohol (2.9% [0.6-8.2] vs. 0.0% [0.0-0.6]). Adjusted multivariable analysis revealed that alcohol use was independently associated with more severe injury (Adjusted Odds Ratio 2.27, p = 0.001, 95% Confidence Interval 1.40-3.68). Within a dense urban environment, alcohol use by bicyclists was associated with more severe injury, greater hospital resource use, and higher mortality. As bicycling continues to increase in popularity internationally, it is important to heighten awareness about the risks and consequences of bicycling while under the

  2. Impact of alcohol consumption and body mass index on mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aerodigestive tract cancers, and alcohol use disorders in Korean older middle-aged men: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Yi, Jee-Jeon; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for the global disease burden including liver diseases. However, the combined effect of alcohol use and body mass index (BMI) on alcohol-related diseases has seldom been examined. We examined whether alcohol consumption and BMI could act together to increase mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases, upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, and alcohol use disorders (AUD) in middle-aged Korean men.107,735 men (mean age, 58.8 years) participated in a postal survey in 2004 and were followed until 2010, by linkage to national death records. Hazard ratios (HRs) of cause-specific death were calculated after adjustment for confounders.Each 5-drink (approximately 45 g alcohol) higher weekly alcohol consumption was associated with increased mortality, by approximately 70% for nonneoplastic liver disease mortality (HR = 1.70, P < 0.001), approximately 60% for UADT cancer mortality (HR = 1.64, P < 0.001), and approximately 70% for AUD mortality (HR = 1.71, P < 0.001). Generally, BMI was inversely associated with these alcohol-related diseases (HR per each 5 kg/m higher BMI = 0.18-0.46, P < 0.001 for each cause), while, in participants with BMI ≥25 kg/m, each 5 kg/m higher BMI was also associated with an elevated mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases of approximately 150% (HR = 2.52, P = 0.001). Men with BMI < 21 kg/m and weekly alcohol consumption ≥14 drinks showed markedly higher mortality from nonneoplastic liver diseases (HR = 5.7), alcoholic liver diseases (HR = 9.3), UADT cancers (HR = 10.5), and esophageal cancer (HR = 15.5), compared to men drinking less than 1 drink/wk with BMI ≥25 kg/m. The combined effect of low BMI and high weekly alcohol consumption was 2.25- to 3.29-fold greater than the additive effect of each factor for these alcohol-related diseases (P < 0.05 for each cause).Alcohol consumption and low BMI were related to deaths from nonneoplastic liver diseases, UADT

  3. Underestimating the Alcohol Content of a Glass of Wine: The Implications for Estimates of Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; O’Neill, Darragh; Bell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aims Increases in glass sizes and wine strength over the last 25 years in the UK are likely to have led to an underestimation of alcohol intake in population studies. We explore whether this probable misclassification affects the association between average alcohol intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Methods Self-reported alcohol consumption in 1997–1999 among 7010 men and women in the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants was linked to the risk of mortality until mid-2015. A conversion factor of 8 g of alcohol per wine glass (1 unit) was compared with a conversion of 16 g per wine glass (2 units). Results When applying a higher alcohol content conversion for wine consumption, the proportion of heavy/very heavy drinkers increased from 28% to 41% for men and 15% to 28% for women. There was a significantly increased risk of very heavy drinking compared with moderate drinking for deaths from all causes and cancer before and after change in wine conversion; however, the hazard ratios were reduced when a higher wine conversion was used. Conclusions In this population-based study, assuming higher alcohol content in wine glasses changed the estimates of mortality risk. We propose that investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. Prospectively, researchers need to collect more detailed information on alcohol including serving sizes and strength. Short summary The alcohol content in a wine glass is likely to be underestimated in population surveys as wine strength and serving size have increased in recent years. We demonstrate that in a large cohort study, this underestimation affects estimates of mortality risk. Investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. PMID:27261472

  4. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  5. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages. PMID:15979385

  6. Oral cancer: the association between nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality.

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2005-09-01

    The unclear association between different nation-based alcohol-drinking profiles and oral cancer mortality was investigated using, as observational units, 20 countries from Europe, Northern America, Far Eastern Asia, with cross-nationally comparable data. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were run with male age-standardised, mortality rate (ASMR) as explanatory variable and annual adult alcohol consumption, adult smoking prevalence, life expectancy, as explanatory. Large between-country differences in ASMR (range, 0.88-6.87 per 100,000) were found, but the mean value was similar to the global estimate (3.31 vs. 3.09 per 100,000). Differences in alcohol consumption (2.06-21.03 annual litres per capita) and in distribution between beverages were reported. Wine was the most prevalent alcoholic beverage in 45% of cases. Significant increases in ASMR for every litre of pure ethanol (0.15 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.01-0.29) and spirits (0.26 per 100,000; 95 CI, 0.03-0.49), non-significant effects for beer and wine were estimated. The impact of alcohol on oral cancer deaths would be higher than expected and the drinking profile could affect cancer mortality, probably because of the different drinking pattern of spirit drinkers, usually consuming huge alcohol quantities on single occasions, and the different concentrations of ethanol and cancer-preventing compounds such as polyphenols, in the various beverages.

  7. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  8. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  9. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  10. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  11. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  12. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  13. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  14. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  15. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  16. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  17. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  18. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel. PMID:27121223

  19. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  20. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  1. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  2. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  3. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  4. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M C; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which observed associations between income inequality and mortality at population level are statistical artifacts. Design Indirect "what if" simulation using observed risks of mortality at individual level as a function of income to construct hypothetical state-level mortality specific for age and sex as if the statistical artifact argument were 100% correct. Method Data from the 1990 census for the 50 US states plus Washington, DC, were used for population distributions by age, sex, state, and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex, and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual-level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results Hypothetical mortality, although correlated with inequality (as implied by the logic of the statistical artifact argument), showed a weaker association with the level of income inequality in each state than the observed mortality. Conclusions The observed associations in the United States at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual-level relation between income and mortality. There remains an important association between income inequality and mortality at state level above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This result reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health.

  5. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  6. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  7. Lightning-related mortality and morbidity in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Duclos, P J; Sanderson, L M; Klontz, K C

    1990-01-01

    Cases of lightning-related deaths and injuries that occurred in Florida in 1978-87 were reviewed to determine the factors involved, to quantify the morbidity and mortality related to lightning strikes, and to describe epidemiologically the injuries and circumstances involved. Statewide information on deaths was obtained from death certificates, autopsy reports, and investigative reports. Information about morbidity was obtained from the Florida Hospital Cost Containment Board data base and the National Climatic Data Center data base for all Florida counties, as well as from hospitals in selected counties. Lightning-related deaths totaled 101 in Florida during the period 1978-87, an annual average of 10.1. Eight percent of the victims were from other States. The overall yearly death rate for State residents was 0.09 per 100,000 population, with the highest rate being that for men aged 15-19 years, 0.38 per 100,000. Thirteen percent of victims were females. The ratio of lightning-related injuries to deaths in Florida was estimated at about four to one. Thirty percent of all deaths were occupationally related. The first strikes of lightning from a thunderstorm may be the most dangerous, not in terms of impact, but because of the element of surprise. During thunderstorms, people may seek shelter under isolated trees because they believe erroneously that a tree offers protection from lightning, or perhaps because their top priority is to escape from rain rather than lightning. People may not seek adequate shelter during thunderstorms because they do not know the dangers of remaining outdoors or their judgment is impaired by drugs or alcohol. PMID:2113687

  8. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences.

  9. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  10. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  11. Heavy Drinking Relates to Positive Valence Ratings of Alcohol Cues

    PubMed Central

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    Background A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g., parents, peers), and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. Objective We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. Method College students (N=227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH, and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Results Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (β = .17, p < .01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (β= −.53, p < .001). Conclusions Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models, and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e., repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802

  12. Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-01-01

    A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (beta = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (beta = -0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning.

  13. Measuring abortion-related mortality: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Ozge; Johnston, Heidi; Ganatra, Bela

    2015-01-01

    Two recent efforts to quantify the causes of maternal deaths on a global scale generated divergent estimates of abortion-related mortality. Such discrepancies in estimates of abortion-related mortality present an important opportunity to explore unique challenges and opportunities associated with the generation and interpretation of abortion-related mortality estimates. While innovations in primary data collection and estimation methodologies are much needed, at the very least, studies that seek to measure maternal deaths due to abortion should endeavor to improve transparency, acknowledge limitations of data, and contextualize results. As we move towards sustainable development goals beyond 2015, the need for valid and reliable estimates of abortion-related mortality has never been more pressing. The post-MDG development agenda that aims to improve global health, reduce health inequities, and increase accountability, requires new and novel approaches be tested to improve measurement and estimation of abortion-related mortality, as well as incidence, safety and morbidity. PMID:26377189

  14. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  15. [Recent advances on the relationship between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular mortality].

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Simona; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni

    2011-03-01

    Several epidemiological data both on apparently healthy people and on patients with a history of cardiovascular events, indicate a consistent risk reduction in cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality among moderate alcohol drinkers, but, on the other hand, the harm of excess and irregular drinking. If cardiovascular patients are heavy alcohol drinkers, they must be strongly advised to abstain or at least substantially reduce alcohol drinking in the range of the "protective windows" showed in recent meta-analyses; if not contraindicated, regular alcohol consumers should not exceed one drink/day for women or up to two drinks/day for men as a component of a balanced cardio-protective dietary pattern with appropriate energy intake levels. At present, we believe that a cardiovascular patient who is teetotaler should neither be recommended, nor "prescribed" to start drinking for health gain. This patient, however, must be properly informed of the potential health benefits of a regular habit of drinking alcohol in moderation.

  16. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  17. Relation between income inequality and mortality: empirical demonstration.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J; Ross, N; Backlund, E

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which observed associations at the population level between income inequality and mortality are statistical artifacts. Data from the 1990 census for the 50 American states plus the District of Columbia were used for population distributions by age, sex, state and income range; data disaggregated by age, sex and state from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used for mortality; and regressions from the national longitudinal mortality study were used for the individual level relation between income and risk of mortality. Results revealed that hypothetical mortality, while correlated with inequality, displayed a weaker association with state's levels of income inequality than the observed mortality. The associations seen in the US at the state level between income inequality and mortality cannot be entirely or substantially explained as statistical artifacts of an underlying individual level relation between income and mortality. There is still a significant association between income inequality and mortality at state level over and above anything that could be accounted for by any statistical artifact. This finding reinforces the need to consider a broad range of factors, including the social milieu, as fundamental determinants of health.

  18. Modeling the Effects of Temperature on Ozone-Related Mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies show ozone and temperature are associated with increased mortality; however, the joint effects are not well characterized. Understanding this relationship is important for estimating the potential effects of climate change on ozone-related mortality. We extend the ozone r...

  19. Modeling the Effect of Temperature on Ozone-Related Mortality.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling the Effect of Temperature on Ozone-Related Mortality. Wilson, Ander, Reich, Brian J, Neas, Lucas M., Rappold, Ana G. Background: Previous studies show ozone and temperature are associated with increased mortality; however, the joint effect is not well explored. Underst...

  20. Do well-connected landscapes promote road-related mortality?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grilo, C.; Ascensao, F.; Santos-Reis, M.; Bissonette, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cost surface (CS) models have emerged as a useful tool to examine the interactions between landscapes patterns and wildlife at large-scale extents. This approach is particularly relevant to guide conservation planning for species that show vulnerability to road networks in human-dominated landscapes. In this study, we measured the functional connectivity of the landscape in southern Portugal and examined how it may be related to stone marten road mortality risk. We addressed three questions: (1) How different levels of landscape connectivity influence stone marten occurrence in montado patches? (2) Is there any relation between montado patches connectivity and stone marten road mortality risk? (3) If so, which road-related features might be responsible for the species' high road mortality? We developed a series of connectivity models using CS scenarios with different resistance values given to each vegetation cover type to reflect different resistance to species movement. Our models showed that the likelihood of occurrence of stone marten decreased with distance to source areas, meaning continuous montado. Open areas and riparian areas within open area matrices entailed increased costs. We found higher stone marten mortality on roads in well-connected areas. Road sinuosity was an important factor influencing the mortality in those areas. This result challenges the way that connectivity and its relation to mortality has been generally regarded. Clearly, landscape connectivity and road-related mortality are not independent. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jong-Tae; Anderson, G. Brooke; Bell, Michelle L.

    2011-07-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 °C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 °C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 °C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  2. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  3. Does volunteering moderate the relation between functional limitations and mortality?

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; August, Kristin J; Rook, Karen S; Newsom, Jason T

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that functional limitations increase, and organizational volunteering decreases, the risk of mortality in later life. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the joint effect of functional limitations and organizational volunteering on mortality. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that volunteering moderates the relation between functional limitations and risk of mortality. This prospective study used baseline survey data from a representative sample of 916 non-institutionalized adults 65 years old and older who lived in the continental United States. Data on mortality were extracted six years later from the National Death Index. Survival analyses revealed that functional limitations were associated with an increased risk of dying only among participants who never or almost never volunteered, suggesting that volunteering buffers the association between functional limitations and mortality. We conclude that although it may be more difficult for older adults with functional limitations to volunteer, they may receive important benefits from doing so.

  4. The effectiveness of alcohol control policies on alcohol-related traffic fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-03-01

    Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.

  5. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  6. Leukemia-Related Mortality in Inner Mongolia, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhihui; Chen, Yongsheng; Xu, Yongjun; Du, Maolin; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Qing; Bai, Heixiao; Juan, Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the leukemia-related mortality rates and associated sociodemographic characteristics in the Inner Mongolia region of China. We obtained data for the period 2008-2012 from the Death Registry System maintained by the Inner Mongolia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We computed the percentages of leukemia-related deaths and controls diagnosed by various methods and at different levels of hospitals. The χ(2) test was used to examine differences in leukemia-related mortality according to sex. We also calculated potential years of life lost (PYLL) and average years of life lost. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the effect of sociodemographic characteristics. The sex-adjusted leukemia-related mortality rate was 3.74/100 000. The mortality rate in men (4.27/100 000) was significantly higher than that in women (3.17/100 000), as was the respective PYLL (8040.5 vs. 6000.5 person-years). Mortality increased with increasing age in both men and women. The highest mortality rate was observed in those over 70 years of age for both men (18.36/100 000) and women (7.68/100 000). Men with a higher education level showed an increased risk of leukemia (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.07, P = 0.04). In men, unemployment was associated with leukemia-related death (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.42-0.95, P = 0.03). The leukemia-related mortality rate in Inner Mongolia was higher than that worldwide and that in China. A higher level of education and unemployment were associated with leukemia-related mortality in Inner Mongolia.

  7. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  8. Reduction in Suicide Mortality Following a New National Alcohol Policy in Slovenia: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Aleksandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact on suicide mortality of a new national policy in Slovenia that limits the availability of alcohol. Methods. We obtained monthly total, male, and female suicide counts in Slovenia between January 1997 and December 2005 and then employed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in March 2003). Results. There was a significant decrease in the total number of monthly suicides following the policy's implementation. Subsequent analyses revealed this association to be caused solely by the impact on male suicides. Specifically, there was an immediate and permanent reduction of 3.6 male suicides per month (95% confidence interval = −0.4, −6.9), or approximately 10% of the preintervention average. The policy had no statistically significant effect on female suicides. Conclusions. Our results show the effectiveness of this specific policy in reducing male suicides in Slovenia and also hint at the potential of public policy in reducing the public health burden of alcohol-related harm more generally. PMID:19299669

  9. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  10. Is alcohol-related flushing a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Slutske, W S; Heath, A C; Madden, P A; Bucholz, K K; Dinwiddie, S H; Dunne, M P; Statham, D S; Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1995-06-01

    Although alcohol-related flushing seems to be a genetically influenced protective factor for alcoholism in some Asian groups, little is known about whether this is true for Caucasians. The evidence for alcohol-related flushing as a protective factor for the development of alcoholism was examined in a sample of 5831 Australian twins (2041 men, 3790 women) who were administered a structured psychiatric interview. Twin correlations for self-reported adverse alcohol reactions (e.g., "flushing or blushing" and "feeling very sleepy" after drinking 1 or 2 drinks) were modest, suggesting minimal contribution of genetic factors, but when corrected for reliability of measurement, were consistent with moderate heritabilities. In accord with studies examining Asian samples, we found that individuals who experienced adverse reactions after drinking small amounts of alcohol drank less often and slightly less per drinking occasion than those who did not experience adverse reactions. However, those who experienced adverse reactions were more likely to have symptoms of alcoholism and to report a parental history of alcohol problems. We conclude that self-reported alcohol-related flushing is not a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians and may be a risk factor. PMID:7573778

  11. Heavy drinking relates to positive valence ratings of alcohol cues.

    PubMed

    Pulido, Carmen; Mok, Alex; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F

    2009-01-01

    A positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FH) is a robust predictor of personal alcohol abuse and dependence. Exposure to problem-drinking models is one mechanism through which family history influences alcohol-related cognitions and drinking patterns. Similarly, exposure to alcohol advertisements is associated with alcohol involvement and the relationship between affective response to alcohol cues and drinking behavior has not been well established. In addition, the collective contribution that FH, exposure to different types of problem-drinking models (e.g. parents, peers) and personal alcohol use have on appraisal of alcohol-related stimuli has not been evaluated with a large sample. We investigated the independent effects of FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and personal alcohol use on valence ratings of alcohol pictures in a college sample. College students (n = 227) completed measures of personal drinking and substance use, exposure to problem-drinking models, FH and ratings on affective valence of 60 alcohol pictures. Greater exposure to non-familial problem-drinkers predicted greater drinking among college students (beta = 0.17, P < 0.01). However, personal drinking was the only predictor of valence ratings of alcohol pictures (beta = -0.53, P < 0.001). Personal drinking level predicted valence ratings of alcohol cues over and above FH, exposure to problem-drinking models and demographic characteristics. This suggests that positive affective responses to alcohol pictures are more a function of personal experience (i.e. repeated heavy alcohol use) than vicarious learning. PMID:18855802

  12. [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology].

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Corradini, P; Zocchi, M; Camarri, F

    1989-07-31

    Metadoxine is an active drug for treatment of acute and chronic alcohol intoxication, affecting both liver and brain function. The authors reviewed the international pharmacological and clinical literature on the drug which shows the potential usefulness of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol-induced diseases. The case report concerns the results in 20 chronic alcoholics, admitted to the hospital for acute alcohol intake treated with metadoxine (one 500 mg tablet twice daily). Biohumoral hepatopathy parameters and clinical parameters of neuropsychic behaviour were examined simultaneously. Compared with a control group of patients undergoing traditional therapy (sedative and multi-vitamin drugs), metadoxine showed a significant improvement of the values of gamma-GT, GPT, blood ammonia, blood alcohol and of neuropsychic and behavioural parameters such as agitation, tremor, asterixis, sopor and depression. No side-effects or unfavourable reactions occurred during metadoxine treatment, which confirms the safety of this molecule. PMID:2529084

  13. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  14. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BURDEN OF DISEASE - AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Baliunas, Dolly; Borges, Guilherme L. G.; Graham, Kathryn; lrving, Hyacinth; Kehoe, Tara; Parry, Charles D.; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Poznyak, Vladimir; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Taylor, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS As part of a larger study to estimate the global burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol: To evaluate the evidence for a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption and pattern of drinking on diseases and injuries;To quantify relationships identified as causal based on published meta-analyses;To separate the impact on mortality vs. morbidity where possible; andTo assess the impact of the quality of alcohol on burden of disease. METHODS Systematic literature reviews were used to identify alcohol-related diseases, birth complications and injuries using standard epidemiologic criteria to determine causality. The extent of the risk relations was taken from meta-analyses. RESULTS Evidence of a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption was found for the following major diseases: tuberculosis, mouth, nasopharynx, other pharynx and oropharynx cancer, oesophageal cancer, colon and rectum cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders, unipolar depressive disorders, epilepsy, hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, conduction disorders and other dysrhythmias, lower respiratory infections (pneumonia), cirrhosis of the liver, preterm birth complications, foetal alcohol syndrome. Dose-response relationships could be quantified for all disease categories except for depressive disorders, with the relative risk increasing with increased level of alcohol consumption for most diseases. Both average volume and drinking pattern were causally linked to IHD, foetal alcohol syndrome, and unintentional and intentional injuries. For IHD, ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus beneficial effects were observed for patterns of light to moderate drinking without heavy drinking occasions (as defined by 60+ grams pure alcohol per day). For several disease and injury categories, the effects were stronger on mortality compared to morbidity. There was insufficient

  15. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  16. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  17. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity.

  18. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  19. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  20. Changing heat-related mortality in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Robert E; Knappenberger, Paul C; Michaels, Patrick J; Novicoff, Wendy M

    2003-01-01

    Heat is the primary weather-related cause of death in the United States. Increasing heat and humidity, at least partially related to anthropogenic climate change, suggest that a long-term increase in heat-related mortality could occur. We calculated the annual excess mortality on days when apparent temperatures--an index that combines air temperature and humidity--exceeded a threshold value for 28 major metropolitan areas in the United States from 1964 through 1998. Heat-related mortality rates declined significantly over time in 19 of the 28 cities. For the 28-city average, there were 41.0 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SE) excess heat-related deaths per year (per standard million) in the 1960s and 1970s, 17.3 +/- 2.7 in the 1980s, and 10.5 +/- 2.0 in the 1990s. In the 1960s and 1970s, almost all study cities exhibited mortality significantly above normal on days with high apparent temperatures. During the 1980s, many cities, particularly those in the typically hot and humid southern United States, experienced no excess mortality. In the 1990s, this effect spread northward across interior cities. This systematic desensitization of the metropolitan populace to high heat and humidity over time can be attributed to a suite of technologic, infrastructural, and biophysical adaptations, including increased availability of air conditioning. PMID:14594620

  1. Ecological integrity of streams related to human cancer mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Hitt, Nathaniel P; Hendryx, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Assessments of ecological integrity have become commonplace for biological conservation, but their role for public health analysis remains largely unexplored. We tested the prediction that the ecological integrity of streams would provide an indicator of human cancer mortality rates in West Virginia, USA. We characterized ecological integrity using an index of benthic macroinvertebrate community structure (West Virginia Stream Condition Index, SCI) and quantified human cancer mortality rates using county-level data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Regression and spatial analyses revealed significant associations between ecological integrity and public health. SCI was negatively related to age-adjusted total cancer mortality per 100,000 people. Respiratory, digestive, urinary, and breast cancer rates increased with ecological disintegrity, but genital and oral cancer rates did not. Smoking, poverty, and urbanization were significantly related to total cancer mortality, but did not explain the observed relationships between ecological integrity and cancer. Coal mining was significantly associated with ecological disintegrity and higher cancer mortality. Spatial analyses also revealed cancer clusters that corresponded to areas of high coal mining intensity. Our results demonstrated significant relationships between ecological integrity and human cancer mortality in West Virginia, and suggested important effects of coal mining on ecological communities and public health. Assessments of ecological integrity therefore may contribute not only to monitoring goals for aquatic life, but also may provide valuable insights for human health and safety.

  2. Family Supports for Children Who Have Alcohol-Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…

  3. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  4. Individual differences in subjective alcohol responses and alcohol-related disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2016-04-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol's disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects-but not sedative-like effects-experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by cued go/no-go task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol's acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  5. The Relation between Stress and Alcohol Use among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Cervantes, Richard C.; Duan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relation between eight domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t-tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in five domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  6. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  7. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed.

  8. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  9. University Students' Knowledge of Alcoholic Drinks and Their Perception of Alcohol-Related Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasking, Penelope; Shortell, Carly; Machalek, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    A total of 371 university students were asked to estimate the amount of alcohol contained in a standard drink and to estimate the number of standard drinks contained in popular alcoholic beverages. In addition, students completed questionnaires assessing their perception of short and long term harm related to the consumption of beer, wine, spirits…

  10. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  12. Mortality experience in relation to a measured arsenic trioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Pinto, S S; Enterline, P E; Henderson, V; Varner, M O

    1977-08-01

    This report examines the mortality experience of 527 men who retired from a copper smelter where they were exposed to airborne arsenic trioxide. Urinary arsenic values of all plant employees were determined in 1973, and the relative arsenic exposure in the various departments of the plant were determined. The relationship of airborne arsenic concentrations to urinary arsenic values was studied in a separate experiment, and the feasibility of using urinary arsenic values as a measure of arsenic exposure was established. The mortality experience of the cohort under study showed them to have a mortality 12.2% higher than was found for males of the same area at the same ages and in the same time period. The excess mortality was due chiefly to respiratory cancer. When the deaths were classified by total lifetime arsenic exposure, the respiratory cancer mortality was linearly related to the amount of exposure. The 1973 figures for arsenic exposure underestimated the exposure of the cohort group by a factor of possibly 10. Evidence was obtained which suggests that after removal from arsenic exposure, the risk of lung cancer declines. Certain of the data which are presented suggests there may be a threshold value for airborne arsenic trioxide exposure below which no adverse effects may be expected.

  13. [Vaccine coverage related to lower mortality for respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Bós, Angelo José Gonçalves; Mirandola, Andrea Ribeiro

    2013-05-01

    Respiratory infections are a group of diseases commonly related to the elderly, since the influenza virus is one of the main etiological agents. Vaccination of these individuals is considered by the World Health Organization to be the most effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality from the disease. Brazil has sought in recent years to vaccinate 80% of the target population. This study sought to relate the vaccination coverage for influenza and the mortality rate from respiratory diseases in the elderly. This was a cross-sectional study with secondary data analysis. Data on vaccination coverage in 2010 of the 496 municipalities of the elderly in Rio Grande do Sul were obtained from the website of the National Immunization Program and mortality in the Mortality Information System. The results showed that 49% of municipalities reached the target of 80% of seniors vaccinated. In municipalities with below target vaccination coverage, the number of deaths was 5.2 per 1,000 elderly. This average is significantly higher than in municipalities with coverage equal to or above 80%. The conclusion is that the target proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Health to vaccinate 80% or more of the elderly is effective in reducing mortality from respiratory diseases. PMID:23670474

  14. Economic status and temperature-related mortality in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Bell, Michelle L.; Kan, Haidong; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon; Kim, Ho

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, low latitude and high temperature are positively associated with the population's ability to adapt to heat. However, few studies have examined the effect of economic status on the relationship between long-term exposure to high temperature and health. We compared heterogeneous temperature-related mortality effects relative to the average summer temperature in high-socioeconomic-status (SES) cities to temperature-related effects in low-SES cities. In the first stage of the research, we conducted a linear regression analysis to quantify the mortality effects of high temperature (at or above the 95th percentile) in 32 cities in Taiwan, China, Japan, and Korea. In the second stage, we used a meta-regression to examine the association between mortality risk with average summer temperature and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. In cities with a low GDP per capita (less than 20,000 USD), the effects of temperature were detrimental to the population if the long-term average summer temperature was high. In contrast, in cities with a high GDP per capita, temperature-related mortality risk was not significantly related to average summer temperature. The relationship between long-term average summer temperature and the short-term effects of high temperatures differed based on the city-level economic status.

  15. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  16. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions.

  17. Early social isolation increases persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior in alcohol-related contexts.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Patiño, Diana M; Serrano, Catalina; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Social conditions during rearing are well known to affect adult alcohol consumption, but few experiments have explored the effects of social conditions on behaviors that are related to alcohol dependence, such as the persistence of alcohol seeking. This study compared the effects of isolation (ISO) and interaction (INT) rearing on the persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to lever press for a solution of 10% alcohol diluted in water. They were then exposed to a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement (baseline). Responses in one component were reinforced by a higher rate of alcohol delivery (rich component, variable interval 15 s) and responses in the other component were reinforced by a lower rate of delivery (lean component, variable interval 45 s). The persistence of lever pressing in the presence of each stimulus was then assessed during extinction. The results from baseline showed that response rates in rats in both groups were higher in the rich component than in the lean component, but ISO rats responded significantly more than INT rats in both components. The persistence of responding during extinction in ISO rats in both components was also higher than that in INT rats. The results show that effects of ISO are not restricted to alcohol consumption, but also affect persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior, which may reflect differences in the value of drug-related stimuli. PMID:26881772

  18. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  19. Improving the accuracy of maternal mortality and pregnancy related death.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Burk

    2014-01-01

    Comparing abortion-related death and pregnancy-related death remains difficult due to the limitations within the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD). These methods lack a systematic and comprehensive method of collecting complete records regarding abortion outcomes in each state and fail to properly identify longitudinal cause of death related to induced abortion. This article seeks to analyze the current method of comparing abortion-related death with pregnancy-related death and provide solutions to improve data collection regarding these subjects.

  20. Modeling the impact of alcohol dependence on mortality burden and the effect of available treatment interventions in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Shield, K D; Gmel, G; Rehm, M X; Frick, U

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for the burden of disease, and Alcohol Dependence (AD) is the most important disorder attributable to this behavior. The objective of this study was to quantify mortality associated with AD and the potential impact of treatment. For the EU countries, for the age group 15-64 years, mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in general, to heavy drinking, and to AD were estimated based on the latest data on exposure and mortality. Potential effects of AD treatment were modeled based on Cochrane and other systematic reviews of the effectiveness of the best known and most effective interventions. In the EU 88.9% of men and 82.1% of women aged 15-64 years were current drinkers; and 15.3% of men and 3.4% of women in this age group were heavy drinkers. AD affected 5.4% of men and 1.5% of women. The net burden caused by alcohol consumption was 1 in 7 deaths in men and 1 in 13 deaths in women. The majority of this burden was due to heavy drinking (77%), and 71% of this burden was due to AD. Increasing treatment coverage for the most effective treatments to 40% of all people with AD was estimated to reduce alcohol-attributable mortality by 13% for men and 9% for women (annually 10,000 male and 1700 female deaths avoided). Increasing treatment rates for AD was identified as an important issue for future public health strategies to reduce alcohol-attributable harm and to complement the current focus of alcohol policy.

  1. Impact of alcohol-related video sequences on functional MRI in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Krienke, Ute J; Nikesch, Florian; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Hennig, Jürgen; Olbrich, Hans M; Langosch, Jens M

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was the identification of brain areas that were significantly more connected than other regions with a previously identified reference region, the posterior cingulate cortex, during the presentation of visual cues in alcoholics. Alcohol-related and neutral video sequences were presented to 30 alcoholics who had been abstinent for at least 4 days. Participants underwent a psychometric assessment before and after the presentation of the video sequences. Functional MRI data were acquired. Psychophysiological interaction analyses were carried out. Participants reported a significant increase in craving and arousal after the presentation of alcohol-related video sequences. The simple contrast alcohol versus neutral was found not to be significantly different in the present study. The brain regions that were found to correlate significantly more with the posterior cingulate cortex under the alcohol-related condition were the inferior parietal lobe, the medial temporal lobe, the inferior frontal gyrus, the postcentral gyrus, and the precuneus. The involvement of these regions in processes of memory, self-control, and self-reflection with a particular focus on alcohol dependence and craving will be discussed.

  2. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems. Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79–1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42–1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04–1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82–1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03–1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00–1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41–1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61–1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1

  3. Dynamics of biomarkers in relation to aging and mortality.

    PubMed

    Arbeev, Konstantin G; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Yashin, Anatoliy I

    2016-06-01

    Contemporary longitudinal studies collect repeated measurements of biomarkers allowing one to analyze their dynamics in relation to mortality, morbidity, or other health-related outcomes. Rich and diverse data collected in such studies provide opportunities to investigate how various socio-economic, demographic, behavioral and other variables can interact with biological and genetic factors to produce differential rates of aging in individuals. In this paper, we review some recent publications investigating dynamics of biomarkers in relation to mortality, which use single biomarkers as well as cumulative measures combining information from multiple biomarkers. We also discuss the analytical approach, the stochastic process models, which conceptualizes several aging-related mechanisms in the structure of the model and allows evaluating "hidden" characteristics of aging-related changes indirectly from available longitudinal data on biomarkers and follow-up on mortality or onset of diseases taking into account other relevant factors (both genetic and non-genetic). We also discuss an extension of the approach, which considers ranges of "optimal values" of biomarkers rather than a single optimal value as in the original model. We discuss practical applications of the approach to single biomarkers and cumulative measures highlighting that the potential of applications to cumulative measures is still largely underused. PMID:27138087

  4. Effect of genotype x alcoholism interaction on linkage analysis of an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rector; Dyer, Thomas D; Warren, Diane M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Almasy, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown that genetic and environmental factors and their interactions affect several alcoholism phenotypes. Genotype x alcoholism (GxA) interaction refers to the environmental (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) influences on the autosomal genes contributing to variation in an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GxA interaction on the detection of linkage for alcoholism-related phenotypes. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism relating to 1,388 subjects as part of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 problem 1. We analyzed the MXDRNK phenotype to detect GxA interaction using SOLAR. Upon detecting significant interaction, we conducted variance-component linkage analyses using microsatellite marker data. For maximum number of drinks per a 24 hour period, the highest LODs were observed on chromosomes 1, 4, and 13 without GxA interaction. Interaction analysis yielded four regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 13, and 15. On chromosome 4, a maximum LOD of 1.5 at the same location as the initial analysis was obtained after incorporating GxA interaction effects. However, after correcting for extra parameters, the LOD score was reduced to a corrected LOD of 1.1, which is similar to the LOD observed in the non-interaction analysis. Thus, we see little differences in LOD scores, while some linkage regions showed large differences in the magnitudes of estimated quantitative trait loci heritabilities between the alcoholic and non-alcoholic groups. These potential hints of differences in genetic effect may influence future analyses of variants under these linkage peaks.

  5. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  6. Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Hernandez, Aitor; Gea, Alfredo; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Toledo, Estefania; Beunza, Juan-José; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We assessed the still unclear effect of the overall alcohol-drinking pattern, beyond the amount of alcohol consumed, on the incidence of cardiovascular clinical disease (CVD). Methods: We followed 14,651 participants during up to 14 years. We built a score assessing simultaneously seven dimensions of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP). It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, preference for wine, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. Results: During 142,177 person-years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality) were identified. Compared with the category of better conformity with the MADP, the low-adherence group exhibited a non-significantly higher risk (HR) of total CVD ((95% CI) = 1.55 (0.58–4.16)). This direct association with a departure from the traditional MADP was even stronger for cardiovascular mortality (HR (95% CI) = 3.35 (0.77–14.5)). Nevertheless, all these associations were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Better conformity with the MADP seemed to be associated with lower cardiovascular risk in most point estimates; however, no significant results were found and more powered studies are needed to clarify the role of the MADP on CVD. PMID:26556367

  7. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  8. Early Alcohol Initiation Increases Risk Related to Drinking among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…

  9. Alcohol Expectancies in Relation to Personality and Aggression among Juvenile Delinquents in Northern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman A.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Sidorov, Pavel I.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related…

  10. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol.

  11. [Abortion-related mortality in Brazil: decrease in spatial inequality].

    PubMed

    Lima, B G

    2000-03-01

    Abortion is not only a major cause of obstetric hospitalization in poor countries, but it also represents the failure of the public health system to provide enough information about contraceptive methods and thus prevent pregnancies. In Brazil, the high utilization rates of health facilities due to abortions reflect the ongoing difficulties with family planning and contraception. In addition, mortality resulting from abortions serves as an indicator of the quality of abortion procedures, an important point in a country where the practice is illegal and therefore done clandestinely. In this study, we analyzed the rates of mortality resulting from abortions among women 10 to 54 years old, including women who died from spontaneous and induced abortion, from 1980 to 1995, for the various regions of the country. The information we used came from the mortality data bank of the public health system of the Ministry of Health. Population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics. We studied 2,602 deaths, 15% of which were due to missed abortion, spontaneous abortion, or legally permitted induced abortion. The other 85% of the deaths were due to illegal induced abortions or to nonspecified abortions. The mortality rates from abortion-related causes have steadily decreased in all the regions of Brazil, but this improvement has been unevenly distributed in the country. The region with the smallest decrease in this rate (38% over 15 years) was the Northeast. The age of women dying from abortions progressively declined over the period studied.

  12. Event-Related Oscillations in Alcoholism Research: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized as a multi-factorial disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental liabilities across development. A variety of neurocognitive deficits/dysfunctions involving impairments in different brain regions and/or neural circuitries have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcoholism. Several neurobiological and neurobehavioral approaches and methods of analyses have been used to understand the nature of these neurocognitive impairments/deficits in alcoholism. In the present review, we have examined relatively novel methods of analyses of the brain signals that are collectively referred to as event-related oscillations (EROs) and show promise to further our understanding of human brain dynamics while performing various tasks. These new measures of dynamic brain processes have exquisite temporal resolution and allow the study of neural networks underlying responses to sensory and cognitive events, thus providing a closer link to the physiology underlying them. Here, we have reviewed EROs in the study of alcoholism, their usefulness in understanding dynamical brain functions/dysfunctions associated with alcoholism as well as their utility as effective endophenotypes to identify and understand genes associated with both brain oscillations and alcoholism. PMID:24273686

  13. Event-Related Oscillations in Alcoholism Research: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashwini K; Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Porjesz, Bernice

    2012-01-12

    Alcohol dependence is characterized as a multi-factorial disorder caused by a complex interaction between genetic and environmental liabilities across development. A variety of neurocognitive deficits/dysfunctions involving impairments in different brain regions and/or neural circuitries have been associated with chronic alcoholism, as well as with a predisposition to develop alcoholism. Several neurobiological and neurobehavioral approaches and methods of analyses have been used to understand the nature of these neurocognitive impairments/deficits in alcoholism. In the present review, we have examined relatively novel methods of analyses of the brain signals that are collectively referred to as event-related oscillations (EROs) and show promise to further our understanding of human brain dynamics while performing various tasks. These new measures of dynamic brain processes have exquisite temporal resolution and allow the study of neural networks underlying responses to sensory and cognitive events, thus providing a closer link to the physiology underlying them. Here, we have reviewed EROs in the study of alcoholism, their usefulness in understanding dynamical brain functions/dysfunctions associated with alcoholism as well as their utility as effective endophenotypes to identify and understand genes associated with both brain oscillations and alcoholism.

  14. Assessing the Representativeness of Population-Sampled Health Surveys Through Linkage to Administrative Data on Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Emma; Leyland, Alastair H.; McCartney, Gerry; White, Ian R.; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Rutherford, Lisa; Graham, Lesley; Gray, Linsay

    2014-01-01

    Health surveys are an important resource for monitoring population health, but selective nonresponse may impede valid inference. This study aimed to assess nonresponse bias in a population-sampled health survey in Scotland, with a focus on alcohol-related outcomes. Nonresponse bias was assessed by examining whether rates of alcohol-related harm (i.e., hospitalization or death) and all-cause mortality among respondents to the Scottish Health Surveys (from 1995 to 2010) were equivalent to those in the general population, and whether the extent of any bias varied according to sociodemographic attributes or over time. Data from consenting respondents (aged 20–64 years) to 6 Scottish Health Surveys were confidentially linked to death and hospitalization records and compared with general population counterparts. Directly age-standardized incidence rates of alcohol-related harm and all-cause mortality were lower among Scottish Health Survey respondents compared with the general population. For all years combined, the survey-to-population rate ratios were 0.69 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.76) for the incidence of alcohol-related harm and 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.96) for all-cause mortality. Bias was more pronounced among persons residing in more deprived areas; limited evidence was found for regional or temporal variation. This suggests that corresponding underestimation of population rates of alcohol consumption is likely to be socially patterned. PMID:25227767

  15. The Role on Endoscopy in Alcohol-Related Diseases.

    PubMed

    Frieri, Giuseppe; Galletti, Brigida; Serva, Donatella; Viscido, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol, in addition to well-known damages on the liver and pancreas, produces direct and indirect injuries in the mucosa of the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine and large bowel. Different damages can be produced both when a large amount of alcohol is acutely drunk and when this is taken chronically. Almost all these lesions can be detected and treated by endoscopy as shown in the present article. When, over time, cirrhosis ensues the role of endoscopy is not different from that played with cirrhosis of different etiology. Beside hemorrhagic episodes, esophagitis, gastritis and cancer are the main alcohol related diseases that can be managed by endoscopy. PMID:27515959

  16. Multiple Myeloma Mortality in Relation to Obesity Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Bethea, Traci N; Kitahara, Cari M; Patel, Alpa V; Harvey, Chinonye; Knutsen, Synnøve F; Park, Yikyung; Park, Song-Yi; Fraser, Gary E; Teras, Lauren R; Purdue, Mark P; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Palmer, Julie R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Blot, William J

    2016-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence and mortality are higher among African Americans (AAs) than among other population groups. The prevalence of obesity is also elevated among AAs, but few studies have examined risk of this cancer in relation to body size among AAs. We combined data from seven prospective cohorts tracking mortality among 239 597 AA adults and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death because of MM according to body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry, adjusted for age (as time-scale) and sex. Relative to those with normal BMIs (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), mortality increased monotonically as BMI increased, with hazard ratios reaching 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.97) for BMIs of 35 kg/m(2) or greater. The findings suggest that obesity is a risk factor for MM and a contributor to the elevated rates and rising incidence trends of MM among AAs in the United States. PMID:27147231

  17. Multiple Myeloma Mortality in Relation to Obesity Among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Sonderman, Jennifer S; Bethea, Traci N; Kitahara, Cari M; Patel, Alpa V; Harvey, Chinonye; Knutsen, Synnøve F; Park, Yikyung; Park, Song-Yi; Fraser, Gary E; Teras, Lauren R; Purdue, Mark P; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Palmer, Julie R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Blot, William J

    2016-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) incidence and mortality are higher among African Americans (AAs) than among other population groups. The prevalence of obesity is also elevated among AAs, but few studies have examined risk of this cancer in relation to body size among AAs. We combined data from seven prospective cohorts tracking mortality among 239 597 AA adults and used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death because of MM according to body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry, adjusted for age (as time-scale) and sex. Relative to those with normal BMIs (18.5-25 kg/m(2)), mortality increased monotonically as BMI increased, with hazard ratios reaching 1.43 (95% CI = 1.03 to 1.97) for BMIs of 35 kg/m(2) or greater. The findings suggest that obesity is a risk factor for MM and a contributor to the elevated rates and rising incidence trends of MM among AAs in the United States.

  18. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  19. Mortality surveillance: 2004 to 2005 Florida hurricane-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Patricia; Schulte, Joann; Nelson, Stephen J; Jones, Ken T

    2008-06-01

    During 2004 and 2005, Florida was struck by 8 hurricanes, resulting in 213 deaths. The Department of Health and Florida medical examiners monitor hurricane mortality surveillance. This study analyzed hurricane-related deaths reported by the Florida Medical Examiners Commission for 2004 to 2005. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the Florida hurricane-related mortality for 2004 and 2005, (2) accurately characterize the hurricane-related deaths, and (3) identify strategies to prevent or reduce future hurricane deaths. For 2004, there were 144 total hurricane-related deaths. The majority (59%) occurred in the postimpact phase, with accidents accounting for 76% of deaths. Among these, over half were caused by trauma, followed by drowning, other injury, electrocution, and carbon monoxide poisoning. For 2005, there were 69 hurricane-related deaths. Sixty-one percent of deaths occurred in the postimpact phase, with accidents accounting for 86% of all deaths. Among these, over half were due to trauma, with drowning and carbon monoxide poisoning being the other major contributors. Most hurricane-related deaths are due to unintentional injury and therefore, preventable. Seventy-nine percent of deaths are in those aged 40 and older. Prevention messages should target high-risk, postimpact activities, especially in older adults.

  20. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  1. Alcohol consumption and negative sex-related consequences among college women: the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS-controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction strategies-on the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior and sexual victimization. Participants were 459 undergraduate women (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Both types of PBS significantly qualified the alcohol-sexual victimization link, but neither type of PBS qualified the alcohol-risky sexual behavior link.

  2. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. PMID:24160240

  3. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  4. Out of control mortality matters: the effect of perceived uncontrollable mortality risk on a health-related decision

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit) and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate). Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours. PMID:25024922

  5. Computer-aided diagnosis of alcoholism-related EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; S, Vidya; Bhat, Shreya; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholism is a severe disorder that affects the functionality of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and alters the behavior of the affected person. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of subjects with alcoholism. The neurophysiological interpretation of EEG signals in persons with alcoholism (PWA) is based on observation and interpretation of the frequency and power in their EEGs compared to EEG signals from persons without alcoholism. This paper presents a review of the known features of EEGs obtained from PWA and proposes that the impact of alcoholism on the brain can be determined by computer-aided analysis of EEGs through extracting the minute variations in the EEG signals that can differentiate the EEGs of PWA from those of nonaffected persons. The authors advance the idea of automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of alcoholism by employing the EEG signals. This is achieved through judicious combination of signal processing techniques such as wavelet, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos theory and pattern recognition and classification techniques. A CAD system is cost-effective and efficient and can be used as a decision support system by physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of alcoholism especially those who do not specialize in alcoholism or neurophysiology. It can also be of great value to rehabilitation centers to assess PWA over time and to monitor the impact of treatment aimed at minimizing or reversing the effects of the disease on the brain. A CAD system can be used to determine the extent of alcoholism-related changes in EEG signals (low, medium, high) and the effectiveness of therapeutic plans.

  6. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  7. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    PubMed

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  8. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  9. [Impact of acute alcoholism on the women's mortality in the northern region of Slovak Republic].

    PubMed

    Straka, L; Stuller, F; Novomeský, F; Zelený, M

    2009-10-01

    Problem of women's alcoholism doesn't belong among main topics of Slovak or Czech public discussions. Though everyone meeting the phenomenon of women's alcoholism can feel the fatal consequences of this mistake, our society used to perceive alcoholism as a men's problem. The authors performed the complex analysis of the mortuary files with particular focusing on the cases of women's deaths caused by alcohol intoxication, and the cases of deaths where an alcohol played the dominating role, in the northern regions of Slovak republic. Submitted article is author's next referring to urgent need of public discussion concerning the alcohol consumption in Slovakia, the phenomenon being widely tolerated by the society. PMID:20302040

  10. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  11. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  12. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1) alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2) alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3) Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4) alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1) multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2) spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics, geographical information science

  13. Work-related mortality among older farmers in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Voaklander, D. C.; Hartling, L.; Pickett, W.; Dimich-Ward, H.; Brison, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency and circumstances of work-related, fatal injuries among older farmers in Canada (1991 to 1995). DESIGN: Descriptive, epidemiologic analysis of data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Farmers aged 60 and older who died from work-related injuries from 1991 through 1995. METHOD: Age-adjusted mortality rates were calculated using the Canadian farm population as a standard for people involved, mechanism of injury, and place and time of injury. MAIN FINDINGS: The 183 work-related fatalities observed produced an overall mortality rate of 32.8 per 100,000 population per year. Higher fatality rates were observed in Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces. Almost all of those who died (98%) were men. Farm owner-operators accounted for 82.8% of the deaths (where the relationship of the person to the farm owner was reported). Leading mechanisms of fatal injury included tractor rollovers, being struck or crushed by objects, and being run over by machinery. Many older farmers appeared to be working alone at the time of injury. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that older farmers died while performing tasks common to general farm work, that most were owner-operators, and that many were working alone at the time of death. Innovative ways to reduce work-related injuries in this population must be found. PMID:10626056

  14. The burden of alcohol use: excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual's genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences of college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article examines recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies.

  15. Hypothermia-related mortality--Montana, 1999-2004.

    PubMed

    2007-04-20

    Hypothermia, defined as a core body temperature of <95 degrees F (35 degrees C), occurs in persons exposed to excessive cold. Although hypothermia can be fatal, it also is preventable. Risk factors for death from hypothermia include advanced age, substance abuse, altered mental status, and increased contact with substances that promote heat loss, such as water. Montana has an intensely cold and long winter. In December, the average daily minimum temperature is approximately 18.0 degrees F (-7.7 degrees C) and can remain at that level until March. For the entire year in Montana, the average daily minimum temperature is 35.9 degrees F (2.2 degrees C). During the period 1999-2004, Montana had the second highest (after Alaska) average annual hypothermia-related mortality rate (1.08 deaths per 100,000 population) in the United States, approximately five times greater than the U.S. rate overall. This report describes three examples of case reports of hypothermia-related deaths in Montana during 2005-2006, summarizes hypothermia-related mortality in the state during 1999-2004 (the most recent period for which annual data were available), and discusses hypothermia risk factors and prevention measures. Enhanced education and intervention strategies, particularly targeted to older adults, might reduce the number of deaths from hypothermia in Montana. PMID:17443122

  16. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16-10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis.

  17. AST to Platelet Ratio Index Predicts Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Hepatitis B-Related Decompensated Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Weilin; Sun, Qinqin; Fan, Jian; Lin, Sha; Ye, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) has originally been considered as a noninvasive marker for detecting hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. APRI has been used for predicting liver-related mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection or alcoholic liver disease. However, whether APRI could be useful for predicting mortality in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unevaluated. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. A total of 193 hospitalized chronic HBV-infected patients (cirrhosis, n = 100; noncirrhosis, n = 93) and 88 healthy subjects were retrospectively enrolled. All patients were followed up for 4 months. Mortality that occurred within 90 days of hospital stay was compared among patients with different APRI. APRI predictive value was evaluated by univariate and multivariate regression embedded in a Cox proportional hazards model. APRI varied significantly in our cohort (range, 0.16–10.00). Elevated APRI was associated with increased severity of liver disease and 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related cirrhosis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that APRI (odds ratio: 1.456, P < 0.001) and the model for end-stage liver disease score (odds ratio: 1.194, P < 0.001) were 2 independent markers for predicting mortality. APRI is a simple marker that may serve as an additional predictor of 3-month mortality in hospitalized patients with HBV-related decompensated cirrhosis. PMID:26945406

  18. Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8% of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25% of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm. PMID:24863376

  19. Pre-drinking and alcohol-related harm in undergraduates: the influence of explicit motives and implicit alcohol identity.

    PubMed

    Caudwell, Kim M; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated how pre-drinking could be explained using a model based on dual-systems theory, incorporating measures of explicit and implicit constructs. Undergraduate students (N = 144; 44 male; 100 female; M age = 20.1 years), completed an online survey comprising measures of pre-drinking motives, a measure of pre-drinking cost motives, and an alcohol identity implicit association test. Variance-based structural equation modelling revealed that the predictors explained 34.8% of the variance in typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and 25% of the variance in alcohol-related harm. Cost, interpersonal enhancement, and barriers to consumption motives predicted higher typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption and greater alcohol-related harm. Higher situational control scores predicted lower typical pre-drinking alcohol consumption, and lower alcohol-related harm. Positive implicit alcohol identity predicted alcohol-related harm, but not typical alcohol consumption. Results indicate that a dual-systems approach to pre-drinking has utility in predicting alcohol-related harm and may inform interventions to reduce excessive alcohol consumption and associated harm.

  20. Alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment among college students: a behavioral theories of choice analysis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Barnett, Nancy P; Colby, Suzanne M

    2006-08-01

    College student alcohol abuse remains a significant public health problem, and there is a need for theory-driven and empirically based models to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral theories of choice assume that the decision to consume alcohol is influenced by the relative value of alcohol versus other available activities. In the present study, a sample of college student drinkers (N=108; 56% female, 44% male) who had previously completed a mandatory alcohol intervention completed a measure of alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment. The goals of the study were to examine the influence of drinking quantity and contextual variables on activity enjoyment and to identify enjoyable alcohol-free activities that take place on evenings when students might otherwise be drinking. Overall, students found alcohol-related activities more enjoyable than alcohol-free activities, and drinking quantity was positively related to enjoyment. However, alcohol-free activities such as watching movies, going to the theater or museums, going to bars or parties, hanging out with friends, eating at restaurants, and engaging in creative activity were generally as enjoyable as drinking. Alcohol-free activities that included peers or dates were more enjoyable than solitary activities. Men were less likely to engage in alcohol-free activities that included peers and reported less enjoyment related to alcohol-free activities than did women. Further research is required to identify procedures for increasing participation in alcohol-free activities and to determine whether increased alcohol-free activity participation results in decreased alcohol consumption. PMID:16893277

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  2. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Brand, Rhonda M; Stottlemyer, John Mark; Cline, Rachel A; Donahue, Cara; Behari, Jaideep; Falo, Louis D

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH)-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD) and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC) diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM), directly to liver (hydrodynamic), or cutaneously (biolistic, ID). We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects. PMID:26561838

  3. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations. PMID:25466934

  4. Regional variation in incidence for smoking and alcohol related cancers in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Henau, Kris; Van Eycken, Elizabeth; Silversmit, Geert; Pukkala, Eero

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of life habits may vary substantially within a country. Incidence maps of strongly related diseases can illustrate the distribution of these life style habits. In this study we explored the spatial variation in Belgium for different cancers related to alcohol and/or tobacco. From the Belgian Cancer Registry, municipality specific World Standardised incidence rates for the years 2004-2011 are used to create detailed smoothed cancer maps by subsite or histology for cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, liver and lung. Cancer incidence is compared both visually (from incidence maps) and with Poisson regression analysis using mortality from chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a proxy for alcohol and tobacco prevalence, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cavity, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer were comparable with the alcohol gradient. However, glottic cancer revealed a pattern that was more comparable with lung cancer. These two tumour types resembled more closely to the smoking pattern. Oesophageal cancer showed two patterns: squamous cell carcinoma was highly comparable with the background alcohol consumption, while adenocarcinoma was unrelated to one of our two proxies. Our approach and results are an encouraging example how data from a young cancer registry can be used in studies describing the regional cancer burden. The results can be useful for primary prevention to increase awareness for the public, authorities and health care professionals in specific subpopulations.

  5. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  6. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  7. Executive Functioning, Irritability, and Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Godlaski, Aaron J.; Giancola, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine: a) whether irritability mediates the relation between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol-related aggression and b) whether the alcohol-aggression relation is better explained by the interactive effects of EF and irritability above and beyond the effects of either variable alone. EF was measured using seven well-established neuropsychological tests. Irritability was assessed with the Caprara Irritability Scale. Participants were 313 male and female social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. Following the consumption of an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a laboratory aggression task in which electric shocks were given to and received from a fictitious opponent under the guise of a competitive reaction-time task. Aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities administered to the fictitious opponent. Results indicated that irritability successfully mediated the relation between EF and intoxicated aggression for men only. Despite the fact that irritability and EF both independently moderated the alcohol-aggression relation in previous studies, no significant interaction for their combined effect was detected here. The findings are discussed, in part, within a cognitive neoassociationistic framework for aggressive behavior. PMID:19769424

  8. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida.

    PubMed

    Precht, William F; Gintert, Brooke E; Robbart, Martha L; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (<5%), and are not considered contagious. By contrast, we document the impact of an extremely high-prevalence outbreak (61%) of white-plague disease at 14 sites off southeastern Florida. White-plague disease was observed near Virginia Key, Florida, in September 2014, and after 12 months had spread 100 km north and 30 km south. The disease outbreak directly followed a high temperature coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to <3% of their initial population densities. A number of other coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to <25% of their initial densities. The high prevalence of disease, the number of susceptible species, and the high mortality of corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  9. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida

    PubMed Central

    Precht, William F.; Gintert, Brooke E.; Robbart, Martha L.; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (<5%), and are not considered contagious. By contrast, we document the impact of an extremely high-prevalence outbreak (61%) of white-plague disease at 14 sites off southeastern Florida. White-plague disease was observed near Virginia Key, Florida, in September 2014, and after 12 months had spread 100 km north and 30 km south. The disease outbreak directly followed a high temperature coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to <3% of their initial population densities. A number of other coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to <25% of their initial densities. The high prevalence of disease, the number of susceptible species, and the high mortality of corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef. PMID:27506875

  10. Unprecedented Disease-Related Coral Mortality in Southeastern Florida.

    PubMed

    Precht, William F; Gintert, Brooke E; Robbart, Martha L; Fura, Ryan; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-08-10

    Anomalously high water temperatures, associated with climate change, are increasing the global prevalence of coral bleaching, coral diseases, and coral-mortality events. Coral bleaching and disease outbreaks are often inter-related phenomena, since many coral diseases are a consequence of opportunistic pathogens that further compromise thermally stressed colonies. Yet, most coral diseases have low prevalence (<5%), and are not considered contagious. By contrast, we document the impact of an extremely high-prevalence outbreak (61%) of white-plague disease at 14 sites off southeastern Florida. White-plague disease was observed near Virginia Key, Florida, in September 2014, and after 12 months had spread 100 km north and 30 km south. The disease outbreak directly followed a high temperature coral-bleaching event and affected at least 13 coral species. Eusmilia fastigiata, Meandrina meandrites, and Dichocoenia stokesi were the most heavily impacted coral species, and were reduced to <3% of their initial population densities. A number of other coral species, including Colpophyllia natans, Pseudodiploria strigosa, Diploria labyrinthiformis, and Orbicella annularis were reduced to <25% of their initial densities. The high prevalence of disease, the number of susceptible species, and the high mortality of corals affected suggests this disease outbreak is arguably one of the most lethal ever recorded on a contemporary coral reef.

  11. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  12. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  13. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Bendimerad, Patrick; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Perney, Pascal; Dematteis, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. PMID:25402563

  14. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation.

  15. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  16. Traumatic work related mortality among seafarers employed in British merchant shipping, 1976–2002

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S; Marlow, P

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To establish the causes and circumstances of all traumatic work related deaths among seafarers who were employed in British merchant shipping from 1976 to 2002, and to assess whether seafaring is still a hazardous occupation as well as a high risk occupation for suicide. Methods: A longitudinal study of occupational mortality, based on official mortality files, with a population of 1 136 427 seafarer-years at risk. Results: Of 835 traumatic work related deaths, 564 were caused by accidents, 55 by suicide, 17 by homicide, and 14 by drug or alcohol poisoning. The circumstances in which the other 185 deaths occurred, including 178 seafarers who disappeared at sea or were found drowned, were undetermined. The mortality rate for 530 fatal accidents that occurred at the workplace from 1976 to 2002, 46.6 per 100 000 seafarer-years, was 27.8 times higher than in the general workforce in Great Britain during the same time period. The fatal accident rate declined sharply since the 1970s, but the relative risk of a fatal accident was 16.0 in 1996–2002. There was no reduction in the suicide rate, which was comparable to that in most high risk occupations in Britain, from 1976 to 1995; but a decline since 1995. Conclusions: Although there was a large decline in the fatal accident rate in British shipping, compared to the general workforce, seafaring has remained a hazardous occupation. Further prevention should focus on improvements in safety awareness among seafarers and shipping companies, reductions in hazardous working practices, and improvements in care for seafarers at risk of suicide. PMID:15723882

  17. Poor nutrition and alcohol consumption are related to high serum homocysteine level at post-stroke

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Kim, Min-Sun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Increased serum homocysteine (Hcy) levels have been reported to be related to the occurrence of cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. High serum Hcy levels are also related to the development of secondary stroke and all-cause mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of high serum homocysteine level and relating factors, and the change over the 10 month period post-stroke. SUBJECTS/METHODS Consecutive stroke patients who were admitted to the Asan Medical Center were enrolled. Ten months after the onset of stroke, an interview with a structured questionnaire was performed and blood samples were obtained for the biochemical parameters. Nutritional status was determined using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) score and dietary nutrient intakes were also obtained using a 24 hour recall method. RESULTS Out of 203 patients, 84% were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, and 26% had high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke. Using logistic regression, the factors related with high homocysteine levels at 10 months post-stroke included heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.020), low MNA scores (P = 0.026), low serum vitamin B12 (P = 0.021) and low serum folate levels (P = 0.003). Of the 156 patients who had normal homocysteine levels at admission, 36 patients developed hyperhomocysteinemia 10 months post-stroke, which was related to heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). Persistent hyperhomocysteinemia, observed in 22 patients (11%), was related to male sex (P = 0.031), old age (P = 0.042), low vitamin B6 intake (P = 0.029), and heavy alcohol consumption (P = 0.013). CONCLUSION Hyperhomocysteinemia is common in post-stroke, and is related to malnutrition, heavy alcohol drinking and low serum level of folate and vitamin B12. Strategies to prevent or manage high homocysteine levels should consider these factors. PMID:26425280

  18. [Regional early mortality in relation to social and hospital structure].

    PubMed

    Obladen, M

    1985-01-01

    Detailed analysis of governmental mortality statistics yields information on regional differences in the care for preterm infants in West Germany. 68% of newborn infants dying within the first 7 days of life are of low birth weight. In the 11 states, highest/lowest early neonatal mortality fell from 11.6/6.0 to 6.2/3.1 during the years 1978 to 1982. In the 31 administrative districts, a small negative correlation (r = -0.37) exists for neonatal mortality and tax revenue. Increased regional mortality indicates diminished regionalization of perinatal care for preterm infants.

  19. Effects on alcohol related fatal crashes of a community based initiative to increase substance abuse treatment and reduce alcohol availability

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol misuse among adolescents is a common issue worldwide and is an emerging problem in China. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents and to explore their risk factors and connections.A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire was conducted among junior and senior high school students between 2010 and 2012. Data on self-reported alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, school factors, family factors, and psychosocial factors were collected. Descriptive analyses were made of the proportions of sociodemographics, family, school, and psychosocial factors. Multilevel logistic regression models were conducted to analyze the risk factors for alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems.Of the 105,752 students who ranged in age from 9 to 21 years, the prevalence of current drinking among students was 7.3%, and 13.2% students reported having alcohol-related problems. Male students were 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69-1.87) times more likely to be involved in current drinking and 1.86 (95% CI = 1.79-1.93) times more likely to have alcohol-related problems. Higher grade level students were at a higher risk of current drinking (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.13) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.42-1.58). Older students were more likely to report current drinking (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.17) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.82-1.85). Having poor classmate relations (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03-1.37), having poor relationships with teachers (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00-1.16), and below average academic achievement (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.41-1.59) were positively associated with current drinking. Moreover, students with suicidal ideation were at a higher risk of current drinking (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.61-1.81) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.98-2.16). Having higher Center

  3. Relation between Temperature and Mortality in Thirteen Spanish Cities

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Ferrandiz, Juan; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sáez, Marc; López, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT) and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT) were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects were greater in hotter cities but lesser in cities with higher variability. The effect of heat was greater than the effect of cold. The effect of cold and MMT was, in general, greater for cardio-respiratory mortality than for total mortality, while the effect of heat was, in general, greater among the elderly. PMID:20948955

  4. Factors related to alcohol and drug consumption in Swedish widows.

    PubMed

    Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used. PMID:18550778

  5. Cortical morphology in children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rajaprakash, Meghna; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Rovet, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that individuals exposed to alcohol in utero have reduced cortical grey matter volumes. However, the candidate determinants of these reductions, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), have not been investigated exclusively in alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), the most prevalent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder subgroup that lacks the characteristic facial dysmorphology. Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 88 participants (8–16 years), 36 diagnosed with ARND and 52 typically developing controls. Scans were submitted to the CIVET pipeline (version 1.1.10). Deformable models were used to construct the inner white matter surfaces and pial surfaces from which CT and SA measures were derived. Group differences in cortical volume, CT, and SA were computed using a general linear model covaried for age, sex, and handedness. Results Global cortical volume reductions in ARND did not reflect CT, which did not differ between groups. Instead, volume decreases were consistent with global SA reductions in bilateral frontal and temporal as well as right occipital regions. Local reductions in SA were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right occipital-temporal region. Conclusion Results suggest that in ARND, prenatal alcohol exposure perturbs global SA to a greater degree than CT, particularly in the right temporal lobe. PMID:24653953

  6. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  7. Influenza-Related Mortality Trends in Japanese and American Seniors: Evidence for the Indirect Mortality Benefits of Vaccinating Schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Charu, Vivek; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Shinjoh, Masayoshi; Chowell, Gerardo; Miller, Mark; Sugaya, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Background The historical Japanese influenza vaccination program targeted at schoolchildren provides a unique opportunity to evaluate the indirect benefits of vaccinating high-transmitter groups to mitigate disease burden among seniors. Here we characterize the indirect mortality benefits of vaccinating schoolchildren based on data from Japan and the US. Methods We compared age-specific influenza-related excess mortality rates in Japanese seniors aged ≥65 years during the schoolchildren vaccination program (1978–1994) and after the program was discontinued (1995–2006). Indirect vaccine benefits were adjusted for demographic changes, socioeconomics and dominant influenza subtype; US mortality data were used as a control. Results We estimate that the schoolchildren vaccination program conferred a 36% adjusted mortality reduction among Japanese seniors (95%CI: 17–51%), corresponding to ∼1,000 senior deaths averted by vaccination annually (95%CI: 400–1,800). In contrast, influenza-related mortality did not change among US seniors, despite increasing vaccine coverage in this population. Conclusions The Japanese schoolchildren vaccination program was associated with substantial indirect mortality benefits in seniors. PMID:22087226

  8. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  9. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.; Peto, R.; Wheatley, K.; Gray, R.; Sutherland, I.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the hazards associated with long term use of tobacco. DESIGN--Prospective study of mortality in relation to smoking habits assessed in 1951 and again from time to time thereafter, with causes sought of deaths over 40 years (to 1991). Continuation of a study that was last reported after 20 years' follow up (1951-71). SUBJECTS--34,439 British male doctors who replied to a postal questionnaire in 1951, of whom 10,000 had died during the first 20 years and another 10,000 have died during the second 20 years. RESULTS--Excess mortality associated with smoking was about twice as extreme during the second half of the study as it had been during the first half. The death rate ratios during 1971-91 (comparing continuing cigarette smokers with life-long non-smokers) were approximately threefold at ages 45-64 and twofold at ages 65-84. The excess mortality was chiefly from diseases that can be caused by smoking. Positive associations with smoking were confirmed for death from cancers of the mouth, oesophagus, pharynx, larynx, lung, pancreas, and bladder; from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases; from vascular diseases; from peptic ulcer; and (perhaps because of confounding by personality and alcohol use) from cirrhosis, suicide, and poisoning. A negative association was confirmed with death from Parkinson's disease. Those who stopped smoking before middle age subsequently avoided almost all of the excess risk that they would otherwise have suffered, but even those who stopped smoking in middle age were subsequently at substantially less risk than those who continued to smoke. CONCLUSION--Results from the first 20 years of this study, and of other studies at that time, substantially underestimated the hazards of long term use of tobacco. It now seems that about half of all regular cigarette smokers will eventually be killed by their habit. PMID:7755693

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  11. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  12. Treatment-Related Mortality With Everolimus in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Robert; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Lustberg, Maryam; Paskell, Maria; Shapiro, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The overall incidence and odds of fatal adverse events (FAEs) after exposure to everolimus are not well defined. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the role of everolimus in treatment-related mortality in patients with cancer. Methods. PubMed databases and abstracts from the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology and the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium were searched for RCTs of everolimus either alone or in combination with another agent compared with the control arm without everolimus and that reported deaths from an adverse event from January 1966 to July 2013. The primary objective was to determine the difference of FAEs between everolimus-treated patients and control group patients. Results. In total, 2,997 patients with multiple solid tumors from nine RCTs were included. The overall incidence of FAEs in cancer patients treated with everolimus was 0.7% (95% CI 0.3%–1.1%) compared with 0.4% (95% CI 0.0%–0.7%) in cancer patients who did not receive everolimus. The odds ratio of FAEs was greater in everolimus-treated patients (Peto odds ratio = 3.80, 95% CI 1.59–9.07, p = .003). In subgroup analyses, no significant difference was found in the incidence or odds of FAEs by everolimus administration (alone or in combination) or tumor type (breast cancer vs. nonbreast cancer; p = .63). Conclusion. In patients with cancer, everolimus is associated with a small but significant increase in the odds of a treatment-related fatal events. PMID:24794158

  13. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  14. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  15. ALCOHOL-RELATED INJURY AND DRIVING WHILE INTOXICATED: A RISK FUNCTION ANALYSIS OF TWO ALCOHOL-RELATED EVENTS IN THE 2000 AND 2005 NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEYS

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.; Midanik, Lorraine T.

    2010-01-01

    Background National population data on risk of alcohol-related injury or driving while intoxicated (DWI) are scarce. Objective The association of alcohol-related injury and perceived DWI (PDWI) with both volume and pattern of consumption are examined in a merged sample of respondents from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys using risk function analysis. Methods Self reported consumption patterns on 8,736 respondents who consumed at least one drink in the last 12 months were assessed as average daily volume and frequency of consuming 5 or more (5+) , 8 or more (8+) and 12 or more (12+) drinks in a day. Risks were defined using CHAID segmentation analysis implemented with SPSS Answer Tree. Results For alcohol-related injury (n=110), those most at risk drank at lower volumes with some high maximum occasions, or at higher volumes, where high maximum occasions had little added effect. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day (9.7%). For DWI (n=696), those most at risk drank at higher volumes and with a greater number of high maximum occasions. Risk was highest for those reporting more than 6 drinks per day and more than one 8+ occasion during the last year (39%). Conclusions Overall risk appears to increase with increasing volume, but at a given volume level, risk also increases with frequency of high maximum occasions. These data lend relatively weak support for previous findings suggesting that less frequent drinkers who only occasionally consume larger quantities may be at greater risk, and any alcohol consumption appears to carry some risk of these harms. PMID:20465375

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  17. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  18. Factors influencing estimation of pesticide-related wildlife mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.

    1999-01-01

    Free-ranging wildlife is regularly exposed to pesticides and can serve as a sentinel for human and environmental health. Therefore a comprehensive pesticide hazard assessment must incorporate the effects of actual applications on free-ranging wildlife. Mortality is the most readily reported wildlife effect, and the significance of these data can be realized only when placed in context with the factors that affect the gathering of this type of information. This paper reviews the variables that affect the collection of wildlife mortality data. Data show that most effects on wildlife are not observed, and much of observed mortality is not reported. Delays in reporting or in the response to a report and exposure to multiple stressors distort the exposure-effect relationship and can result in uncertainty in determining the cause of death. The synthesis of information strongly indicates that the actual number of affected animals exceeds the number recovered

  19. Investigating biases of attention and memory for alcohol-related and negative words in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression after day-clinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fridrici, Christina; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kremer, Georg; Kissler, Johanna; Beblo, Thomas

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression compared to healthy controls. We assumed that both groups of alcohol-dependents would show attentional and memory biases for alcohol-related words. For the alcohol-dependents with depression, we additionally expected both types of biases for negative words. Alcohol-dependents without co-morbidity (Alc) and alcohol-dependents with major depression (D-Alc) as well as control participants with a moderate consumption of alcohol (Con) completed an alcohol Stroop task and a directed forgetting paradigm using word stimuli from three categories: neutral, negative, and alcohol-related. Stroop effects showed that not only alcohol-dependents but also control participants were more distracted by alcohol-related than by negative words. In the directed forgetting procedure, all participants showed a significant effect for each word-category, including alcohol-related and negative words. The D-Alc-group memorized more alcohol-related than negative to-be-remembered words. The results do not corroborate the hypothesis of more pronounced attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents. However, in alcohol-dependents with depression a memory bias for alcohol-related material was found, suggesting that this group may be more pre-occupied with alcohol than patients without such co-morbidity.

  20. Pubertal maturation and sex steroids are related to alcohol use in adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Water, Erik; Braams, Barbara R; Crone, Eveline A; Peper, Jiska S

    2013-02-01

    Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use. The goal of the present study was twofold. In Experiment 1, we investigated whether advanced pubertal maturation is associated with higher levels of alcohol use, when controlling for age. To this end, questionnaires on pubertal development and alcohol use were administered to a large sample of 797 Dutch adolescents (405 boys) aged 11-16 years. In Experiment 2, we explored whether sex steroids contribute to this relation between pubertal maturation and alcohol use by examining the association between salivary sex steroid levels and alcohol use in 168 adolescents (86 boys). It was found that, when controlling for age, advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescent boys and girls. Controlling for age, higher testosterone and estradiol levels correlated with the onset of alcohol use in boys. In addition, higher estradiol levels were associated with a larger quantity of alcohol use in boys. Correlations between sex steroids and alcohol use were not significant in girls. These findings show that advanced pubertal maturation is related to advanced alcohol use, and that higher sex steroid levels could be one of the underlying mechanisms of this relation in boys. Sex steroids might promote alcohol use by stimulating brain regions implicated in reward processing.

  1. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  2. Modeling the effect of temperature on ozone-related mortality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Climate change is expected to alter the distribution of ambient ozone levels and temperatures which, in turn, may impact public health. Much research has focused on the effect of short-term ozone exposure on mortality and mobility, but less is known about the joint effects of...

  3. 75 FR 79385 - Submission for OMB; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... Collection: Title: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III. Type of...

  4. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  5. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  6. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  7. Preliminary examination of spring break alcohol use and related consequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine M; Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2009-12-01

    The authors examined the extent to which college student drinkers are at risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences during Spring Break. A sample of first-year college student drinkers (N = 726) participated by completing an online survey assessing typical drinking, as well as Spring Break drinking and related consequences. Findings suggest Spring Break drinking was positively associated with alcohol-related consequences during Spring Break, even after controlling for sex and typical drinking. Furthermore, results indicated that typical drinking moderated the relationship between Spring Break drinking and expected zero-values (i.e., not reporting any Spring Break consequences), such that the association between Spring Break drinking and the likelihood of being a zero-score was less evident for those who are typically lighter drinkers. Identifying and examining temporal and contextually relevant events and associated drinking is critical for understanding and ultimately preventing extreme drinking and associated consequences associated with specific events like Spring Break, which place many students at high risk for experiencing acute harm.

  8. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  9. Projecting Future Heat-Related Mortality under Climate Change Scenarios: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard; Wang, Xiaoming; Vaneckova, Pavla; FitzGerald, Gerard; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heat-related mortality is a matter of great public health concern, especially in the light of climate change. Although many studies have found associations between high temperatures and mortality, more research is needed to project the future impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. Objectives: We conducted a systematic review of research and methods for projecting future heat-related mortality under climate change scenarios. Data sources and extraction: A literature search was conducted in August 2010, using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, and Web of Science. The search was limited to peer-reviewed journal articles published in English from January 1980 through July 2010. Data synthesis: Fourteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most projections showed that climate change would result in a substantial increase in heat-related mortality. Projecting heat-related mortality requires understanding historical temperature–mortality relationships and considering the future changes in climate, population, and acclimatization. Further research is needed to provide a stronger theoretical framework for projections, including a better understanding of socioeconomic development, adaptation strategies, land-use patterns, air pollution, and mortality displacement. Conclusions: Scenario-based projection research will meaningfully contribute to assessing and managing the potential impacts of climate change on heat-related mortality. PMID:21816703

  10. Mortality Related to Actigraphic Long and Short Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Langer, Robert D.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Klauber, Melville R.; Rex, Katharine M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The folk belief that we should sleep 8 hours seems to be incorrect. Numerous studies have shown that self-reported sleep longer than 7.5 hours or shorter than 6.5 hours predicts increased mortality risk. This study examined if prospectively-determined objective sleep duration, as estimated by wrist actigraphy, was associated with mortality risks. Methods From 1995–1999, women averaging 67.6 years of age provided one-week actigraphic recordings. Survival could be estimated from follow-up continuing until 2009 for 444, with an average of 10.5 years before censoring. Multivariate age-stratified Cox regression models were controlled for history of hypertension, diabetes, myocardial infarction, cancer, and major depression. Results Adjusted survival functions estimated 61% survival (54%–69%, 95% C.I.) for those with sleep less than 300 min and 78% survival (73%–85%, 95% C.I.) for those with actigraphic sleep longer than 390 min, as compared with survival of 90% (85%–94%, 95% C.I.) for those with sleep of 300–390 min. Time-in-bed, sleep efficiency and the timing of melatonin metabolite excretion were also significant mortality risk factors. Conclusion This study confirms a U-shaped relationship between survival and actigraphically measured sleep durations, with the optimal objective sleep duration being shorter than the self-report optimums. People who sleep five or six hours may be reassured. Further studies are needed to identify any modifiable factors for this mortality and possible approaches to prevention. PMID:20870457

  11. Effectiveness of bans and laws in reducing traffic deaths: legalized Sunday packaged alcohol sales and alcohol-related traffic crashes and crash fatalities in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Garnett P; Lapham, Sandra

    2006-11-01

    We determined the relative risk of alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents and fatalities after New Mexico lifted its ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales. We extracted all alcohol-related crashes from New Mexico police reports for 3652 days between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 2000, and found a 29% increase in alcohol-related crashes and a 42% increase in alcohol-related crash fatalities on Sundays after the ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales was lifted. There was an estimated excess of 543.1 alcohol-related crashes and 41.6 alcohol-related crash fatalities on Sundays after the ban was lifted. Repealing the ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales introduced a public health and safety hazard in New Mexico.

  12. Effects of adverts from a drug and alcohol prevention campaign on willingness to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether adverts from a field-tested drug and alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign adverts or consumer adverts (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign advertisements lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  13. Malnutrition in alcoholic and virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Caregaro, L; Alberino, F; Amodio, P; Merkel, C; Bolognesi, M; Angeli, P; Gatta, A

    1996-04-01

    The study aimed to define the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical importance of nutritional disorders in patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutritional status was evaluated in 120 hospitalized patients--77 with alcoholic and 43 with virus-related cirrhosis--by anthropometric, visceral, and immunologic measurements. Energy malnutrition, defined as triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and/or midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) below the 5th percentile of standard values, was found in 34% of the study population. Patients below the 5th percentile for MAMC and/or TSF showed significantly lower survival rates at e, 6, 12, and 24 mo compared with patients above the 5th percentile. Protein malnutrition (low albumin, transthyretin, transferrin, and retinol-binding-protein concentrations) and immunoincompetence (abnormal response to skin tests) were much more frequent (81% and 59%) than energy malnutrition (34%). Serum proteins correlated with the degree of liver function impairment, but not with immunologic tests. The prevalence, characteristics, and severity of protein-energy malnutrition were comparable in alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. Malnutrition was correlated with the clinical severity of the liver disease. The study shows that protein-energy malnutrition is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. Nutritional disorders appear to be related to the degree of liver injury rather than to its etiology. Compared with other methods, which have important limitations in liver disease, anthropometry is currently the most reliable method for nutritional assessment in clinical practice and may be valuable for predicting survival in cirrhotic patients. PMID:8599326

  14. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population.

  15. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population. PMID:26547044

  16. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  17. Bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…

  18. Non-response bias and hazardous alcohol use in relation to previous alcohol-related hospitalization: comparing survey responses with population data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examines whether alcohol-related hospitalization predicts survey non-response, and evaluates whether this missing data result in biased estimates of the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use and abstinence. Methods Registry data on alcohol-related hospitalizations during the preceding ten years were linked to two representative surveys. Population data corresponding to the surveys were derived from the Stockholm County registry. The alcohol-related hospitalization rates for survey responders were compared with the population data, and corresponding rates for non-responders were based on the differences between the two estimates. The proportions with hazardous alcohol use and abstinence were calculated separately for previously hospitalized and non-hospitalized responders, and non-responders were assumed to be similar to responders in this respect. Results Persons with previous alcohol-related admissions were more likely currently to abstain from alcohol (RR=1.58, p<.001) or to have hazardous alcohol use (RR=2.06, p<.001). Alternatively, they were more than twice as likely to have become non-responders. Adjusting for this skewed non-response, i.e., the underrepresentation of hazardous users and abstainers among the hospitalized, made little difference to the estimated rates of hazardous use and abstinence in total. During the ten-year period 1.7% of the population were hospitalized. Conclusions Few people receive alcohol-related hospital care and it remains unclear whether this group’s underrepresentation in surveys is generalizable to other groups, such as hazardous users. While people with severe alcohol problems – i.e. a history of alcohol-related hospitalizations – are less likely to respond to population surveys, this particular bias is not likely to alter prevalence estimates of hazardous use. PMID:23497679

  19. Infant mortality and related risk factors among Asian Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, H W; Chávez, G F; Giannoni, P P; Shah, R S

    1994-01-01

    To examine differences in perinatal health among nine Asian ethnic subgroups, a descriptive epidemiological study was conducted using linked birth/infant death certificates for 1982 to 1987. When compared with Whites, Asians had a lower proportion of young mothers, unmarried mothers, and women who received first trimester prenatal care; a higher proportion of foreign-born mothers; and a different birthweight distribution. A great deal of heterogeneity was found in risk factors and infant mortality rates among the various Asian ethnic subgroups. Paradoxically, although Asian ethnic subgroups had a higher perinatal risk profile, they had more favorable birth outcomes than did Whites. PMID:8092381

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  1. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  2. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  3. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcoholrelated incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported…

  4. Social Support as a Moderator for Alcohol-Related Partner Aggression during the Transition to Parenthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-related partnAer aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the…

  5. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  6. A multivariate analysis of health-related practices: a nine-year mortality follow-up of the Alameda County Study.

    PubMed

    Wingard, D L; Berkman, L F; Brand, R J

    1982-11-01

    Associations between several common health-related practices and a variety of health outcomes have been reported. However, the independent associations between each of these practices and mortality from all causes have not been assessed. In the present report, a multiple logistic analysis of seven potentially health-related practices (individually and in a summary index) and mortality from all causes is conducted, using data from the Human Population Laboratory Study of a random sample of 6928 adults living in Alameda County, California in 1965 and a subsequent nine-year mortality follow-up. Many covariables such as physical health status and socioeconomic status are simultaneously analyzed. The health-related practices examined are: 1) never smoking; 2) regular physical activity; 3) low alcohol consumption; 4) average weight status; 5) sleeping seven to eight hours/night; 6) not skipping breakfast; and 7) not snacking between meals. The analysis reveals that five of the practices are associated with lower mortality from all causes. Neither eating breakfast nor not snacking have significant independent associations with lower mortality. After covariable adjustment, respondents who reported few low-risk practices have a relative risk of 2.3 (p less than 0.001) when compared with those who had many low-risk practices. Mortality risks for possible combinations of health-related practices are discussed.

  7. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature.

  8. Risk factors for liver-related mortality in chronic hepatitis C patients: A deceased case-living control study

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qing-Lei; Feng, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Yuan; Chen, Yan; Yang, Bin; Huang, Hui-Huang; Zhang, Xue-Xiu; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors for liver-related mortality in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: All deceased CHC inpatient data were collected from the Beijing 302 Hospital clinical database, which includes more than 8250 CHC inpatients during the period from 2002 to 2012. The controls were matched to cases by age (± 2 years), sex and date of hospital admission (within the same year). Potential risk factors were included for the evaluation, and odds ratios (OR) and 95%CI were estimated using univariate (unadjusted) and multivariate (adjusted OR, AOR) conditional logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Based on examinations of 144 CHC-related deceased cases and 576 controls, we found that antiviral therapy with interferon-α was associated with a 47% decrease in the risk of hepatic mortality (AOR = 0.53, 95%CI: 0.28-0.99, P = 0.048). Additionally, the initial diagnostic stage of the disease (AOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.83-4.56 and P < 0.001 for liver cirrhosis/AOR = 8.82, 95%CI: 3.99-19.53 and P < 0.001 for HCC compared with CHC), diabetes (AOR = 2.35, 95%CI: 1.40-3.95, P = 0.001), hypertension (AOR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.09-2.82, P = 0.020), alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.73, 95%CI: 1.03-2.81, P = 0.037) and HBsAg positivity (AOR = 22.28, 95%CI: 5.58-89.07, P < 0.001) were associated with a significant increase in the risk of liver-related mortality in CHC patients. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that interferon-α treatment, the stage at the initial diagnosis of the disease and comorbidities are all independent risk factors for liver-related mortality in CHC patients. PMID:24833882

  9. Relative vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steen, D.A.; Aresco, M.J.; Beilke, S.G.; Compton, B.W.; Condon, E.P.; Dodd, C.K.; Forrester, H.; Gibbons, J.W.; Greene, J.L.; Johnson, G.; Langen, T.A.; Oldham, M.J.; Oxier, D.N.; Saumure, R.A.; Schueler, F.W.; Sleeman, J.M.; Smith, L.L.; Tucker, J.K.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that freshwater turtle populations are becoming increasingly male-biased. A hypothesized cause is a greater vulnerability of female turtles to road mortality. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing sex ratios from published and unpublished population surveys of turtles conducted on- versus off-roads. Among 38 166 turtles from 157 studies reporting sex ratios, we found a consistently larger female fraction in samples from on-roads (61%) than off-roads (41%). We conclude that female turtles are indeed more likely to cross roadways than are males, which may explain recently reported skewed sex ratios near roadways and signify eventual population declines as females are differentially eliminated. ?? 2006 The Zoological Society of London.

  10. Mortality of iron miners in Lorraine (France): relations between lung function and respiratory symptoms and subsequent mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, N; Benamghar, L; Pham, Q T; Teculescu, D; Rebstock, E; Mur, J M

    1993-01-01

    An increased mortality from lung and stomach cancer was found in previous studies on Lorraine iron miners. A detailed analysis, however, was not possible due to the lack of data for survivors. In this study the cohort included 1178 workers selected at random from all the 5300 working miners aged between 35 and 55 at the start of the follow up period, which ranged from 1975 to 1985. Occupational exposures and tobacco consumption, lung function tests, and respiratory symptoms were assessed for each subject in 1975, 1980, and 1985. This study confirmed the excess of lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 389, p < 0.001) and of stomach cancer (SMR = 273, p < 0.05). There was no excess of lung cancer in non-smokers and moderate smokers (< 20 pack-years) or the miners who worked only at the surface or underground for less than 20 years. A significant excess (SMR = 349, p < 0.001) was found in moderate smokers when they worked underground for between 20 and 29 years. Heavy smokers (over 30 pack-years) or subjects who worked underground for more than 30 years experienced a high risk: SMR = 478 (p < 0.001) for moderate smokers who worked underground for over 30 years; 588 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for between 20 and 29 years; and 877 (p < 0.001) for heavy smokers who worked underground for over 30 years. This showed an interaction between smoking and occupational exposure. The excess mortality from lung cancer was because there were some subjects who died young (from 45 years old). Comparison with the results of a previous study showed that additional hazards produced by diesel engines and explosives increased the mortality from lung cancer. The SMR was higher than 400 (p < 0.001) from 45 years old instead of from 56 years. A relation was found between a decrease in vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and of FEV1/VC and mortality from all causes and from lung cancer in heavy smokers or men who had worked

  11. Mortality patterns among industrial workers exposed to chloroprene and other substances. II. Mortality in relation to exposure.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Gary M; Youk, Ada O; Buchanich, Jeanine M; Cunningham, Michael; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A; Phillips, Margaret L

    2007-03-20

    As part of an historical cohort study to investigate the mortality experience of industrial workers exposed to chloroprene (CD) and other substances, including vinyl chloride monomer (VC), we analyzed mortality from all cancers combined, respiratory system (RSC) and liver cancer in relation to CD and VC exposures. Subjects were 12,430 workers ever employed at one of two U.S. sites (Louisville, KY (n=5507) and Pontchartrain, LA (n=1357)) or two European sites (Maydown, Northern Ireland (n=4849) and Grenoble, France (n=717)). Historical exposures for individual workers were estimated quantitatively for CD and VC. For sites L, M, P and G, respectively, average intensity of CD exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) were 5.23, 0.16, 0.028 and 0.149 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 18.35, 0.084, 0.133 and 1.01. For sites L and M, respectively, average intensity of VC exposures (median value of exposed workers in ppm) was 1.54 and 0.03 and median cumulative exposures (ppm years) were 1.54 and 0.094. We performed relative risk (RR) regression modeling to investigate the dependence of the internal cohort rates for all cancers combined, RSC and liver cancer on combinations of the categorical CD or VC exposure measures with adjustment for potential confounding factors. We categorized exposure measures into approximate quartiles based on the distribution of deaths from all cancers combined. We also considered 5- and 15-year lagged exposure measures and adjusted some RR models for worker pay type (white/blue collar) as a rough surrogate for lifetime smoking history. All modeling was site-specific to account for exposure heterogeneity. We also computed exposure category-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) to assess absolute mortality rates. With the exception of a one statistically significant association with duration of exposure to CD and all cancers combined in plant M, we observed no evidence of a positive association with all cancers

  12. Impulsivity and alcohol demand in relation to combined alcohol and caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2013-12-01

    Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables. PMID:24364537

  13. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  14. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future.

  15. The impact of drug-related deaths on mortality among young adults in Madrid.

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, L; Barrio, G; Vicente, J; Bravo, M J; Santacreu, J

    1995-01-01

    The trend from 1983 to 1990 of drug-related mortality (defined as the sum of deaths from acute drug reactions and the acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome [AIDS] in drug users) among the population 15 to 39 years of age in Madrid, Spain, was studied and compared with mortality from all causes. All of the mortality rates increased from 1983 to 1990: all causes, from 101/100,000 to 148/100,000; acute drug reactions, from 3/100,000 to 15/100,000; and AIDS, from 0 to 20/100,000. Drug-related mortality represented 60% of the increase in the rate from all causes in males and 170% of the increase in females. The increases in drug-related mortality are likely to continue in the future. PMID:7832243

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  17. Heat-related mortality in Cyprus for current and future climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Heaviside, Clare; Tsangari, Haritini; Paschalidou, Anastasia; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Georgiou, Kyriakos E; Yamasaki, Edna N

    2016-11-01

    Extreme temperatures have long been associated with adverse health impacts, ranging from minor illness, to increased hospitalizations and mortality. Heat-related mortality during summer months is likely to become an increasing public health problem in future due to the effects of climate change. We performed a health impact assessment for heat-related mortality for the warm months of April-September for the years 2004 to 2009 inclusive, for the city of Nicosia and for Cyprus as a whole, based on separately derived exposure-response functions. We further estimated the potential future heat-related mortality by including climate projections for southern Europe, which suggest changes in temperature of between 1°C and 5°C over the next century. There were 32 heat-related deaths per year in Cyprus over the study period. When adding the projected increase in temperature due to climate change, there was a substantial increase in mortality: for a 1°C increase in temperature, heat related mortality in Cyprus was estimated to double to 64 per year, and for a 5°C increase, heat-related mortality was expected to be 8 times the baseline rate for the warm season (281 compared with 32). This analysis highlights the importance of preparing for potential health impacts due to heat in Cyprus, particularly under a changing climate. PMID:27376918

  18. Heat-related mortality in Cyprus for current and future climate scenarios.

    PubMed

    Heaviside, Clare; Tsangari, Haritini; Paschalidou, Anastasia; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kassomenos, Pavlos; Georgiou, Kyriakos E; Yamasaki, Edna N

    2016-11-01

    Extreme temperatures have long been associated with adverse health impacts, ranging from minor illness, to increased hospitalizations and mortality. Heat-related mortality during summer months is likely to become an increasing public health problem in future due to the effects of climate change. We performed a health impact assessment for heat-related mortality for the warm months of April-September for the years 2004 to 2009 inclusive, for the city of Nicosia and for Cyprus as a whole, based on separately derived exposure-response functions. We further estimated the potential future heat-related mortality by including climate projections for southern Europe, which suggest changes in temperature of between 1°C and 5°C over the next century. There were 32 heat-related deaths per year in Cyprus over the study period. When adding the projected increase in temperature due to climate change, there was a substantial increase in mortality: for a 1°C increase in temperature, heat related mortality in Cyprus was estimated to double to 64 per year, and for a 5°C increase, heat-related mortality was expected to be 8 times the baseline rate for the warm season (281 compared with 32). This analysis highlights the importance of preparing for potential health impacts due to heat in Cyprus, particularly under a changing climate.

  19. [Maternal mortality: relation between directive management and opportune clinical care].

    PubMed

    Montesano-Delfín, Jesús Rafael; Hernández, Arturo; Zapién-Moreno, José; Olivares-Durán, Enrique; Guizar-Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Luna-Ruiz, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    The authorities of the High Medical Specialized Units (HMSUs) Obstetric/Gynecology Service (OB/GYN) and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) elaborated a strategy, which included the organization and interrelation of both hospital services and the implementation of an Epidemiologic Monitoring Program for all critical complicated pregnancies. This plan consisted in an assignment of personnel for special care, immediate communication with heads of services to coordinate the attention and to facilitate the resources for medical attention in these patients, as well as daily follow up by the authorities until complete resolution. Through epidemiological monitoring, 274 cases of pregnant women with high risk of mortality were identified during 2005, and 437 during 2006 (increased 59 %). The admittance to ICU for this reason in 2003 was 17; in 2005 was 24 and in 2006 was 42 (147 % from 2003 to 2006). Maternal deaths diminished from: 3/17 (17.6 %) to 1/24 (4.1 %) to 2/42 (4.7 %) during the same years, respectively. The maternal death rate from 2004 to 2006 was: 33.2, 17.4, and 22 per 100,000 newborns, respectively, below the national and institutional average. The coordination between the Headquarters and the HMSUs that take care of obstetrical patients helped diminution maternal death over this period.

  20. Alligator diet in relation to alligator mortality on Lake Griffin, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, A.N.; Ross, J.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Percival, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligators) demonstrated low hatch-rate success and increased adult mortality on Lake Griffin, FL, between 1998 and 2003. Dying Lake Griffin alligators with symptoms of poor motor coordination were reported to show specific neurological impairment and brain lesions. Similar lesions were documented in salmonines that consumed clupeids with high thiaminase levels. Therefore, we investigated the diet of Lake Griffin alligators and compared it with alligator diets from two lakes that exhibited relatively low levels of unexplained alligator mortality to see if consumption of Dorosoma cepedianum (gizzard shad) could be correlated with patterns of mortality. Shad in both lakes Griffin and Apopka had high levels of thiaminase and Lake Apopka alligators were consuming greater amounts of shad relative to Lake Griffin without showing mortality rates similar to Lake Griffin alligators. Therefore, a relationship between shad consumption alone and alligator mortality is not supported.

  1. Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among Drinkers around the World

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Knibbe, Ronald; Kairouz, Sylvia; Kuntche, Sandra; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Dietze, Paul; Obot, Isidore; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper examines (1) gender and country differences in negative consequences related to drinking; (2) relative rates of different consequences; (3) country-level predictors of consequences. Design, setting and participants Multi-level analyses used survey data from the GENACIS collaboration. Measurements Measures included 17 negative consequences grouped into (a) high endorsement acute, (b) personal and (c) social. Country-level measures included average frequency and quantity of drinking, percent current drinkers, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Human Development Index (HDI). Findings Overall, the three groupings of consequences were reported by 44%, 12% and 7% of men and by 31%, 6% and 3% of women, respectively. More men than women endorsed all consequences but gender differences were greatest for consequences associated with chronic drinking and social consequences related to male roles. The highest prevalence of consequences was in Uganda, lowest in Uruguay. Personal and social consequences were more likely in countries with higher usual quantity, fewer current drinkers, and lower scores on GDP and HDI. However, significant interactions with individual-level quantity indicated a stronger relationship between consequences and usual quantity among drinkers in countries with lower quantity, more current drinkers and higher scores on GDP and HDI. Conclusions Both gender and country need to be taken into consideration when assessing adverse drinking consequences. Individual measures of alcohol consumption and country-level variables are associated with experiencing such consequences. Additionally, country-level variables affect the strength of the relationship between usual quantity consumed by individuals and adverse consequences. PMID:21395893

  2. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  3. Examining Alcohol-Related Expectancies within College Class Standing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Aileen Cleyvis

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth (Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). A significant portion of alcohol abuse occurs in college. College is often symbolized by a tradition of drinking that is entrenched in every level of a student's environment. The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol…

  4. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  5. Alcoholism prevalence and some related factors in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekuklu, Galip; Deveci, Serol; Eskiocak, Muzaffer; Berberoglu, Ufuk; Saltik, Ahmet

    2004-04-30

    The aim of this research was to estimate the community prevalence of alcoholism and the potential risk factors that affect it in the Edirne provincial centre by using a scanning test. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Edirne provincial centre. A sample population composed of 500 women and 200 men was selected randomly after the categorisation of the population according to ethnicity, age and sex. Through face-to-face interviews, data collection sheets, which were prepared to analyse potential factors affecting alcoholism frequency, were filled in by the sample population. The Michigan Alcoholism Scanning Test (MAST) was employed. According to MAST's normal grading, individuals with 5 or more points are evaluated as alcoholics. Accordingly, 8.2% of the sample population fit the definition of alcoholic. Alcoholism frequency was considerably higher in gypsies, the self-employed, smokers, and people with higher income. From logistic regression analysis alcoholism frequency was 12.4 times higher in men than in women, 3.2 times higher in gypsies than in others, 1.9 times higher in people who earned an income in the preceding week than in the unemployed, and 3.7 times higher in individuals who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their life or those who had smoked at least 1 cigarette for 3 months or for a longer period than in those who hadn't smoked any cigarettes. The prevalence of alcoholism in the Edirne provincial centre was similar to that in other countries in Europe. The most important finding was that alcohol consumption decreased in the unemployed, a finding that differs from that in other parts of the world. Gypsies, who differ in tradition, way of life, and job compared to the other strata of society, also suffered from higher alcohol consumption. This group usually consumed wine and generally did not eat while drinking.

  6. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  7. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    PubMed

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  8. Dairy intake after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Wilson, Kathryn M; Batista, Julie L; Sesso, Howard D; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-11-15

    Information regarding postdiagnostic dairy intake and prostate cancer survival is limited. We evaluated intake of total, high-fat and low-fat dairy after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality. We included 926 men from the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1982 and 2000 who completed a diet questionnaire a median of 5 years after diagnosis and were followed thereafter for a median of 10 years to assess mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate associations between dairy intake and prostate cancer specific and all-cause mortality. During 8,903 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 due to prostate cancer. Men consuming ≥3 servings/day of total dairy products had a 76% higher risk of total mortality and a 141% higher risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality compared to men who consumed less than 1 dairy product/day (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 2.55, ptrend  < 0.001 for total mortality; HR = 2.41, 95% CI: 0.96, 6.02, ptrend  = 0.04 for prostate cancer-specific mortality). The association between high-fat dairy and mortality risk appeared to be stronger than that of low-fat dairy, but the difference between them was not statistically significant (p for difference = 0.57 for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 0.56 for total mortality). Among men without metastases when diagnosed, higher intake of dairy foods after prostate cancer diagnosis may be associated with increased prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality.

  9. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.

  10. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  11. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  12. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539).

  13. Injury-Related Consequences of Alcohol Misuse among Injured Patients Who Received SBI for Alcohol: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Caetano, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Background Screening and brief alcohol intervention has demonstrated efficacy in improving drinking and other risk behaviors for some patient populations. However, it is not clear that brief interventions are helpful to all injured patients who drink at risk levels. This paper identifies latent classes of intervention recipients based on injury-related consequences and risks of alcohol misuse and then determines which profiles experienced the greatest improvements in drinking. Methods A secondary analysis was conducted using data from injured patients (N=737) who reported heavy drinking and received a brief alcohol intervention in a Level-1 trauma center. Latent class analysis was used to determine patient profiles, and seven indicators commonly associated with alcohol-related injury from the Short Inventory of Problems+6 were used to determine the latent class measurement model. Covariates were regressed onto the model to assess factors related to class membership, and drinking outcomes were analyzed to examine improvements in drinking. Results Five classes emerged from the data. The classes that reported the greatest improvements in drinking following discharge were those characterized by multiple alcohol-related risks and those characterized by a history of alcohol-related accidents and injuries. Attributing the current injury to drinking was a significant predictor of class membership among those classes that reported higher levels of improvement. Conclusions This study provides tentative evidence that subclasses exist among heavy drinking injured patients who received a brief intervention in a Level-1 trauma center, and some subclasses experience greater drinking improvements than others. Further research is required to substantiate the findings of this secondary analysis. PMID:24821352

  14. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. Second report.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption is significant and, in many countries, public health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol represent a substantial health, social and economic burden. Reduction of the alcohol-attributable burden is becoming a priority area for international public health. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced through the implementation of proven alcohol strategies, including at a global level. This report of a WHO Expert Committee reviews the health and social consequences of alcohol consumption and disease burden attributable to alcohol in the context of alcohol-related harm and recent trends in alcohol consumption worldwide. Based on the reviews of available evidence, including the latest data on the contribution of alcohol consumption to the global disease burden, the Committee makes several recommendations emphasizing WHO's role in coordinating a global response, and the need for global action to reduce alcohol-related harm through effective mechanisms of international action and country support. The Committee recommends a range of strategies and policy options that have a sound evidence base and global relevance for reducing alcohol-related harm, emphasizing that their adaptation and implementation at the national and sub-national levels should take into account specific cultural and legal contexts and the local configuration of alcohol problems. The Committee also recommends that WHO should support governments, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, in developing, implementing and evaluating national and sub-national evidence-based policies, action plans and programmes. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations have significant implications for future developments in this area.

  15. Relaxin-3 Receptor (RXFP3) Signalling Mediates Stress-Related Alcohol Preference in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Andrew W.; Smith, Craig M.; Chua, Berenice E.; Krstew, Elena V.; Zhang, Cary; Gundlach, Andrew L.; Lawrence, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3) prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT) and Rxfp3 knockout (KO) (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen) littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:25849482

  16. Relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) signalling mediates stress-related alcohol preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew W; Smith, Craig M; Chua, Berenice E; Krstew, Elena V; Zhang, Cary; Gundlach, Andrew L; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3) prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT) and Rxfp3 knockout (KO) (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen) littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol.

  17. Genetic-epidemiological evidence for the role of acetaldehyde in cancers related to alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, C J Peter

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking increases the risk for a number of cancers. Currently, the highest risk (Group 1) concerns oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colorectum, and female breast, as assessed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Alcohol and other beverage constituents, their metabolic effects, and alcohol-related unhealthy lifestyles have been suggested as etiological factors. The aim of the present survey is to evaluate the carcinogenic role of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers, with special emphasis on the genetic-epidemiological evidence. Acetaldehyde, as a constituent of alcoholic beverages, and microbial and endogenous alcohol oxidation well explain why alcohol-related cancers primarily occur in the digestive tracts and other tissues with active alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism. Genetic-epidemiological research has brought compelling evidence for the causality of acetaldehyde in alcohol-related cancers. Thus, IARC recently categorized alcohol-drinking-related acetaldehyde to Group 1 for head and neck and esophageal cancers. This is probably just the tip of the iceberg, since more recent epidemiological studies have also shown significant positive associations between the aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2 (rs671)*2 allele (encoding inactive enzyme causing high acetaldehyde elevations) and gastric, colorectal, lung, and hepatocellular cancers. However, a number of the current studies lack the appropriate matching or stratification of alcohol drinking in the case-control comparisons, which has led to erroneous interpretations of the data. Future studies should consider these aspects more thoroughly. The polymorphism phenotypes (flushing and nausea) may provide valuable tools for future successful health education in the prevention of alcohol-drinking-related cancers.

  18. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  19. Projecting future temperature-related mortality in three largest Australian cities.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Liu, De Li; Chen, Dong; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    We estimated net annual temperature-related mortality in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne in Australia using 62 global climate model projections under three IPPC SRES CO2 emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). In all cities, all scenarios resulted in increases in summer temperature-related deaths for future decades, and decreases in winter temperature-related deaths. However, Brisbane and Sydney will increase the net annual temperature-related deaths in the future, while a slight decrease will happen in Melbourne. Additionally, temperature-related mortality will largely increase beyond the summer (including January, February, March, November and December) in Brisbane and Sydney, while temperature-related mortality will largely decrease beyond the winter in Melbourne. In conclusion, temperature increases for Australia are expected to result in a decreased burden of cold-related mortality and an increased burden of heat-related mortality, but the balance of these differences varied by city. In particular, the seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths will be shifted.

  20. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  1. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  2. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  3. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  4. Heat-wave-related mortality--Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1995.

    PubMed

    1996-06-21

    During July 12-15, 1995, a heat wave occurred in major portions of the midwestern and eastern United States. Record-high temperatures were recorded at approximately 70 locations, ranging from the central and northern Great Plains to the Atlantic coast and caused substantial numbers of heat-related illnesses and deaths in some locations. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin (1994 estimated population: 938,112), maximum daily temperatures ranged from 91 F (32.7 C) to 103 F (39.5 C), and average daily humidity was as high as 70%. This report summarizes the investigation by the Milwaukee County Medical Examiner's Office (MCMEO) and the Milwaukee Department of Health and Social Services of heat-related deaths in Milwaukee during the heat wave and presents four case reports. PMID:9132565

  5. Heat-related mortality--Chicago, July 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-08-11

    During July 12-16, 1995, Chicago experienced unusually high maximum daily temperatures, ranging from 93 F to 104 F (33.9 C to 40.0 C). On July 13, the heat index peaked at 119 F (48.3 C)--a record high for the city. This report describes the heat-related deaths reported by the Cook County Medical Examiner's Office (CCMEO) during this heat wave. PMID:7623759

  6. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  7. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  8. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  9. Impact of disaster-related mortality on gross domestic product in the WHO African Region

    PubMed Central

    Kirigia, Joses M; Sambo, Luis G; Aldis, William; Mwabu, Germano M

    2004-01-01

    Background Disaster-related mortality is a growing public health concern in the African Region. These deaths are hypothesized to have a significantly negative effect on per capita gross domestic product (GDP). The objective of this study was to estimate the loss in GDP attributable to natural and technological disaster-related mortality in the WHO African Region. Methods The impact of disaster-related mortality on GDP was estimated using double-log econometric model and cross-sectional data on various Member States in the WHO African Region. The analysis was based on 45 of the 46 countries in the Region. The data was obtained from various UNDP and World Bank publications. Results The coefficients for capital (K), educational enrolment (EN), life expectancy (LE) and exports (X) had a positive sign; while imports (M) and disaster mortality (DS) were found to impact negatively on GDP. The above-mentioned explanatory variables were found to have a statistically significant effect on GDP at 5% level in a t-distribution test. Disaster mortality of a single person was found to reduce GDP by US$0.01828. Conclusions We have demonstrated that disaster-related mortality has a significant negative effect on GDP. Thus, as policy-makers strive to increase GDP through capital investment, export promotion and increased educational enrolment, they should always keep in mind that investments made in the strengthening of national capacity to mitigate the effects of national disasters expeditiously and effectively will yield significant economic returns. PMID:15113453

  10. Development and validation of the alcohol-related God locus of control scale.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas S; Goggin, Kathy; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2006-03-01

    Control beliefs and spirituality appear to be important factors in recovery from alcoholism. However, the integration of these two constructs has received little attention, and the relationship of spiritually related control beliefs to recovery remains unclear. Currently no measures exist to specifically assess these beliefs. To address this need, the Alcohol-Related God Locus of Control scale (AGLOC) was developed. This 12-item self-report measure assesses perceptions of God/Higher Power's role in recovery from alcoholism. The AGLOC was administered to 144 recovering alcoholics attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution with one factor related to attributions of God control over initial cessation of drinking (Cessation) and the other factor related to attributions of God control over one's continued maintenance of sobriety (Maintenance). Both subscales and the overall scale demonstrated adequate to high internal consistency. Demonstrating convergent and discriminant validity, the total AGLOC scale and the Cessation subscale were significantly but moderately correlated with spirituality (both frequency and importance), and independent of perceptions of internal control over drinking. Maintenance subscale scores were inversely associated with internal drinking-related scores and were not associated with spiritual importance or frequency of spiritual practice. Findings support the utility of this instrument for the assessment of alcohol-related God/Higher Power locus of control beliefs in an alcoholic population and suggest the importance of further research on changes in alcohol-related God control beliefs throughout the course of recovery.

  11. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  12. Changes in Alcohol Availability, Price and Alcohol-related Problems and the Collectivity of Drinking Cultures: What Happened in Southern and Northern Sweden?†

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Nina-Katri

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to study whether alcohol-related self-reported problems follow the same pattern of changes in alcohol consumption in southern Sweden, assumed to be affected by a decrease in Danish spirits tax and by an increase in Swedish travellers’ import quotas, and to study whether the results obtained for southern and northern Sweden follow the predictions of Skog's theory of collectivity of drinking cultures. Methods: Analysis was carried out on a sample from the  Swedish general population from southern and northern Sweden separately. Two indices such as impaired self-control/dependent behaviour and extrinsic problems for alcohol-related problems were computed and analysed in terms of sex, age, income and alcohol consumption level. Results: Although there were no huge changes in the number of persons reporting alcohol-related problems, the general trend in data for various subpopulations was a decrease in the southern site and an increase in the northern site. In the northern site, the increase in alcohol consumption among men also showed an increase in alcohol-related problems. However, various population subgroups changed in different directions and did not move in concert over the population distribution. Conclusions: Analysis confirmed that alcohol-related problems, according to the two indices used, followed a similar pattern to alcohol consumption, but less divergent. A version of Skog's theory applied on alcohol-related problems could not confirm that alcohol-related problems did not change collectively within the population. PMID:20739440

  13. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  14. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided.

  15. Dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Batista, Julie L; Sesso, Howard D; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2015-06-01

    Men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer have a long life expectancy, and many die of unrelated causes. It is therefore important to know to what extent post-diagnostic diet may affect disease-specific and overall mortality. A total of 926 men participating in the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer completed diet questionnaires for a median of 5.1 years after diagnosis, and were followed thereafter to assess mortality for a median of 9.9 years since questionnaire completion. Two post-diagnostic dietary patterns were identified: a Prudent pattern, characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, legumes, and whole grains; and a Western pattern, characterized by higher intake of processed and red meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 8,093 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 (17%) of prostate cancer. The Western pattern was significantly related to a higher risk of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Comparing men in the highest versus the lowest quartile of the Western pattern, the HRs were 2.53 (95% CI, 1.00-6.42; Ptrend = 0.02) for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 1.67 (95% CI, 1.16-2.42; Ptrend = 0.01) for all-cause mortality. The Prudent pattern was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (HRQuartile 4 vs. Quartile 1: 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93; Ptrend = 0.02); the relationship with prostate cancer-specific mortality was inverse but not statistically significant. A post-diagnostic Western dietary pattern was associated with higher prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas a Prudent dietary pattern was related to lower all-cause mortality after prostate cancer diagnosis.

  16. Dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis in relation to disease-specific and total mortality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Kenfield, Stacey A.; Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Batista, Julie L.; Sesso, Howard D.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2015-01-01

    Men diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer have a long life expectancy and many die of unrelated causes. It is therefore important to know to what extent post-diagnostic diet may impact disease-specific and overall mortality. 926 men participating in the Physicians' Health Study diagnosed with non-metastatic prostate cancer completed diet questionnaires a median of 5.1 years after diagnosis, and were followed thereafter to assess mortality for a median of 9.9 years since questionnaire completion. Two post-diagnostic dietary patterns were identified: a Prudent pattern, characterized by higher intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, legumes, and whole grains; and a Western pattern, characterized by higher intake of processed and red meats, high-fat dairy and refined grains. Cox regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 8,093 person-years of follow-up, 333 men died, 56 (17%) of prostate cancer. The Western pattern was significantly related to a higher risk of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Comparing men in the highest versus the lowest quartile of the Western pattern, the HRs were 2.53 (95%CI: 1.00-6.42; Ptrend=0.02) for prostate cancer-specific mortality and 1.67 (95%CI: 1.16-2.42; Ptrend=0.01) for all-cause mortality. The Prudent pattern was associated with a significantly lower all-cause mortality (HRQuartile 4 vs Quartile 1: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44-0.93; Ptrend=0.02); the relationship with prostate cancer-specific mortality was inverse but not statistically significant. Post-diagnostic Western dietary pattern was associated with higher prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, whereas a Prudent dietary pattern was related to lower all-cause mortality after prostate cancer diagnosis. PMID:26031631

  17. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  19. Explicit and Implicit Measures of Expectancy and Related Alcohol Cognitions: A Meta-Analytic Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Below, Maureen C.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Implicit measures assess the influence of past experience on present behavior in the absence of respondents’ awareness of that influence. Application of implicit measurement to expectancy and related alcohol cognition research has helped elucidate the links between alcohol-related experiences, the functioning of alcohol-related memory, and alcohol-related behavior. Despite these advances, a coherent picture of the role of implicit measurement has been difficult to achieve due to the diversity of implicit measures used. Two central questions have emerged: do implicit measures assess a distinct aspect of the alcohol associative memory domain not accessible via explicit measurement; and, when compared to explicit measurement, do they offer unique prediction of alcohol consumption? To the end of addressing these questions, a meta-analysis of studies using both implicit and explicit measures of alcohol expectancy and other types of alcohol-related cognition is conducted. Results indicate that implicit and explicit measures are weakly related, and while they predict some shared variance in drinking, each also contributes a unique component. Results are discussed in the context of the theoretical distinction made between the two types of measures. PMID:20307108

  20. Differences in Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems between Transgender- and Nontransgender-identified Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coulter, Robert W.S.; Blosnich, John R.; Bukowski, Leigh A.; Herrick, A. L.; Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Stall, Ron D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between transgender- and nontransgender-identified populations. Using data from a large-scale health survey, we compare the drinking patterns and prevalence of alcohol-related problems of transgender-identified individuals to nontransgender-identified males and females. For transgender-identified people, we examine how various forms of victimization relate to heavy episodic drinking (HED). Methods Cross-sectional surveys were completed by 75,192 students aged 18–29 years attending 120 post-secondary educational institutions in the United States from 2011–2013. Self-reported measures included alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, victimization, and sociodemographics, including 3 gender-identity groups: transgender-identified individuals; nontransgender-identified males; and nontransgender-identified females. Results Compared to transgender-identified individuals, nontransgender-identified males were more likely to report HED in the past 2 weeks (relative risk=1.42; p=0.006); however, nontransgender-identified males and females reported HED on fewer days than transgender-identified people (incidence-rate ratios [IRRs] ranged from 0.28–0.43; p-values<0.001). Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females had lower odds of past-year alcohol-related sexual assault and suicidal ideation (odds ratios ranged from 0.24–0.45; p-values<0.05). Among transgender-identified people, individuals who were sexually assaulted (IRR=3.21, p=0.011) or verbally threatened (IRR=2.42, p=0.021) in the past year had greater HED days than those who did not experience those forms of victimization. Conclusions Compared to transgender-identified people, nontransgender-identified males and females: have fewer HED occasions (despite nontransgender-identified males having greater prevalence of HED); and are at lower risk for alcohol-related sexual assaults and

  1. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  2. Little evidence that hepatitis C virus leads to a higher risk of mortality in the absence of cirrhosis and excess alcohol intake: the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prasad, L; Spicher, V M; Negro, F; Rickenbach, M; Zwahlen, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the all-cause mortality of participants in the Swiss Hepatitis C Cohort compared to the Swiss general population. Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection attending secondary and tertiary care centres in Switzerland. One thousand six hundred and forty-five patients with HCV infection were followed up for a mean of over 2 years. We calculated all-cause standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using age, sex and calendar year-specific Swiss all-cause mortality rates. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to model the variability of SMR by cirrhotic status, HCV genotype, infection with hepatitis B virus or HIV, injection drug use and alcohol intake. Sixty-one deaths were recorded out of 1645 participants. The crude all-cause SMR was 4.5 (95% CI: 3.5-5.8). Patients co-infected with HIV had a crude SMR of 20 (95% CI: 11.1-36.1). The SMR of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.63-2.03) for patients who were not cirrhotic, not infected with HBV or HIV, did not inject drugs, were not heavy alcohol consumers (mortality. We found little evidence of excess mortality in hepatitis C infected patients who were not cirrhotic, in the absence of selected risk factors. Our findings emphasize the importance of providing appropriate preventive advice, such as counselling to avoid alcohol intake, in those infected with HCV. PMID:19243494

  3. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  4. Relative and combined effects of socioeconomic status and diabetes on mortality: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kim, Tae Joon; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Dong Seop; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2016-07-01

    Both low socioeconomic status (SES) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are important risk factors for mortality. However, little is known about their combined effects and relative contribution to the mortality risk.From a nationwide cohort provided by the National Health Insurance Service in Korea, 153,075 subjects who were over 30 years of age from 2003 to 2004 were followed-up until 2010. The SESs of the subjects in the DM and non-DM (NDM) groups were categorized into 3 groups (highest 30% as S1, middle 40% as S2, and lowest 30% as S3) based on the subjects' income levels.During the 7.9-year follow-up, 3933 deaths occurred. When the subjects were stratified into 6 groups by their socioeconomic and diabetes status, a linearly increasing pattern of the hazard ratio (HR) of mortality from the higher SES without diabetes group (NDM-S1, as a reference) to the lower SES with diabetes group (DM-S3; HR, 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.80-2.36) was observed (P for trend < 0.001). Notably, subjects with DM in the highest SES group (DM-S1) had a significantly higher mortality risk than did non-DM subjects in the lowest SES group (NDM-S3). This pattern was maintained in cause-specific mortality but was more prominent in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and less prominent in cancer mortality. The association was not affected by gender; however, in individuals <60 years of age, the combined effects of SES and DM on mortality were more prominent (DM-S3; HR, 3.68, 95% CI, 2.95-4.60) than in those ≥60 years of age.Low SES and DM were major determinants of mortality and synergistically increased the risks of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. PMID:27472736

  5. Variation in mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in relation to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor temperature has been reported to have a significant influence on the seasonal variations of stroke mortality, but few studies have investigated the effect of high temperature on the mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The main study goal was to examine the effect of temperature, particularly high temperature, on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. We investigated the association between outdoor temperature and stroke mortality in four metropolitan cities in Korea during 1992-2007. We used time series analysis of the age-adjusted mortality rate for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke deaths by using generalized additive and generalized linear models, and estimated the percentage change of mortality rate associated with a 1°C increase of mean temperature. The temperature-responses for the hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality differed, particularly in the range of high temperature. The estimated percentage change of ischemic stroke mortality above a threshold temperature was 5.4 % (95 % CI, 3.9-6.9 %) in Seoul, 4.1 % (95 % CI, 1.6-6.6 %) in Incheon, 2.3 % (-0.2 to 5.0 %) in Daegu and 3.6 % (0.7-6.6 %) in Busan, after controlling for daily mean humidity, mean air pressure, day of the week, season, and year. Additional adjustment of air pollution concentrations in the model did not change the effects. Hemorrhagic stroke mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing temperature without a threshold in the four cities after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that the mortality of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes show different patterns in relation to outdoor temperature. High temperature was harmful for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of high temperature to ischemic stroke did not differ by age or gender.

  6. Variation in mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in relation to high temperature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor temperature has been reported to have a significant influence on the seasonal variations of stroke mortality, but few studies have investigated the effect of high temperature on the mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The main study goal was to examine the effect of temperature, particularly high temperature, on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. We investigated the association between outdoor temperature and stroke mortality in four metropolitan cities in Korea during 1992-2007. We used time series analysis of the age-adjusted mortality rate for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke deaths by using generalized additive and generalized linear models, and estimated the percentage change of mortality rate associated with a 1°C increase of mean temperature. The temperature-responses for the hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality differed, particularly in the range of high temperature. The estimated percentage change of ischemic stroke mortality above a threshold temperature was 5.4 % (95 % CI, 3.9-6.9 %) in Seoul, 4.1 % (95 % CI, 1.6-6.6 %) in Incheon, 2.3 % (-0.2 to 5.0 %) in Daegu and 3.6 % (0.7-6.6 %) in Busan, after controlling for daily mean humidity, mean air pressure, day of the week, season, and year. Additional adjustment of air pollution concentrations in the model did not change the effects. Hemorrhagic stroke mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing temperature without a threshold in the four cities after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that the mortality of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes show different patterns in relation to outdoor temperature. High temperature was harmful for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of high temperature to ischemic stroke did not differ by age or gender.

  7. Potential population-level effects of increased haulout-related mortality of Pacific walrus calves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Taylor, Rebecca L.; Garlich-Miller, Joel L.; Quakenbush, Lori T.; Snyder, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Availability of summer sea ice has been decreasing in the Chukchi Sea during recent decades, and increasing numbers of Pacific walruses have begun using coastal haulouts in late summer during years when sea ice retreats beyond the continental shelf. Calves and yearlings are particularly susceptible to being crushed during disturbance events that cause the herd to panic and stampede at these large haulouts, but the potential population-level effects of this mortality are unknown. We used recent harvest data, along with previous assumptions about demographic parameters for this population, to estimate female population size and structure in 2009 and project these numbers forward using a range of assumptions about future harvests and haulout-related mortality that might result from increased use of coastal haulouts during late summer. We found that if demographic parameters were held constant, the levels of harvest that occurred during 1990–2008 would have allowed the population to grow during that period. Our projections indicate, however, that an increase in haulout-related mortality affecting only calves has a greater effect on the population than an equivalent increase in harvest-related mortality distributed among all age classes. Therefore, disturbance-related mortality of calves at coastal haulouts may have relatively important population consequences.

  8. Longitudinal Relation of Community-Level Income Inequality and Mortality in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Modrek, Sepideh; Ahern, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The controversy regarding the direct relationship between income distribution and health remains unresolved. Empirical evidence has often failed to advance our understanding because in the countries studied there was limited ability to distinguish hypotheses. This study examines the relation between inequality and mortality in the context of Costa Rica. Costa Rica’s unique social and political structure makes confounding through resource and political channels less likely, thus any effects would work predominantly through direct psychosocial channels. Using mortality data extracted from the Vital Statistics Registry, we evaluate the longitudinal relations between income inequality and cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica from 1989–2005. For those aged 15–60, results indicate that there is a significant adverse relation between increases in lagged inequality and mortality from liver disease, and marginal adverse relations with mortality from diabetes and suicide. For those aged 60 and over, there is a limited evidence of a relation between inequality and health. These results suggest increases in inequality may impact health behavior of the working aged population in Costa Rica. PMID:21873102

  9. Longitudinal relation of community-level income inequality and mortality in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Modrek, Sepideh; Ahern, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The controversy regarding the direct relationship between income distribution and health remains unresolved. Empirical evidence has often failed to advance our understanding because in the countries studied there was limited ability to distinguish hypotheses. This study examines the relation between inequality and mortality in the context of Costa Rica. Costa Rica's unique social and political structure makes confounding through resource and political channels less likely, thus any effects would work predominantly through direct psychosocial channels. Using mortality data extracted from the Vital Statistics Registry, we evaluate the longitudinal relations between lagged and contemporaneous income inequality and cause-specific mortality in Costa Rica from 1995 to 2005. For those aged 15-60, results indicate that there is a significant adverse relation between increases in lagged inequality and mortality from liver disease, and marginal adverse relations with mortality from diabetes and suicide. For those aged 60 and over, there is a limited evidence of a relation between inequality and health. These results suggest increases in inequality may impact health behavior of the working aged population in Costa Rica.

  10. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer: a systematic assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul; Lee, Michelle; Hesser, Tanya; Chi, Susan N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Fisher, Brian; Hasle, Henrik; Kanerva, Jukka; Möricke, Anja; Phillips, Bob; Raetz, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Tissing, Wim; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Sung, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification for treatment-related mortality was noted as excellent by clinical research associates (κ=0·83, 95% CI 0·60-1·00) and paediatric oncologists (0·84, 0·63-1·00). Criterion validity was established because agreement between the consensus classifications by clinical research associates and paediatric oncologists was almost perfect (0·92, 0·78-1·00). Our approach should allow comparison of treatment-related mortality across trials and across time. PMID:26678213

  11. Classification of treatment-related mortality in children with cancer: a systematic assessment.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Sarah; Pole, Jason D; Gibson, Paul; Lee, Michelle; Hesser, Tanya; Chi, Susan N; Dvorak, Christopher C; Fisher, Brian; Hasle, Henrik; Kanerva, Jukka; Möricke, Anja; Phillips, Bob; Raetz, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Tissing, Wim; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Sung, Lillian

    2015-12-01

    Treatment-related mortality is an important outcome in paediatric cancer clinical trials. An international group of experts in supportive care in paediatric cancer developed a consensus-based definition of treatment-related mortality and a cause-of-death attribution system. The reliability and validity of the system was tested in 30 deaths, which were independently assessed by two clinical research associates and two paediatric oncologists. We defined treatment-related mortality as death occurring in the absence of progressive cancer. Of the 30 reviewed deaths, the reliability of classification for treatment-related mortality was noted as excellent by clinical research associates (κ=0·83, 95% CI 0·60-1·00) and paediatric oncologists (0·84, 0·63-1·00). Criterion validity was established because agreement between the consensus classifications by clinical research associates and paediatric oncologists was almost perfect (0·92, 0·78-1·00). Our approach should allow comparison of treatment-related mortality across trials and across time.

  12. Macro-to-micro links in the relation between income inequality and mortality.

    PubMed

    Daly, M C; Duncan, G J; Kaplan, G A; Lynch, J W

    1998-01-01

    A growing literature points to links between income inequality and mortality. Any examination of the link should distinguish, both theoretically and empirically, between shifts in inequality that result from changes in the bottom and top of the income distribution. When state-level data from the U.S. censuses of 1980 and 1990 were used to measure differences in mortality, the results indicated that inequality measures reflecting depth of poverty show stronger correlations with mortality than do inequality measures reflecting heights of affluence. In addition, longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to related state-level inequality measures to individual-level data on mortality. This comparison revealed significant associations between degree of income inequality in state of residence and individual risk of death only for nonelderly individuals with middle-class incomes in 1990.

  13. Dynamical network model for age-related health deficits and mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Swadhin; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth; Rutenberg, Andrew D.

    2016-02-01

    How long people live depends on their health, and how it changes with age. Individual health can be tracked by the accumulation of age-related health deficits. The fraction of age-related deficits is a simple quantitative measure of human aging. This quantitative frailty index (F ) is as good as chronological age in predicting mortality. In this paper, we use a dynamical network model of deficits to explore the effects of interactions between deficits, deficit damage and repair processes, and the connection between the F and mortality. With our model, we qualitatively reproduce Gompertz's law of increasing human mortality with age, the broadening of the F distribution with age, the characteristic nonlinear increase of the F with age, and the increased mortality of high-frailty individuals. No explicit time-dependence in damage or repair rates is needed in our model. Instead, implicit time-dependence arises through deficit interactions—so that the average deficit damage rates increase, and deficit repair rates decrease, with age. We use a simple mortality criterion, where mortality occurs when the most connected node is damaged.

  14. Projection of future temperature-related mortality due to climate and demographic changes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Ho

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate change from both environmental and human health perspectives has gained great importance. Particularly, studies on the direct effect of temperature increase on future mortality have been conducted. However, few of those studies considered population changes, and although the world population is rapidly aging, no previous study considered the effect of society aging. Here we present a projection of future temperature-related mortality due to both climate and demographic changes in seven major cities of South Korea, a fast aging country, until 2100; we used the HadGEM3-RA model under four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) and the United Nations world population prospects under three fertility scenarios (high, medium, and low). The results showed markedly increased mortality in the elderly group, significantly increasing the overall future mortality. In 2090s, South Korea could experience a four- to six-time increase in temperature-related mortality compared to that during 1992-2010 under four different RCP scenarios and three different fertility variants, while the mortality is estimated to increase only by 0.5 to 1.5 times assuming no population aging. Therefore, not considering population aging may significantly underestimate temperature risks.

  15. Body mass and weight change in adults in relation to mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth F; Leitzmann, Michael F; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Albanes, Demetrius; Harris, Tamara B; Hollenbeck, Albert; Kipnis, Victor

    2014-01-15

    Using data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, we evaluated the influence of adulthood weight history on mortality risk. The National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study is an observational cohort study of US men and women who were aged 50-71 years at entry in 1995-1996. This analysis focused on 109,947 subjects who had never smoked and were younger than age 70 years. We estimated hazard ratios of total and cause-specific mortality for recalled body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 18, 35, and 50 years; weight change across 3 adult age intervals; and the effect of first attaining an elevated BMI at 4 successive ages. During 12.5 years' follow-up through 2009, 12,017 deaths occurred. BMI at all ages was positively related to mortality. Weight gain was positively related to mortality, with stronger associations for gain between ages 18 and 35 years and ages 35 and 50 years than between ages 50 and 69 years. Mortality risks were higher in persons who attained or exceeded a BMI of 25.0 at a younger age than in persons who reached that threshold later in adulthood, and risks were lowest in persons who maintained a BMI below 25.0. Heavier initial BMI and weight gain in early to middle adulthood strongly predicted mortality risk in persons aged 50-69 years. PMID:24173550

  16. Projection of future temperature-related mortality due to climate and demographic changes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Ho

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of global climate change from both environmental and human health perspectives has gained great importance. Particularly, studies on the direct effect of temperature increase on future mortality have been conducted. However, few of those studies considered population changes, and although the world population is rapidly aging, no previous study considered the effect of society aging. Here we present a projection of future temperature-related mortality due to both climate and demographic changes in seven major cities of South Korea, a fast aging country, until 2100; we used the HadGEM3-RA model under four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) and the United Nations world population prospects under three fertility scenarios (high, medium, and low). The results showed markedly increased mortality in the elderly group, significantly increasing the overall future mortality. In 2090s, South Korea could experience a four- to six-time increase in temperature-related mortality compared to that during 1992-2010 under four different RCP scenarios and three different fertility variants, while the mortality is estimated to increase only by 0.5 to 1.5 times assuming no population aging. Therefore, not considering population aging may significantly underestimate temperature risks. PMID:27316627

  17. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  19. Different Pathways Explain Alcohol-Related Problems in Female and Male College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…

  20. Alcohol-Related and Negatively Valenced Cues Increase Motor and Oculomotor Disinhibition in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in the present study was to investigate the psychological mechanisms that underlie the disinhibiting effects of alcohol cues in social drinkers by contrasting motor and oculomotor inhibition after exposure to alcohol-related, emotional, and neutral pictures. We conducted 2 studies in which social drinkers completed modified stop-signal (laboratory) and antisaccade (online) tasks in which positive, negative, alcohol-related, and neutral pictures were embedded. We measured cue-specific disinhibition in each task, and investigated whether sex and drinking status moderated the effects of pictures on disinhibition. Across both studies, comparable increases in disinhibition were observed in response to both alcohol and negatively valenced pictures, relative to both positive and neutral pictures. These differences in disinhibition could not be explained by differences between picture sets in arousal or valence ratings. There was no clear evidence of moderation by sex or drinking status. Secondary analyses demonstrated that alcohol-specific disinhibition was not reliably associated with individual differences in alcohol consumption or craving. These results suggest that the disinhibiting properties of alcohol-related cues cannot be attributed solely to their valence or arousing properties, and that alcohol cues may have unique disinhibiting properties. PMID:25730418

  1. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  2. A Duty of Care: Non-Drinkers and Alcohol Related Harm among an Australian University Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhailovich, Katja; George, Amanda; Rickwood, Debra; Parker, Rhian

    2011-01-01

    Studies documenting the harm associated with excessive drinking amongst university students are numerous. Fewer studies have explored the experience of non-drinkers in the university setting. In 2008, 826 students aged 18-29 years responded to an online survey aiming to investigate alcohol use and alcohol related harm at an Australian university.…

  3. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  4. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  5. Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of…

  6. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  7. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  8. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  9. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  10. Prevalence and Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol-Related Sexual Assault among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Donna E.; Griffin, Melinda A.; Boekeloo, Bradley O.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the psychosocial correlates of alcohol-related sexual assault. Undergraduate students (N = 551) were recruited to complete a web-based survey. The outcome was a composite of 2 items: "experienced an unwanted sexual advance" or "was the victim of sexual assault or date rape" as a result of another's alcohol use. The predictors…

  11. Trends in schistosomiasis-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2014-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important public health problem, with high morbidity and mortality in endemic countries. We analysed the epidemiological characteristics and time trends of schistosomiasis-related mortality in Brazil. We performed a nationwide study based on official mortality data obtained from the Brazilian Mortality Information System. We included all deaths in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which schistosomiasis was mentioned on the death certificate as an underlying or associated cause of death (multiple causes of death). We calculated crude and age-adjusted mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants), and proportional mortality rates. Trends over time were assessed using joinpoint regression models. Over the 12-year study period, 12,491,280 deaths were recorded in Brazil. Schistosomiasis was mentioned in 8,756 deaths, including in 6,319 (72.2%) as an underlying cause and in 2,437 (27.8%) as an associated cause. The average annual age-adjusted mortality rate was 0.49 deaths/100,000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.52) and proportional mortality rate was 0.070% (95% confidence interval: 0.069-0.072). Males (0.53 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), those aged ⩾70years (3.41 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), those of brown race/colour (0.44 deaths/100,000 inhabitants), and residents in the Northeast region of Brazil (1.19 deaths/100,000 inhabitants) had the highest schistosomiasis-related death rates. Age-adjusted mortality rates showed a significant decrease at a national level (Annual Percent Change: -2.8%; 95% confidence interval: -4.2 to -2.4) during the studied period. We observed decreasing mortality rates in the Northeast (Annual Percent Change: -2.5%; 95% confidence interval: -4.2 to -0.8), Southeast (Annual Percent Change: -2.2%; 95% confidence interval: -3.6 to -0.9), and Central-West (Annual Percent Change: -7.9%; 95% confidence interval: -11.3 to -4.3) regions, while the rates remained stable in the North and South regions. Despite the reduced

  12. Posttreatment Functioning of Alcoholic Patients: Its Relation to Program Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromet, Evelyn; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Assessed posttreatment functioning of 429 alcoholic patients selected from five different types of treatment facilities. Substantial improvement in three areas of functioning (drinking, occupational, and psychological) occurred among patients in each program, although there were significant differences among programs in level of functioning at…

  13. EXTENT AND PATTERN OF ALCOHOL USE AND ALCOHOL-RELATED PROBLEMS IN NORTH INDIA*

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Arvinder; Singh, Sarbjit; Malhotra, Anil

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY A structured questionnaire was verbally administered individually to a random sample of the general population, 18 years of age and older, of rural and urban Chandigarh and of two villages in Jullundur district, Punjab. Out of a total of 1031 respondents, 23.7 percent were current users, 16.0 percent admitted of alcohol use in the past but were not current users, and 60.3 percent had never had alcoholic beverages. 19.0 percent of Chandigarh urban sample, 31.4 percent of Chandigarh rural sample and 45.9 percent of Jullundur rucal sample were current users. These findings have been discussed in terms of various socio-demographic variables PMID:22058493

  14. Lithium orotate in the treatment of alcoholism and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, H E

    1986-01-01

    The subjects were 42 alcoholic patients (33 males and 9 females) who were treated with lithium orotate during an alcohol rehabilitation program in a private clinical setting for at least six months. They derive from a total number of 105 patients who received this treatment initially, while the remainder discontinued the treatment within six months. The data were collected from a private practice record and the follow-up varied between six months and 10 years. The 42 patients studied displayed a multitude of complaints in addition to chronic alcoholism. These included liver dysfunction, seizure disorders, headaches, hyperthyroidism, affective disorders. Meniere's syndrome, liver and lung cancers. Thirty-six of the 42 patients studied had been hospitalized at least once for the management of their alcoholism. Lithium orotate was given, 150 mg daily, with a diet low in simple carbohydrates and containing moderate amounts of protein and fat. In addition, calcium orotate (for hepatic involvement), magnesium orotate, bromelaine, and essential phospholipids (for cardiac problems), and supportive measures were instituted, if required. Lithium orotate proved useful as the main pharmacologic agent for the treatment of alcoholism. Ten of the patients had no relapse for over three and up to 10 years, 13 patients remained without relapse for 1 to 3 years, and the remaining 12 had relapses between 6 to 12 months. Lithium orotate therapy was safe and the adverse side effects noted were minor, i.e., eight patients developed muscle weakness, loss of appetite or mild apathy. For these patients, the symptoms subsided when the daily dose was given 4 to 5 times weekly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3718672

  15. Challenges associated with projecting urbanization-induced heat-related mortality.

    PubMed

    Hondula, David M; Georgescu, Matei; Balling, Robert C

    2014-08-15

    Maricopa County, Arizona, anchor to the fastest growing megapolitan area in the United States, is located in a hot desert climate where extreme temperatures are associated with elevated risk of mortality. Continued urbanization in the region will impact atmospheric temperatures and, as a result, potentially affect human health. We aimed to quantify the number of excess deaths attributable to heat in Maricopa County based on three future urbanization and adaptation scenarios and multiple exposure variables. Two scenarios (low and high growth projections) represent the maximum possible uncertainty range associated with urbanization in central Arizona, and a third represents the adaptation of high-albedo cool roof technology. Using a Poisson regression model, we related temperature to mortality using data spanning 1983-2007. Regional climate model simulations based on 2050-projected urbanization scenarios for Maricopa County generated distributions of temperature change, and from these predicted changes future excess heat-related mortality was estimated. Subject to urbanization scenario and exposure variable utilized, projections of heat-related mortality ranged from a decrease of 46 deaths per year (-95%) to an increase of 339 deaths per year (+359%). Projections based on minimum temperature showed the greatest increase for all expansion and adaptation scenarios and were substantially higher than those for daily mean temperature. Projections based on maximum temperature were largely associated with declining mortality. Low-growth and adaptation scenarios led to the smallest increase in predicted heat-related mortality based on mean temperature projections. Use of only one exposure variable to project future heat-related deaths may therefore be misrepresentative in terms of direction of change and magnitude of effects. Because urbanization-induced impacts can vary across the diurnal cycle, projections of heat-related health outcomes that do not consider place

  16. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  17. Alcohol-Related Risk of Driver Fatalities: An Update Using 2007 Data

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relative risk of being involved in an alcohol-related crash has changed over the decade from 1996 to 2007, a period during which there has been little evidence of a reduction in the percentage of all fatal crashes involving alcohol. Method: We compared blood-alcohol information for the 2006 and 2007 crash cases (N = 6,863, 22.8% of them women) drawn from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control blood-alcohol data from participants in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey (N = 6,823). Risk estimates were computed and compared with those previously obtained from the 1996 FARS and roadside survey data. Results: Although the adult relative risk of being involved in a fatal alcohol-related crash apparently did not change from 1996 to 2007, the risk for involvement in an alcohol-related crash for underage women has increased to the point where it has become the same as that for underage men. Further, the risk that sober underage men will become involved in a fatal crash has doubled over the 1996–2007 period. Conclusions: Compared with estimates obtained from a decade earlier, young women in this study are at an increased risk of involvement in alcohol-related crashes. Similarly, underage sober drivers in this study are more at risk of involvement in a crash than they were a decade earlier. PMID:22456239

  18. Emotion Differentiation and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Mediating Role of Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Clarke, C. Joseph; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in emotional and behavioral regulation figure prominently in etiological models of alcohol-related problems (Baker, Piper, McCarthy, Majeskie, & Fiore, 2004; Wiers et al., 2007). This study tests a model linking poor differentiation of emotion to alcohol-related problems via urgency. The sample consisted of 102 undergraduates between the ages 18 to 24 who reported moderate to heavy alcohol consumption. As hypothesized, negative urgency mediated the relationship between negative emotion differentiation and alcohol-related problems. However, contrary to hypothesis, positive urgency was not associated with either positive emotion differentiation or alcohol-related problems and the indirect effect of positive emotion differentiation via positive urgency was not significant. Instead, positive emotion differentiation exhibited a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems. This study provides an initial examination of connections between specificity in labeling emotions, behavioral disinhibition, and problematic alcohol use. These findings suggest poor differentiation of negative emotion may foster impulsive behavior when negatively aroused. Whereas, impulsive behavior when positively aroused may reflect heightened sensitivity to positive reinforcement, which may not be related to reflective processes underlying emotion differentiation. PMID:24935796

  19. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling of tobacco-related cancer mortality in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, Verena; Ess, Silvia; Phuleria, Harish C; Früh, Martin; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Frick, Harald; Cerny, Thomas; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is a main cause of disease in Switzerland; lung cancer being the most common cancer mortality in men and the second most common in women. Although disease-specific mortality is decreasing in men, it is steadily increasing in women. The four language regions in this country might play a role in this context as they are influenced in different ways by the cultural and social behaviour of neighbouring countries. Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal, negative binomial models were fitted on subgroup-specific death rates indirectly standardized by national references to explore age- and gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of mortality due to lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers in Switzerland for the time period 1969-2002. Differences influenced by linguistic region and life in rural or urban areas were also accounted for. Male lung cancer mortality was found to be rather homogeneous in space, whereas women were confirmed to be more affected in urban regions. Compared to the German-speaking part, female mortality was higher in the French-speaking part of the country, a result contradicting other reports of similar comparisons between France and Germany. The spatio-temporal patterns of mortality were similar for lung cancer and other tobacco-related cancers. The estimated mortality maps can support the planning in health care services and evaluation of a national tobacco control programme. Better understanding of spatial and temporal variation of cancer of the lung and other tobacco-related cancers may help in allocating resources for more effective screening, diagnosis and therapy. The methodology can be applied to similar studies in other settings.

  20. The early use of alcohol and tobacco: its relation to children's competence and parents' behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C; Henriksen, L; Dickinson, D; Levine, D W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Use of tobacco and alcohol during childhood predicts heavy use of these substances and use of illicit drugs during adolescence. This study aims to identify developmental correlates of tobacco and alcohol use among elementary-school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were used to measure tobacco and alcohol use, multiple indicators of child competence, parenting behaviors, and parental modeling of tobacco and alcohol use in a sample of 1470 third- and fifth-grade children. Both self-report and teacher-rated assessments were obtained, which allowed collateral testing of study hypotheses. RESULTS: Children's tobacco and alcohol use was strongly related to low scores on several measures of child competence, both self-reported and teacher rated. Children's tobacco and alcohol use was also associated with less effective parenting behaviors and with parental use of tobacco and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Children's early experience with tobacco and alcohol is associated with weak competence development and exposure to socialization factors that promote risk taking. Interventions to prevent early use of tobacco and alcohol are needed. PMID:9096534

  1. Adolescent Alcohol Use: Protective and Predictive Parent, Peer, and Self-Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Handren, Lindsay M; Donaldson, Candice D; Crano, William D

    2016-10-01

    Adolescent alcohol use has been linked with a multitude of problems and a trajectory predictive of problematic use in adulthood. Thus, targeting factors that enhance early prevention efforts is vital. The current study highlights variables that mitigate or predict alcohol use and heavy episodic drinking. Using Monitoring the Future (MTF) data, multiple path analytic models revealed links between parental involvement and alcohol abstinence and initiation. Parental involvement predicted enhanced self-esteem and less self-derogation and was negatively associated with peer alcohol norms for each MTF grade sampled, with stronger associations for 8th and 10th graders than 12th graders. For younger groups, self-esteem predicted increased perceptions of alcohol risk and reduced drinking. Self-derogation was associated with peers' pro-alcohol norms, which was linked to lower risk perceptions, lower personal disapproval of use, and increased drinking. Peer influence had a stronger association with consumption for 8th and 10th graders, whereas 12th graders' drinking was related to personal factors of alcohol risk perception and disapproval. In all grades, general alcohol use had a strong connection to heavy episodic drinking within the past 2 weeks. Across-grade variations in association of parent, peer, and personal factors suggest the desirability of tailored interventions focused on specific factors for each grade level, with the overall goal of attenuating adolescent alcohol use. PMID:27562038

  2. Radio tag retention and tag-related mortality among adult sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Tag retention and tag-related mortality are concerns for any tagging study but are rarely estimated. We assessed retention and mortality rates for esophageal radio tag implants in adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Migrating sockeye salmon captured at the outlet of Lake Clark, Alaska, were implanted with one of four different radio tags (14.5 ?? 43 mm [diameter ?? length], 14.5 ?? 49 mm, 16 ?? 46 mm, and 19 ?? 51 mm). Fish were observed for 15 to 35 d after tagging to determine retention and mortality rates. The overall tag retention rate was high (0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.00; minimum, 33 d), with one loss of a 19-mm ?? 51-mm tag. Mortality of tagged sockeye salmon (0.02; 95% CI, 0-0.08) was similar to that of untagged controls (0.03 [0-0.15]). Sockeye salmon with body lengths (mid-eye to tail fork) of 585-649 mm retained tags as large as 19 ?? 51 mm and those with body lengths of 499-628 mm retained tags as small as 14.5 ?? 43 mm for a minimum of 33 d with no increase in mortality. The tags used in this study represent a suite of radio tags that vary in size, operational life, and cost but that are effective in tracking adult anadromous salmon with little tag loss or increase in fish mortality.

  3. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-01-01

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994–2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects. PMID:26959044

  4. Spatial Patterns of Heat-Related Cardiovascular Mortality in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Urban, Aleš; Burkart, Katrin; Kyselý, Jan; Schuster, Christian; Plavcová, Eva; Hanzlíková, Hana; Štěpánek, Petr; Lakes, Tobia

    2016-03-04

    The study examines spatial patterns of effects of high temperature extremes on cardiovascular mortality in the Czech Republic at a district level during 1994-2009. Daily baseline mortality for each district was determined using a single location-stratified generalized additive model. Mean relative deviations of mortality from the baseline were calculated on days exceeding the 90th percentile of mean daily temperature in summer, and they were correlated with selected demographic, socioeconomic, and physical-environmental variables for the districts. Groups of districts with similar characteristics were identified according to socioeconomic status and urbanization level in order to provide a more general picture than possible on the district level. We evaluated lagged patterns of excess mortality after hot spell occurrences in: (i) urban areas vs. predominantly rural areas; and (ii) regions with different overall socioeconomic level. Our findings suggest that climatic conditions, altitude, and urbanization generally affect the spatial distribution of districts with the highest excess cardiovascular mortality, while socioeconomic status did not show a significant effect in the analysis across the Czech Republic as a whole. Only within deprived populations, socioeconomic status played a relevant role as well. After taking into account lagged effects of temperature on excess mortality, we found that the effect of hot spells was significant in highly urbanized regions, while most excess deaths in rural districts may be attributed to harvesting effects.

  5. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities

    PubMed Central

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  6. The management of alcohol-related problems in general practice in north India.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Malhotra, A K

    1988-07-01

    Twenty-seven general medical practitioners (GPs) were administered WHO semi-structured schedule enquiring "The Management of Alcohol-Related Problems in General Practice". Majority of the GPs had some involvement in each one of the specified alcohol-related problems. The involvement in alcohol and health education had been modest. Involvement in the control and regulatory activities was minimal. None of them felt that they had any role in the development of health and alcohol policy. Treatment response lo three typical situations appeared to be quite appropriate. To regulate production, to market less potent drinks at cheaper rates, to organize public health education programme through mass media were the suggestions made by them. It is suggested that GPs can and should be encouraged in leadership roles in policy decisions regarding the delivery of services, control and regulation of alcohol and research.

  7. Marchiafava-Bignami and Alcohol Related Acute Polyneuropathy: The Cooccurrence of Two Rare Entities.

    PubMed

    Boloursaz, Samine; Nekooei, Sirous; Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaei-Dalouei, Hossein; Davachi, Behrooz; Kazemi, Sahar; Abbasi, Bita

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this article is to represent the first reported case with cooccurrence of two rare alcohol related complications. Case Report. We report a 38-year-old man with chronic alcoholism who presented with both cranial and peripheral nerve palsy. On MRI examination characteristic findings of Marchiafava-Bignami disease were recognized. Discussion. Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a rare complication of long-term, heavy alcohol abuse that has characteristic MRI findings. Acute alcohol related polyneuropathy (AARP) is another rare and not-well-understood complication of chronic alcohol abuse. We could not find any previous report of the cooccurrence of these two complications in the literature. PMID:27668107

  8. Suicide and alcohol related disorders in the U.S. Arctic: boosting research to address a primary determinant of health disparities

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Levintova, Marya; Mohatt, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To review the existing epidemiological literature on suicide and alcohol related disorders and their social determinants in the U.S. Arctic, as it relates to U.S. government research and evaluation efforts, and to offer recommendations to boost research capacity in the U.S. Arctic and collaborations across the circumpolar arctic as part of global health initiatives. Study design: Synthetic literature review. Methods Published literature, federal and state reports on suicide and alcohol-related disorders, federal databases on research and program evaluation in the U.S Arctic were reviewed, with a focus on epidemiological trends over the past 50 years. Results Suicide and alcohol-related disorders play a significant role in health disparities t in the U.S. Arctic, with evidence of a disturbing prevalence trend over the past 50 years. Important variations exist in suicide rates across different regions of Alaska with different majority populations of Alaska Native cultural groups, and in selected key instances, within these regions, with immense implications for guiding effective prevention efforts. Consequences of alcohol abuse are severe and particularly significant in their impact upon Alaska Native people. Health related conditions associated with alcohol abuse are among leading causes of mortality. Conclusions Recommendations to boost research capacity in behavioural health in the U.S. Arctic are offered; specifically on strategies and methods of inquiry and analysis, distinctions between populations and communities in rural circumpolar contexts, future epidemiological and implementation research. PMID:22067096

  9. QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.P.; James, O.F.W. . Dept. of Medicine); Butler, T.J. . Dept. of Medical Statistics); Campbell, R.W.F. . Dept. of Academic Cardiology)

    1993-06-05

    Cardiovascular death is the most important cause of mortality in alcoholics, yet alcohol may protect against ischemic heart disease. This could be explained if deaths were a consequence of alcohol-related arrhythmias rather than of coronary atheroma. In many conditions, abnormalities of the QT interval are markers of arrhythmia and for risk of sudden death. The authors examined the relation between QT intervals and mortality in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

  10. Mortality related to cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in a modernizing population.

    PubMed

    Crews, D E; MacKeen, P C

    1982-01-01

    Excessive adiposity is associated with elevated rates of middle-aged mortality, particularly that related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). One purpose of this study was to determine whether the population of American Samoa demonstrated the expected elevation of mortality rates related to these two causes. Accordingly for all American Samoan death records (N = 1588) during the period 1962-74, both crude and age-standardized rates were calculated and interpopulation comparisons of DM and CVD were made. The second purpose of this research was to determine if elevated CVD mortality was associated with the islands' recent trend toward modernization. For this purpose 902 deaths of persons aged 30 or more were analyzed to determine change in CVD mortality over time and differences by degree of participation in modern life. The CVD-related mortality rate for Samoa was 82.1 per 100,000, compared to 368.6 reported for the United States in 1962. After age standardization the Samoan rate increased to 242.5, still below that of the United States. The Samoan DM-related mortality rate was 13.9 per 100,000 compared to a United States rate of 15.9 in 1959. After age adjustment, the respective rates were 32.2 and 13.4 (1957-59), the Samoan rate being more than double that of the United States. Female CVD mortality in Samoa increased from 196.2 in the period 1963-66 to 363.0 in 1971-74, while male rates remained essentially unchanged (417.3 and 429.0 respectively). CVD mortality among males living in more modernized areas of the island was 46.5% higher than that for male residents of more traditional areas (343.5 and 234.5 respectively); among females, however, the rate was highest for those living in traditional areas (398.7). CVD mortality for males classified to the "sedentary' occupational category was 50% greater than that for males in the "active'.

  11. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds.

  12. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  13. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems Across Hispanic National Groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. METHOD: 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis shows no association between acculturation and problems among men or women. Birthplace is a risk factor for social problems among both genders. Among men, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans are more likely to report social problems than Cuban Americans. Other risk factors for men are unemployment, a higher volume of drinking, and a higher frequency of binge drinking. Among women, Mexican American origin and binge drinking are also risk factors for reporting problems. CONCLUSIONS: U.S.-born Hispanics may experience stress and other detrimental effects to health because of their minority status, which may increase the likelihood of more drinking and the development of alcohol-related problems.

  14. Drinking, Driving, and Crashing: A Traffic-Flow Model of Alcohol-Related Motor Vehicle Accidents*

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.; Johnson, Fred W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities on rates of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. A traffic-flow model is developed to represent geographic relationships between residential locations of drinking drivers, alcohol outlets, and alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Method: Cross-sectional and time-series cross-sectional spatial analyses were performed using data collected from 144 geographic units over 4 years. Data were obtained from archival and survey sources in six communities. Archival data were obtained within community areas and measured activities of either the resident population or persons visiting these communities. These data included local and highway traffic flow, locations of alcohol outlets, population density, network density of the local roadway system, and single-vehicle nighttime (SVN) crashes. Telephone-survey data obtained from residents of the communities were used to estimate the size of the resident drinking and driving population. Results: Cross-sectional analyses showed that effects relating on-premise densities to alcohol-related crashes were moderated by highway traffic flow. Depending on levels of highway traffic flow, 10% greater densities were related to 0% to 150% greater rates of SVN crashes. Time-series cross-sectional analyses showed that changes in the population pool of drinking drivers and on-premise densities interacted to increase SVN crash rates. Conclusions: A simple traffic-flow model can assess the effects of on-premise alcohol-outlet densities and of drinking-driver densities as they vary across communities to produce alcohol-related crashes. Analyses based on these models can usefully guide policy decisions on the siting of on-premise alcohol outlets. PMID:20230721

  15. Impact of climate change on ozone-related mortality and morbidity in Europe.

    PubMed

    Orru, Hans; Andersson, Camilla; Ebi, Kristie L; Langner, Joakim; Aström, Christofer; Forsberg, Bertil

    2013-02-01

    Ozone is a highly oxidative pollutant formed from precursors in the presence of sunlight, associated with respiratory morbidity and mortality. All else being equal, concentrations of ground-level ozone are expected to increase due to climate change. Ozone-related health impacts under a changing climate are projected using emission scenarios, models and epidemiological data. European ozone concentrations are modelled with the model of atmospheric transport and chemistry (MATCH)-RCA3 (50×50 km). Projections from two climate models, ECHAM4 and HadCM3, are applied under greenhouse gas emission scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. We applied a European-wide exposure-response function to gridded population data and country-specific baseline mortality and morbidity. Comparing the current situation (1990-2009) with the baseline period (1961-1990), the largest increase in ozone-associated mortality and morbidity due to climate change (4-5%) have occurred in Belgium, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK. Comparing the baseline period and the future periods (2021-2050 and 2041-2060), much larger increases in ozone-related mortality and morbidity are projected for Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, with the impact being stronger using the climate projection from ECHAM4 (A2). However, in Nordic and Baltic countries the same magnitude of decrease is projected. The current study suggests that projected effects of climate change on ozone concentrations could differentially influence mortality and morbidity across Europe.

  16. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  17. A study of event-related potential-P3 characteristics in children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A; Malhotra, S; Raghunathan, M; Malhotra, A

    1997-10-01

    Auditory P3 characteristics were studied in children (aged 8-14 years) of male alcoholics without psychiatric problems and children of normal parents employing an oddball auditory paradigm. All the children of alcoholics were from families with multiple cases of alcoholism (each child had an average of 4.3 first- and second-degree relatives including the father, meeting criteria for alcoholism). Subjects were presented with high and low pitched tones with global probabilities of 25% and 75% of total trials, respectively. The amplitude of P3 component was significantly reduced in high-risk children (p < 0.001). Implications of the findings, including the role of P3 as biologi cal marker of risk for alcoholism, are discussed.

  18. Multi-state relative survival modelling of colorectal cancer progression and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gilard-Pioc, Séverine; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Mahboubi, Amel; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Dejardin, Olivier; Huszti, Ella; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Accurate identification of factors associated with progression of colorectal cancer remains a challenge. In particular, it is unclear which statistical methods are most suitable to separate the effects of putative prognostic factors on cancer progression vs cancer-specific and other cause mortality. To address these challenges, we analyzed 10 year follow-up data for patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer in 1985-2000. Separate analyses were performed in two French cancer registries. Results of three multivariable models were compared: Cox model with recurrence as a time-dependent variable, and two multi-state models, which separated prognostic factor effects on recurrence vs death, with or without recurrence. Conventional multi-state model analyzed all-cause mortality while new relative survival multi-state model focused on cancer-specific mortality. Among the 2517 and 2677 patients in the two registries, about 50% died without a recurrence, and 28% had a recurrence, of whom almost 90% died. In both multi-state models men had significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence in both registries (HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92 and HR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). However, the two multi-state models identified different prognostic factors for mortality without recurrence. In contrast to the conventional model, in the relative survival analyses gender had no independent association with cancer-specific mortality whereas patients diagnosed with stage III cancer had significantly higher risks in both registries (HR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.27-2.22 and HR=2.38; 95% CI: 1.29-3.27). In conclusion, relative survival multi-state model revealed that different factors may be associated with cancer recurrence vs cancer-specific mortality either after or without a recurrence.

  19. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  20. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality. PMID:20838816

  1. LONG-TERM INHALABLE PARTICLES AND OTHER AIR POLLUTANTS RELATED TO MORTALITY IN NONSMOKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term ambient concentrations of inhalable particles less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) (1973- 1992) and other air pollutants-total suspended sulfates, sulfur dioxide, ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide-were related to 1977-1992 mortality in a cohort of 6,338 nonsmoking Cali...

  2. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  3. Hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome: differences related to gender and use of percutaneous coronary procedures

    PubMed Central

    Aguado-Romeo, María J; Márquez-Calderón, Soledad; Buzón-Barrera, María L

    2007-01-01

    Background To identify differences among men and women with acute coronary syndrome in terms of in-hospital mortality, and to assess whether these differences are related to the use of percutaneous cardiovascular procedures. Methods Observational study based on the Minimum Basic Data Set. This encompassed all episodes of emergency hospital admissions (46,007 cases, including 16,391 women and 29,616 men) with a main diagnosis of either myocardial infarction or unstable angina at 32 hospitals within the Andalusian Public Health System over a four-year period (2000–2003). The relationship between gender and mortality was examined for the population as a whole and for stratified groups depending on the type of procedures used (diagnostic coronary catheterisation and/or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty). These combinations were then adjusted for age group, main diagnosis and co-morbidityharlson score). Results During hospitalisation, mortality was 9.6% (4,401 cases out of 46,007), with 11.8% for women and 8.3% for men. There were more deaths among older patients with acute myocardial infarction and greater co-morbidity. Lower mortality was shown in patients undergoing diagnostic catheterisation and/or PTCA. After adjusting for age, diagnosis and co-morbidity, mortality affected women more than men in the overall population (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06–1.22) and in the subgroup of patients where no procedure was performed (OR 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.24). Gender was not an explanatory variable in the subgroups of patients who underwent some kind of procedure. Conclusion Gender has not been associated to in-hospital mortality in patients who undergo some kind of percutaneous cardiovascular procedure. However, in the group of patients without either diagnostic catheterisation or angioplasty, mortality was higher in women than in men. PMID:17631037

  4. Changing trends in European alcoholic beverage drinking: selected social, demographic, economic factors, drinking's related harms, and prevention control policies between the 1960s and 2000s.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Maccari, Francesco; Pepe, Pasquale; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This study confirms that during the decades following WW II there was a tendency towards closure of consumption of alcoholic beverages among the European countries. The Northern countries, which during the 1960s manifested the lowest rates of alcohol consumption, ended up with greater consumption rates than the Southern countries, manifested the opposite trend; greater amounts of consumptions in the 1960s and lower consumptions in the 2000s. During the same some period, social, demographic and economic indicators--urbanization, rate of elderly males, Income, female education, female employment and mother's age at their childbirths, tended to increase, while the alcoholic beverage control policy strategies showed differences according to the country. Liver disease-related mortality, decreased in most countries. Study limitations are noted.

  5. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  6. Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2010-01-01

    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. 107 Cape Coloured, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, socio-demographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use, and quality of parenting were assessed at 13 months, and IQ and FAS diagnosis at 5 years. The effect of drinking on spontaneous play was not significant after control for social environment. By contrast, prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting related independently to elicited play. Elicited play predicted 5-year Digit Span and was poorer in infants subsequently diagnosed with FAS/partial FAS and in nonsyndromal heavily exposed infants, compared with abstainers/light drinkers. Thus, symbolic play may provide an early indicator of risk for alcohol-related deficits. The independent effects of prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting suggest that infants whose symbolic play is adversely affected by alcohol exposure may benefit from stimulation from a responsive caregiver. PMID:20953338

  7. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  8. Dose-related growth deficits in LS but not SS mice prenatally exposed to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gilliam, D M; Kotch, L E

    1996-01-01

    Genetically based alcohol sensitivity may influence the severity of alcohol-related birth defects. To examine this question, measures of growth and survival were examined in offspring of the alcohol sensitive Long-Sleep (LS) and alcohol-resistant Short-Sleep (SS) mouse lines following prenatal ethanol exposure. Pregnant LS and SS mice received an ethanol dose of either 6 or 8 g/kg/day from days 7 through 18 of pregnancy. Control groups received a maltose-dextran solution made isocaloric to the 8 g/kg/day dose. Ethanol and maltose-dextrin solutions were administered as split doses, 6 h apart, via gavage. Nonintubated lab chow control groups were also included for both mouse lines. Offspring were fostered at birth to lactating mice of an outbred stock. Pregnancy was longer for ethanol-treated LS dams compared to maltose-dextrin and lab chow LS control groups, whereas pregnancy length for ethanol-treated SS dams was similar to SS controls. Prenatal ethanol exposure resulted in dose-related growth deficits in LS but not in SS litters. Line differences in postnatal growth deficits in response to prenatal alcohol exposure suggest maternal or fetal alcohol sensitivity influence alcohol-related birth defects. PMID:8837934

  9. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  10. I Drink Therefore I am: Validating Alcohol-related Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Westgate, Erin; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared to one another. Thus, their comparative utility is unclear. The current study examined five alcohol-related variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a sample of 300 undergraduates and sought to establish their predictive validity. Results indicated that the Drinking Identity IAT, which measured associations of “drinker” with “me,” was the most consistent predictor of alcohol consumption, problems, and alcohol cravings. It also had the highest internal consistency and test–retest reliability scores. The results for the Alcohol Excitement and Alcohol Approach IATs were also promising but their psychometric properties were less consistent. Although the two IATs were positively correlated with all of the drinking outcome variables, they did not consistently predict unique variance in those variables after controlling for explicit measures. They also had relatively lower internal consistencies and test–retest reliabilities. Ultimately, results suggested that implicit drinking identity may be a useful tool for predicting alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings and a potential target for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:22428863

  11. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  12. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  13. Survival and harvest-related mortality of white-tailed deer in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, John E.; Destefano, Stephen; Gaughan, Christopher; Mayer, Michael; Woytek, William A.; Christensen, Sonja; Fuller, Todd K.

    2011-01-01

    We monitored 142 radiocollared adult (≥1.0 yr old) white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in 3 study areas of Massachusetts, USA, to estimate annual survival and mortality due to legal hunting. We then applied these rates to deer harvest information to estimate deer population trends over time, and compared these to trends derived solely from harvest data estimates. Estimated adult female survival rates were similar (0.82–0.86), and uniformly high, across 3 management zones in Massachusetts that differed in landscape composition, human density, and harvest regulations. Legal hunting accounted for 16–29% of all adult female mortality. Estimated adult male survival rates varied from 0.55 to 0.79, and legal hunting accounted for 40–75% of all mortality. Use of composite hunting mortality rates produced realistic estimates for adult deer populations in 2 zones, but not for the third, where estimation was hindered by regulatory restrictions on antlerless deer harvest. In addition, the population estimates we calculated were generally higher than those derived from population reconstruction, likely due to relatively low harvest pressure. Legal harvest may not be the dominant form of deer mortality in developed landscapes; thus, estimates of populations or trends that rely solely on harvest data will likely be underestimates.

  14. Annual incidence of mortality related to hypertensive disease in Canada and associations with heliophysical parameters.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Joseph M; Carniello, Trevor N; Murugan, Nirosha J

    2016-01-01

    Increasing research into heliobiology and related fields has revealed a myriad of potential relationships between space weather factors and terrestrial biology. Additionally, many studies have indicated cyclicity in incidence of various diseases along with many aspects of cardiovascular function. The current study examined annual mortality associated with hypertensive diseases in Canada from 1979 to 2009 for periodicities and linear relationships with a range of heliophysical parameters. Analyses indicated a number of significant lagged correlations between space weather and hypertensive mortality, with solar wind plasma beta identified as the likely source of these relationships. Similar periodicities were observed for geomagnetic activity and hypertensive mortality. A significant rhythm was revealed for hypertensive mortality centered on a 9.6-year cycle length, while geomagnetic activity was fit with a 10.1-year cycle. Cross-correlograms of mortality with space weather demonstrated a 10.67-year periodicity coinciding with the average 10.6-year solar cycle length for the time period examined. Further quantification and potential implications are discussed. PMID:25913078

  15. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  16. The relation between income and mortality in U.S. blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, J S; Long, A E; Liao, Y; Cooper, R S; McGee, D L

    1998-03-01

    Differential mortality exists in the United States both between racial/ethnic groups and along gradients of socioeconomic status. The specification of statistical models for processes underlying these observed disparities has been hindered by the fact that social and economic quantities are distributed in a highly nonrandom manner throughout the population. We sought to provide a substantive foundation for model development by representing the shape of the income-mortality relation by racial/ethnic group. We used data on black and white men and women from the longitudinal component of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1986-1990, which provided 1,191,824 person-years of follow-up and 12,165 mortal events. To account for family size when considering income, we used the ratio of annual family income to the federal poverty line for a family of similar composition. To avoid unnecessary categorizations and prior assumptions about model form, we employed kernel smoothing techniques and calculated the continuous mortality surface across dimensions of adjusted income and age for each of the gender and racial/ethnic groups. Representing regions of equal mortality density with contour plots, we observed interactions that need to be accommodated by any subsequent statistical models. We propose two general theories that provide a foundation for more elaborate and testable hypotheses in the future.

  17. Predictors of mortality in rheumatoid arthritis-related interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Lubin, Molly; Lee, Joyce S; King, Talmadge E; Collard, Harold R; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) has a heterogeneous clinical presentation and disease course. Establishing prognosis for these patients is challenging. Identifying the factors that predict mortality in patients with RA-ILD could help guide management. A detailed systematic review was conducted in order to identify individual variables that predict mortality in RA-ILD. A literature review was performed using keywords and medical subject headings to identify all articles relating to the prognosis of RA-ILD. Studies were included if they identified predictors of mortality in adults with RA-ILD, were published in English, and included at least 10 patients with RA-ILD. Two authors independently reviewed each citation and extracted data from all studies meeting inclusion criteria. Any differences were then resolved by consensus. A total of 10 studies met our inclusion criteria. All were observational cohort studies of variable quality. Mean age of reported patients ranged from 55 to 69 years, and 41.7% of all patients were male. Median survival ranged from 3.2 to 8.1 years. Significant predictors of mortality on multivariate analysis were older age, male gender, lower diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide, extent of fibrosis, and the presence of usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Mortality in RA-ILD is associated with several patient- and ILD-specific variables; however, previous studies are of low quality.

  18. Global Reduction in HIV-related Maternal Mortality: ART as a Key Strategy.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Holtz and colleagues present a synthesis of evidence from published studies over the previous decade on the collective impact of HIV-targeted interventions on maternal mortality. Amongst an assortment of interventions [that include antiretroviral therapy (ART), micronutrients (multivitamins, vitamin A and selenium), and antibiotics], only ART reduced maternal mortality among HIV-infected pregnant and post-partum mothers. These findings have fundamental and global strategic implications. They are also timely since they provide the evidence that ART reduces HIV-related maternal mortality, and by further enhancing access to ART in HIV-challenged and poor regions of the world, significant improvement in maternal morbidity and mortality indices could be attained. The paper bears good tidings and sound scientific proof that the financial investment made globally by government and non-governmental organizations and agencies to reduce the global burden of HIV/AIDS primarily by making ART more accessible to regions of the world most affected by the epidemic is beginning to show beneficial effects not only in terms of numerical reductions in the rates of new cases of HIV/AIDS among women, but also in maternal mortality levels.

  19. Annual incidence of mortality related to hypertensive disease in Canada and associations with heliophysical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, Joseph M.; Carniello, Trevor N.; Murugan, Nirosha J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing research into heliobiology and related fields has revealed a myriad of potential relationships between space weather factors and terrestrial biology. Additionally, many studies have indicated cyclicity in incidence of various diseases along with many aspects of cardiovascular function. The current study examined annual mortality associated with hypertensive diseases in Canada from 1979 to 2009 for periodicities and linear relationships with a range of heliophysical parameters. Analyses indicated a number of significant lagged correlations between space weather and hypertensive mortality, with solar wind plasma beta identified as the likely source of these relationships. Similar periodicities were observed for geomagnetic activity and hypertensive mortality. A significant rhythm was revealed for hypertensive mortality centered on a 9.6-year cycle length, while geomagnetic activity was fit with a 10.1-year cycle. Cross-correlograms of mortality with space weather demonstrated a 10.67-year periodicity coinciding with the average 10.6-year solar cycle length for the time period examined. Further quantification and potential implications are discussed.

  20. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    PubMed Central

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  1. Current and Projected Heat-Related Morbidity and Mortality in Rhode Island

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Samantha L.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Gold, Julia; Vanderslice, Robert R.; Wellenius, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to cause increases in heat-related mortality, especially among the elderly and very young. However, additional studies are needed to clarify the effects of heat on morbidity across all age groups and across a wider range of temperatures. Objectives: We aimed to estimate the impact of current and projected future temperatures on morbidity and mortality in Rhode Island. Methods: We used Poisson regression models to estimate the association between daily maximum temperature and rates of all-cause and heat-related emergency department (ED) admissions and all-cause mortality. We then used downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5; a standardized set of climate change model simulations) projections to estimate the excess morbidity and mortality that would be observed if this population were exposed to the temperatures projected for 2046–2053 and 2092–2099 under two representative concentration pathways (RCP): RCP 8.5 and 4.5. Results: Between 2005 and 2012, an increase in maximum daily temperature from 75 to 85°F was associated with 1.3% and 23.9% higher rates of all-cause and heat-related ED visits, respectively. The corresponding effect estimate for all-cause mortality from 1999 through 2011 was 4.0%. The association with all-cause ED admissions was strongest for those < 18 or ≥ 65 years of age, whereas the association with heat-related ED admissions was most pronounced among 18- to 64-year-olds. If this Rhode Island population were exposed to temperatures projected under RCP 8.5 for 2092–2099, we estimate that there would be 1.2% (range, 0.6–1.6%) and 24.4% (range, 6.9–41.8%) more all-cause and heat-related ED admissions, respectively, and 1.6% (range, 0.8–2.1%) more deaths annually between April and October. Conclusions: With all other factors held constant, our findings suggest that the current population of Rhode Island would experience substantially higher morbidity and mortality if

  2. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made. PMID:21346102

  3. Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja; Egeberg, Rikke; Halkjær, Jytte; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2011-04-01

    Health-promoting effects of the Mediterranean diet have been in focus for decades, whereas less interest has been given to existing healthy dietary habits within other Western cultures. The aim of the study was to develop a food index based on traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects and relate this to all-cause mortality in a cohort of Danes. Detailed information about diet, lifestyle, and anthropometry was provided by 57,053 Danes aged 50-64 y. During 12 y of follow-up, 4126 of the cohort participants died. A healthy Nordic food index, consisting of traditional Nordic food items with expected health-promoting effects (fish, cabbages, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, and root vegetables), was extracted and associated with mortality by Cox proportional hazard models. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) with 95% CI were used to associate the index to mortality. In an adjusted model, a 1-point higher index score was associated with a significantly lower MRR for both men [0.96 (0.92-0.99)] and women [0.96 (0.92-1.00)] (P = 0.03). When the index components were evaluated separately, whole grain rye bread intake was the factor most consistently associated with lower mortality in men. In conclusion, an index based on traditional healthy Nordic foods was found to be related to lower mortality among middle-aged Danes, in particular among men. This study indicates that traditional, healthy food items should be considered before public recommendations for major dietary changes are made.

  4. Estimation of air pollution-related mortality for the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region

    SciTech Connect

    Arbogast, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A cross-section analysis for 1976 is performed by estimating conventional health-damage specifications. Better air-quality data are used and socio-economic controls are instituted to derive a more-accurate estimate of the air pollution-related mortality by disease that is attributable to the residuals discharge by the coal-fired electric-utility sector of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study Region (ORBES). Diseases suspected of being sensitively associated with air pollution as mortality responses are categorized as cancer, cardiovascular, and respiratory. Air pollutants are SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 4/, and particulates for years 1976, 1985, and 2000 and for scenarios of utility compliance and noncompliance to state air-pollution regulations. The empirical results reveal that SO/sub 2/, particulates, and SO/sub 4/ are pernicious in that order and that noncompliance-related mortality is 1.6 times the compliance-related mortality. Most important is that logit and ridge regression, respectively, indicate in many instances that stochastic bio-responses to air pollution and multicollinearity among the data vectors strongly bias (overestimate) the linear least-squares estimates.

  5. Diabetes-Related Mortality Among American Indians and Alaska Natives, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Geiss, Linda S.; Burrows, Nilka Rios; Roberts, Diana L.; Bullock, Ann K.; Toedt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed diabetes-related mortality for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites. Methods. Study populations were non-Hispanic AI/AN and White persons in Indian Health Service (IHS) Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties; Hispanics were excluded. We used 1990 to 2009 death certificate data linked to IHS patient registration records to identify AI/AN decedents aged 20 years or older. We examined disparities and trends in mortality related to diabetes as an underlying cause of death (COD) and as a multiple COD. Results. After increasing between 1990 and 1999, rates of diabetes as an underlying COD and a multiple COD subsequently decreased in both groups. However, between 2000 and 2009, age-adjusted rates of diabetes as an underlying COD and a multiple COD remained 2.5 to 3.5 times higher among AI/AN persons than among Whites for all age groups (20–44, 45–54, 55–64, 65–74, and ≥ 75 years), both sexes, and every IHS region except Alaska. Conclusions. Declining trends in diabetes-related mortality in both AI/AN and White populations are consistent with recent improvements in their health status. Reducing persistent disparities in diabetes mortality will require developing effective approaches to not only control but also prevent diabetes among AI/AN populations. PMID:24754621

  6. Alcohol Related Changes in Regulation of NMDA Receptor Functions

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, József

    2008-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure may lead to development of alcohol dependence in consequence of altered neurotransmitter functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptors is a particularly important site of ethanol’s action. Several studies showed that ethanol potently inhibits NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and prolonged ethanol exposition leads to a compensatory “up-regulation” of NMDAR mediated functions. Therefore, alterations in NMDAR function are supposed to contribute to the development of ethanol tolerance, dependence as well as to the acute and late signs of ethanol withdrawal. A number of publications report alterations in the expression and phosphorylation states of NMDAR subunits, in their interaction with scaffolding proteins or other receptors in consequence of chronic ethanol treatment. Our knowledge on the regulatory processes, which modulate NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, protein expression and post-translational modifications of NMDAR subunits, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins or other downstream signaling elements are incessantly increasing. The aim of this review is to summarize the complex chain of events supposedly playing a role in the up-regulation of NMDAR functions in consequence of chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:19305787

  7. Sex- and age-related mortality profiles during famine: testing the 'body fat' hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R

    2013-11-01

    During famines females generally have a mortality advantage relative to males, and the highest levels of mortality occur in the very young and the elderly. One popular hypothesis is that the sex differential in mortality may reflect the greater body fatness combined with lower metabolism of females, which may also underpin the age-related patterns of mortality among adults. This study evaluated the 'body fat' hypothesis using a previously published and validated mathematical model of survival during total starvation. The model shows that at a given body weight females would indeed be expected to survive considerably longer than males in the absence of food. At a mass of 70 kg for example a female aged 30 would survive for 144 days compared with life expectancy of only 95 days for a male of the same age and weight. This effect is contributed to by both the higher body fatness and lower metabolism of the females at a given body weight. However, females are generally smaller than males and in addition to a sex effect there was also a major effect of body size - heavier individuals survive longer. When this body size effect was removed by considering survival in relation to BMI the sex effect was much reduced, and could be offset by a relatively small difference in pre-famine BMI between the sexes. Nevertheless, combining these predictions with observed mean BMIs of males and females across 48 countries at the low end of the obesity spectrum suggests that in the complete absence of food females would survive on average about 40% longer (range 6 to 64.5%) than males. The energy balance model also predicted that older adult individuals should survive much longer than younger adult individuals, by virtue of their lower resting metabolic rates and lower activity levels. Observations of the female survival advantage in multiple famines span a much wider range than the model prediction (5% to 210%). This suggests in some famines body fatness may be a significant factor

  8. Social support as a moderator for alcohol-related partner aggression during the transition to parenthood.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Valerie; Woodin, Erica M

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol-related partner aggression is a pervasive social problem throughout various life stages, including the transition to parenthood. Previous research shows that alcohol use is associated with partner aggression perpetration for both men and women; however, not all individuals who consume alcohol act aggressively. In this study, the moderating effects of general social support and partner-specific support on the association between prepregnancy alcohol use and recent partner physical aggression are investigated using a community sample of 98 pregnant couples. For men, high levels of general appraisal social support (i.e., someone to talk to about one's problems) increases the strength of the association between alcohol use and aggression perpetration, whereas partner-specific emotional support serves as a buffer. For women, general social support is not a significant moderator, but high levels of partner-specific instrumental support strengthens the association between alcohol use and aggression. These results can be applied to prevention and treatment programs for alcohol-related partner aggression. PMID:22279125

  9. Genetics and alcoholism among at-risk relatives I: perceptions of cause, risk, and control.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Jennifer L; Nussbaum, Robert L; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2004-07-15

    Genetic factors influence a person's risk for developing alcoholism. In other common disorders with a genetic component, a belief in a genetic cause can lead to less perceived control or fatalism among those at risk that may adversely affect undertaking health-promoting behaviors. This study explores beliefs about the cause of alcoholism and risk perception among individuals with affected relatives. In-depth interviews including both open-ended questions and several quantitative measures were conducted with participants to explore the relationships between causal beliefs and perceptions of personal risk and control. Twenty-seven individuals with at least one first-degree relative affected with alcoholism participated. Transcript analysis of interviews revealed that all participants attribute multiple factors to the cause of alcoholism in their families, often as a combination of biological, genetic, environmental factors, and personal characteristics. Many perceived themselves as being 'at-risk,' and this concern often stemmed from a belief in a genetic or biological cause of alcoholism. However, participants also had a strong sense of personal control, rooted in beliefs about environmental causes or personal characteristics influencing alcoholism risk. A participant's strong belief in a genetic cause was associated with a significantly increased risk perception, but not a fatalistic outlook towards developing alcoholism.

  10. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students with a Trauma History

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Avery, Megan L.; Bracken, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Methods Participants included 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. Results There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and Lack of Emotional Awareness. Men reported significantly higher drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Responses, Lack of Emotional Clarity, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Direct Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Reponses, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, Impulse Control Difficulties and Difficulties Engaging in Goal Directed Behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect

  11. Recognizing and preventing epilepsy-related mortality: A call for action.

    PubMed

    Devinsky, Orrin; Spruill, Tanya; Thurman, David; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-02-23

    Epilepsy is associated with a high rate of premature mortality from direct and indirect effects of seizures, epilepsy, and antiseizure therapies. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the second leading neurologic cause of total lost potential life-years after stroke, yet SUDEP may account for less than half of all epilepsy-related deaths. Some epilepsy groups are especially vulnerable: individuals from low socioeconomic status groups and those with comorbid psychiatric illness die more often than controls. Despite clear evidence of an important public health problem, efforts to assess and prevent epilepsy-related deaths remain inadequate. We discuss factors contributing to the underestimation of SUDEP and other epilepsy-related causes of death. We suggest the need for a systematic classification of deaths directly due to epilepsy (e.g., SUDEP, drowning), due to acute symptomatic seizures, and indirectly due to epilepsy (e.g., suicide, chronic effects of antiseizure medications). Accurately estimating the frequency of epilepsy-related mortality is essential to support the development and assessment of preventive interventions. We propose that educational interventions and public health campaigns targeting medication adherence, psychiatric comorbidity, and other modifiable risk factors may reduce epilepsy-related mortality. Educational campaigns regarding sudden infant death syndrome and fires, which kill far fewer Americans than epilepsy, have been widely implemented. We have done too little to prevent epilepsy-related deaths. Everyone with epilepsy and everyone who treats people with epilepsy need to know that controlling seizures will save lives.

  12. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study.

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, M.; Tessari, E.; Bortolomasi, M.; Piasere, O.; Semenzin, M.; Garzotto, N.; Tansella, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test in screening primary care attenders for alcohol problems. DESIGN: A validity study among consecutive primary care attenders aged 18-65 years. Every third subject completed the alcohol use disorders identification test (a 10 item self report questionnaire on alcohol intake and related problems) and was interviewed by an investigator with the composite international diagnostic interview alcohol use module (a standardised interview for the independent assessment of alcohol intake and related disorders). SETTING: 10 primary care clinics in Verona, north eastern Italy. PATIENTS: 500 subjects were approached and 482 (96.4%) completed evaluation. RESULTS: When the alcohol use disorders identification test was used to detect subjects with alcohol problems the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. The cut off score of 5 was associated with a sensitivity of 0.84, a specificity of 0.90, and a positive predictive value of 0.60. The screening ability of the total score derived from summing the responses to the five items minimising the probability of misclassification between subjects with and without alcohol problems provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93. A score of 5 or more on the five items was associated with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol use disorders identification test performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Using five of the 10 items on the questionnaire gives reasonable accuracy, and these are recommended as questions of choice to screen patients for alcohol problems. PMID:9040389

  13. Differential trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college by parenting profiles.

    PubMed

    Abar, Caitlin C; Turrisi, Robert J; Mallett, Kimberly A

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Participants were surveyed five times from the summer before college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern United States. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents' alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent-child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) - highest parent-teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) - highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) - poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) - highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak blood alcohol content, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. PMID:23915366

  14. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  15. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  16. Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

    2014-06-01

    Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake.

  17. Disease recognition is related to specific autobiographical memory deficits in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marie; Neumann, Aurore; Luminet, Olivier; Vande Weghe, Noémie; Philippot, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The particularly high treatment gap in alcohol-dependence suggests the existence of important barriers to treatment decision and in particular difficulties in problem recognition. This study tested the relation between problem recognition and self-related memories. Forty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (AD) were compared to twenty alcoholic subjects that were abstinent for 6 months or more (recruited among alcoholics-anonymous (AA)), and to twenty controls on autobiographical memories elicited by pictures depicting or not alcohol using the autobiographical memory test. Autonoetic consciousness was measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. We tested whether memories performances were related with data obtained on the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) or with consciousness of the severity of drinking. AD subjects provided less specific memories than control and AA subjects, and fewer Remember responses than controls. The deficits in AD subjects were not specific for memories elicited by pictures depicting alcohol, suggesting a global deficit. Autobiographical memories specificity was negatively correlated to scores of consciousness of the severity of drinking but not to RCQ. Our results support potential recovery of autobiographical memory with abstinence. AD's deficits in autobiographical memory were related to capacities to recognize the severity and therefore may be a barrier to treatment decision. PMID:26365688

  18. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Braitman, Abby; Henson, James M; Schroeder, Valarie; Ladage, Jessica; Gumienny, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Relationships among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and parent and peer relations and depressive mood were examined among 136 ACOAs and 436 non-ACOAs. As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported less positive relationships to mothers, fathers, and peers, and more depressive mood; however, more positive relationships to parents and peers significantly reduced the strength of the association between ACOA categorization and depressive mood. Examination of data from ACOAs alone revealed that maternal alcoholism was related to less positive relationships to their mothers and to their peers; however, paternal alcoholism did not predict the quality of the relationship to fathers, mothers, or peers. Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs. PMID:20553514

  19. Mortality related to cold and heat. What do we learn from dairy cattle?

    PubMed

    Cox, Bianca; Gasparrini, Antonio; Catry, Boudewijn; Delcloo, Andy; Bijnens, Esmée; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-08-01

    Extreme temperatures are associated with increased mortality among humans. Because similar epidemiologic studies in animals may add to the existing evidence, we investigated the association between ambient temperature and the risk of mortality among dairy cattle. We used data on 87,108 dairy cow deaths in Belgium from 2006 to 2009, and we combined a case-crossover design with distributed lag non-linear models. Province-specific results were combined in a multivariate meta-analysis. Relative to the estimated minimum mortality temperature of 15.4°C (75th percentile), the pooled cumulative relative risks over lag 0-25 days were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.42) for extreme cold (1st percentile, -3.5°C), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.54) for moderate cold (5th percentile, -0.3°C), 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17) for moderate heat (95th percentile, 19.7°C), and 1.26 (95% CI: 1.08; 1.48) for extreme heat (99th percentile, 22.6°C). The temporal pattern of the temperature-mortality association was similar to that observed in humans, i.e. acute effects of heat and delayed and prolonged effects of cold. Seasonal analyses suggested that most of the temperature-related mortality, including cold effects, occurred in the warm season. Our study reinforces the evidence on the plausibility of causal effects in humans. PMID:27236362

  20. Skew-t fits to mortality data--can a Gaussian-related distribution replace the Gompertz-Makeham as the basis for mortality studies?

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeremy S C; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Mongiało, Zbigniew; Ignaczak, Paweł; Czajkowski, Andrzej A; Klęsk, Przemysław; Ciechanowicz, Andrzej

    2013-08-01

    Gompertz-related distributions have dominated mortality studies for 187 years. However, nonrelated distributions also fit well to mortality data. These compete with the Gompertz and Gompertz-Makeham data when applied to data with varying extents of truncation, with no consensus as to preference. In contrast, Gaussian-related distributions are rarely applied, despite the fact that Lexis in 1879 suggested that the normal distribution itself fits well to the right of the mode. Study aims were therefore to compare skew-t fits to Human Mortality Database data, with Gompertz-nested distributions, by implementing maximum likelihood estimation functions (mle2, R package bbmle; coding given). Results showed skew-t fits obtained lower Bayesian information criterion values than Gompertz-nested distributions, applied to low-mortality country data, including 1711 and 1810 cohorts. As Gaussian-related distributions have now been found to have almost universal application to error theory, one conclusion could be that a Gaussian-related distribution might replace Gompertz-related distributions as the basis for mortality studies.

  1. Circadian Misalignment, Reward-Related Brain Function, and Adolescent Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Hasler, Brant P.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Developmental changes in sleep and circadian rhythms that occur during adolescence may contribute to reward-related brain dysfunction, and consequently increase the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Methods This review (a) describes marked changes in circadian rhythms, reward-related behavior and brain function, and alcohol involvement that occur during adolescence, (b) offers evidence that these parallel developmental changes are associated, and (c) posits a conceptual model by which misalignment between sleep-wake timing and endogenous circadian timing may increase the risk of adolescent AUDs by altering reward-related brain function. Results The timing of sleep shifts later throughout adolescence, in part due to developmental changes in endogenous circadian rhythms, which tend to become more delayed. This tendency for delayed sleep and circadian rhythms is at odds with early school start times during secondary education, leading to misalignment between many adolescents’ sleep-wake schedules and their internal circadian timing. Circadian misalignment is associated with increased alcohol use and other risk-taking behaviors, as well as sleep loss and sleep disturbance. Growing evidence indicates that circadian rhythms modulate the reward system, suggesting that circadian misalignment may impact adolescent alcohol involvement by altering reward-related brain function. Neurocognitive function is also subject to sleep and circadian influence, and thus circadian misalignment may also impair inhibitory control and other cognitive processes relevant to alcohol use. Specifically, circadian misalignment may further exacerbate the cortical-subcortical imbalance within the reward circuit, an imbalance thought to explain increased risk-taking and sensation-seeking during adolescence. Adolescent alcohol use is highly contexualized, however, and thus studies testing this model will also need to consider factors that may influence both circadian misalignment and

  2. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  3. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  4. Health professionals' alcohol-related professional practices and the relationship between their personal alcohol attitudes and behavior and professional practices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E

    2014-01-01

    Health professionals' personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals' personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007-2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals' alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  5. Health Professionals’ Alcohol-Related Professional Practices and the Relationship between Their Personal Alcohol Attitudes and Behavior and Professional Practices: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Savita; While, Alison E.

    2013-01-01

    Health professionals’ personal health behaviors have been found to be associated with their practices with patients in areas such as smoking, physical activity and weight management, but little is known in relation to alcohol use. This review has two related strands and aims to: (1) examine health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion practices; and (2) explore the relationship between health professionals’ personal alcohol attitudes and behaviors, and their professional alcohol-related health promotion practices. A comprehensive literature search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, Web of Science, Scopus and Science Direct (2007–2013) identified 26 studies that met the inclusion criteria for Strand 1, out of which six were analyzed for Strand 2. The findings indicate that health professionals use a range of methods to aid patients who are high-risk alcohol users. Positive associations were reported between health professionals’ alcohol-related health promotion activities and their personal attitudes towards alcohol (n = 2), and their personal alcohol use (n = 2). The findings have some important implications for professional education. Future research should focus on conducting well-designed studies with larger samples to enable us to draw firm conclusions and develop the evidence base. PMID:24366045

  6. In verbis, vinum? Relating themes in an open-ended writing task to alcohol behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Robert D; Heim, Derek; Chung, Cindy K; Duffy, John C; Davies, John B; Pennebaker, James W

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol's function as a regulator of emotions has long been denoted in figures of speech, most famously 'in vino, veritas' (in wine, truth). In contrast, we ask whether an individual's self-reported alcohol consumption and related attitudes can be correlated with the words they use to write about alcohol. Participants completed an open-ended essay as part of a survey on alcohol attitudes and behaviors. We used a computerized technique, the Meaning Extraction Method, to summarize the responses into thematic tropes, and correlated these with quantitative measurements of demographics, attitudes and behaviors. Participants were recruited using a random population postal survey in the UK (n=1001). Principal components analysis identified regular co-occurring words, to locate themes in the responses. Seven themes were identified that corresponded to both negative and positive aspects of alcohol consumption ranging from concern for the influence of alcohol on others (e.g., children and family) to participants' own enjoyment of alcohol (e.g., social drinking). Small but significant correlations suggested a relationship between the essay responses and individual consumption patterns and attitudes.

  7. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  8. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  9. Use of Novel Technology-Based Techniques to Improve Alcohol-Related Outcomes in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gurvich, Eugenia M.; Kenna, George A.; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the biologic basis of alcohol dependence and the considerable financial burden of alcohol abuse and dependence, the number of alcohol-related clinical pharmacotherapy trials has been on the rise. Subsequently, the potential to find efficacious treatments is more promising. Unfortunately, alcohol-related trials face a number of challenges, as a result of the difficulties that arise from traditional and outdated methods to collect data and ensure medication adherence. Novel technology-based assessments, such as ecological momentary assessment, interactive voice response, transdermal sensor and medication-event monitoring system provide a prospective solution—albeit not without possible concerns—to the difficulties faced in alcohol-related clinical trials. Clinical trials are meant to define the efficacy of the treatment and to determine an effective and safe dosage. However, due to lack of adherence a drug could inappropriately or mistakenly be judged as ineffective for treating a specific disorder. The described technologies may be important tools to prevent false negatives in validating drug efficacy, to provide consistency in clinical trials and to improve available data regarding the study of pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:23955872

  10. A decision support service for temperature-related mortality in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Rachel; Ballester, Joan; Robine, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, François R.; Jupp, Tim E.; Stephenson, David B.; Creswick, James; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Users of climate information often require probabilistic information on which to base their decisions. However, communicating information contained within a probabilistic forecast presents a challenge. In this paper we demonstrate a novel visualisation technique to display ternary probabilistic forecast maps of climate-related mortality across Europe. In this method, ternary probabilistic forecasts, which assign probabilities to a set of three outcomes (e.g. low, medium, and high risk), are considered as a point in a triangle of barycentric coordinates. This allows a unique colour to be assigned to each forecast from a continuum of colours defined on the triangle. Colour saturation increases with information gain relative to the reference forecast (i.e. the long term average). This provides additional information to decision makers compared with conventional methods used in seasonal climate forecasting, where one colour is used to represent one forecast category on a forecast map (e.g. red = 'dry'). Temperature and humidity are related to human mortality via location-specific transfer functions, calculated using historical data. Daily mortality data at the NUTS2 level for 16 countries in Europe were obtained from 1998-2005. Transfer functions were calculated for 54 aggregations in Europe, defined using criteria related to population and climatological similarities. A statistical model is fit to cold and warm tails to estimate future mortality using forecast temperatures, in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Using predefined categories of temperature-related mortality risk, probabilistic forecast maps of human mortality are presented at seasonal time scales. We demonstrate the information gained from using this technique compared to more traditional methods to display ternary probabilistic forecasts. This approach allows decision makers to identify areas where the model predicts with certainty area-specific heat waves or cold snaps, in order to effectively target

  11. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  12. Avoided heat-related mortality through climate adaptation strategies in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Habeeb, Dana; DeLucia, Anthony; Trail, Marcus; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2014-01-01

    Heat-related mortality in US cities is expected to more than double by the mid-to-late 21st century. Rising heat exposure in cities is projected to result from: 1) climate forcings from changing global atmospheric composition; and 2) local land surface characteristics responsible for the urban heat island effect. The extent to which heat management strategies designed to lessen the urban heat island effect could offset future heat-related mortality remains unexplored in the literature. Using coupled global and regional climate models with a human health effects model, we estimate changes in the number of heat-related deaths in 2050 resulting from modifications to vegetative cover and surface albedo across three climatically and demographically diverse US metropolitan areas: Atlanta, Georgia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Employing separate health impact functions for average warm season and heat wave conditions in 2050, we find combinations of vegetation and albedo enhancement to offset projected increases in heat-related mortality by 40 to 99% across the three metropolitan regions. These results demonstrate the potential for extensive land surface changes in cities to provide adaptive benefits to urban populations at risk for rising heat exposure with climate change.

  13. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  14. Parental Monitoring Affects the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, while depressed mood, peer substance use and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Methods Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. Conclusions This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems, and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink. PMID:25023093

  15. A Needs Assessment of Health Issues Related to Maternal Mortality Rates in Afghanistan: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Naim, Ali; Feldman, Robert; Sawyer, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal death rates in Afghanistan were among the highest in the world during the reign of the Taliban. Although these figures have improved, current rates are still alarming. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a needs assessment of the major health issues related to the high maternal mortality rates in Afghanistan. In-depth interviews were conducted with managerial midwives, clinical midwives, and mothers. Results of the interviews indicate that the improvement in the maternal mortality rate may be attributed to the increase in the involvement of midwives in the birthing process. However, barriers to decreasing maternal mortality still exist. These include transportation, access to care, and sociocultural factors such as the influence of the husband and mother-in-law in preventing access to midwives. Therefore, any programs to decrease maternal mortality need to address infrastructure issues (making health care more accessible) and sociocultural factors (including husbands and mother-in-laws in maternal health education). However, it should be noted that these findings are based on a small pilot study to help develop a larger scale need assessment.

  16. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  18. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  19. Relations among Parental Alcoholism, Eating Disorders, and Substance Abuse in Nonclinical College Women: Additional Evidence against the Uniformity Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Laurie B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The relationship of parental alcoholism to eating disorder symptomology and substance abuse in a nonclinical sample of college women was examined. In addition, differences among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) related to level of distress concerning parental alcohol use was examined. Results add additional evidence to the notion that not all…

  20. Leisure Time Spent Sitting in Relation to Total Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Alpa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Deka, Anusila; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Campbell, Peter T.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Thun, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is attributed in part to reduced physical activity. Evidence supports that reducing time spent sitting, regardless of activity, may improve the metabolic consequences of obesity. Analyses were conducted in a large prospective study of US adults enrolled by the American Cancer Society to examine leisure time spent sitting and physical activity in relation to mortality. Time spent sitting and physical activity were queried by questionnaire on 53,440 men and 69,776 women who were disease free at enrollment. The authors identified 11,307 deaths in men and 7,923 deaths in women during the 14-year follow-up. After adjustment for smoking, body mass index, and other factors, time spent sitting (≥6 vs. <3 hours/day) was associated with mortality in both women (relative risk = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 1.44) and men (relative risk = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.24). Relative risks for sitting (≥6 hours/day) and physical activity (<24.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week) combined were 1.94 (95% CI: 1.70, 2.20) for women and 1.48 (95% CI: 1.33, 1.65) for men, compared with those with the least time sitting and most activity. Associations were strongest for cardiovascular disease mortality. The time spent sitting was independently associated with total mortality, regardless of physical activity level. Public health messages should include both being physically active and reducing time spent sitting. PMID:20650954

  1. Teenage drinking, alcohol availability and pricing: a cross-sectional study of risk and protective factors for alcohol-related harms in school children

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Hannon, Kerin; Smallthwaite, Linda; Jones, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex) were examined. Results Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%), alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5%) and forgetting things (45.3%), or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%), increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. Conclusion There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of harm. Strategies to

  2. Encephalopathy after persistent vomiting: Three cases of non-alcohol-related Wernicke's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Antel, K; Singh, N; Chisholm, B; Heckmann, J M

    2015-06-01

    Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is a medical emergency. Although WE is commonly viewed in the context of alcoholism, it can be caused by thiamine deficiency secondary to persistent vomiting. Non-alcohol-related WE may be more catastrophic in onset and less likely to present with the classic features than WE with alcoholism as a cause. We describe three cases of WE due to persistent vomiting without alcoholism in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum, drug-induced hyperlactataemia, and an acute gastrointestinal illness in an already malnourished individual. Our cases highlight the importance of recognising WE when undernutrition, which may be caused by gastrointestinal disease or surgery, or malignancy, is compounded by vomiting. Expert guidelines suggest that WE must be considered in the emergency room in any individual with disturbed consciousness of unknown cause. Treatment is with parenteral thiamine before glucose administration. PMID:26716155

  3. Introduction to the special issue on ''relations between gambling and alcohol use''.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sherry H; Kushner, Matt G

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that gambling is an activity that is often combined with alcohol intake. Not only do the behaviors of drinking and gambling frequently co-occur, alcohol use disorders and pathological gambling are also commonly co-morbid conditions in both clinical and non-clinical samples. This article introduces a special issue of the Journal of Gambling Studies focusing on cutting edge findings on the relations between gambling and alcohol use behaviors and their associated disorders. We set the stage for the following series of six novel empirical papers and integrative commentary by reviewing the theoretical pathways through which alcohol use and gambling disorders may be linked. We conclude by describing some of the novel contributions of each of the empirical studies from within the context of these theoretical models.

  4. Mortality, Causes of Death and Associated Factors Relate to a Large HIV Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miró, Josep M.; Ocaña, Inma; Knobel, Hernando; Barberá, Maria Jesús; Humet, Victoria; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Josep M.; Ribera, Esteve; Gurguí, Mercè; Marco, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral therapy has led to a decrease in HIV-related mortality and to the emergence of non-AIDS defining diseases as competing causes of death. This study estimates the HIV mortality rate and their risk factors with regard to different causes in a large city from January 2001 to June 2013. Materials and Methods We followed-up 3137 newly diagnosed HIV non-AIDS cases. Causes of death were classified as HIV-related, non-HIV-related and external. We examined the effect of risk factors on survival using mortality rates, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox models. Finally, we estimated survival for each main cause of death groups through Fine and Gray models. Mortality Results 182 deaths were found [14.0/1000 person-years of follow-up (py); 95% confidence interval (CI):12.0–16.1/1000 py], 81.3% of them had a known cause of death. Mortality rate by HIV-related causes and non-HIV-related causes was the same (4.9/1000 py; CI:3.7–6.1/1000 py), external was lower [1.7/1000 py; (1.0–2.4/1000 py)]. Survival Results Kaplan-Meier estimate showed worse survival in intravenous drug user (IDU) and heterosexuals than in men having sex with men (MSM). Factors associated with HIV-related causes of death include: IDU male (subHazard Ratio (sHR):3.2; CI:1.5–7.0) and <200 CD4 at diagnosis (sHR:2.7; CI:1.3–5.7) versus ≥500 CD4. Factors associated with non-HIV-related causes of death include: ageing (sHR:1.5; CI:1.4–1.7) and heterosexual female (sHR:2.8; CI:1.1–7.3) versus MSM. Factors associated with external causes of death were IDU male (sHR:28.7; CI:6.7–123.2) and heterosexual male (sHR:11.8; CI:2.5–56.4) versus MSM. Conclusion and Recommendation There are important differences in survival among transmission groups. Improved treatment is especially necessary in IDUs and heterosexual males. PMID:26716982

  5. Differential trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college by parenting profiles

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Turrisi, Robert J.; Mallett, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which profiles of perceived parenting are associated with trajectories of alcohol-related behaviors across the first year of college. Method Participants were surveyed five times from the summer prior to college to the fall of the second year. A total 285 college students were enrolled from the incoming classes of consecutive cohorts of students at a large, public university in the Northeastern U.S. At baseline, participants provided information on their parents’ alcohol-related behaviors (e.g., parental modeling of use; perceived approval of underage use) and parenting characteristics (e.g., parental monitoring; parent-child relationship quality). Students also reported on their personal alcohol-related behaviors at each time point. Results Latent profile analysis was used to identify four subgroups based on the set of parenting characteristics: High Quality (14%) – highest parent-teen relationship quality; High Monitoring (31%) – highest parental monitoring and knowledge; Low Involvement (30%) – poor relationship quality, little monitoring and communication; and Pro-Alcohol (21%) – highest parental modeling and approval. Students were then assigned to profiles, and their alcohol-related behaviors were examined longitudinally using latent growth curve modeling. In general, students in the Pro-Alcohol profile displayed the highest baseline levels of typical weekend drinking, heavy episodic drinking, and peak BAC, in addition to showing steeper increases in typical weekend drinking across the first year of college. Discussion Results support the notion that parental behaviors remain relevant across the first year of college. Differential alcohol-related behaviors across parenting profiles highlight the potential for tailored college intervention. PMID:23915366

  6. Set-shifting and selective attentional impairment in alcoholism and its relation with drinking variables

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Nirmal; Ranjan, Sanjeev; Ram, Daya

    2006-01-01

    Background: Individuals with chronic alcoholism show impairments in visual scanning, set-shifting and response inhibition abilities. Aim: To study the relationship between performance on tests of set-shifting and selective attention, and alcohol intake variables (duration of dependence, amount of alcohol intake, and duration of abstinence during the past year). Methods: In this cross-sectional, controlled study, inpatients from a tertiary care centre were selected. Thirty patients with alcohol dependence and 15 age-, sex- and education-matched normal controls were administered the Trail Making Test (TMT) and Stroop test to assess visual scanning, set-shifting and response inhibition abilities. The data were analysed using the χ2 test, t test and ANOVA with post-hoc analysis. Results: The patient group performed poorly on all measures of the tests. The duration of dependence and the amount of alcohol intake (during the past 1 year) were not found to significantly affect the performance on the 2 tests. The duration of abstinence during the past 1 year was significantly related to performance on the Stroop test with patients having a longer duration of abstinence showing lesser impairment. Conclusion: Patients with a fewer number of days of alcohol intake during the past 1 year show relatively better visual scanning, set-shifting and response inhibition abilities. PMID:20703415

  7. Investigating Associations Between Perceived Parental Alcohol-Related Messages and College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Morgan, Nicole R.; Small, Meg L.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A debate remains regarding whether parents should teach their children harm-reduction tips for using alcohol while in college or whether they should maintain a zero-tolerance policy. Which type of alcohol-related communication parents should endorse is not empirically clear. The current study made use of a longitudinal measurement-burst design to examine this issue. Method: The sample consisted of 585 second-year students from a large university in the northeastern United States. Participants completed a baseline survey and 14 daily web-based surveys. Students were assessed for perceptions of parental alcohol-related messages and their own alcohol use. Multilevel models were estimated using HLM 6.04. Results: The data indicate that zero-tolerance messages appeared most protective against alcohol use and consequences. Harm-reduction messages were most risky, even when compared with mixed messages or the absence of a message. Conclusions: Findings indicate that a zero-tolerance approach was associated with safer outcomes than other messages, even if students were already using alcohol. PMID:22152664

  8. Intra-urban vulnerability to heat-related mortality in New York City, 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Joyce Klein; Kinney, Patrick L.; Metzger, Kristina B.

    2015-01-01

    The health impacts of exposure to summertime heat are a significant problem in New York City (NYC) and for many cities and are expected to increase with a warming climate. Most studies on heat-related mortality have examined risk factors at the municipal or regional scale and may have missed the intra-urban variation of vulnerability that might inform prevention strategies. We evaluated whether place-based characteristics (socioeconomic/demographic and health factors, as well as the built and biophysical environment) may be associated with greater risk of heat-related mortality for seniors during heat events in NYC. As a measure of relative vulnerability to heat, we used the natural cause mortality rate ratio among those aged 65 and over (MRR65+), comparing extremely hot days (maximum heat index 100 °F+) to all warm season days, across 1997–2006 for NYC's 59 Community Districts and 42 United Hospital Fund neighborhoods. Significant positive associations were found between the MRR65+ and neighborhood-level characteristics: poverty, poor housing conditions, lower rates of access to air-conditioning, impervious land cover, surface temperatures aggregated to the area-level, and seniors’ hypertension. Percent Black/African American and household poverty were strong negative predictors of seniors’ air conditioning access in multivariate regression analysis. PMID:25199872

  9. Intra-urban vulnerability to heat-related mortality in New York City, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Klein Rosenthal, Joyce; Kinney, Patrick L; Metzger, Kristina B

    2014-11-01

    The health impacts of exposure to summertime heat are a significant problem in New York City (NYC) and for many cities and are expected to increase with a warming climate. Most studies on heat-related mortality have examined risk factors at the municipal or regional scale and may have missed the intra-urban variation of vulnerability that might inform prevention strategies. We evaluated whether place-based characteristics (socioeconomic/demographic and health factors, as well as the built and biophysical environment) may be associated with greater risk of heat-related mortality for seniors during heat events in NYC. As a measure of relative vulnerability to heat, we used the natural cause mortality rate ratio among those aged 65 and over (MRR65+), comparing extremely hot days (maximum heat index 100°F+) to all warm season days, across 1997-2006 for NYC's 59 Community Districts and 42 United Hospital Fund neighborhoods. Significant positive associations were found between the MRR65+ and neighborhood-level characteristics: poverty, poor housing conditions, lower rates of access to air-conditioning, impervious land cover, surface temperatures aggregated to the area-level, and seniors' hypertension. Percent Black/African American and household poverty were strong negative predictors of seniors' air conditioning access in multivariate regression analysis. PMID:25199872

  10. Accounting for Sex-Related Differences in the Estimation of Breath Alcohol Concentrations using Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Roache, John D.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previously we reported methods to estimate peak breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) from transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC) under conditions where alcohol consumption was controlled to produce similar BrAC levels in both sexes. Objective This study characterized differences in the relationship between BrAC and TAC as a function of sex, and developed a model to predict peak BrAC that accounts for known sex differences in peak BrAC. Methods TAC and BrAC were monitored during the consumption of a varying number of beers on different days. Both men (n = 11) and women (n = 10) consumed 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 beers at the same rate in a two-hour period. Sex and sex-related variables were considered for inclusion in a multilevel-model to develop an equation to estimate peak BrAC levels from TAC. Results While peak BrAC levels were significantly higher in women than men, sex differences were not significant in observed TAC levels. This lack of correspondence was evidenced by significant sex differences in the relationship between peak TAC and peak BrAC. The best model to estimate peak BrAC accounted for sex-related differences by including peak TAC, time-to-peak TAC, and sex. This model was further validated using previously collected data. Conclusions The relationship between peak TAC and actual peak BrAC differs between men and women, and these differences can be accounted for in a statistical model to better estimate peak BrAC. Further studies are required to extend these estimates of peak BrAC to the outpatient environment where naturalistic drinking occurs. PMID:24923985

  11. Costs of Foraging Predispose Animals to Obesity-Related Mortality when Food Is Constantly Abundant

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M.; Houston, Alasdair I.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is an important medical problem affecting humans and animals in the developed world, but the evolutionary origins of the behaviours that cause obesity are poorly understood. The potential role of occasional gluts of food in determining fat-storage strategies for avoiding mortality have been overlooked, even though animals experienced such conditions in the recent evolutionary past and may follow the same strategies in the modern environment. Humans, domestic, and captive animals in the developed world are exposed to a surplus of calorie-rich food, conditions characterised as ‘constant-glut’. Here, we use a mathematical model to demonstrate that obesity-related mortality from poor health in a constant-glut environment should equal the average mortality rate in the ‘pre-modern’ environment when predation risk was more closely linked with foraging. It should therefore not be surprising that animals exposed to abundant food often over-eat to the point of ill-health. Our work suggests that individuals tend to defend a given excessive level of reserves because this level was adaptive when gluts were short-lived. The model predicts that mortality rate in constant-glut conditions can increase as the assumed health cost of being overweight decreases, meaning that any adaptation that reduced such health costs would have counter-intuitively led to an increase in mortality in the modern environment. Taken together, these results imply that efforts to reduce the incidence of obesity that are focussed on altering individual behaviour are likely to be ineffective because modern, constant-glut conditions trigger previously adaptive behavioural responses. PMID:26545121

  12. The relative contribution of climatic, edaphic, and biotic drivers to risk of tree mortality from drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, R. G.; Moore, G. W.; Edgar, C. B.; Lawing, A. M.; Washington-Allen, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    In recorded history, the 2011 Texas Drought was comparable in severity only to a drought that occurred 300 years ago. By mid-September, 88% of the state experienced 'exceptional' conditions, with the rest experiencing 'extreme' or 'severe' drought. By recent estimates, the 2011 Texas Drought killed 6.2% of all the state's trees, at a rate nearly 9 times greater than average. The vast spatial scale and relatively uniform intensity of this drought has provided an opportunity to examine the comparative interactions among forest types, terrain, and edaphic factors across major climate gradients which in 2011 were subjected to extreme drought conditions that ultimately caused massive tree mortality. We used maximum entropy modeling (Maxent) to rank environmental landscape factors with the potential to drive drought-related tree mortality and test the assumption that the relative importance of these factors are scale-dependent. Occurrence data of dead trees were collected during the summer of 2012 from 599 field plots distributed across Texas with 30% used for model evaluation. Bioclimatic variables, ecoregions, soils characteristics, and topographic variables were modeled with drought-killed tree occurrence. Their relative contribution to the model was seen as their relative importance in driving mortality. To test determinants at a more local scale, we examined Landsat 7 scenes in East and West Texas with moderate-resolution data for the same variables above with the exception of climate. All models were significantly better than random in binomial tests of omission and receiver operating characteristic analyses. The modeled spatial distribution of probability of occurrence showed high probability of mortality in the east-central oak woodlands and the mixed pine-hardwood forest region in northeast Texas. Both regional and local models were dominated by biotic factors (ecoregion and forest type, respectively). Forest density and precipitation of driest month also

  13. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  14. Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, G. C.; Rintamäki, H.; Näyhä, S.

    It has been suggested, that the inhabitants of northern European regions, who experience little cold-related mortality, protect themselves outdoors by wearing more clothing, at the same temperature, than people living in southern regions where such mortality is high. Outdoor clothing data were collected in eight regions from 6583 people divided by sex and age group (50-59 and 65-74 years). Across Europe, the total clothing worn (as assessed by dry thermal insulation and numbers of items or layers) increased significantly with cold, wind, less physical activity and longer periods outdoors. Men wore 0.14 clo (1 clo=0.115 m2 K W-1) more than women and the older people wore 0.05 clo more than the younger group (both P<0.001). After allowance for these factors, regional differences in insulation and item number were correlated (r=-0.74, P=0.037; r=-0.74, P=0.036 respectively), but not those in clothing layers (r=-0.21 P=0.61), with indices of cold-related mortality. Cold weather most increased the wearing of gloves, scarves and hats. The geographical variation in the wearing of these three together items more closely matched that in cold-related mortality (r=-0.89, P=0.003). A possible explanation for this may be that they protect the head and hands, where stimulation by cold greatly increases peripheral vasoconstriction causing a rise in blood pressure that procedure haemoconcentration and raised cardiovascular risk.

  15. Crash-Related Mortality and Model Year: Are Newer Vehicles Safer?

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Dischinger, Patricia C; McGwin, Gerald; Griffin, Russell L

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether occupants of newer vehicles experience a lower risk of crash-related mortality. Methods: The occurrence of death was studied in relation to vehicle model year (MY) among front seat vehicular occupants, age ≥ 16 captured in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) between 2000 and 2008. The associations between death and other occupant, vehicular and crash characteristics were also explored. Multiple logistic regression models for the prediction of death were built with model year as the independent variable and other characteristics linked to death as covariates. Imputation was used for missing data; weighted data was used. Results: A total of 70,314 cases representing 30,514,372 weighted cases were available for analysis. Death occurred in 0.6% of the weighted population. Death was linked to age>60, male gender, higher BMI, near lateral direction of impact, high delta v, rollover, ejection and vehicle mismatch, and negatively associated with seatbelt use and rear and far lateral direction of impact. Mortality decreased with later model year groups (MY<94 0.78%, MY 94–97 0.53%, MY 98-04 0.51% and MY 05–08 0.38%, p=<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, MY 94–97, MY 98-04 and MY 05–08 showed decreased odds of death [OR 0.80 (0.69–0.94), 0.82 (0.70–0.97), and 0.67 (0.47–0.96), respectively] when compared to MY <94. Conclusion: Newer vehicles are associated with lower crash-related mortality. Their introduction into the vehicle fleet may explain, at least in part, the decrease in mortality rates in the past two decades. PMID:22105389

  16. Injury-related mortality in South Africa: a retrospective descriptive study of postmortem investigations

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Megan; Pillay-van Wyk, Victoria; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Laubscher, Ria; Abrahams, Naeemah; Msemburi, William; Lombard, Carl; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate injury-related mortality in South Africa using a nationally representative sample and compare the results with previous estimates. Methods We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of medico-legal postmortem investigation data from mortuaries using a multistage random sample, stratified by urban and non-urban areas and mortuary size. We calculated age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates for external causes of death. Findings Postmortem reports revealed 52 493 injury-related deaths in 2009 (95% confidence interval, CI: 46 930–58 057). Almost half (25 499) were intentionally inflicted. Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 population were as follows: all injuries: 109.0 (95% CI: 97.1–121.0); homicide 38.4 (95% CI: 33.8–43.0; suicide 13.4 (95% CI: 11.6–15.2) and road-traffic injury 36.1 (95% CI: 30.9–41.3). Using postmortem reports, we found more than three times as many deaths from homicide and road-traffic injury than had been recorded by vital registration for this period. The homicide rate was similar to the estimate for South Africa from a global analysis, but road-traffic and suicide rates were almost fourfold higher. Conclusion This is the first nationally representative sample of injury-related mortality in South Africa. It provides more accurate estimates and cause-specific profiles that are not available from other sources. PMID:26229201

  17. Alcohol misuse in emerging adulthood: Association of dopamine and serotonin receptor genes with impulsivity-related cognition.

    PubMed

    Leamy, Talia E; Connor, Jason P; Voisey, Joanne; Young, Ross McD; Gullo, Matthew J

    2016-12-01

    Impulsivity predicts alcohol misuse and risk for alcohol use disorder. Cognition mediates much of this association. Genes also account for a large amount of variance in alcohol misuse, with dopamine and serotonin receptor genes of particular interest, because of their role in motivated behavior. The precise psychological mechanisms through which such genes confer risk is unclear. Trait impulsivity conveys risk for alcohol misuse by influencing two distinct domains of cognition: beliefs about the reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption (positive alcohol expectancy) and the perceived ability to resist it (drinking refusal self-efficacy). This study investigated the effect of the dopamine-related polymorphism in the DRD2/ANKK1 gene (rs1800497) and a serotonin-related polymorphism in the HTR2A gene (rs6313) on associations between impulsivity, cognition, and alcohol misuse in 120 emerging adults (18-21years). HTR2A predicted lower positive alcohol expectancy, higher refusal self-efficacy, and lower alcohol misuse. However, neither polymorphism moderated the linkages between impulsivity, cognition, and alcohol misuse. This is the first report of an association between HTR2A and alcohol-related cognition. Theoretically-driven biopsychosocial models have potential to elucidate the specific cognitive mechanisms through which distal risk factors like genes and temperament affect alcohol misuse in emerging adulthood. PMID:27399274

  18. [Alcohol-related injuries in emergency departments in Brazil, 2006 and 2007].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; da Silva, Marta Maria Alves; Carvalho, Cynthia Gazal; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; de Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related injuries are an important public health issue worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of alcohol intake perceived by interviewers among injury victims seen at emergency departments in selected Brazilian cities. Cross-sectional data were collected from the injury surveillance system based on sentinel health services recently implemented in the country through intentional sampling in 2006 and 2007 and analyzed in Epi Info 3.5.1. Alcohol intake perception was higher in violence-related injuries than in unintentional injuries (37.9% versus 8%). For violence-related injuries, highest proportions of alcohol intake perception were observed among males (43.7%), 20 to 39 years old (45.3%), blacks (40.5%), and low schooling level victims (40.3%). Settings where these injuries occurred with the highest concerned proportions were taverns (78.2%) and public places (39.5%). Higher alcohol intake perception was observed in assaults (39.1%), suicide attempts (25.4%), transport-related injuries (16.8%), and falls victims (5.9%).

  19. The origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1993-04-01

    The present paper addressed the problem of the origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority in northern Norway. Based on data from studies of comparable ethnic minorities in Greenland, North America and Australia it could be expected that alcohol use- and abuse would be more prevalent in the Saami than in the Norwegian populations of northern Norway. No data to support this hypothesis exist. On the contrary, available data suggest that drinking problems in this group are similar to those of the majority in the area. The present paper developed the hypothesis that Saami alcohol-related social norms originated in the Laestadian religious revival. The paper investigated the impact of the Laestadian culture in the formation of alcohol-related social norms. It was concluded that the Laestadian sobriety norm, and the norm of abstinence from the use of adiafora, have influenced alcohol-related behaviour in the Saami group in such a way that this group does not conform to the drinking behaviour found in comparable minorities.

  20. Association of gene polymorphisms encoding dopaminergic system components and platelet MAO-B activity with alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Jovanovic, Tanja; Pivac, Nela

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association of alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes with platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity, Val108/158Met of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the third exon of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, -1021C/T of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphisms. The study included 1270 Caucasian men and women of Croatian origin: 690 patients with alcohol dependence and 580 healthy controls. Patients with alcohol dependence were subdivided according to the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, aggressive behavior, severity of alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, comorbid depression, suicidal behavior, lifetime suicide attempt and early/late onset of alcohol abuse. The results, corrected for multiple testing, revealed increased platelet MAO-B activity in patients with alcohol dependence, subdivided into those with or without alcohol-related liver diseases, compared to control subjects (P<0.001). In addition, we found an increased frequency of the COMT Met/Met genotype among suicidal (P=0.002) and patients who attempted suicide (P<0.001) and an increased frequency of COMT Val/Val genotype in patients with an early onset of alcohol dependence (P=0.004). This study provides data from a sample of ethnically homogeneous unrelated Caucasian subjects for future meta-analyses and suggests that the increased platelet MAO-B activity might be used as independent peripheral indicator of alcohol dependence, while COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with increased suicidality and early onset of alcohol dependence. PMID:25035107

  1. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  2. Drought-related tree mortality in drought-resistant semi-arid Aleppo pine forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisler, Yakir; Grünzweig, José M.; Rotenberg, Eyal; Rohatyn, Shani; Yakir, Dan

    2014-05-01

    The frequency and intensity of drought events are expected to increase as part of global climate change. In fact, drought related tree mortality had become a widespread phenomenon in forests around the globe in the past decades. This study was conducted at the Yatir FLUXNET site, located in a 45 years old Pinus halepensis dominated forest that successfully sustained low mean annual precipitation (276mm) and extended seasonal droughts (up to 340 days between rain events). However, five recent non-consecutive drought years led to enhanced tree mortality in 2010 (5-10% of the forest population, which was not observed hitherto). The Tree mortality was characterized by patchiness, showing forest zones with either >80% mortality or no mortality at all. Areas of healthy trees were associated with deeper root distribution and increased stoniness (soil pockets & cracks). To help identify possible causes of the increased mortality and its patterns, four tree stress levels were identified based on visual appearance, and studied in more detail. This included examining from spring 2011 to summer 2013 the local trees density, root distribution, annual growth rings, needle length and chlorophyll content, rates of leaf gas exchange, and branch predawn water potential. Tree phenotypic stress level correlated with the leaf predawn water potential (-1.8 and -3.0 in healthy and stressed trees, respectively), which likely reflected tree-scale water availability. These below ground characteristics were also associated, in turn, with higher rate of assimilation (3.5 and 0.8 μmol CO2 m-2s1 in healthy and stress trees, respectively), longer needles (8.2cm and 3.4 cm in healthy and stressed trees, respectively). Annual ring widths showed differences between stress classes, with stressed trees showing 30% narrower rings on average than unstressed trees. Notably, decline in annual ring widths could be identified in currently dead or severely stressed trees 15-20 years prior to mortality or

  3. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels.

  4. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  5. Sport-Related Achievement Motivation and Alcohol Outcomes: An Athlete-Specific Risk Factor among Intercollegiate Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cameron C.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Takamatsu, Stephanie K.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Pedersen, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n = 263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. PMID:24064192

  6. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed.

  7. Relational Aggression, Positive Urgency and Negative Urgency: Predicting Alcohol Use and Consequences among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g. acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions. PMID:25134025

  8. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    PubMed

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  9. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    PubMed

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention. PMID:25751319

  10. Temperature-related mortality in 17 large Chinese cities: how heat and cold affect mortality in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenjuan; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong

    2014-10-01

    Few multicity studies have been conducted to investigate the acute health effects of cold and hot temperatures in China. We aimed to examine the relationship between temperature and daily mortality in 17 large Chinese cities. We first calculated city-specific effect of temperature using time-series regression models combined with distributed lag nonlinear models; then we pooled the city-specific estimates with the Bayesian hierarchical models. The cold effects lasted longer than the hot effects. For the cold effects, a 1 °C decrease from the 25th to 1st percentiles of temperature over lags 0-14 days was associated with increases of 1.69% [95% posterior intervals (PI): 1.01%, 2.36%], 2.49% (95% PI: 1.53%, 3.46%) and 1.60% (95% PI: 0.32%, 2.87%) in total, cardiovascular and respiratory mortality, respectively. For the hot effects, a 1 °C increase from the 75th to 99th percentiles of temperature was associated with corresponding increases of 2.83% (95% PI: 1.42%, 4.24%), 3.02% (95% PI: 1.33%, 4.71%) and 4.64% (95% PI: 1.96%, 7.31%). The latitudes, number of air conditioning per household and disposable income per capita were significant modifiers for cold effects; the proportion of the elderly was a significant modifier for hot effects. This largest epidemiological study of temperature to date in China suggested that both cold and hot temperatures were associated with increased mortality. Our findings may have important implications for the public health policies in China.

  11. Cancer mortality in relation to monitoring for radionuclide exposure in three UK nuclear industry workforces.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, L. M.; Higgins, C. D.; Douglas, A. J.; Maconochie, N. E.; Omar, R. Z.; Fraser, P.; Beral, V.; Smith, P. G.

    1998-01-01

    Cancer mortality in 40,761 employees of three UK nuclear industry facilities who had been monitored for external radiation exposure was examined according to whether they had also been monitored for possible internal exposure to tritium, plutonium or other radionuclides (uranium, polonium, actinium or other unspecified). Death rates from cancer were compared both with national rates and with rates in radiation workers not monitored for exposure to any radionuclides. Among workers monitored for tritium exposure, overall cancer mortality was significantly below national rates [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 83, 165 deaths; 2P = 0.02] and none of the cancer-specific death rates was significantly above either the national average or rates in non-monitored workers. Although the overall death rate from cancer in workers monitored for plutonium exposure was also significantly low relative to national rates (SMR = 89, 581 deaths; 2P = 0.005), mortality from pleural cancer was significantly raised (SMR = 357, nine deaths; 2P = 0.002); none of the rates differed significantly from those of non-monitored workers. Workers monitored for radionuclides other than tritium or plutonium also had a death rate from all cancers combined that was below the national average (SMR = 86, 418 deaths; 2P = 0.002) but prostatic cancer mortality was raised both in relation to death rates in the general population (SMR = 153, 37 deaths; 2P = 0.02) and to death rates in radiation workers who had not been monitored for exposure to any radionuclide [rate ratio (RR) = 1.65; 2P = 0.03]. Mortality from cancer of the lung was also significantly increased in workers monitored for other radionuclides compared with those of radiation workers not monitored for exposure to radionuclides (RR = 1.31, 164 deaths; 2P = 0.01). For cancers of the lung, prostate and all cancers combined, death rates in monitored workers were examined according to the timing and duration of monitoring for radionuclide

  12. Apolipoprotein E-related all-cause mortality in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Matera, Maria G; Sancarlo, Daniele; Panza, Francesco; Gravina, Carolina; D'Onofrio, Grazia; Frisardi, Vincenza; Longo, Grazia; D'Ambrosio, Luigi P; Addante, Filomena; Copetti, Massimiliano; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Seripa, Davide; Pilotto, Alberto

    2010-09-01

    The most common apolipoprotein E (APOE) allelic variation is implicated in many age-related diseases and human longevity with controversial findings. We investigated the effect of APOE gene polymorphism on all-cause mortality in elderly patients taking into consideration the functional disability, cognitive impairment, malnutrition, and the occurrence of common age-related diseases. APOE genotypes were determined in 2,124 geriatric hospitalized patients (46.5% men and 53.5% women; mean age, 78.2 +/- 7.1 years; range, 65-100 years). At hospital admission, all patients underwent a comprehensive geriatric assessment to evaluate functional disability, cognitive status, nutritional status, and comorbidity. The main and secondary diagnoses at hospital discharge were also recorded. Mortality status was evaluated in all patients after a maximum follow-up of 5 years (range, from 1.26 to 5.23 years; median, 2.86 years). During the study period, 671 patients died (32.0%). At hospital admission, these patients showed a significant higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (56.3% vs 53.4%; p = 0.007), neoplasias (32.3% vs 13.7%; p < 0.001), and lower prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (17.7% vs 20.7%; p < 0.001) than survived patients. Moreover, they also showed an higher prevalence of disability (52.0% vs 25.6%; p < 0.001), cognitive impairment (31.0% vs 18.8%; p < 0.001), and malnutrition (74.0% vs 46.1%; p < 0.001) than survived patients. In the overall study population, the APOE epsilon2 allele was significantly associated to neurodegenerative diseases (odds ratio = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-0.94). No significant association between the APOE polymorphism and disability, malnutrition, co-morbidity status, and with all-cause mortality was observed. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, however, a decreased risk of all-cause mortality was found in the epsilon2 allele carriers (hazard ratio = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.88). In this population, APOE allele

  13. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  14. Immigrants' mortality patterns in the short- and long-term point toward origin-related diversities: the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Uri; Leshukovits, Yuri; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2014-02-01

    Immigrant mortality studies reveal conflicting results that were attributed to diversity in immigrant definition, different classifications, and lack of appropriate comparisons. This work studied mortality patterns of the immigrations absorbed in Israel. Short-term mortality was evaluated by comparing the Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of the first year after immigration to the SMR of the second to fifth years. Long-term mortality was evaluated by comparing recent immigrant cohorts to cohorts of immigrants who have been residents 5 and 10 years. Stratification was made by source country classification and gender. Data were derived from the Israel National Population Registry and were analyzed anonymously. Immigrants from developed and developing countries had the highest SMR in the first year, which considerably decreased in both short and long term. Immigrants from mid-developed countries had stable SMR in the short term followed by only a modest decrease in the long term. Ethiopian immigrants exhibited exceptionally low SMR in the first year, following which it increased but remained relatively low. Mortality patterns of different immigrant groups differ even under similar definitions, conditions, and period. Only immigrants of developed and developing countries presented the expected pattern of excessive short-term mortality, which consistently decreased with time. Unique mortality patterns were discovered among two groups: Immigrants from mid-developed countries presented stable mortality attributable to isolation and delayed adaptation, and Ethiopian low mortality attributable to pre-migration natural selection.

  15. Immigrants' mortality patterns in the short- and long-term point toward origin-related diversities: the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Gabbay, Uri; Leshukovits, Yuri; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2014-02-01

    Immigrant mortality studies reveal conflicting results that were attributed to diversity in immigrant definition, different classifications, and lack of appropriate comparisons. This work studied mortality patterns of the immigrations absorbed in Israel. Short-term mortality was evaluated by comparing the Standardized Mortality Rate (SMR) of the first year after immigration to the SMR of the second to fifth years. Long-term mortality was evaluated by comparing recent immigrant cohorts to cohorts of immigrants who have been residents 5 and 10 years. Stratification was made by source country classification and gender. Data were derived from the Israel National Population Registry and were analyzed anonymously. Immigrants from developed and developing countries had the highest SMR in the first year, which considerably decreased in both short and long term. Immigrants from mid-developed countries had stable SMR in the short term followed by only a modest decrease in the long term. Ethiopian immigrants exhibited exceptionally low SMR in the first year, following which it increased but remained relatively low. Mortality patterns of different immigrant groups differ even under similar definitions, conditions, and period. Only immigrants of developed and developing countries presented the expected pattern of excessive short-term mortality, which consistently decreased with time. Unique mortality patterns were discovered among two groups: Immigrants from mid-developed countries presented stable mortality attributable to isolation and delayed adaptation, and Ethiopian low mortality attributable to pre-migration natural selection. PMID:23765036

  16. Age, period, and cohort effects in motor vehicle mortality in the United States, 1980–2010: the role of sex, alcohol involvement, and position in vehicle

    PubMed Central

    Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Bae, Jin Yung

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although substantive declines in motor vehicle fatalities 1980–2010 have been observed, declines by position in the vehicle and alcohol involvement have not been well elucidated. Method Analyses of FARS data use the Intrinisic Estimator (IE) to produce estimates of all age, period, and cohort effects simultaneously by position in the car and by alcohol involvement. Results Declines in MVC deaths by position in the car vary for men and women by age and cohort over time. Cohorts born before 1970 had higher risks than those born later. Analyses using proxy indicators of alcohol involvement found highest risks for those aged 16–24. By period, these risks declined more rapidly than non- alcohol related traffic fatalities. Conclusion Changes in risk patterns are consistent with evidence regarding the contributions of new technologies and public policy efforts to reduce fatalities, but gains have not been shared evenly by sex or position in the car. Practical Application Greater attention is needed to reducing deaths among older drivers and pedestrians. Gender differences should be addressed in prevention efforts aimed at reducing MVCs due to alcohol involvement. PMID:25662882

  17. Affect-related behaviors in mice selectively bred for high and low voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Can, Adem; Grahame, Nicholas J; Gould, Todd D

    2012-03-01

    There is considerable evidence for the existence of comorbidity between alcohol-use disorders and depression in humans. One strategy to elucidate hereditary factors affecting the comorbidity of these disorders is to use genetic animal models, such as mouse lines selectively bred for voluntary ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that mice from lines that were bred for high-alcohol preference would manifest increased depression-like phenotypes compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. Mice that were bi-directionally selected and bred on the basis of their High- (HAP) or Low-Alcohol Preference (LAP) were tested in the open-field (OFT), dark-light box (DLB), forced swim (FST), and learned helplessness tests (LH). The study was conducted in two independently derived replicates. In the OFT, both HAP2 and HAP3 mice showed higher levels of general locomotion compared to LAP mice. However, only HAP2 mice spent more time in the center compared to LAP2 mice. In the DLB, there was a slightly higher anxiety-like phenotype in HAP mice. In both FST and LH, we observed higher depression-like behaviors in HAP mice compared to LAP mice, but this was limited to the Replicate 2 mice. Overall, we identified affect-related behavioral changes in mouse lines bred for high-alcohol preference. Notably, the Replicate 3 lines that showed fewer depression-like behaviors also manifest smaller differences in alcohol intake. These data suggest that there may be overlap between genes that predispose to excessive alcohol intake and those underlying affect-related behaviors in the mouse.

  18. ALCOHOL AND VIOLENCE-RELATED INJURIES AMONG EMERGENCY ROOM PATIENTS IN AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol has been found to be more closely associated with violence-related injury than with injury from other causes, little data is available which documents heterogeneity in this association across countries or cultures, taking into consideration usual drinking patterns and other socio-cultural variables. Data are reported from 15 countries comprising the Emergency Room Collaborative Alcohol Analysis Project and the WHO Collaborative Study on Alcohol and Injury. Case-crossover analysis was used to analyze the risk of injury (among current drinkers) from drinking six hours prior to the event, based on frequency of usual drinking, for violence-related injuries and separately for non-violence related injuries. Relative risk (RR) for a violence-related injury was significantly greater than for injuries from other causes across all countries (pooled RR=22.22 vs. 4.33), but the magnitude of risk varied considerably (ranging from 4.68 in Spain to 942 in Canada). Pooled effect size was found to be heterogeneous across countries, and was explained, in part, by the level of detrimental drinking pattern in a country. Risk for a violence-related injury was not significantly different by age (<30 and 30+), reporting 5 or more drinks on at least one occasion during the last year, or reporting symptoms of alcohol dependence. A number of methodological concerns suggest that risk of a violence-related injury compared to injuries from other causes may be inflated, and such variables as context of drinking should be taken into consideration in establishing relative risk and alcohol attributable fraction of violence-related injury across countries and cultures. PMID:20824198

  19. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  20. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  1. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality: time-related factors in exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Chang, Ellen T; Luebeck, Georg; Lau, Edmund C; Watson, Heather N; Crump, Kenny S; Boffetta, Paolo; McClellan, Roger

    2015-04-01

    To develop a quantitative exposure-response relationship between concentrations and durations of inhaled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) and increases in lung cancer risks, we examined the role of temporal factors in modifying the estimated effects of exposure to DEE on lung cancer mortality and characterized risk by mine type in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort, which followed 12,315 workers through December 1997. We analyzed the data using parametric functions based on concepts of multistage carcinogenesis to directly estimate the hazard functions associated with estimated exposure to a surrogate marker of DEE, respirable elemental carbon (REC). The REC-associated risk of lung cancer mortality in DEMS is driven by increased risk in only one of four mine types (limestone), with statistically significant heterogeneity by mine type and no significant exposure-response relationship after removal of the limestone mine workers. Temporal factors, such as duration of exposure, play an important role in determining the risk of lung cancer mortality following exposure to REC, and the relative risk declines after exposure to REC stops. There is evidence of effect modification of risk by attained age. The modifying impact of temporal factors and effect modification by age should be addressed in any quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of DEE. Until there is a better understanding of why the risk appears to be confined to a single mine type, data from DEMS cannot reliably be used for QRA.

  2. Seasonal dynamics of two mortality-related trematodes using an introduced snail.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Kristin K; Sorensen, Robert E

    2009-08-01

    Seasonal dynamics of 2 trematode species, Cyathocotyle bushiensis and Sphaeridiotrema globulus, were assessed in relation to life history traits of the parasites and their hosts, as well as abundance of host species and abundance of infective stages. Both of these trematodes are associated with recurrent mortality of migrating waterbirds on the Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge. An invasive snail species, Bithynia tentaculata, serves as intermediate host for both trematode species. In total, 2,970 snails were collected at 2 study sites. Prevalence and mean abundance of the 2 trematode species varied among dates and was attributed to several factors, including migration patterns of definitive hosts, snail population dynamics, and seasonal changes in temperature. The surge of new infections of both parasites seems to be due to avian hosts foraging at this site during spring migration. The high prevalence and abundance of metacercariae among the snail population promote mortality among molluscivorous birds by increasing the probability of ingestion of a lethal dose. Additionally, mortality of non-molluscivorous birds can be explained by accidental ingestion of a couple of highly infected snails resulting in a lethal dose.

  3. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35.

  4. The Influence of Drinking Pattern, at Individual and Aggregate Levels, on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, M.; Kuntsche, S.; Graham, K.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent drinking patterns (at the individual and country level) are associated with alcohol-related consequences over and above the total alcohol the person consumes. Methods Hierarchical linear models were estimated based on general population surveys conducted in 18 countries participating in the GENACIS project. Results In general, the positive association between drinking pattern scores and alcohol-related consequences was found at both the individual and country levels, independent of volume of drinking. In addition, a significant interaction effect indicated that the more detrimental the country's drinking pattern, the less steep the association between the volume of drinking and its consequences. Conclusion Drinking patterns have an independent impact on consequences over and above the relationship between volume and consequences. PMID:20357455

  5. What weather variables are important in predicting heat-related mortality? A new application of statistical learning methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Li, Yun; Schwartz, Joel D; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-07-01

    Hot weather increases risk of mortality. Previous studies used different sets of weather variables to characterize heat stress, resulting in variation in heat-mortality associations depending on the metric used. We employed a statistical learning method - random forests - to examine which of the various weather variables had the greatest impact on heat-related mortality. We compiled a summertime daily weather and mortality counts dataset from four U.S. cities (Chicago, IL; Detroit, MI; Philadelphia, PA; and Phoenix, AZ) from 1998 to 2006. A variety of weather variables were ranked in predicting deviation from typical daily all-cause and cause-specific death counts. Ranks of weather variables varied with city and health outcome. Apparent temperature appeared to be the most important predictor of heat-related mortality for all-cause mortality. Absolute humidity was, on average, most frequently selected as one of the top variables for all-cause mortality and seven cause-specific mortality categories. Our analysis affirms that apparent temperature is a reasonable variable for activating heat alerts and warnings, which are commonly based on predictions of total mortality in next few days. Additionally, absolute humidity should be included in future heat-health studies. Finally, random forests can be used to guide the choice of weather variables in heat epidemiology studies.

  6. Therapeutic reversal of chronic alcohol-related steatohepatitis with the ceramide inhibitor myriocin

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ming; Longato, Lisa; Ramirez, Teresa; Zabala, Valerie; Wands, Jack R; Monte, Suzanne M

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is associated with steatohepatitis and insulin resistance. Insulin resistance impairs growth and disrupts lipid metabolism in hepatocytes. Dysregulated lipid metabolism promotes ceramide accumulation and oxidative stress, leading to lipotoxic states that activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways and worsen inflammation and insulin resistance. In a rat model of chronic alcohol feeding, we characterized the effects of a ceramide inhibitor, myriocin, on the histopathological and ultrastructural features of steatohepatitis, and the biochemical and molecular indices of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and ER stress. Myriocin reduced the severity of alcohol-related steatohepatitis including the abundance and sizes of lipid droplets and mitochondria, inflammation and architectural disruption of the ER. In addition, myriocin-mediated reductions in hepatic lipid and ceramide levels were associated with constitutive enhancement of insulin signalling through the insulin receptor and IRS-2, reduced hepatic oxidative stress and modulation of ER stress signalling mechanisms. In conclusion, ceramide accumulation in liver mediates tissue injury, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in ALD. Reducing hepatic ceramide levels can help restore the structural and functional integrity of the liver in chronic ALD due to amelioration of insulin resistance and ER stress. However, additional measures are needed to protect the liver from alcohol-induced necroinflammatory responses vis-à-vis continued alcohol abuse. PMID:24456332

  7. Trends in alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors among college students

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-impaired driving is a major public health problem. National studies indicate that about 25% of college students have driven while intoxicated in the past month and an even greater percentage drive after drinking any alcohol and/or ride with an intoxicated driver. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in these various alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors as students progressed through their college experience. Methods: A cohort of 1,253 first-time first-year students attending a large, mid-Atlantic university were interviewed annually for four years. Repeated measures analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate age-related changes in prevalence and frequency of each behavior (i.e., ages 19 to 22). Results: At age 19, 17% wt of students drove while intoxicated, 42%wt drove after drinking any alcohol, and 38%wt rode with an intoxicated driver. For all three driving behaviors, prevalence and frequency increased significantly at age 21. Males were more likely to engage in these behaviors than females. To understand the possible relationship of these behaviors to changes in drinking patterns, a post-hoc analysis was conducted and revealed that while drinking frequency increased every year, frequency of drunkenness was stable for females, but increased for males. Conclusions: Alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors are quite common among college students, and take a significant upturn when students reach the age of 21. Prevention strategies targeted to the college population are needed to prevent serious consequences of these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. PMID:20528819

  8. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  9. Alcohol-Related Fan Behavior on College Football Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis; Werch, Chudley E.; Jobli, Edessa; Bian, Hui

    2007-01-01

    High-risk drinking on game day represents a unique public health challenge. Objective: The authors examined the drinking behavior of college football fans and assessed the support for related interventions. Participants: The authors randomly selected 762 football fans, including college students, alumni, and other college football fans, to…

  10. Trajectories of depressive symptoms in old age: Integrating age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes.

    PubMed

    Chui, Helena; Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Luszcz, Mary A

    2015-12-01

    Late life involves a variety of different challenges to well-being. This study extends and qualifies propositions drawn from the paradox of well-being in aging using 15-year longitudinal data on depressive symptoms from old and very old participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (Baseline N = 2,087; Mage = 78.69 years; range: 65-103 years; 49.40% women). We first examined age-related trajectories in depressive symptoms from young-old to oldest-old, taking into account (changes in) relevant correlates, pathology, and mortality; and, second, we investigated gender differences in these trajectories. Results revealed that age-related trajectories of depressive symptoms were predictive of mortality hazards. The unique predictive effects of both level of, and change in, depressive symptoms were independent of one another and held after taking into account education as well as changes in marital status, living arrangements, cognitive function, and illness burden. In addition, results indicated that depressive symptoms were elevated among participants suffering from arthritis, and increased with age more markedly in men than in women. In particular, the significant Age × Gender interaction indicated that the gender gap in depressive symptoms reduced from young-old to old-old and reversed in very old age when men showed more depressive symptoms than women. Qualifying the paradox of well-being in aging, findings demonstrated that depressive symptoms increased from young-old to oldest-old and suggest that age-, pathology-, and mortality-related changes should be examined in concert to advance our understanding of individual differences in depressive symptom trajectories in late life.

  11. ABO and Rh blood groups in relation to sex ratio, mean number and mortality of sibs.

    PubMed

    Allan, T M

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented on the sex ratio, mean number and mortality of the sibs of 17,060 schoolchildren, and on the sex ratio and mean number of the sibs of 5,785 blood donors, in relation to the children's and donors' sex and ABO and Rh blood groups. The sex ratio is significantly higher for the sibs of AB + B than for those of A + O schoolboys, and for the sibs of Rh-negative than for those of Rh-positive male blood donors, but in both cases the mean number of sibs is exactly the same for the first-mentioned as for the second-mentioned category.

  12. The swift fox in rangeland and cropland in