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Sample records for alcohol related problems

  1. Alcohol-Related Problems of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Pamela A.

    The study of older adults is relatively new for the social sciences. There is a growing awareness of the alcohol-related problems in this population. Between 2 and 10 percent of older social drinkers present severe alcohol-related problems of different kinds. Three terms describe the major consequences of "too much" alcohol: intoxication,…

  2. [Alcohol-related problems in Cantabria].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez Pérez, A M; Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E

    1995-01-01

    It is a cross sectorial epidemiological community survey into a random sample of 1,816 adult people. The objetivo of our work is to test the existence of some social-demographic variables that can be accumulated to the existence of alcohol related problems. We found that the men, the young people, with low socioeconomic level, and semiurban style of life have the highest risk of alcohol related problems. 48% of the sample men have recognized any alcohol related problems during the previous year to our study. The highest problem prevalence is associated to increased alcohol consumption. After all, there are many people with low alcohol consumption who have alcohol related problems. PMID:7717148

  3. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  4. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  5. Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183

  6. College Students' Alcohol-Related Problems: An Autophotographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patrick F.; Dollinger, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This study related standard self-report measures to an innovative approach (the autophotographic essay) as a way to provide insight into patterns of alcohol consumption and associated problem behaviors. College students (N = 135) completed self-report measures of alcohol consumption and created autophotographic essays of identity coded for alcohol…

  7. The Japanese society of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Katsuya; Higuchi, Susumu

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents an outline of the Japanese Society of Alcohol-Related Problems. The precursor of the Society was the Japan Alcoholism Treatment Research Group, inaugurated in 1979, by merging two local research groups in the Tokyo and Osaka areas, both of which were exclusive gatherings of psychiatrists associated with alcoholism clinics. The Research Group developed into the Society in 1992, as the number of participants including those from other medical professions increased yearly, and the subjects of the group widened to include all addictive behaviours. In reflecting the process of establishment, it is unique in many aspects as a scientific society. The Society is not a science-orientated body for presentation of new research findings. The main programme of the annual meeting is therefore a set of symposia in which members participate and discuss clinical and/or social problems arising from dependency on alcohol or drugs. Perhaps because of its content, the annual meeting is attended each year by the largest number of participants among all the societies in Japan concerned with alcohol and drugs. For the next several years, the Society's activities will be directed at (1) establishment of guidelines for early identification of and intervention in alcohol-related problems; (2) expansion of its membership to include those in related fields of medicine and non-medical professions; (3) improvement of the system of journal publication; and (4) creation of a system for timely adequate response to social problems associated with drugs and alcohol. PMID:15049741

  8. An Experience Sampling Study of PTSD and Alcohol Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gaher, Raluca M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Hahn, Nicole L; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Hofman, Jamie Hansen; Buchkoski, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) represents a debilitating psychiatric condition that is affecting the lives of many returning veterans. PTSD and alcohol use and dependence are highly comorbid. The purpose of this study was to understand the functional mechanisms between PTSD and alcohol use and problems. Specifically, the role of negative urgency and emotional intelligence were investigated as vulnerability and resiliency factors, respectively. This study utilized experience sampling to test associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol use and related problems in a sample of 90 OIF/OEF veterans. Participants completed eight brief questionnaires daily for two weeks on palmtop computers. Elevations in PTSD symptoms during the day were associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use and associated problems that night. PTSD symptoms were associated with greater problems above and beyond the effect of drinking level at both the within- and between- person level. Emotional intelligence was associated with lower negative urgency, fewer PTSD symptoms, and less alcohol use and associated problems. The effects of emotional intelligence were primarily indirect via negative urgency and the effects of negative urgency on alcohol use and problems were indirect via its positive association with PTSD symptoms. Hypothesized cross-level effects of emotional intelligence and negative urgency were not supported. The findings suggest a functional association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption. The association between PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption is consistent with a self-medication model. However, the significant associations between PTSD symptoms and alcohol problems, after controlling for use level, suggest a broader role of dysregulation. PMID:25134021

  9. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  10. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement. PMID:21675327

  11. Changes in Alcohol-Related Problems After Alcohol Policy Changes in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden*

    PubMed Central

    Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Mäkelä, Pia; Room, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: European Union travelers' allowances for alcohol import to Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were abolished in 2004. In addition, excise taxes on alcohol were lowered in 2003 and 2005 in Denmark, and in 2004 in Finland. Using northern Sweden as a control site, this study examines whether levels of reported alcohol problems have changed in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden as a consequence of these policy changes. Method: Annual cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden from 2003 to 2006. Five dependency items and seven extrinsic alcohol-related problems were examined. Changes were analyzed within each country/region with logistic regressions and tested for short- and long-term changes. Differential change was also tested between each country and the control site, northern Sweden. Results: Prevalence of alcohol problems decreased over the study period. Only in selected subgroups did problems increase. This mainly occurred in the samples for northern Sweden and Finland, and mostly among older age groups and men. In relation to the control site, however, no increases in problem prevalence were found. Conclusions: Our findings on a decline in reported alcohol problems largely agree with published reports on alcohol consumption over the same period in the study countries. They do not agree, however, with findings on changes in health and social statistics in Finland and Denmark, where some significant increases in alcohol-related harm have been found. PMID:20105411

  12. Community Mobilization and the Framing of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Denise

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029

  13. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability. PMID:26816159

  14. Truancy, Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems in Secondary School Pupils in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounteney, J.; Haugland, S.; Skutle, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on a vulnerable group of pupils often missed by mainstream school surveys. It explores alcohol use and alcohol-related problems for a sample of truants of secondary school age, comparing behaviours with a school-based sample from the same geographical area. Analyses are based on a survey among truants (n = 107) and a school…

  15. Demographic and Academic Trends in Drinking Patterns and Alcohol-Related Problems on Dry College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.; Turrisi, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Restricting alcohol consumption on campus is a measure often used by college administrators to prevent alcohol abuse and-alcohol-related problems. The effect of dry campus policies on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, however, remains poorly understood. This report will compare characteristics of two dry campuses with descriptions…

  16. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  17. Alcohol-Related Problems among Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe the historical context for research on sexual minority women’s drinking, including the age-old tendency to link homosexuality and alcoholism; I summarize gaps and limitations that characterized much of the research on sexual minority women’s drinking over the past several decades; and I review recent literature to highlight progress in the field—with a particular focus on my own research related to risk and protective factors for heavy drinking and drinking-related problems among sexual minority women. I conclude with a discussion of barriers to treatment for sexual minority women and recommendations for substance abuse treatment providers. PMID:22470226

  18. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  19. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486

  20. Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems are Related to Respiratory Dynamics in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Paul; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Vaschillo, Bronya; Udo, Tomoko; Nguyen, Tam; Bates, Marsha E.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of negative affect and alcohol use behaviors to baseline respiration and respiratory response to emotional challenge in young adults (N = 138, 48% women). Thoracic-to-abdominal ratio, respiratory frequency and variability, and minute volume ventilation (MVV) were measured during a low-demand baseline task, and emotional challenge (viewing emotionally-valenced, emotionally-neutral, and alcohol-related pictures). Negative Mood and Alcohol Problems principal components were generated from self-report measures of negative affect and mood, alcohol use, and use-related problems. The Negative Mood component was positively related to a thoracic bias when measured throughout the study (including baseline and picture exposure). There was generally greater respiratory activity in response to the picture cues, although not specifically in response to the content (emotional or alcohol-related) of the picture cues. The Alcohol Problems component was positively associated with respiratory reactivity to picture cues, when baseline breathing patterns were controlled. Self-report arousal data indicated that higher levels of negative mood, but not alcohol problems, were associated with greater arousal ratings overall. However, those with alcohol problems reported greater arousal to alcohol cues, compared to emotionally neutral cues. These results are consistent with theories relating negative affect and mood to breathing patterns as well as the relationship between alcohol problems and negative emotions, suggesting that the use of respiratory interventions may hold promise for treating problems involving negative affect and mood, as well as drinking problems. PMID:23975541

  1. Alcohol-Related Problems in High-Risk Groups. EURO Reports and Studies 109. Report on a WHO Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Martin, Ed.

    Alcohol consumption has risen dramatically in many countries since the Second World War. Accompanying this rise has been a rise in alcohol-related problems, including liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol dependence, and alcohol-related crimes and accidents. Alcohol misuse presents huge health, social, and legal problems throughout most of Europe and…

  2. Dimensions of disinhibited personality and their relation with alcohol use and problems

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Rachel L.; Finn, Peter R.; Endres, Michael J.; Gerst, Kyle R.; Spinola, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been associated with different aspects of disinhibited personality and antisociality, less is known about the specific relationships among different domains of disinhibited personality, antisociality, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. The current study was designed to address three goals, (i) to provide evidence of a three-factor model of disinhibited personality (comprised of impulsivity [IMP], risk taking/ low harm avoidance [RTHA], excitement seeking [ES]), (ii) to test hypotheses regarding the association between each dimension and alcohol use and problems, and (iii) to test the hypothesis that antisociality (social deviance proneness [SDP]) accounts for the direct association between IMP and alcohol problems, while ES is directly related to alcohol use. Measures of disinhibited personality IMP, RTHA, ES and SDP and alcohol use and problems were assessed in a sample of young adults (N=474), which included a high proportion of individuals with AUDs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model of disinhibited personality reflecting IMP, RTHA, and ES. A structural equation model (SEM) showed that IMP was specifically associated with alcohol problems, while ES was specifically associated with alcohol use. In a second SEM, SDP accounted for the majority of the variance in alcohol problems associated with IMP. The results suggest aspects of IMP associated with SDP represent a direct vulnerability to alcohol problems. In addition, the results suggest that ES reflects a specific vulnerability to excessive alcohol use, which is then associated with alcohol problems, while RTHA is not specifically associated with alcohol use or problems when controlling for IMP and ES. PMID:23588138

  3. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Experiential Avoidance, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Alcohol-Related Problems among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…

  5. The role of medical schools in the prevention of alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed Central

    Negrete, J C

    1990-01-01

    There is agreement that physicians can play a major role in the prevention of alcohol problems among their patients and that medical schools should prepare physicians for this role by teaching three major subject areas: knowledge, attitudes and clinical skills. Despite this agreement and the acknowledged high prevalence of alcohol problems in clinical populations, medical school coverage of these problems is not proportional to their importance. Barriers to adequate coverage of alcohol problems are traditional attitudes, confusion as to whether such problems are "medical" and lack of adequate faculty role models. These problems could be remedied by encouragement and training of interested faculty members, establishment of substance abuse centres in university medical schools, integration of alcohol-related material with relevant topics in all departments and inclusion of alcohol-related questions on medical qualifying exams. PMID:2224672

  6. A Mediational Model of Racial Discrimination and Alcohol-Related Problems Among African American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Marcella H; O’Hara, Ross E; Covault, Jonathan; Scott, Denise; Tennen, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Racial discrimination has been identified as an important predictor of alcohol-related outcomes for African Americans. The goal of the current study was to extend previously found links between lifetime discrimination, alcohol use, and alcohol problems as well as to elucidate the affective mechanisms underlying these associations, as moderated by gender. Method: A multiple-groups structural equation model was computed using survey data collected from 619 students from a historically Black college/university. Results: The final model provided excellent fit to the data, explaining 6% of the variance in alcohol consumption and 37% of the variance in alcohol problems. Discrimination was a significant predictor of alcohol-related problems but not, by and large, level of use. For men, anger—but not discrimination-specific anger—was a significant partial mediator of the link between discrimination and both alcohol use and alcohol problems. Depression partially mediated the link between discrimination and alcohol problems for both men and women. Conclusions: The results suggest that, for African Americans whose drinking leads to drinking-related problems, discrimination and poor affective self-regulation are highly relevant and predictive factors, especially for men. PMID:24650816

  7. Effects of AlcoholEdu for College on Alcohol-Related Problems Among Freshmen: A Randomized Multicampus Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Antin, Tamar; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: AlcoholEdu for College is a 2- to 3-hour online course for incoming college freshmen. This study was the first multicampus trial to examine effects of AlcoholEdu for College on alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Method: Thirty universi participated in the study. Fifteen were randomly assigned to receive AlcoholEdu, and the other 15 were assigned to the control condition. AlcoholEdu was implemented by intervention schools during the summer and/or fall semester. Cross-sectional surveys of freshmen were conducted at each university beginning before the intervention in spring 2008/2009; post-intervention surveys were administered in fall 2008/2009 and spring 2009/2010. The surveys included questions about the past-30-day frequency of 28 alcohol-related problems, from which we created indices for the total number of problems and problems in seven domains: physiological, academic, social, driving under the influence/riding with drinking drivers, aggression, sexual risk taking, and victimization. Multilevel Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine intent-to-treat and dosage effects of AlcoholEdu for College on these outcomes. Results: Multilevel intent-to-treat analyses indicated significant reductions in the risk for past-30-day alcohol problems in general and problems in the physiological, social, and victimization domains during the fall semester immediately after completion of the course. However, these effects did not persist in the spring semester. Additional analyses suggested stronger AlcoholEdu effects on these outcomes at colleges with higher rates of student course completion. No AlcoholEdu effects were observed for alcohol-related problems in the other four domains. Conclusions: AlcoholEdu for College appears to have beneficial short-term effects on victimization and the most common types of alcohol-related problems among freshmen. Universities may benefit the most by mandating AlcoholEdu for College for all incoming freshmen and

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  9. How Are 2-Year US Colleges Addressing Student Alcohol Use and Related Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…

  10. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  11. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  12. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  13. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  14. Drinking norms and alcohol-related problems in the United States.

    PubMed

    Linsky, A S; Colby, J P; Straus, M A

    1986-09-01

    One of Bales's three related hypotheses concerning how cultures or social structures influence the level of alcoholism in a population--that culturally determined attitudes toward drinking and intoxication determine whether alcohol will be used to relieve the stress generated in a society--is examined in the first systematic test of that hypothesis based on American data. A proscriptive norm index was computed for each of the 50 states based on percentage population residing in legally dry areas, the degree of legal restrictions on the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages and the percentage population of Mormons and Fundamentalists. The most proscriptive states are located in the southern region of the United States. Proscriptive norms are significantly correlated with all of the indicators of alcohol-related problems studied. Most of the correlations remain significant when five other variables are controlled. Proscriptive norms are negatively correlated with the indicators of heavy drinking, but positively correlated with the "social disruptiveness" of alcohol (arrest data). Thus driving while intoxicated and other alcohol-related arrests do not appear to arise as a response to the total amount of drinking. Instead, such alcohol-related problems appear to be a response to the strong cultural disapproval of drinking, with the proscriptively oriented states experiencing the highest rates of disruptive behaviors related to alcohol. The findings are consistent with a social control explanation for this link. PMID:3762162

  15. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Acculturation, Birthplace and Alcohol-Related Social Problems across Hispanic National Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation, birthplace, and alcohol-related social problems across Hispanic national groups. A total of 5,224 Hispanic adults (18+ years) were interviewed using a multistage cluster sample design in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Multivariate analysis…

  16. Emerging Adult Identity Development, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems During the Transition out of College

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Jonathan R.; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as “maturing out,” are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (wave 1) and the two following years (waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of “maturing out” and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. PMID:27077443

  17. Emerging adult identity development, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems during the transition out of college.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jonathan R; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol use generally peaks during the early 20s and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to result from the acquisition of adult roles (e.g., marriage, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g., personality) may also be important in understanding this process. Changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students (N = 907) during senior year (Wave 1) and the 2 following years (Waves 2-3), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using time-varying covariate growth models, results indicated that several facets of emerging adult identity conferred risk for the failure to mature out of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. Experimentation/possibilities emerged as a significant risk factor for both heavy drinking and alcohol problems, but these effects diminished considerably when accounting for personality risk. In contrast, although small in magnitude, effects of self-focus on heavy drinking and negativity/instability on alcohol-related problems were relatively independent of effects of other established predictors. The effect for negativity/instability was evident only at the final wave. The findings have important implications for theories of maturing out and may ultimately inform tailoring or refinement of prevention/intervention approaches for emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27077443

  18. Change and Stability in Maximum Annual Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems among Aging Males: A 19-Year Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, Ron

    Research has consistently shown that among the non-institutionalized elderly, prevalence rates of heavy alcohol use and problem drinking are relatively small in comparison to younger age groups. This study examines how maximum annual alcohol consumption and problem drinking change as a concomitant of the aging process. This study of alcohol-use…

  19. Psychosocial factors in alcohol use-related problems of working youth.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Inci Ozgur; Demirbas, Hatice; Dogan, Yildirim B

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial correlates of alcohol use related problems in a sample of 581 working adolescents (N = 4405), recruited from five vocational schools in Ankara in June 2004 with the CAGE questionnaire, The Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Spielberger State Anxiety Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Using a multivariate analysis, the anxiety and hopelessness scores, and the length of stay in Ankara were found to be related to alcohol-use problems of the working youth. The study's limitations were noted and future research was suggested. PMID:17918024

  20. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  1. Drinking motives as moderators of the effect of ambivalence on drinking and alcohol-related problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems, especially among those high in ambivalence over drinking. Six hundred sixty-nine undergraduate students (mean age = 22.95, SD = 5.47, 82.22% female) completed study materials. Results showed that consistent with expectations, ambivalence was positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Further, consistent with expectations, drinking motives were positively associated with peak drinking and problems. Additionally, ambivalence was positively associated with drinking motives. Significant interactions emerged between drinking motives (social and coping) and ambivalence when predicting peak drinking and alcohol-related problems. These findings highlight the importance of considering motives in the relationship between ambivalence and drinking. Clinical implications include the need for tailoring interventions to target individual difference factors that increase risk for heavy drinking and associated problems. This is especially important among college students who may be at risk for problematic behavior. PMID:24094922

  2. An Employee Assistance Model of Health Care Management for Employees with Alcohol-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kerry D.; Balkin, David B.

    1992-01-01

    Describes employee assistance model in which cost-effective, high-quality treatment can be offered for a complex range of alcohol-related problems. Notes that this system of care allows the employee to be treated in the least restrictive therapeutic environment, thus encouraging continued productivity at work. (Author/NB)

  3. Cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline intellectual disability and alcohol use-related problems.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P L M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N=57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting and were all abstinent and undergoing treatment at the time of testing. Three groups were formed based on the severity of alcohol use-related problems as measured by the AUDIT. In line with the expectations, no differences were found between participants based on the severity of their alcohol use-related problems. In addition, three groups were formed based on IQ to assess the relationship between IQ and the strength of the cognitive biases. There were also no differences between individuals with mild or borderline ID and individuals with (below) average IQ on any of the variables. It is concluded that computer tasks such as these can be used in individuals with mild to borderline ID. As the results suggest no influence of IQ on the strength of cognitive biases, this study opens up new opportunities for future research on the application of measuring cognitive biases in screening, diagnosing and treating individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. PMID:22728604

  4. Binge Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems among Community College Students: Implications for Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheffield, Felicia D.; Darkes, Jack; Del Boca, Frances K.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among students at traditional 4-year universities have been well documented. However, little is known about the frequency of their such behaviors and its consequences among community college students, who comprise roughly 44% of all undergraduate students in the United States. The present study examined…

  5. Motivating Learning Disabled Offenders with Alcohol-Related Problems: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendel, Elizabeth; Hipkins, Jane

    2002-01-01

    A study aimed to apply motivational interviewing techniques in assisting seven individuals with mental retardation and alcohol-related problems through the stages of change. The group met for one hour over three sessions and staff training was provided. Results demonstrated increases in motivation, self-efficacy, and determination to change their…

  6. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  7. Services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems: a survey of U.K. prisons.

    PubMed

    McMurran, M; Baldwin, S

    1989-09-01

    Offenders have been identified as heavy drinkers who admit to a relationship between drinking and offending. Many prisoners express a desire to reduce their alcohol consumption. The extent of alcohol interventions in U.K. prisons was unknown and so a postal survey was conducted to gather basic information about current work. Of all responding establishments, 91% claimed to provide services for prisoners with alcohol-related problems and 58% gave details of these services. Services are provided mainly by probation officers/social workers, prison officers and Alcoholics Anonymous. Group and individual interventions are described. Service development has been haphazard, lacking central co-ordination. A case is made for appointment of a central facilitator responsible for staff training, establishing a communications network, encouraging new interventions to match clients' needs, encouraging closer links with community workers and guiding evaluative research. PMID:2790268

  8. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers. PMID:20719435

  9. Ethiopian Youth in Israel: Gender-Related Alcohol Use and Related Problem Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Shpiegel, Svetlana; Reznik, Alex; Laytin, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Jewish people from Ethiopia have been immigrating to Israel since 1973. Difficulties with language, unemployment; low socioeconomic status and prejudice have been common place and linked to problem behaviour including school drop out, delinquency and drug abuse among Ethiopian youth. This research examines the patterns of alcohol use and related…

  10. Broad Social Motives, Alcohol Use, and Related Problems: Mechanisms of Risk From High School through College

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Broad social motives (not specific to alcohol use) have been established as an important predictor of alcohol use and problems among college students, but we have little understanding of the mechanisms through which such motives operate. Thus, the current study examined broad social motives prior to college entry as a predictor of college drinking/problems and sought to identify potential mechanisms through which they are associated with increased risk. Participants comprised a sample of 2,245 incoming college students (59.9% women) transitioning from high school through the college years. The first web-based survey was completed during the summer prior to matriculation with participants reporting on their behavior during the spring of high school senior year. Additional surveys were administered each academic semester through the fall of the fourth year. High school social motives were examined as a predictor of changes in alcohol use/problems from high school through senior year, with changes in descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies from high school to sophomore year examined as possible mediators of these relations. Descriptive norms, personal drinking values, and alcohol expectancies were robust mediators of broad social motives for both alcohol use and problems. Although there were a few differences by race/ethnicity in the alcohol use model, the mechanisms through which broad social motives operated were largely invariant across groups. These findings shed light on important mechanisms that can be targeted in prevention programs, particularly those that target groups who are likely to be high in broad social motives (e.g., fraternity/sorority members). PMID:21126828

  11. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  12. Alcohol-related problems: a critical review of the literature and directions in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D

    1998-08-01

    It is generally accepted the around 2-5% of the adult population show major signs of alcohol dependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption. Nurses are in constant contact with patients who may have an early problem with alcohol but who are admitted for other reasons, and they are in a prime position to comprehensively assess patients (including alcohol screening), develop rapport and provide 'counselling'. Also, university nursing education is propelling nurses toward adoption of independent discipline focused models of care which are increasingly becoming independent of the medical model. Recent trends in the management of problem drinkers suggest that controlled drinking approaches may well offer treatment options to nurses that the traditional abstinence approaches did not. This paper presents a brief overview of the notion of controlled drinking, then critically reviews the nursing research studies and the descriptive literature providing direction for nursing education. Some recent clinical initiatives are discussed which highlight the flaws existing in nursing education, including lack of sufficient curriculum hours and the need for better designed education models and strategies. PMID:9847741

  13. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  14. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Methods for Assessing Student Use of Alcohol and Other Drugs. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Wechsler, Henry

    Under the Drug-Free Schools and Campuses Act, institutions of higher education are required to review the effectiveness of their alcohol and drug prevention programs biannually. This guide offers a method for gathering and interpreting student survey data on alcohol-related problems based on the methodology of the College Alcohol Survey developed…

  15. Interactive and Indirect Effects of Anxiety and Negative Urgency on Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Menary, Kyle R.; Corbin, William R.; Leeman, Robert F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Toll, Benjamin A.; DeMartini, Kelly; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although drinking for tension reduction has long been posited as a risk factor for alcohol-related problems, studies investigating anxiety in relation to risk for alcohol problems have returned inconsistent results, leading researchers to search for potential moderators. Negative urgency (the tendency to become behaviorally dysregulated when experiencing negative affect) is a potential moderator of theoretical interest because it may increase risk for alcohol problems among those high in negative affect. The present study tested a cross-sectional mediated moderation hypothesis whereby an interactive effect of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems is mediated through coping-related drinking motives. Method The study utilized baseline data from a hazardously drinking sample of young adults (N = 193) evaluated for participation in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone and motivational interviewing for drinking reduction. Results The direct effect of anxiety on physiological dependence symptoms was moderated by negative urgency such that the positive association between anxiety and physiological dependence symptoms became stronger as negative urgency increased. Indirect effects of anxiety and negative urgency on alcohol problems (operating through coping motives) were also observed. Conclusions Although results of the current cross-sectional study require replication using longitudinal data, the findings suggest that the simultaneous presence of anxiety and negative urgency may be an important indicator of risk for AUDs via both direct interactive effects and indirect additive effects operating through coping motives. These findings have potentially important implications for prevention/intervention efforts for individuals who become disinhibited in the context of negative emotional states. PMID:26031346

  16. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol-related

  17. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  18. Help-seeking for alcohol-related problems in college students: correlates and preferred resources.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R

    2010-12-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students' history of help-seeking for alcohol problems, as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  19. Help-Seeking for Alcohol-Related Problems in College Students: Correlates and Preferred Resources

    PubMed Central

    Buscemi, Joanna; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Pederson, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of a variety of efficacious alcohol intervention approaches for college students, few student drinkers seek help. The present study assessed students’ history of help-seeking for alcohol problems as well as their estimates of how likely they would be to use various help-seeking resources, should they wish to change their drinking. Participants were 197 college students who reported recent heavy drinking (46% male, 68.5% White, 27.4% African-American). Participants completed measures related to their drinking and their use (both past use and likelihood of future use) of 14 different alcohol help-seeking options. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that students preferred informal help-seeking (e.g., talking to friends and family) over formal (e.g., talking with a counselor or medical provider) and anonymous resources (e.g., internet- or computer-based programs). Higher self-ideal discrepancy, greater depressive symptoms, and more alcohol-related consequences were positively associated with actual past help-seeking. Alcohol-related problems and normative discrepancy were negatively associated with hypothetical likelihood of utilizing all three help-seeking resources. These results suggest that heavy drinking college students prefer low-threshold intervention options including peer, family, computerized, and brief motivational interventions. Only 36 participants (18.3% of the sample) reported that they had utilized any of the help-seeking options queried, suggesting that campus prevention efforts should include both promoting low-threshold interventions and attempting to increase the salience of alcohol-related risk and the potential utility of changing drinking patterns. PMID:21198220

  20. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  1. Alcohol-Related Problems and Risk of Suicide among College Students: The Mediating Roles of Belongingness and Burdensomeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship among alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide proneness in undergraduate college students (N = 996) was examined. As hypothesized, alcohol-related problems, perceived burdensomeness, and thwarted belongingness were all significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness.…

  2. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  3. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  4. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  5. The green eyed monster in the bottle: Relationship contingent self-esteem, romantic jealousy, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Angelo M; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Hadden, Benjamin W; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-10-01

    Previous research suggests that both jealousy and relationship contingent self-esteem (RCSE) are related to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. No work, however, has examined these two constructs together as they relate to motives for alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. The current study aims to build upon emerging literature examining different types of jealousy (i.e., emotional, cognitive, and behavioral), relationship quality (i.e., satisfaction, commitment, closeness), RCSE, and alcohol use. More specifically, the current study aimed to examine the associations between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems, in the context of the different types of jealousy. Moreover, the current study aimed to assess whether the associations between RCSE, jealousy, and drinking outcomes vary as a function of relationship quality. Two hundred and seventy seven individuals (87% female) at a large southern university participated in the study. They completed measures of RCSE, relationship satisfaction, commitment, closeness, and jealousy as well as alcohol-related outcomes. Using PROCESS, moderated mediational analyses were used to evaluate different types of jealousy as mediators of the association between RCSE and drinking to cope/alcohol-related problems. Further, we aimed to examine whether relationship quality moderated the association between RCSE and jealousy in predicting alcohol-related variables. Results indicated that cognitive jealousy mediated the association between both RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. Further, relationship satisfaction, commitment, and closeness were all found to moderate the association between RSCE and cognitive jealousy such that at lower, but not higher levels of satisfaction, commitment, and closeness, cognitive jealousy mediated the association between RCSE and drinking to cope and RCSE and alcohol-related problems. PMID:26046402

  6. Alcohol-Related Problems among Younger Drinkers Who Misuse Prescription Drugs: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermos, J.; Winter, M.; Heeren, T.; Hingson, R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors determined whether lifetime prescription drug misuse (PDM) associated with increased risks for alcohol-related problems among 18- to 34-year-old, NESARC respondents. Among 8222 "ever-drinkers," 15.4% reported ever "misusing sedatives, tranquilizers, painkillers or stimulants ... as prescriptions or from indirect sources." Outcomes were…

  7. The Roles of Negative Affect and Coping Motives in the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although studies have consistently indicated that among college students alcohol use and the likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems are related it is possible that additional factors strengthen the magnitude of this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effect of two such factors: negative affect and coping drinking motives. Method Data were collected on 316 college students at a midsized public university in the upper Midwest who reported using alcohol. Results Findings indicated that both negative affect and coping drinking motives moderated the alcohol use–alcohol problems relationship. The three-way interaction indicated that the strongest relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related problems existed for individuals high in both negative affect and coping drinking motives. Conclusions This study suggests that college students high in negative affect and coping drinking motives are particularly at risk for experiencing problems as a result of their alcohol use, indicating that clinicians should consider screening for these factors when conducting alcohol-related prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18432384

  8. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women. PMID:26132301

  9. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  10. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors. PMID:21988480

  11. Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption among Youth in Jujuy Province, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia P; Nah, Gregory; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems among youth in Jujuy, Argentina. Material and Methods A survey was conducted in 2005 with a representative sample of 9th grade youth (12 to 17 years old) including sociodemographic and consumption data, and the AUDIT-C test. Results Nine percent of girls and 11% of boys reported hazardous drinking; 12% of girls and 19% of boys reported dependence symptoms. The odds ratio for dependence symptoms (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) and for hazardous drinking (adjusted OR 0.7; 95%CI: 0.6-0.8) was significantly lower for girls compared with boys. Older age, working, and attending night school were risk factors for hazardous drinking, dependence symptoms, and harmful drinking. Conclusions A significant proportion of youth reported problematic patterns of alcohol drinking, highlighting the need to implement prevention and treatment interventions tailored to the adolescent population. PMID:18670721

  12. Involvement in Intimate Partner Psychological Abuse and Suicide Proneness in College Women: Alcohol Related Problems as a Potential Mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations among involvement in intimate partner psychological abuse, alcohol-related problems, and suicide proneness as measured by the Life Attitudes Schedule – Short Form (LAS-SF) in college women (N = 709). Results revealed that, as expected, being involved in a psychologically abusive relationship was significantly and positively correlated with alcohol-related problems and alcohol-related problems were significantly and positively correlated with suicide proneness. Additionally, the intimate partner psychological abuse involvement-suicide proneness link was significantly mediated by alcohol-related problems. Implications are offered for the improved identification and treatment of young women at risk for suicidal and health-diminishing behaviors. PMID:20544000

  13. Striatal dysfunction marks preexisting risk and medial prefrontal dysfunction is related to problem drinking in children of alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2010-01-01

    Background Parental alcoholism substantially raises risk for offspring alcoholism, an effect thought to be mediated by a dysregulation in impulse control. Adult alcoholics have alterations in the frontostriatal system involved in regulating impulsive responses. However, it remains controversial whether these alterations reflect pre-existing traits predisposing to problem alcohol use, or are secondary to alcohol involvement. Methods Sixty-one 16 to 22 year olds were tested using a go/no-go task during functional MRI. Forty-one had at least one parent with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD; FH+) and 20 had no parent with AUD (FH−). Two FH+ subgroups were created to disentangle alcohol involvement from preexisting risk: the FH+ control (n=20) group had low alcohol problems, differing from the FH− group only by family history. The FH+ problem group (n=21) had high alcohol problems. Results The ventral caudate deactivated during successful inhibition in the FH− but not the FH+ groups, regardless of problem alcohol involvement. Regression analyses showed that ventral caudate deactivation was related to fewer externalizing problems as well as family history. Orbital and left medial prefrontal regions were deactivated in both the FH− and FH+ control groups but not the FH+ problem group. Activation in these regions was associated with alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in ventral striatal function in youth at risk for AUD, which may lead to inappropriate motivational responding; and suggest that with alcohol use, the prefrontal “control” mechanism loses efficiency, further dysregulating the frontostriatal motivational circuitry. PMID:20416863

  14. Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Poverty and Their Relationship to Binge Drinking and Related Problems among Drinkers in Committed Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Christy M.; Chartier, Karen G.; Caetano, Raul; Harris, T. Robert

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of alcohol outlet density (AOD) and neighborhood poverty with binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among drinkers in married and cohabitating relationships and assessed whether these associations differed across sex. A U.S. national population couples survey was linked to U.S. Census data on AOD and…

  15. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  16. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems. PMID:26075735

  17. Prevalence of excessive or problem drinkers among patients attending somatic outpatient clinics: a study of alcohol related medical care.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, J; Magnusson, P H

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of alcohol related morbidity was studied among 2038 patients attending somatic outpatient clinics. A further 76 patients had refused the study, giving an overall drop out rate of 3.6%. Several methods were combined so as to detect as many patients with problem drinking as possible. According to the criteria and definitions employed 17% of men (confidence interval 15% to 19%) and 4% of women (confidence interval 3% to 5%) were excessive consumers of alcohol or problem drinkers. The highest proportion of such patients--that is, 17%--was noted in the emergency rooms (27% of men, 8% of women). At other clinics the proportions varied from 11% to 17% of men and from 2% to 4% of women. The strongest relations between overconsumption of alcohol and consultation at the clinic were among patients attending the medical outpatient clinic and the emergency rooms; in 86% (confidence interval 75% to 97%) and 88% (confidence interval 81% to 95%) of problem drinkers attending these clinics, respectively, alcohol was related to the consultation. Consultations were related to alcohol in 82% of women with excessive or problem drinking and 73% of men defined in this way. There was a tendency to a higher proportion of men with excessive or problem drinking in the age group 40-49 years. These findings show that among patients classified as excessive or problem drinkers attending somatic outpatient clinics there was a close relation between alcohol consumption and utilisation of medical resources, especially in women. PMID:3117173

  18. The relationship between temporal profiles and alcohol-related problems in University undergraduates: Results from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon C; Andretta, James R; McKay, Michael T

    2016-04-01

    Time perspective is an individual difference variable which assesses the extent to which orientation to the past, present and future affects current behaviors. The present study investigated the viability of temporal profiles and the degree (if any) to which these predict meaningful differences in alcohol-related problems. Participants were undergraduates recruited from a University in the North West of England. Full survey data were available for 455 individuals (aged 18-25; 49.7% male) on (a) time perspective, and (b) alcohol-related problems. Four profiles emerged and were labeled Future-Positive, Present, Past Negative-Future, and Ambivalent. As hypothesized, the Future-Positive profile was associated with the best alcohol-related outcomes. The Present profile was associated with the worst outcomes. This study demonstrates that temporal profiles are associated with alcohol-related problems. PMID:26735914

  19. Party package travel: alcohol use and related problems in a holiday resort: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna; Reinholdt, Tine

    2008-01-01

    Background People travelling abroad tend to increase their use of alcohol and other drugs. In the present study we describe organized party activities in connection with young tourists' drinking, and the differences between young people travelling with and without organized party activities. Methods We conducted ethnographic observations and a cross-sectional survey in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria. Results The behaviour of the guides from two travel agencies strongly promoted heavy drinking, but discouraged illicit drug use. Even after controlling for several potential confounders, young people who travelled with such "party package travel agencies" were more likely to drink 12 or more units when going out. In univariate analyses, they were also more likely to get into fights, but were not more likely to seek medical assistance or medical assistance for an accident or an alcohol-related problem. After controlling for confounders, the association between type of travel agency and getting into fights was no longer significant. Short-term consequences of drinking in the holiday resort did not differ between party package travellers and ordinary package travellers. Conclusion There may be a small impact of party package travels on young people's drinking. Strategies could be developed used to minimise the harm associated with both party package travel and other kinds of travel where heavy substance use is likely to occur. PMID:18840273

  20. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  1. Stress and coping mediate relationships between contingent and global self-esteem and alcohol-related problems among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Tomaka, Joe; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that contingent self-esteem would be positively associated with alcohol-related problems and that global self-esteem would be negatively associated with such problems. It also examined the hypothesis that high stress and maladaptive coping would mediate these relationships. A sample of college students (n = 399) who were predominantly Hispanic (89%) completed measures of global and contingent self-esteem; stress and coping; and alcohol-related problems. Correlational and latent variable analyses indicated that contingent self-esteem positively related to alcohol-related problems, with maladaptive coping mediating this relationship. In contrast, global self-esteem negatively related to such problems, a relationship that was also mediated by maladaptive coping and stress. Overall, the results highlight the potentially harmful consequences of contingent self-worth and the adaptive nature of non-contingent self-esteem. They also demonstrate the important role that coping plays in mediating self-esteem's associations with alcohol-related problems. PMID:22930540

  2. Prospective Effects of Family Cohesion on Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescence: Similarities and Differences by Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Reeb, Ben T; Chan, Sut Yee Shirley; Conger, Katherine J; Martin, Monica J; Hollis, Nicole D; Serido, Joyce; Russell, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Research increasingly finds that race/ethnicity needs to be taken into account in the modelling of associations between protective factors and adolescent drinking behaviors in order to understand family effects and promote positive youth development. The current study examined racial/ethnic variation in the prospective effects of family cohesion on adolescent alcohol-related problems using a nationally representative sample. Data were drawn from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health and included 10,992 (50% female) non-Hispanic Asian, non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White 7th-12th graders. Consistent with Hirschi's social control theory of youth delinquency, higher levels of family cohesion predicted lower levels of future adolescent alcohol-related problems, independent of race/ethnicity, sex, age, baseline alcohol-related problems, and family socioeconomic status. Findings from moderation analyses indicated that the magnitude of associations differed across groups such that the protective effect of family cohesion was strongest among White adolescents. For Latino adolescents, family cohesion was not associated with alcohol-related problems. Future longitudinal cross-racial/ethnic research is needed on common and unique mechanisms underlying differential associations between family processes and adolescent high-risk drinking. Understanding these processes could help improve preventive interventions, identify vulnerable subgroups, and inform health policy aimed at reducing alcohol-related health disparities. PMID:25563233

  3. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems in the US through Policy: Media Campaigns, Regulatory Approaches and Environmental Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of research focusing on several general strategies for reducing drinking-related problems, including controls on alcohol advertising and counter advertising; laws and regulations pertaining to minimum legal drinking age, and service to minors and drinking and driving. Concludes with a commentary on the potential effectiveness…

  4. "Man-ing" up and getting drunk: the role of masculine norms, alcohol intoxication and alcohol-related problems among college men.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-09-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a "playboy", risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a "playboy", risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  5. “Man-ing” up and Getting Drunk: The Role of Masculine Norms, Alcohol Intoxication and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Men

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Cheng, Alice; Lee, Christina S.; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Gordon, Derrick

    2011-01-01

    Compared to college women, college men face elevated risks for problematic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. These risks highlight the critical need to investigate gender issues and risk factors contributing to intoxication and related problems among men. Theoretical models suggest that conforming to masculine norms or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a man, may help explain patterns of problematic drinking among men. The current study advances the literature by investigating the association between masculine norms, drinking to intoxication, and alcohol-related consequences among 776 undergraduate males after taking into account the importance of fraternity status and perceived peer norms. Results indicate that fraternity status and higher perceived peer norms regarding drinking increased the risks of getting drunk and experiencing alcohol-related consequences. Specifically, the masculine norms of being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and winning were risk factors of drinking to intoxication; while, being a “playboy”, risk-taking, and self-reliance increased the risks of alcohol-related problems. Primacy of work and heterosexual presentation were two masculine norms that were protective of drinking to intoxication. Our findings contribute to important future considerations for prevention, clinical interventions, and public-health implications in college settings. PMID:21620570

  6. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  7. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students’ stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students’ patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol-­related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  8. Very-Brief, Web-Based Interventions for Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Problems among College Students: A Review.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Perez, Elliottnell; Nogueira, Christine; DeMartini, Kelly S

    2015-01-01

    Very-brief, web-based alcohol interventions have great potential due to their convenience, ease of dissemination, and college students' stated preference for this intervention modality. To address the efficacy of these interventions, we conducted a review of the literature to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Fifteen published reports were included. All RCTs meeting criteria for inclusion tested an intervention that featured personalized feedback on students' patterns of alcohol consumption. This review found some evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions among college students for alcohol use reduction. Several trials, however, reported no evidence of efficacy and the methods of multiple trials raised concerns about potential bias that may have influenced study results. By contrast, this review did not yield evidence to support the efficacy of very-brief, web-based interventions for reduction of alcohol--related problems among college students. We found evidence to support the efficacy of two main types of intervention content: (a) focused solely on personalized normative feedback designed to correct misconceptions about peer alcohol consumption and (b) multi-component interventions. Future research is needed to test enhancements to very-brief, web-based interventions that feature personalized feedback on patterns of alcohol use and to determine for which types of college drinkers (e.g., heavier or lighter drinkers) these interventions are most efficacious. In addition, future studies are needed to test novel, very-brief, web-based interventions featuring approaches other than personalized feedback. In summary, this review yielded some evidence supporting very-brief, web-based interventions in reducing alcohol use but not related problems in college students. Very-brief, web-based interventions are worth pursuing given their convenience, privacy, and potential public health benefit. PMID:26441690

  9. Tracking the When, Where, and With Whom of Alcohol Use: Integrating Ecological Momentary Assessment and Geospatial Data to Examine Risk for Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Bersamin, Melina; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Prevention researchers have found that drinking in different contexts is related to different alcohol problems. Where and with whom people drink affects the types of alcohol-related problems they experience. Consequently, identifying those contexts that result in the greatest number of problems provides a novel opportunity to target new prevention efforts aimed at those contexts. However, identifying these contexts poses methodological challenges to prevention research. To overcome these challenges, researchers need tools that allow them to gather detailed information about when and where people choose to drink and how contextual factors influence drinking risks. New data collection and analysis techniques, such as activity-space analysis, which examines movement through different contexts, and ecological momentary assessment, which captures microlevel contextual changes as individuals move through their days, can advance the field of alcohol studies by providing detailed information on the use of drinking contexts, particularly when combined. Data acquired through these methods allow researchers to better identify those con-texts where and conditions under which drinking and problems related to drinking occur. Use of these methods will allow prevention practitioners to target prevention efforts to those contexts that place most drinkers at risk and tailor prevention efforts to each context for specific outcomes. PMID:26258998

  10. Parental Aggression Related to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; And Others

    Findings from a study of the etiology of alcoholism and conduct disorders that involved 3-year-old sons of alcoholic fathers are reported. The study focused on intact nuclear families with a son who was 3 years old at the time of initial data collection and a father who was diagnosed as definitely or probably alcoholic. Alcoholic families were…

  11. [Alcohol-related dementia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Kozaki, Koichi; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-04-01

    Excessive alcohol use is associated with health problems for the elderly in combination with their chronic conditions. One such complication, alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is brought about by direct or indirect ethanol intoxication, and coexisting nutritional deficiency, liver disease, cerebrovascular disease and traumatic brain injury. The elderly people with ARD have been underestimated and underdiagnosed. In these older alcoholics, atrophic changes, lacunar infarcts and deep white matter lesions of the brain are evident and are associated not only with their cognitive decline, but also with their frailty, leading to high morbidity and mortality ratio. Although lifelong abstinence can recover patients with ARD to temporally lull, aging, the severity of alcohol dependence, and the concomitant nutritional, physical and environmental factors can all impact negatively their outcome. Therefore, a comprehensive approach to lifestyle factors is recommended so that they can minimize preventable risks and maintain health status. Nursing home placement may be an appropriate treatment option for some refractory, long-term patients with ARD. PMID:24796110

  12. Validating a Five-Factor Marijuana Motives Measure: Relations with Use, Problems, and Alcohol Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jeffrey; Correia, Christopher J.; Carey, Kate B.; Borsari, Brian E.

    1998-01-01

    Marijuana motives were studied in relationship to drinking motives among college students. Internal consistency and concurrent validity of the measure, gender, and interpersonal correlates of problem use patterns were examined. Analyses supported a five-factor marijuana motives model, prediction of use-related problems, and discriminant validity…

  13. The association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related problems: An examination of race and gender differences among college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Nickeisha; Kim, Su-Young; Ray, Anne E; White, Helene R; Jiao, Yang; Mun, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    This study examined race and gender differences in use of specific types of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and the moderating effects of race and gender on the relationship between PBS use and alcohol problems, controlling for alcohol use, among a large sample of Asian, Black, and White college drinkers. There were significant racial and gender differences in the types of PBS used. Moderation analyses indicated that PBS were more protective for women than men against experiencing alcohol-related problems. There were no significant race effects or race-by-gender interaction effects on alcohol problems. Implementing PBS may be beneficial for all college students. PMID:26114577

  14. Attitudes and Descriptive Norms of Alcohol-Related Problems as Predictors of Alcohol Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Meg E.; Usdan, Stuart L.; Higginbotham, John C.; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to identify predictors of alcohol use based on personal values and several constructs from the Integrated Behavioral Model (i.e., attitudes, injunctive norms and descriptive norms) among undergraduate college students. Methods: A cross sectional study design was used with a convenience sample of college…

  15. Reactions to alcohol-related marital violence. Effects of one's own abuse experience and alcohol problems on causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, B

    1983-07-01

    Differences in the amount of responsibility attributed to fictional abusing and abused spouses who were either intoxicated or sober by alcoholics with differences in spouse-abuse histories and other characteristics are discussed in terms of attribution theory and the just-world hypothesis. PMID:6632884

  16. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  17. Trends in binge and heavy drinking, alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure in the U.S. military.

    PubMed

    Bray, Robert M; Brown, Janice M; Williams, Jason

    2013-07-01

    Population-based Department of Defense health behavior surveys were examined for binge and heavy drinking among U.S. active duty personnel. From 1998-2008, personnel showed significant increases in heavy drinking (15% to 20%) and binge drinking (35% to 47%). The rate of alcohol-related serious consequences was 4% for nonbinge drinkers, 9% for binge drinkers, and 19% for heavy drinkers. Personnel with high combat exposure had significantly higher rates of heavy (26.8%) and binge (54.8%) drinking than their counterparts (17% and 45%, respectively). Heavy and binge drinking put service members at high risk for problems that diminish force readiness and psychological fitness. PMID:23869454

  18. Minority stress is longitudinally associated with alcohol-related problems among sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah M; Gilmore, Amanda K; Rhew, Isaac C; Hodge, Kimberley A; Kaysen, Debra L

    2016-10-01

    Compared to sexual minority men and heterosexual women, sexual minority women report elevated alcohol use in young adulthood. Heavy alcohol use and alcohol use disorders disproportionately affect sexual minority women across the lifespan, yet there is limited research investigating reasons for such associations. The present study investigates longitudinal associations between minority stress and both alcohol use as well as self-rated drinking consequences. Participants (N=1057) were self-identified lesbian (40.5%) and bisexual (59.5%) women between the ages of 18 to 25 recruited from across the U.S. using online advertisements. Participants completed four annual surveys. Hurdle mixed effects models were used to assess associations between minority stress and typical weekly drinking and drinking consequences one year later. Minority stress was not significantly associated with subsequent typical drinking. However, minority stress was significantly associated with having any alcohol consequences as well as the count of alcohol consequences one year later after controlling for covariates. Consistent with extant literature, this study provides evidence for a prospective association between minority stress experienced by sexual minority women and drinking consequences. This study also provides support for the potential impact of efforts to reduce minority stress faced by sexual minority women. PMID:27249806

  19. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  20. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  1. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  2. How Should Alcohol Problems Be Conceptualized? Causal Indicators Within the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Chen, Ting-Huei; Vergés, Alvaro; Bollen, Kenneth A; Martens, Matthew P

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-related problems have traditionally been conceptualized and measured by an effect indicator model. That is, it is generally assumed that observed indicators of alcohol problems are caused by a latent variable. However, there are reasons to think that this construct is more accurately conceptualized as including at least some causal indicators, in which observed indicators cause the latent variable. The present study examined the measurement model of a well-known alcohol consequences questionnaire, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Participants were 703 students from a large public university in the Northeast mandated to an alcohol intervention. We conducted a zero tetrad test to examine a measurement model consisting solely of effect indicators and a model with both causal and effect indicators. Overall, the results suggested the hybrid model fit the data better than a model with only effect indicators. These findings have implications regarding the theoretical underpinnings of alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26589725

  3. The gender specific mediational pathways between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2009-03-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles, neuroticism, pathological reasons for drinking, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems were tested. A two-group SEM path model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, pathological reasons for drinking mediated the impact of neuroticism on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. A different pattern of relationships was found for each of the two genders. Perceptions of having an authoritarian father were positively linked to higher levels of neuroticism among males but this pattern was not found among females. For males, neuroticism mediated the impact of having an authoritarian father on pathological reasons for drinking with pathological reasons for drinking mediating the impact of neuroticism on alcohol-related problems. Perceptions of having a permissive father were linked to lower levels of neuroticism in females (but have been found as a consistent risk factor for other pathways to alcohol use elsewhere). Compared with other work in this area, these findings indicate parental influences regarding vulnerabilities for alcohol use may be specific to parent-child gender matches for some pathways and specific to one parent (irrespective of child gender) for other pathways. PMID:19000941

  4. Identification of Countermeasures for the Youth Crash Problem Related to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    Past research relevant to the problem and possible countermeasures are discussed as the basis for the survey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with male New York State drivers. These groups, each containing young and middle aged drivers were sampled as follows: (1) random sample of the general population of licensed drivers, (2) drivers…

  5. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing. PMID:16203455

  6. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  7. PTSD and Problems with Alcohol Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data Medical Inspector Patient ... and Problems with Alcohol Use PTSD and alcohol use problems are often found together. This pairing can be big trouble for the trauma survivor and his or ...

  8. Mediational Links Among Parenting Styles, Perceptions of Parental Confidence, Self-Esteem, and Depression on Alcohol-Related Problems in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Depression is often found to be comorbid with alcohol-related problems. Parental overprotection, which may be of particular importance during emerging adulthood, has been linked to internalizing symptoms in offspring. This article evaluates the impact of parenting styles and parental confidence in their offspring on an internalizing pathway to alcohol-related problems through self-esteem and depression. Method: Mediational links were tested among parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental confidence (overprotection, autonomy), self-esteem, depression, and alcohol-related problems. A two-group, multiple indicator multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. Results: Overall, having a father who was confident in his child's ability to make autonomous decisions was protective against depression for both genders. Perceptions of paternal autonomy mediated the impact of the fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on depression for both genders. For men, parental overprotection mediated the impact of an authoritarian father on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of parental overprotection on depression. Moreover, among men, perceptions of maternal autonomy mediated the impact of the mothers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive) on self-esteem, and self-esteem mediated the impact of maternal autonomy on depression. Conclusions: The current pattern of findings is distinct from pathways through behavioral undercontrol with influences from the same-sex parent for both genders. These findings indicate that parenting may have differential influences on internalizing pathways to alcohol-related problems. PMID:19261233

  9. Impact of age at first drink on vulnerability to alcohol-related problems: testing the marker hypothesis in a prospective study of young adults.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Becker, Katja; Treutlein, Jens; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Rietschel, Marcella; Schumann, Gunter; Laucht, Manfred

    2009-10-01

    There is ample evidence that the early initiation of alcohol use is a risk factor for the development of later alcohol-related problems. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether this association can be explained by indicators of a common underlying susceptibility or whether age at drinking onset may be considered as an independent predictor of later drinking behavior, suggesting a potential causal relationship. Participants were drawn from a prospective cohort study of the long-term outcomes of early risk factors followed up from birth onwards. Structured interviews were administered to 304 participants to assess age at first drink and current drinking behavior. Data on risk factors, including early family adversity, parental alcohol use, childhood psychopathology and stressful life events, were repeatedly collected during childhood using standardized parent interviews. In addition, information on genotype was considered. Results confirmed previous work demonstrating that hazardous alcohol consumption is related to early-adolescent drinking onset. A younger age of first drink was significantly predicted by 5-HTTLPR genotype and the degree of preceding externalizing symptoms, and both factors were related to increased consumption or harmful alcohol use at age 19. However, even after controlling for these potential explanatory factors, earlier age at drinking onset remained a strong predictor of heavy alcohol consumption in young adulthood. The present longitudinal study adds to the current literature indicating that the early onset - adult hazardous drinking association cannot solely be attributed to shared genetic and psychopathologic risk factors as examined in this study. PMID:19332346

  10. Alcohol and Kids: Facing Our Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Nicholas; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Introduces special journal issue on alcohol use among children and adolescents. Describes scope of the problem, claiming that alcohol is the most consumed drug among children and youth. Discusses possible progression in alcohol use, parents' reactions to their children using alcohol or other drugs, and effects of the media and advertising on…

  11. Associations of Personality with Alcohol Use Behaviour and Alcohol Problems in Adolescents Receiving Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sherry Heather; McGonnell, Melissa; Wekerle, Christine; Adlaf, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Four specific personality factors have been theorized to put adolescents at risk for alcohol abuse: hopelessness (HOP), anxiety sensitivity (AS), sensation seeking (SS), and impulsivity (IMP). We examined relations of these personality factors to various alcohol-related indices in a sample at high risk for alcohol problems--specifically, a child…

  12. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  13. The Male Role, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol Problems: A Structural Modeling Examination in Adult Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Donald R.; Newcomb, Michael D.; Sadava, Stanley W.

    1999-01-01

    Utilizes structural model to examine relationships between three male-role variables, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems in sample of men and women. For men, traditional attitudes led to more alcohol consumption, whereas agentic traits protected them from experiencing alcohol-related problems and from experiencing masculine…

  14. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  15. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  16. Kibbutz Youth Alcohol Use: Patterns and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard E; Anson, Jon

    1988-01-01

    Examined kibbutz youth alcohol patterns and problems. Administered questionnaire on consumption and consequences of alcohol use to 54 high school-aged youth from Israeli kibbutz. Found that 69 percent of respondents reported using alcohol, with higher proportion of females than males saying they drank. Comparison with other studies showed that…

  17. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice.

    PubMed

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners. PMID:25397637

  18. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    PubMed

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected]. PMID:22963160

  19. Alcohol Problems in Alaska Natives: Lessons from the Inuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Spence, John

    2006-01-01

    In this Alaska Native study, cultural "insiders" analyzed problems associated with increased alcohol availability, factors which have reduced alcohol-related problems, and ideas for improving treatment in an Inuit community. Participants described frequent bingeing, blackouts, family violence, suicide, loss of child custody, and feelings of…

  20. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  1. Human alcohol-related neuropathology.

    PubMed

    de la Monte, Suzanne M; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  2. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination. PMID:24051137

  3. Marital and Family Therapy for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    Following a brief review of literature on marital and family treatment for alcohol problems, this paper describes two types of marital therapy frequently used with alcoholics and presents a brief overview of results from a study in progress comparing the two modalities. Behavioral marital therapy uses communication skills training, contracting,…

  4. Pathway from Child Sexual and Physical Abuse to Risky Sex Among Emerging Adults: The Role of Trauma-Related Intrusions and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, emphasizing a need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions following early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn, may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Methods Participants were 1169 racially-diverse college students (72.9% female; 37.6% Black/African-American; 33.6% White) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. Results The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, while for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Implications and Contribution This study provides support for a pathway from childhood abuse to risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood that operates through traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems. Risk reduction programs that employ an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and risky sexual behavior may be

  5. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  6. The Relation of Parental Depression and Self Esteem to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Andrew M.; And Others

    Preliminary results from a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine the family life of children reared in a home with an alcoholic father are reported. Analysis is restricted to 15 families from a larger study in which the target child was a 3-year-old male. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Progress Evaluation…

  7. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  8. Alcohol Problems Prevention/Intervention Programs: Guidelines for College Campuses. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Frances M.; Connor, Leslie S.

    This manual is designed to respond to the growing interest among colleges in technical assistance for dealing with alcohol-related problems. Part One provides an overview of the dimensions of alcohol related problems and delves into the causes and prevention of alcohol problems. It outlines the Public Health Model approach to dealing with alcohol…

  9. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Alcohol Treating Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... offers treatment options The new publication, Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help , complements the information ...

  10. Alcohol problems among suicide attempters in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A S; Bille-Brahe, U; Hjelmeland, H; Jensen, B; Ostamo, A; Salander-Renberg, E; Wasserman, D

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether and how the number of suicide attempters with alcohol problems and their drinking habits differ between the Nordic areas under study. Problem-drinkers were defined as persons who themselves felt that they had an alcohol problem. The analyses were based on data collected at five Nordic research centers participating in the WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide, namely: Helsinki (Finland); Umeå and Stockholm (Sweden); Słr-Trłndelag (Norway); and Odense (Denmark). The results showed that the frequency of problem-drinking among suicide attempters differed markedly between the areas under study; the Finnish male and the Danish female suicide attempters included the highest proportions of self-identified problem-drinkers. The pattern of drinking among the suicide attempters also differed between the areas. The analyses indicate that the point when alcohol becomes a problem to somebody, especially to a degree that it increases the risk of suicidal behavior, not only depends on how much and how often the person drinks alcohol; the prevailing drinking pattern, the attitudes towards drinking alcohol, and the level of social control are also important factors to take into consideration when relations between alcohol and suicidal behavior are under study. PMID:9018904

  11. Alcohol Expectancies in Relation to Personality and Aggression among Juvenile Delinquents in Northern Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman A.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Sidorov, Pavel I.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related…

  12. [Alcohol related problem in the workplace: trial of a screening and brief intervention program for risky drinking in the workplace, via the Internet].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Yukiko; Izumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Hiroko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Ino, Aro; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the effect of a screening and brief intervention via the Internet (6-month Total health Management Program: TMP, a kind of life evolution program), for improvement of alcohol related problem in the workplace. At a certain company, 2,096 employees were screened.using AUDIT-C and CAGE via the Internet (electronic screening). From those screened, 17 risky drinkers were picked up. The classification of "risky drinker" was determined based on employees scoring over six points on AUDIT-C and over two points on_ AGE. These employees were then called to one-day practical seminar program (including the program of food education, music therapy, aro-atherapy, body conditioning etc.). After which, during 6 months, they were followed up via e-mail every month. After the 6-month follow up, their results of AUDIT-C were significantly decreased. Additionally, aside from the frequency of drinking at bedtime, maximum alcohol consumption per day was also significantly decreased. The Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety captured the initial screen and then again after follow-up was reduced significantly. Moreover, quality-of-life index for sleep and dinner were both significantly improved as well..These results suggest that the SBI (screening and brief intervention: TMP) is effective for reducing drinking behavior, can be used to effectively elevate quality of life. PMID:25831951

  13. Predictors of alcohol problems in college women: the role of depressive symptoms, disordered eating, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Zaje A T; Slane, Jennifer D; Klump, Kelly L

    2009-03-01

    Disordered eating and depressive symptoms are established correlates of alcohol use in college women. Family history of alcoholism (FHA) is also related to problematic alcohol use, but there have been limited studies of how it relates to other established cofactors in women. Predictive associations between disordered eating (i.e., overall levels as well as binge eating), depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems were examined in a sample of 295 female twins. The direct and moderating effects of FHA on the relationships between alcohol problems, disordered eating, and depressive symptoms were investigated. Using hierarchical linear modeling depressive symptoms, but not disordered eating or FHA, significantly predicted alcohol problems. However, there was a significant interaction between disordered eating and FHA; disordered eating was associated with alcohol problems in those with a positive FHA. The implications for high-risk subgroups of college women are discussed. PMID:19027241

  14. Deaf Teenagers and Family Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Raymond P.

    1987-01-01

    Deaf teenagers have more trouble coping with the effects of parental alcohol abuse than do hearing teenagers. Suggestions are made for helping the deaf teenager and other family members deal with these problems, especially in potentially violent situations. Two short case studies are provided to illustrate intervention methods and outcomes.…

  15. Alcohol use among adolescents, aggressive behaviour, and internalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Kivimäki, Petri; Kekkonen, Virve; Valtonen, Hannu; Tolmunen, Tommi; Honkalampi, Kirsi; Tacke, Ulrich; Hintikka, Jukka; Lehto, Soili M; Laukkanen, Eila

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol use is common among adolescents, but its association with behavioural and emotional problems is not well understood. This study aimed to investigate how self-reported psychosocial problems were associated with the use of alcohol in a community sample consisting of 4074 Finnish adolescents aged 13-18 years. Aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol use and a high level of alcohol consumption, while internalizing problems did not associate with alcohol use. Having problems in social relationships associated with abstinence and lower alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking, early menarche and attention problems also associated with alcohol use. PMID:25038493

  16. [Health and social harm related alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Hoyos, Juan; Guitart, Anna M; Barrio, Gregorio

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol affects the brain and most organs and systems, and its use is related to a large number of health problems. These include mental, neurological, digestive, cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, perinatal, cancerous, and infectious diseases, as well as intentional and non-intentional injuries. Physiopathological mechanisms still remain unraveled, though direct toxicity of ethanol and its metabolites, nutritional deficit and intestinal microbial endotoxin absorption have been suggested, all of which would be further modulated by use patterns and genetic and environmental factors. Individually it is difficult to precisely predict who will or will not suffer health consequences. At population level several disorders show a linear or exponential dose-response relationship, as is the case with various cancer types, hepatopathies, injuries, and probably risky behaviors such as unsafe sex. Other health problems such as general mortality in people above 45 years of age, ischemic disease or diabetes mellitus show a J-shaped relationship with alcohol use. The overall effect of alcohol on the global burden of disease is highly detrimental, despite the possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. Large differences are found by country, age, gender, socioeconomic and other factors. Disease burden is mostly related with alcohol's capacity to produce dependence and with acute intoxication. Often alcohol also produces negative consequences for other people (violence, unattended family or work duties, etc) which are generally not taken into account when evaluating burden of disease. The aim of this study was to describe the main alcohol-related social and health harms, as well as their generating mechanisms, using secondary data sources. PMID:25090405

  17. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  18. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  19. Personality and alcohol-related outcomes among mandated college students: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs as mediators.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Matthew R; Hustad, John T P

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined three alcohol-perception variables (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and college-related alcohol beliefs) as mediators of the predictive effects of four personality traits (impulsivity, sensation seeking, anxiety sensitivity, and hopelessness) on alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of mandated college students (n=875). Our findings replicated several findings of a previous study of incoming freshman college students (Hustad et al., in press) in that impulsivity and hopelessness had direct effects on alcohol-related problems, sensation seeking and impulsivity had indirect effects on alcohol-related outcomes via college-related alcohol beliefs, and college-related alcohol beliefs predicted both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We discuss the implications of our findings for global college student interventions as well as personality-targeted interventions. PMID:24589869

  20. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  1. Community Development Strategies To Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Alert, 1992

    1992-01-01

    How community-based groups are confronting and preventing alcohol and other drug problems and related crime in their communities is the focus of this publication. A wide range of approaches and strategies, used by 10 nonprofit, community-based organizations representative of urban and rural areas, are presented. Case studies describe two community…

  2. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This report is…

  3. The Effects of Boys & Girls Clubs on Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Related Problems in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schinke, Steven P.; And Others

    This comparative study evaluates the effects of Boys and Girls Clubs and related SMART Moves drug prevention programs on children and adolescents living in public housing and on the quality of life in public housing. The study involves 15 public housing developments in a representative sample of American cities and focuses on alcohol and other…

  4. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  5. Addressing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; Fischer, Jane; Nicholas, Roger; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Pidd, Ken; Trifonoff, Allan

    2015-09-01

    Social determinants, or the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live, work and age, can result in inequities in health and well-being. However, to-date little research has examined alcohol use and alcohol-related problems from an inequities and social determinants perspective. This study reviewed the evidence base regarding inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health outcomes in Australia and identified promising approaches for promoting health equity. Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity was used as an organizing schema. The review found that social determinants can strongly influence inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. In general, lower socioeconomic groups experience more harm than wealthier groups with the same level of alcohol consumption. While Australia has implemented numerous alcohol-related interventions and policies, most do not explicitly aim to reduce inequities, and some may inadvertently exacerbate existing inequities. Interventions with the greatest potential to decrease inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms include town planning, zoning and licensing to prevent disproportionate clustering of outlets in disadvantaged areas; interventions targeting licensed venues; and interventions targeting vulnerable populations. Interventions that may worsen inequities include national guidelines, technological interventions and public drinking bans. There is a need for further research into the best methods for reducing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:26420810

  6. Outcomes of Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Current Methods, Problems, and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Peter E.; Skinstad, Anne-Helene

    1987-01-01

    Discusses current methods, problems, and results of psychological treatment for alcohol abuse, including alcoholism. Addresses external and internal validity problems specific to issues regarding who is treated for alcohol problems, and treatment and patient factors that predict response to alcoholism treatment. Reviews current data on…

  7. Alcohol Use Problem Severity and Problem Behavior Engagement among School-Based Youths in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas-Neese, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2010-01-01

    This study created an alcohol use problem severity taxonomy and examined its association to engagement in other problem behaviors. Minnesota youths were categorized based on their frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence criteria. Greater alcohol use problem severity was generally associated with higher prevalence of…

  8. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  9. Dealing with Alcohol-related problems in the Night-Time Economy: A Study Protocol for Mapping trends in harm and stakeholder views surrounding local community level interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This project will provide a comprehensive investigation into the prevalence of alcohol-related harms and community attitudes in the context of community-based interventions being implemented to reduce harm in two regional centres of Australia. While considerable experimentation and innovation to address these harms has occurred in both Geelong and Newcastle, only limited ad-hoc documentation and analysis has been conducted on changes in the prevalence of harm as a consequence, leaving a considerable gap in terms of a systematic, evidence-based analysis of changes in harm over time and the need for further intervention. Similarly, little evidence has been reported regarding the views of key stakeholder groups, industry, government agencies, patrons or community regarding the need for, and the acceptability of, interventions to reduce harms. This project will aim to provide evidence regarding the impact and acceptability of local initiatives aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms. Methods/Design This study will gather existing police data (assault, property damage and drink driving offences), Emergency Department presentations and Ambulance attendance data. Further, the research team will conduct interviews with licensed venue patrons and collect observational data of licensed venues. Key informant interviews will assess expert knowledge from key industry and government stakeholders, and a community survey will assess community experiences and attitudes towards alcohol-related harm and harm-reduction strategies. Overall, the project will assess: the extent of alcohol-related harm in the context of harm-reduction interventions, and the need for and acceptability of further intervention. Discussion These findings will be used to improve evidence-based practice both nationally and internationally. Ethical Approval This project has been approved by Deakin University HREC. PMID:21682908

  10. Drinking to Excess: Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... disclaimer . Subscribe Drinking to Excess Recognize and Treat Alcohol Problems Some people enjoy an occasional glass of ... while watching a football game. Most people drink alcohol moderately, within their limits. Others overdo it occasionally. ...

  11. Treatment for Alcohol Problems: Finding and Getting Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... plans for individuals without health insurance. An Ongoing Process Overcoming an alcohol use disorder is an ongoing ... overcoming problem drinking. Relapse Is Part of the Process Relapse is common among people who overcome alcohol ...

  12. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Morleo, Michela; Tocque, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Allen, Tony; Harrison, Dominic; Fe-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence) and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence) health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271) using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they develop only moderate drinking

  13. Latent class analysis of alcohol treatment utilization patterns and 3-year alcohol related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion; Glass, Joseph E; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L

    2015-07-01

    People who obtain treatment for alcohol use problems often utilize multiple sources of help. While prior studies have classified treatment use patterns for alcohol use, an empirical classification of these patterns is lacking. For the current study, we created an empirically derived classification of treatment use and described how these classifications were prospectively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Our sample included 257 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who first received alcohol treatment in the 3-year period prior to their baseline interview. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of treatment users based on their patterns of treatment use of 13 types of alcohol treatment. Regression models examined how classes of treatment use at baseline were associated with alcohol-related outcomes assessed at a 3-year follow-up interview. Outcomes included a continuous measure of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder status. Four classes of treatment users were identified: (1) multiservice users (8.7%), (2) private professional service users (32.8%), (3) alcoholics anonymous (AA) paired with specialty addiction service users (22.0%), and (4) users of AA alone (36.5%). Those who utilized AA paired with specialty addiction services had better outcomes compared to those who used AA alone. In addition to elucidating the most common treatment utilization patterns executed by people seeking help for their alcohol problems, the results from this study suggest that increased efforts may be needed to refer individuals across sectors of care to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25744651

  14. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  15. Research Note: Patterns of Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Kim, Sang-Weon

    2006-01-01

    The level of alcohol consumption in Russia is among the highest in the world and is often associated with a variety of problems in the country. Until recently, however, it was impossible to examine the health and social burdens associated with consumption in Russia due to Soviet secrecy surrounding vital statistics and health data related to alcohol and other topics. This study employed newly available mortality data to describe the demographic, temporal, and spatial patterns of mortality resulting directly from chronic and acute alcohol consumption in the country. The data reveal that in spite of high overall rates of alcohol-related mortality in Russia, levels of mortality vary considerably along these dimensions. Although descriptive in nature, the patterns of alcohol-related mortality in Russia presented here should provide initial observations with which to generate and test hypotheses concerning the causes and consequences of these patterns. PMID:16900263

  16. Intergenerational Influences on Early Alcohol Use: Independence from the Problem Behavior Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; Capaldi, Deborah M.; Pears, Katherine C.; Owen, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct problems are a general risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. However, their role in relation to alcohol-specific risk pathways of intergenerational transmission of alcohol use is not well understood. Further, the roles of alcohol-specific contextual influences on children’s early alcohol use have been little examined. In a 20-year prospective, multimethod study of 83 fathers and their 125 children, we considered predictors of child alcohol use by age 13 years. Predictors included fathers’ adolescent antisocial behavior and alcohol use, both parents’ adult alcohol use, norms about and encouragement of child use, parental monitoring, child-reported exposure to intoxicated adults, and parent-reported child externalizing behaviors. Path models supported an association between fathers’ adolescent alcohol use and children’s use (β = .17) that was not better explained by concurrent indicators of fathers’ and children’s general problem behavior. Fathers’ and mothers’ adult alcohol use uniquely predicted child use, and exposure to intoxicated adults partially mediated the latter path. Other family risk mechanisms were not supported. However, parental alcohol use and child alcohol use were linked in expected ways with family contextual conditions known to set the stage for alcohol use problems later in adolescence. PMID:22781861

  17. [Drugs, a current problem. Alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol is a socially accepted drug which is commercialized in multiple products including wine, cognac, gin, beer, anisette, vermouth, rum, etc. and which can be consumed in small quantities without producing harmful effects on one's health; nonetheless, women are more susceptible to alcohol's damages and an abusive consumption of alcohol creates dependence and chronic diseases. Ten percent of those people who consume alcohol develop dependency and comprise the leading group of drug addicts in many countries. PMID:16493852

  18. Molecular Genetics of Alcohol Dependence and Related Endophenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Le Strat, Yann; Ramoz, Nicolas; Schumann, Gunter; Gorwood, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a worldwide public health problem, and involves both environmental and genetic vulnerability factors. The heritability of alcohol dependence is rather high, ranging between 50% and 60%, although alcohol dependence is a polygenic, complex disorder. Genome-wide scans on large cohorts of multiplex families, including the collaborative study on genetics of alcoholism (COGA), emphasized the role of many chromosome regions and some candidate genes. The genes encoding the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, or those involved in brain reward pathways, have been involved. Since dopamine is the main neurotransmitter in the reward circuit, genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway represent candidates of interest. Furthermore, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter mediates the acute actions of alcohol and is involved in withdrawal symptomatology. Numerous studies showed an association between variants within GABA receptors genes and the risk of alcohol dependence. In accordance with the complexity of the “alcohol dependence” phenotype, another field of research, related to the concept of endophenotypes, received more recent attention. The role of vulnerability genes in alcohol dependence is therefore re-assessed focusing on different phenotypes and endophenotypes. The latter include brain oscillations, EEG alpha and beta variants and alpha power, and amplitude of P300 amplitude elicited from a visual oddball task. Recent enhancement on global characterizations of the genome by high-throughput approach for genotyping of polymorphisms and studies of transcriptomics and proteomics in alcohol dependence is also reviewed. PMID:19506733

  19. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  20. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  1. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  2. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  3. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  4. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  5. Pathological Gambling and Related Problems among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Robert; Boudreault, Normand; Jacques, Christian; Vitaro, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among 3,426 students in junior and senior high schools in Quebec City. Results indicate that 77% have gambled in the last twelve months and 13% gamble at least once a week. Results also reveal that pathological gambling is associated with drug and alcohol use, poor grades, and…

  6. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  7. Dispositions to rash action moderate the associations between concurrent drinking, depressive symptoms, and alcohol problems during emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    King, Kevin M; Karyadi, Kenny A; Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A

    2011-09-01

    "Impulsivity" has been consistently identified as a key personality predictor of alcohol-related problems and subsequent alcohol use disorder. Multiple prior studies have demonstrated impulsivity is an individual difference factor that strengthens the effects of some risk factors, such as alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms, on alcohol problems. However, recent research indicated common measures of impulsivity actually reflect multiple dispositions toward rash action, and that alcohol problems were most consistently related to one of those dispositions, negative urgency. Little research has examined how specific dispositions to rash action may act as putative moderators of other risk factors for alcohol problems. The goal of the current study was to test which dispositions to rash action moderated the effects of concurrent alcohol use or depressive symptoms on alcohol problems. Using a large cross-sectional sample of college students (n = 573), the current study utilized semicontinuous regression models, which allow prediction of both the likelihood and level of alcohol problems. Negative urgency was found to be the main predictor of alcohol problems, above and beyond other dispositions to rash action, which replicates prior research. However, each of the other dispositions exhibited risk-enhancing effects on the relations between either depressive symptoms or alcohol use and concurrent alcohol problems. Specifically, lower levels of premeditation enhanced the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems, while lower perseverance and higher sensation seeking were related to more alcohol problems at higher levels of alcohol use. Results suggest that multiple dispositions to rash action were related to problematic alcohol use both directly and via their interaction with other risk factors. PMID:21553946

  8. Alcohol-Related Brain Damage in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Erdozain, Amaia M.; Morentin, Benito; Bedford, Lynn; King, Emma; Tooth, David; Brewer, Charlotte; Wayne, Declan; Johnson, Laura; Gerdes, Henry K.; Wigmore, Peter; Callado, Luis F.; Carter, Wayne G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intoxications evoke cumulative damage to tissues and organs. We examined prefrontal cortex (Brodmann’s area (BA) 9) from 20 human alcoholics and 20 age, gender, and postmortem delay matched control subjects. H & E staining and light microscopy of prefrontal cortex tissue revealed a reduction in the levels of cytoskeleton surrounding the nuclei of cortical and subcortical neurons, and a disruption of subcortical neuron patterning in alcoholic subjects. BA 9 tissue homogenisation and one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) proteomics of cytosolic proteins identified dramatic reductions in the protein levels of spectrin β II, and α- and β-tubulins in alcoholics, and these were validated and quantitated by Western blotting. We detected a significant increase in α-tubulin acetylation in alcoholics, a non-significant increase in isoaspartate protein damage, but a significant increase in protein isoaspartyl methyltransferase protein levels, the enzyme that triggers isoaspartate damage repair in vivo. There was also a significant reduction in proteasome activity in alcoholics. One dimensional PAGE of membrane-enriched fractions detected a reduction in β-spectrin protein levels, and a significant increase in transmembranous α3 (catalytic) subunit of the Na+,K+-ATPase in alcoholic subjects. However, control subjects retained stable oligomeric forms of α-subunit that were diminished in alcoholics. In alcoholics, significant loss of cytosolic α- and β-tubulins were also seen in caudate nucleus, hippocampus and cerebellum, but to different levels, indicative of brain regional susceptibility to alcohol-related damage. Collectively, these protein changes provide a molecular basis for some of the neuronal and behavioural abnormalities attributed to alcoholics. PMID:24699688

  9. Does drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the impulsivity-problematic alcohol use relation?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K; Blanchard, Brittany E; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    There is consistent evidence that impulsivity-like traits relate to problematic alcohol involvement; however, identifying mechanisms that account for this relation remains an important area of research. Drinking refusal self-efficacy (or a person's ability to resist alcohol; DRSE) has been shown to predict alcohol use among college students and may be a relevant mediator of the impulsivity-alcohol relation. The current study examined the indirect effect of various constructs related to impulsivity (i.e., urgency, sensation seeking, and deficits in conscientiousness) via several facets of DRSE (i.e., social pressure, opportunistic, and emotional relief) on alcohol-related problems among a large sample of college students (N=891). Overall, results indicated that certain DRSE facets were significant mediators of the relation between impulsivity-related constructs and alcohol problems. More specifically, emotional-relief DRSE was a mediator for the respective relations between urgency and deficits in conscientiousness and alcohol problems, whereas social-DRSE was a significant mediator of the respective relations between urgency and sensation seeking with alcohol problems. Results from this study suggest particular types of DRSE are important mediators of the relations between specific impulsivity constructs and alcohol-related problems. These findings support prevention and intervention efforts that seek to enhance drinking refusal self-efficacy skills of college students, particularly those high in certain personality features, in order to reduce alcohol-related problems among this population. PMID:26547044

  10. Parental problem drinking predicts implicit alcohol expectancy in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Belles, Stefan; Budde, Axel; Moesgen, Diana; Klein, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of parental problem drinking on implicit and explicit alcohol expectancy of adolescents and young adults (12-24 years). The study was conducted via the Internet, employing a between-subjects design. We measured alcohol expectancy by means of an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a self-report questionnaire. A short version of the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST) was used to measure alcohol-related parental problem behavior. Our results showed that increased CAST-scores were correlated with a stronger implicit association between the concepts alcohol and arousal. In contrast, no such relationship was observed between parental problem drinking and self-reported expectancy of alcohol arousal. These findings provide tentative evidence that an implicit cognitive processing bias is implicated in the intergenerational transmission of addictive behaviors. PMID:21802213

  11. Lack of Co-occurring Interpersonal Violence Emotionally-Related Difficulties, or Alcohol and Other-Drug Problems among African American Youth with Conduct Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Edward G.; Dale, Grady A., Jr.

    Case studies of African American youth with conduct disorder were examined in the context of a descriptive evaluation of co-occurring substance-related problems and mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to extend the findings of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study of the National Institute of Mental Health into the area of…

  12. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…

  13. Treating alcohol problems with couple therapy.

    PubMed

    McCrady, Barbara S

    2012-05-01

    Couple therapy for treating alcohol use disorders (AUDs) results in less drinking and greater relationship stability and satisfaction in both men and women with AUDs. The theoretical tenets, treatment methods, and research evidence for Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) are summarized. The application of ABCT is illustrated through the treatment of a 42-year-old woman with an AUD and her 56-year-old husband. During 12 sessions over a 6-month period, the woman attained abstinence from alcohol and learned cognitive and behavioral coping skills to deal with drinking antecedents. Her husband learned to support her abstinence by stopping drinking himself, helping her cope with drinking urges, and reinforcing her successes. The couple increased positive pleasurable activities that did not involve alcohol and improved their communication skills. Challenges in the treatment included her ambivalence about abstaining, their complicated work and travel schedules, and other life stressors. PMID:22504611

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  15. Environmental Predictors of Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Short, Brian; Wagenaar, Alexander; Toomey, Tracie; Murray, David; Wolfson, Mark; Forster, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among drinking norms, peer alcohol use, alcohol availability, drinking location, alcohol consumption, and drinking-related problems among young adult drinkers (N=3,095). Results show that drinking norms and peer alcohol use influenced alcohol consumption and drinking consequences. Drinking in public contributed to alcohol…

  16. Risky Alcohol Use, Peer and Family Relationships and Legal Involvement in Adolescents with Antisocial Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ybrandt, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD…

  17. Event related potentials in children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Naziel, B; Yavaş, G; Arikan, Z; Ozon, O; Aksoy Ozmenek, O; Irkeç, C

    2007-09-01

    Assessment of ERPs (Event Related Potentials) is a special area of interest in research on vulnerability to alcoholism in human subjects. ERP not only provide information about potential neurofunctional anomalies in healthy individuals, but also relate those neurofunctional characteristics to the cognitive process involved. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of chronic alcoholism and alcoholism risk on children of alcoholic fathers by using ERP parameters. 24 children of alcoholic fathers (9 boys, 15 girls) with a mean age of 18 +/- 3 (range: 15-25) and 17 control subjects (children of non-alcoholic fathers with out a family history of alcoholism) were included to the study. The age range was from 15 to 25 (mean: 21 +/- 3). N200 potential latency recorded from the parietal electrode position was significantly prolonged (p = 0.032) and amplitudes of P200 potential also recorded from the parietal region was significantly low (p = 0.043) relative to controls. However, the rest of the event-related potential parameters including P300 latency and amplitudes recorded from FZ, CZ, PZ electrode positions did not differ significantly from the children of non-alcoholic fathers. The difference in our results from the previous studies may be due to various factors. Genetic, gender, environmental, educational and social factors may have an overall effect on ERP and we believe these factors may be the cause of the differences seen in our study when compared to the previous ones. We believe the gender differences in our group may have had effected the overall results. Consecutive studies with more subject participation are needed to confirm and settle this issue. PMID:17918508

  18. College Women and Alcohol: A Relational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Nancy A.

    1994-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to college women's drinking. For women, drinking is often a way of making friends and establishing intimate relationships. Peer influence is a strong persuader. College women who are careless in using alcohol may encounter additional problems like increased stress, depression, and sexual dysfunction. (SM)

  19. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  20. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: Possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Radtke, Spenser R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work suggests there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and one associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using BOLD fMRI in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: 1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or 2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of a DSM-IV diagnosed AUD at the time of neuroimaging, but also subsequent problem drinking reported three months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  1. Divergent responses of the amygdala and ventral striatum predict stress-related problem drinking in young adults: possible differential markers of affective and impulsive pathways of risk for alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Y S; Knodt, A R; Radtke, S R; Hariri, A R

    2016-03-01

    Prior work suggests that there may be two distinct pathways of alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk: one associated with positive emotion enhancement and behavioral impulsivity, and another associated with negative emotion relief and coping. We sought to map these two pathways onto individual differences in neural reward and threat processing assessed using blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 759 undergraduate students (426 women, mean age 19.65±1.24 years) participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We demonstrate that problem drinking is highest in the context of stress and in those with one of two distinct neural phenotypes: (1) a combination of relatively low reward-related activity of the ventral striatum (VS) and high threat-related reactivity of the amygdala; or (2) a combination of relatively high VS activity and low amygdala reactivity. In addition, we demonstrate that the relationship between stress and problem alcohol use is mediated by impulsivity, as reflected in monetary delay discounting rates, for those with high VS-low amygdala reactivity, and by anxious/depressive symptomatology for those with the opposite neural risk phenotype. Across both neural phenotypes, we found that greater divergence between VS and amygdala reactivity predicted greater risk for problem drinking. Finally, for those individuals with the low VS-high amygdala risk phenotype we found that stress not only predicted the presence of AUD diagnosis at the time of neuroimaging but also subsequent problem drinking reported 3 months following study completion. These results offer new insight into the neural basis of AUD risk and suggest novel biological targets for early individualized treatment or prevention. PMID:26122584

  2. [The patient with an alcohol abuse problem family doctor practice].

    PubMed

    Szponar, Jarosław; Kuźniar-Placek, Justyna; Panasiuk, Lech

    2012-01-01

    Doctors of many specialties, including the family doctors, encounter the problems of alcohol abuse in their patients. Due to the fact that many symptoms of dangerous diseases can be masked by the fact of alcoholism, a brief doctor's visit has to be conducted with watchfulness, caution and care. Family doctors have some brief testes (such as CAGE test, AUDIT test), besides of precise anamnesis and blood chemistry, which make it easier to identify a patient with an alcohol problem. People with disabilities are more exposed to alcohol abuse since they often experience additional factors such as unemployment, social isolation and homelessness. All of the above factors foster the more frequent alcohol usage. In Poland the main treatment method of alcohol addiction is psychotherapy practiced in the rehab centers. The detoxification treatment is voluntary and free of charge even though the patients checking into those facilities are doing it against their will. They are forced to do so by entourage, family, spouse or risk of unemployment. Acamprozate is considered as a drug, run to extend abstaining from alcohol. In the past, therapy with disulfiram substance was common, but now, it is considered as unethical behaviour. In practice of medicine, a patient with alcohol addiction creates not onlya medical but also legal problems. Therefore keeping of detailed medical documentation is very important as it may become significant evidence in the future. PMID:23243928

  3. Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamanna, Michael

    1982-01-01

    Discusses background and nature of alcohol-related birth defects. Describes a continuum of impairment to offspring of drinking mothers that is dose-related and produces serious behavioral/learning deficits. The continuum includes young people of normal intelligence who perform below expected levels and find school adjustment difficult. Offers…

  4. Regulating Availability: How Access to Alcohol Affects Drinking and Problems in Youth and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Regulations on the availability of alcohol have been used to moderate alcohol problems in communities throughout the world for thousands of years. In the latter half of the 20th century, quantitative studies of the effects of these regulations on drinking and related problems began in earnest as public health practitioners began to recognize the full extent of the harmful consequences related to drinking. This article briefly outlines the history of this work over four areas, focusing on the minimum legal drinking age, the privatization of alcohol control systems, outlet densities, and hours and days of sale. Some historical background is provided to emphasize the theoretical and empirical roots of this work and to highlight the substantial progress that has been made in each area. In general, this assessment suggests that higher minimum legal drinking ages, greater monopoly controls over alcohol sales, lower outlet numbers and reduced outlet densities, and limited hours and days of sale can effectively reduce alcohol sales, use, and problems. There are, however, substantial gaps in the research literature and a near absence of the quantitative theoretical work needed to direct alcohol-control efforts. Local community responses to alcohol policies are complex and heterogeneous, sometimes reinforcing and sometimes mitigating the effects of availability regulations. Quantitative models of policy effects are essential to accelerate progress toward the formulation and testing of optimal control strategies for the reduction of alcohol problems. PMID:22330225

  5. Description of a Behavioral Intervention to Reduce Substance Use and Related Risk and Increase Positive Parenting among Urban Mothers with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Arredondo, Gricel N.; Riedel, Marion; Rotko, Lauren; Hardcastle, Emily J.; Potere, Jodi C.

    2007-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol and other substances by mothers raising adolescent children has serious adverse effects on family functioning and youth outcomes, and on mothers' own health and adaptation. Mothers who are also HIV-infected face additional challenges. In the present report, we describe a multi-session intervention conducted in individual…

  6. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  7. Role of impulsivity in the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Reynolds, Brady; Skewes, Monica C

    2011-08-01

    Depression is common among college students and higher levels of depression are associated with greater alcohol-related problems. However, depression is frequently not found to be directly associated with more alcohol use. This study examined whether various aspects of impulsivity (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, sensation seeking, and delay discounting) and drinking to cope with negative affect help to account for the relationship between depression and alcohol problems among emerging adult college drinkers who reported at least a minimal level of depressive symptoms. In this cross-sectional study, 143 emerging adult (between 18 and 25 years old) female (69.9%, n = 100) and male (30.1%, n = 43) college drinkers with at least minimal depressive symptoms completed measures of depression, alcohol use and problems, drinking to cope, and impulsivity. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that only negative urgency and drinking to cope partially mediated the depression-alcohol problems relationship. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that impulsivity-related constructs did not significantly interact with drinking to cope to increase alcohol problems. It appears that alcohol use is particularly problematic for students with elevated depression, and this is partly attributable to depression's association with negative urgency, in addition to its association with drinking to cope. Our findings suggest that students who suffer from depression may engage in problematic drinking behavior in part because negative affect is detrimental to their short-term impulse control and decision making, independent of maladaptive attempts to regulate affect through drinking to cope. PMID:21480733

  8. Symptomatic Correlates of Alcohol Abuse as a Presenting Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaturo, Douglas J.; LeSure, Kenneth B.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of self-reported symptoms of psychopathology to self-reported alcohol abuse. Participants (N=72) completed a questionnaire. Findings identified several psychopathological areas related to alcohol abuse: social skill deficits, anxiety, addiction proneness, impulse discontrol, and self-destructive ideation. These results…

  9. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  10. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  11. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  12. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  13. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  14. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  15. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  16. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  17. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  18. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  19. 49 CFR 655.35 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 655.35 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.35 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No employer shall permit...

  20. Workforce Disengagement Stressors and Retiree Alcohol Misuse: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Problems and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    PubMed Central

    Belogolovsky, Elena; Bamberger, Peter; Bacharach, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We generate and test a moderated mediation model of the effects of two retirement-related stressors (namely, financial and marital) on the severity of alcohol misuse among retirees. We posit that in addition to using alcohol to cope with stressors in retirement, alcohol may also be used to self-medicate the secondary, sleep-related effects of such stressors, and that gender serves as a key boundary condition, moderating the impact of such stressors on sleep-related problems, and of sleep-related problems on alcohol misuse. Using longitudinal data collected from a sample of 292 retirees, our findings generally support this model, suggesting that both stressors are associated with the severity of alcohol misuse among male retirees. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that -- for male retirees -- the effect of both stressors on the severity of alcohol misuse is to a large extent secondary to the stressors themselves, mediated by the sleep-related problems they may generate. PMID:24532849

  1. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  2. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  3. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  4. Heavy Alcohol Use Compared to Alcohol and Marijuana Use: Do College Students Experience a Difference in Substance Use Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Clapp, John D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the risk for alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems resulting from alcohol plus marijuana use compared to alcohol-only use. Data are from telephone interviews with 1113 randomly selected college students attending two large urban universities in the southwestern United States. Alcohol and marijuana users (dual users) were more…

  5. The Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI): A Comparison of Cut-Points in First Nations Mi'kmaq and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents in Rural Nova Scotia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melanie; O'Connor, Roisin M.; Boudreau, Brock; Mushquash, Christopher J.; Comeau, M. Nancy; Stevens, Doreen; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2010-01-01

    Important to the assessment of adolescent alcohol misuse is examination of alcohol-related problems. However, most measurement tools have only been validated among Euro-American cultures. The present study assessed the ability of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI) to identify problem drinkers among groups of First Nations Mi'kmaq and…

  6. Alcohol-related harm among university students in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Giang, Kim Bao; De Vries, Nanne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Aim This study examines the prevalence of and risk factors for alcohol-related harm and types of harm among medical students from Hanoi Medical University (Vietnam). Risk factors include aspects of drinking patterns and relevant socio-demographic variables. Study Design and Methods A cross-sectional study involving 1st to 6th year students (N=1216; response rate 96.5%). Of these, 210 students from each academic year were randomly selected from a sampling frame covering all students from each academic year. Data were collected using a questionnaire distributed in class by researchers. Drinkers completed 23 questions on alcohol-related harm categorized into: 1) ‘negative influence on daily activities’; 2) ‘social conflict’; 3) ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’; 4) ‘mental health conditions’; and 5) ‘physical and medical health problems’. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to identify the predictors of alcohol-related harm and the amount of harm, respectively. Results The prevalence of alcohol use associated with at least one or more of the five types of harm was higher in men (81.8%) than in women (60.4%). In female and male students, the most common harm category was ‘loss of control, acute consequences, and withdrawal’ (51.8 and 75.6%, respectively), followed by ‘negative influence on daily activities’ (29.4 and 55.8%, respectively). Age, living away from home, and average number of standard drinks per occasion among male drinkers, and age and frequency of drinking per week among female drinkers were associated with alcohol-related harm. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol-related harm represents a serious public health problem among young educated individuals in Vietnam. The risk factors indicate that prevention should be aimed at aspects of drinking patterns and specific subpopulations defined by gender, age, and (for men only) type of living situation. PMID:23374703

  7. The Role of Alcohol Perceptions as Mediators Between Personality and Alcohol-Related Outcomes Among Incoming College-Student Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, John T. P.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    After high school, college students escalate their drinking at a faster rate than their noncollege-attending peers, and alcohol use in high school is one of the strongest predictors of alcohol use in college. Therefore, an improved understanding of the role of predictors of alcohol use during the critical developmental period when individuals transition to college has direct clinical implications to reduce alcohol-related harms. We used path analysis in the present study to examine the predictive effects of personality (e.g., impulsivity, sensation seeking, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) and three measures of alcohol perception: descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and perceptions regarding the perceived role of drinking in college on alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 490 incoming freshmen college students. Results indicated that descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking largely mediated the effects of personality on alcohol outcomes. In contrast, both impulsivity and hopelessness exhibited direct effects on alcohol-related problems. The perceived role of drinking was a particularly robust predictor of outcomes and mediator of the effects of personality traits, including sensation seeking and impulsivity on alcohol outcomes. The intertwined relationships observed in this study between personality factors, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, and the role of drinking highlight the importance of investigating these predictors simultaneously. Findings support the implementation of interventions that target these specific perceptions about the role of drinking in college. PMID:24467197

  8. Mapping the continuum of alcohol problems in college students: a Rasch model analysis.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Strong, David R; Read, Jennifer P; Palfai, Tibor P; Wood, Mark D

    2004-12-01

    The authors conducted Rasch model (G. Rasch, 1960) analyses of items from the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST; S. C. Hurlbut & K. J. Sher, 1992) to examine the relative severity and ordering of alcohol problems in 806 college students. Items appeared to measure a single dimension of alcohol problem severity, covering a broad range of the latent continuum. Items fit the Rasch model well, with less severe symptoms reliably preceding more severe symptoms in a potential progression toward increasing levels of problem severity. However, certain items did not index problem severity consistently across demographic subgroups. A shortened, alternative version of the YAAPST is proposed, and a norm table is provided that allows for a linking of total YAAPST scores to expected symptom expression. PMID:15631604

  9. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  10. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to...

  11. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  12. Quetiapine may reduce hospital admission rates in patients with mental health problems and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Kong, C; Chiu, W; Davies, A; Keating, J

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with 40 years history of chronic alcohol excess. On average, he had six hospital admissions a year with alcohol-related problems for at least a 10-year period. In 2009, he considered reducing his alcohol intake. He was noted to have mood disturbances, was seen by a psychogeriatrician who diagnosed bipolar disorder. He tried various bipolar medications including lithium and sodium valproate which was unsuccessful. He was then started on quetiapine 600 mg a day in divided doses. Subsequently this has not only controlled the bipolar disorder but also resulted in significant reduction in alcohol intake. He now shares a bottle of wine with his wife while in the past he was consuming a bottle of scotch daily. This case illustrates the benefits of quetiapine in assisting with this man's addiction to alcohol. PMID:23925678

  13. A Profile of Clients Entering Treatment for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkbiner, Richard

    Large numbers of clients entering publicly-funded substance abuse treatment facilities cite problems with alcohol as one reason for seeking treatment. This report presents the results of a secondary analysis of the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) data set. It profiles the treatment experiences of three study groups that…

  14. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  15. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  16. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  17. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  18. 49 CFR 382.505 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 382.505 Section 382... SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Consequences for Drivers Engaging in Substance Use-Related Conduct § 382.505 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No driver tested under the provisions of subpart C of...

  19. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  20. Levels and types of alcohol biomarkers in DUI and clinic samples for estimating workplace alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827

  1. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N = 40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counterbalanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or "loss of control" drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual's control over ongoing alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134023

  2. Treatment of older women with alcohol problems: meeting the challenge for a special population.

    PubMed

    Blow, F C

    2000-08-01

    As a larger proportion of the U.S. population reaches late life, there are new challenges to providing quality health care services for this group. Record numbers of adults over 60 are seeking health care for acute and chronic conditions. Older women represent the largest single group of health care users in this country. Twelve percent of older women regularly drink in excess of recommended guidelines (no more than one drink per day or seven drinks per week) and can be considered at-risk drinkers. Problems related to alcohol use and misuse can seriously affect many of the health concerns common among older women, including chronic illnesses and depression. Older women have specific risks and vulnerabilities to alcohol use, which include a swifter progression to alcohol-related illness. However, women in later life who have alcohol problems are underscreened and underdiagnosed, have significant barriers in accessing health care, and respond differentially to standard specialized treatment protocols. To date, research on these topics has been limited. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research focused on treatment outcomes for elderly adults with alcohol problems, with almost no emphasis on women. This paper presents the state of knowledge about alcohol health services for older women and provides recommendations for necessary future health services research on this vulnerable population. PMID:10968666

  3. Normative perceptions of alcohol-related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-07-01

    College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. PMID:26896561

  4. Is my drinking a problem? A community-based alcohol intervention programme post-Haiyan in Tacloban City

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Adam Edward; Fabrigas, Gloria; Hall, Julie Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Problem Evidence on alcohol use following disasters is scarce. After Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines we wanted to determine whether there were alcohol-related problems among the disaster survivors and to strengthen the appropriate local health service support in Tacloban City. Context Tacloban City is a highly urbanized city that was one of the areas worst hit by Typhoon Haiyan. Prior to Haiyan there was very little support for people with alcohol problems, and the rehabilitation facility was located about 40 km away. Action A pilot community-based alcohol intervention programme was conducted that included: assessment of the extent of alcohol problems in the community and health-care workers baseline knowledge and skills; training of health-care workers on primary care alcohol intervention provision; and community outreach with post-training supervision. Outcome The alcohol screening found 26 (22%) of those attending health care facilities would benefit from some form of alcohol intervention. Health-care workers knowledge on basic alcohol intervention was low. This was strengthened during the training, and at outreach clinics the trained health-care workers were able to identify people with alcohol problems and provide them with treatment plans. Lessons learnt We learnt that there was a problem with alcohol in Tacloban City and that it was possible to run an alcohol intervention programme in the community using minimal resources. Addressing alcohol-related issues in the community is an important public health intervention. While there is a need for policies and guidelines at the national level, a community-based intervention is possible to establish with referral mechanism to specialized care. Training modules for such programs can be further developed and institutionalized. PMID:26767145

  5. The influence of individualism and drinking identity on alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Dawn W.; Yeung, Nelson; Quist, Michelle C.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the interactive association between individualism and drinking identity predicting alcohol use and problems. Seven hundred and ten undergraduates (Mean age =22.84, SD = 5.31, 83.1% female) completed study materials. We expected that drinking identity and individualism would positively correlate with drinking variables. We further expected that individualism would moderate the association between drinking identity and drinking such that the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol outcomes would be positively associated, particularly among those high in individualism. Our findings supported our hypotheses. These findings better explain the relationship between drinking identity, individualism, and alcohol use. Furthermore, this research encourages the consideration of individual factors and personality characteristics in order to develop culturally tailored materials to maximize intervention efficacy across cultures. PMID:25525420

  6. [Problems occurring in the application of cytogenetic biomarkers for alcoholics with and without malignant diseases].

    PubMed

    Gundy, Sarolta; Székely, Gábor; Farkas, Gyöngyi; Pulay, Attila; Remenár, Eva

    2008-06-01

    Applicability of alcohol- and smoking-related cancer-risk biomarkers might be modified by several factors. Among those, reality of self-reports on alcohol consumption of alcoholic patients with different diseases and extreme high mutagen hypersensitivity of Hungarians, as well as the immunologic role of peripheral lymphocytes as experimental objects of cytogenetic biomarkers seem to be new viewpoints of interest. To clarify these problems, 432 head and neck cancer patients (HNCP), 62 alcoholics with alcoholic hepatitis (ALCL), and 101 disease-free chronic alcoholics (ALC) were examined. Despite clinically confirmed alcohol-related diagnoses (and GGT and MCV values) only about half of HNCPs and ALCLs reported about any alcohol consumption, in contrast to the realistic self-reports of ALCs. In cytogenetic case control investigations no difference between the spontaneous rate of chromosomal aberrations (CAs) of healthy controls and ALCs was found, however, genetic instability expressed as a 40-50% elevation rate of CAs in HNCPs and ALCLs might be associated with systemic inflammatory reaction of lymphocytes. Bleomycin sensitivity assay showed the highest break/cell (b/c) values not in HNCPs (1.06 b/c) as it was reported earlier, but in "healthy" ALCs (1.52 b/c). This phenomenon can be related to the local effect of genotoxins (alcohol, smoking, and in particular the diet), which probably reflects merely a reaction of mucosal immune system. Nearly 50% of mutagen-hypersensitive Hungarian controls, in contrary to the expected 10-20% ones, might also be explained by this. Similarly, HNCPs with oral cancer, where the local mutagen effect was the most intensive, had the highest b/c values. In conclusion, when cytogenetic biomarkers of alcoholism are examined, the subjective character of self-reports at epidemiologic level and immunologic role of lymphocyte subpopulations as genetic confounders must also be taken into consideration. PMID:18640891

  7. Missouri Curriculum Guide for Alcohol-Related Traffic Offenders' Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Don; McClain, Robert

    This document contains the second edition of the Alcohol or Drug Related Traffic Offenders' Program (ARTOP) curriculum guide developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to reduce alcohol-related traffic offenses by presenting factual information about the physical effects of alcohol on the body and on driving skills. The materials…

  8. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  9. Explicit and Implicit Positive Alcohol Expectancies in Problem and Non-Problem Drinkers: Differences Across Age Groups from Young Adolescence to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vilenne, Aurélie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Recent studies with animal models showed that the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol change during the adolescent period. In humans, the stimulant effects of ethanol are most often indirectly recorded through the measurement of explicit and implicit alcohol effect expectancies. However, it is unknown how such implicit and explicit expectancies evolve with age in humans during adolescence. Methods: Adolescent (13–16 year old), young adult (17–18 year old), and adult (35–55 year old) participants were recruited. On the basis of their score on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), they were classified as non-problem (AUDIT ≤ 7) or problem (AUDIT ≥ 11) drinkers. The participants completed the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and performed two unipolar Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess implicit associations between alcohol and the concepts of “stimulation” and “sedation”. Results: Problem drinkers from the three age groups reported significantly higher positive alcohol expectancies than non-problem drinkers on all AEQ subscales. Positive alcohol explicit expectancies also gradually decreased with age, with adolescent problem drinkers reporting especially high positive expectancies. This effect was statistically significant for all positive expectancies, with the exception of relaxation expectancies that were only close to statistical significance. In contrast, stimulation and sedation alcohol implicit associations were not significantly different between problem and non-problem drinkers and did not change with age. Conclusion: These results indicate that explicit positive alcohol effect expectancies predict current alcohol consumption levels, especially in adolescents. Positive alcohol expectancies also gradually decrease with age in the three cross-sectional groups of adolescents, young adults, and adults. This effect might be related to changes in the physiological response to alcohol. PMID:26635680

  10. Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm: A Population-Based Study of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). The NCS-R is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample. Data was obtained by face-to-face interviews from 9282 adults aged ≥18 years in the full sample, and 5,692 respondents in a subsample of the full sample. Results presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Alcohol drinking patterns (frequency of drinking, and drinks per occasion) were associated with increased risks of self-reported ARH; binge or “risky” drinking was strongly predictive of ARH than other categories of drinks per occasion or frequency of drinking; and men had significantly higher likelihood of ARH in relation to frequency of drinking and drinks per occasion. Findings provide evidence for public health practitioners to target alcohol prevention strategies at the entire population of drinkers. PMID:25057502

  11. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  12. Susceptibility to alcohol-related liver injury.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1994-01-01

    Alcohol affects the liver through metabolic disturbances associated with its oxidation. Redox changes produced by the hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase pathway affect lipid, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. Ethanol is also oxidized in liver microsomes by the ethanol-inducible cytochrome P4502E1, resulting in ethanol tolerance and selective hepatic perivenular damage. Furthermore, P4502E1 activates various xenobiotics, explaining the increased susceptibility of the heavy drinker to the toxicity of anesthetics, commonly used medications (i.e. isoniazid), analgesics (i.e. acetaminophen), and chemical carcinogens. Induction of microsomal enzymes also contributes to vitamin A depletion, enhances its hepatotoxicity and results in increased acetaldehyde generation from ethanol, with formation of protein adducts, glutathione depletion, free-radical-mediated toxicity, and lipid peroxidation. Chronic ethanol consumption strikingly enhances the number of hepatic collagen-producing activated lipocytes. Both in vivo (in our baboon model of alcoholic cirrhosis) and in vitro (in cultured myofibroblasts and activated lipocytes) ethanol and/or its metabolite acetaldehyde increase collagen accumulation and mRNA for collagen. Gender differences are related, in part, to lower gastric ADH activity (with consequent reduction of first pass ethanol metabolism) in young women, decreased hepatic fatty acid binding protein and increased free-fatty acid levels as well as lesser omega-hydroxylation, all of which result in increased vulnerability to ethanol. Elucidation of the biochemical effects of ethanol are now resulting in improved therapy: in baboons, S-adenosyl-L-methionine attenuates the ethanol-induced glutathione depletion and associated mitochondrial lesions, and polyenylphosphatidylcholine opposes the ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, the decrease in phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and the activation of hepatic lipocytes, with full prevention of

  13. Military sexual trauma, combat exposure, and negative urgency as independent predictors of PTSD and subsequent alcohol problems among OEF/OIF veterans.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-01

    This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:26524279

  14. Disorganization of Attachment in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; And Others

    The relation between maternal alcohol consumption and infant attachment behavior at one year of age was investigated in this study. Alcohol consumption was estimated by self-report questionnaires filled out by mothers who were over 30 years of age. The questionnaire elicited information about the amount of alcohol mothers consumed prior to,…

  15. Alcohol-related Cues Promote Automatic Racial Bias.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Elena V; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott; Friedman, Ronald S

    2012-07-01

    Previous research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase the expression of race bias by impairing control-related processes. The current study tested whether simple exposure to alcohol-related images can also increase bias, but via a different mechanism. Participants viewed magazine ads for either alcoholic or nonalcoholic beverages prior to completing Payne's (2001) Weapons Identification Task (WIT). As predicted, participants primed with alcohol ads exhibited greater race bias in the WIT than participants primed with neutral beverages. Process dissociation analyses indicated that these effects were due to automatic (relative to controlled) processes having a larger influence on behavior among alcohol-primed relative to neutral-primed participants. Structural equation modeling further showed that the alcohol-priming effect was mediated by increases in the influence of automatic associations on behavior. These data suggest an additional pathway by which alcohol can potentially harm inter-racial interactions, even when no beverage is consumed. PMID:22798699

  16. The Role of State, Community, and Institutional Policy in the Prevention of College Alcohol Problems. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Laurie; DeJong, Christene

    2004-01-01

    The most widespread health and safety problem on college and university campuses in the United States today is high-risk alcohol use and related consequences. The heavy, episodic use of alcohol that 44 percent of college students engage in results in a myriad of consequences for both drinkers and nondrinkers, ranging from disturbed study and…

  17. Web-based treatment of alcohol problems among rural women.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah; Madsen, Richard

    2008-09-01

    It is estimated that 6 million women in the United States misuse alcohol. Of that number, many live in rural areas and face numerous barriers to treatment. The World Wide Web has the potential to help such individuals overcome these barriers. In light of emergent findings supporting the effectiveness of online alcohol treatment services for women, a randomized pilot study was conducted to evaluate a Web-based, self-guided alcohol treatment program. Eligible women were randomized to standard care or an online treatment program. Web-based treatment components included gender-specific reference modules and decision making modules, an asynchronous bulletin board, and a synchronous chat feature. The average age of the participants (N = 44) was 50 (SD = 11 years), and their baseline Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score was 18 (SD = 6), with 8 being the cut-off score for problem drinking. At 3-month follow up, both treatment groups decreased their drinking; however, no significant differences were found between them. PMID:18823000

  18. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  19. Alcohol-related advertisements in a college newspaper.

    PubMed

    Walfish, S; Stenmark, D E; Wentz, D; Myers, C; Linares, D

    1981-07-01

    The college newspaper is a powerful socializing force on the university campus. Within the general context of a university-based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Project, the present investigation examined alcohol related advertising in a college newspaper at one southern university. Ads were categorized into those: (1) promoting the responsible use of alcohol, (2) promoting the irresponsible use of alcohol, and (3) having a neutral content. Results indicated that a great deal of alcohol-related advertising was presented in this publication, and the majority of advertising did not promote responsible use of the beverage. The potential role of the community-oriented professional as an intervention strategist is discussed. PMID:7327776

  20. What You Should Know about Alcohol Problems. Substance Abuse in Brief, April 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse in Brief, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol use is legal for persons age 21 and older, and the majority of people who drink do so without incident. However, there is a continuum of potential problems associated with alcohol consumption. This brief addresses the definition of an "alcohol problem" and problems associated with "risky drinking." It also addresses the diagnoses of…

  1. The motive to drink due to social anxiety and its relation to hazardous alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Cludius, Barbara; Stevens, Stephan; Bantin, Trisha; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hermann, Christiane

    2013-09-01

    Although studies on social anxiety and alcohol-related problems are numerous, the exact nature of the relationship remains unclear. In the present study, we investigate how the motive to drink due to social anxiety is associated with hazardous alcohol use over and above habitual alcohol use, social anxiety, and alcohol outcome expectancies. We also examine which factors define the motive to drink due to social anxiety and clarify the impact of the type of social situation. Drinking due to social anxiety, habitual alcohol use, and gender, but not social anxiety, were associated with hazardous alcohol use. Social anxiety increased the motive to drink due to social anxiety, but fear of cognitive performance deficits after drinking reduced it. Alcohol was used to reduce anxiety more frequently in situations where intake of alcohol is deemed socially acceptable. These findings suggest that the motive drinking due to social anxiety, not social anxiety per se, is related to hazardous alcohol use. The motive is weakened by the expectation of alcohol-induced cognitive deficits, as well as by the type of social situation in which alcohol is to be used. PMID:23586457

  2. Longitudinal Associations of Alcohol Involvement with Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence and Prediction to Alcohol Problems in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Spoth, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol involvement is associated with numerous negative outcomes, but also appears to have positive correlates, including subjective well-being. Additional research is needed to understand these paradoxical findings. The current study examines alcohol use, adverse alcohol-related (and other substance-related) consequences, and…

  3. Making the transition from high school to college: the role of alcohol-related social influence factors in students' drinking.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P; Wood, Mark D; Davidoff, Orion J; McLacken, Julie; Campbell, James F

    2002-03-01

    Using a sample of entering college freshmen (N = 311), the purposes of this study were to examine 1). whether perceived norms for college student alcohol use and problems differed by gender and level of intended Greek involvement (Greek intent); 2). associations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems; and 3). whether relations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems were moderated by gender. Results revealed no differences in levels of perceived norms for alcohol use and problems as a function of gender or intention to affiliate with a Greek letter organization. Perceived norms demonstrated consistent, significant associations with both alcohol use and problems, while Greek intent demonstrated significant associations only with alcohol problems. Examination of gender effects in associations between perceived norms, Greek intent, and alcohol use and problems revealed a number of differences in these relations. Specifically, Greek intent was significantly associated with measures of alcohol use and problems for men, but not for women. Likewise, the association between perceived norms and alcohol use and problems were significant for men, but not for women. Finally, although perceived norms were a significant predictor of heavy drinking for both men and women, the association was much stronger among male students. These findings suggest that alcohol prevention interventions may benefit from specifically targeting perceived norms among incoming students who are at highest risk (i.e., male pledges). PMID:12444360

  4. Alcohol-Related Content of Animated Cartoons: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Hugh; Shiffman, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    This study, based on a stratified (by decade of production) random sample of 1,221 animated cartoons and 4,201 characters appearing in those cartoons, seeks to determine the prevalence of alcohol-related content; how, if at all, the prevalence changed between 1930 and 1996 (the years spanned by this research); and the types of messages that animated cartoons convey about beverage alcohol and drinking in terms of the characteristics that are associated with alcohol use, the contexts in which alcohol is used in cartoons, and the reasons why cartoon characters purportedly consume alcohol. Approximately 1 cartoon in 11 was found to contain alcohol-related content, indicating that the average child or adolescent viewer is exposed to approximately 24 alcohol-related messages each week just from the cartoons that he/she watches. Data indicated that the prevalence of alcohol-related content declined significantly over the years. Quite often, alcohol consumption was shown to result in no effects whatsoever for the drinker, and alcohol use often occurred when characters were alone. Overall, mixed, ambivalent messages were provided about drinking and the types of characters that did/not consume alcoholic beverages. PMID:24350176

  5. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  6. Using autopsy brain tissue to study alcohol-related brain damage in the genomic age

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2013-01-01

    The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre (NSW TRC) at the University of Sydney, Australia is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain disease (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951–61) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539–52). PMID:24033426

  7. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, parental bonds, depression, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2007-09-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), parental bond (positive, negative), depression, alcohol use and abuse were tested. A 2-group, multiple-indicator, multiple-cause structural equation model with 441 (216 female, 225 male) college students was examined. In general, a poor parental bond with one's father was highly predictive of depression, a well-known predictor of alcohol abuse and related problems for both genders. In contrast, a positive parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the positive effects of authoritative fathering on depression, which then decreased alcohol use problems for both genders. For women, a negative parental bond with one's father significantly mediated the effect of having an authoritarian father on depression, which increased alcohol use problems. These findings suggest that parental influences on pathways to alcohol abuse through depression (primarily through fathers for both genders) are distinct from pathways stemming from poor impulse control (with influences primarily from the same-sex parents for both genders). PMID:17874880

  8. Problem gambling subtypes based on psychological distress, alcohol abuse and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Suomi, Aino; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C

    2014-12-01

    The notion of comorbidities within problem gambling populations has important clinical implications, particularly for appropriate treatment matching. The comorbidities most commonly cited in problem gambling literature include depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse and impulsivity. Previous research shows evidence of patterns in multiple co-occurring comorbidities and that there may be different subtypes of gamblers based on these patterns. To further the current understanding of gambling subtypes, the aim of our study was to identify subtypes of gamblers currently in treatment. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis yielded four mutually exclusive groups of 202 gamblers: (1) gamblers with comorbid psychological problems (35%); (2) 'pure' gamblers without other comorbidities (27%); (3) gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse (25%); and (4) 'multimorbid' gamblers (13%). The four groups differed on demographic information, drug use and gambling behaviours including gambling activity and problem gambling severity. Gamblers with comorbid psychological problems were more likely to be older women on low income, more likely to report a family history of psychological problems and were more often electronic gaming machine players. As expected, 'pure' gamblers had lower problem gambling severity and were more likely to report current abstinence. Gamblers with comorbid alcohol abuse were more likely to be young men who used stimulant drugs, endorsed a higher quality of life and worked full-time. 'Multimorbid' gamblers were elevated on all comorbidities, had general problems related to their health and wellbeing and reported high rates of hostility and aggression. These groups combine elements of existing conceptual models of gambling subtypes and may require different treatments. PMID:25119420

  9. Receptivity to and Recall of Alcohol Brand Appearances in U.S. Popular Music and Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and

  10. Policing Alcohol and Related Crimes on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Andrea N.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that college students drink alcohol frequently and heavily. This can compromise their health and well-being. Student drinking is also tied to crime. While prior work explores the nature and extent of crimes involving alcohol on campus, to date no study has examined how police handle these incidents or crime generally. This study…

  11. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  12. Alcohol-related dementia: an update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Ridley, Nicole J; Draper, Brian; Withall, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least

  13. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  14. Association Between Alcohol-Impaired Driving Enforcement-Related Strategies and Alcohol-Impaired Driving

    PubMed Central

    Sanem, Julia R.; Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  15. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  16. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  17. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  18. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group. PMID:26827614

  19. Family Supports for Children Who Have Alcohol-Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…

  20. 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem

    MedlinePlus

    ... May 28, 2013 64 Percent of Asian and Pacific Islander Treatment Admissions Name Alcohol as Their Problem ... in the United States. 1 When Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) go to treatment, alcohol is their ...

  1. Macrophages and Alcohol-Related Liver Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Cynthia; Mandrekar, Pranoti

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that macrophages have a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced inflammation in the liver. To define the precise pathogenic function of these cells during alcoholic liver disease (ALD), it is extremely important to conduct extensive studies in clinical settings that further elucidate the phenotypic diversity of macrophages in the context of ALD. Research to date already has identified several characteristics of macrophages that underlie the cells’ actions, including macrophage polarization and their phenotypic diversity. Other analyses have focused on the contributions of resident versus infiltrating macrophages/monocytes, as well as on the roles of macrophage mediators, in the development of ALD. Findings point to the potential of macrophages as a therapeutic target in alcoholic liver injury. Future studies directed toward understanding how alcohol affects macrophage phenotypic switch in the liver and other tissues, whether the liver microenvironment determines macrophage function in ALD, and if targeting of macrophages alleviates alcoholic liver injury, will provide promising strategies to manage patients with alcoholic hepatitis. PMID:26717583

  2. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  3. PTSD-related alcohol expectancies and impulsivity interact to predict alcohol use severity in a substance dependent sample with PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Vinci, Christine; Raiker, Joseph S.; Mota, Natalie; Jackson, Michelle; Whalen, Diana; Schumacher, Julie A.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Problematic alcohol use is highly comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and prior work has demonstrated that individuals with PTSD may self-medicate with alcohol in an effort to reduce their symptoms. The combination of impulsivity and alcohol-related expectancies influences the development of problematic drinking patterns. When examining individuals diagnosed with PTSD, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies may be particularly relevant to the etiology of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have specifically examined PTSD-specific alcohol expectancies as they relate to alcohol use severity in a clinical sample. Methods The current study examined the relationship between impulsivity, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, and severity of alcohol use in a sample of 63 individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders who were receiving treatment in a residential substance use treatment program. Results Results indicated that PTSD-related alcohol expectancies moderated the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use severity. Specifically, at low to moderate levels of positive PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, impulsivity significantly predicted alcohol use severity, while impulsivity had no impact on the prediction of alcohol use severity when such expectancies were high. Additionally, the relationship between impulsivity, expectancies, and alcohol use severity was significant for positive, but not negative, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Overall, these results suggest that impulsivity and PTSD-related alcohol expectancies interact to predict alcohol use severity in a comorbid PTSD and substance dependent sample. PMID:25299460

  4. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China’s policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China’s current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization’s global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  5. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  6. University Students' Knowledge of Alcoholic Drinks and Their Perception of Alcohol-Related Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasking, Penelope; Shortell, Carly; Machalek, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    A total of 371 university students were asked to estimate the amount of alcohol contained in a standard drink and to estimate the number of standard drinks contained in popular alcoholic beverages. In addition, students completed questionnaires assessing their perception of short and long term harm related to the consumption of beer, wine, spirits…

  7. The Relation between Stress and Alcohol Use among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goldbach, Jeremy T.; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Cervantes, Richard C.; Duan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relation between eight domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t-tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in five domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  8. The relation between stress and alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, Jeremy T; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Cervantes, Richard C; Duan, Lei

    2015-12-01

    We explored the relation between 8 domains of Hispanic stress and alcohol use and frequency of use in a sample of Hispanic adolescents between 11 and 19 years old (N = 901). Independent t tests were used to compare means of domains of Hispanic stress between adolescents who reported alcohol use and those who reported no use. In addition, multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether domains of Hispanic stress were related to alcohol use and whether the relation differed by gender and age. Multiple imputation was used to address missing data. In the analytic sample, 75.8% (n = 683) reported no use and 24.2% (n = 218) reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days. Higher mean Hispanic stress scores were observed among youths who reported alcohol use during the previous 30 days in 5 domains: acculturation gap, community and gang violence, family economic, discrimination, and family and drug-related stress. Increased community and gang violence, family and drug, and acculturative gap stress were found to be associated with some alcohol use categories beyond the effect of other domains. Few differences in the association between Hispanic stress and alcohol use by gender and age were observed. Study findings indicate that family and drug-related, community and gang violence, and acculturative gap stress domains are salient factors related to alcohol use among Hispanic adolescents, and their implications for prevention science are discussed. PMID:26551265

  9. Identification and brief treatment of alcohol problems with medical patients: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Bendtsen, Preben; Borges, Guilherme; Colby, Suzanne M; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Johansson, Kjell

    2003-02-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA meeting in San Francisco, California. The chair was Peter Monti and co-chair was Nancy Barnett. The aim of the symposium was to bring together researchers from the United States, Sweden, and Mexico to present current findings on the development and implementation of screening and intervention research in Emergency Departments (ED). Cheryl Cherpitel presented findings on the performance of the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4), a 4-item instrument used for screening for alcohol dependence and harmful drinking in the ED. Dr. Cherpitel also presented for her collaborator, Guilherme Borges, their research on the performance of a number of screening measures including the RAPS among Mexicans and Mexican-Americans with alcohol-related disorders in the ED. Preben Bendtsen described the implementation of an alcohol screening and intervention procedure delivered by ordinary ED staff in Sweden. Nancy Barnett presented data on characteristics related to readiness to change alcohol use in a sample of young adults who were treated in an ED for injury or intoxication. PMID:12605075

  10. Review: alcohol use and problems among immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to deal with multiple issues, provide data, and cover the current state of alcohol use among immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. A comprehensive review of all studies published in the professional literature (mainly in Hebrew), as well as in reports and theses in Hebrew, is presented. This is an attempt to correct the lack of information among English readers about alcohol use patterns and problems in the Russian immigrant community in Israel. This paper is the first summary of findings in the alcohol use domain-epidemiology, treatment, and homelessness in relation to FSU immigrants in Israel. The review identifies alcohol use among recent FSU immigrants as more prevalent than among the Jewish-Israeli-absorbing society, and shows that FSU immigrants are overrepresented in treatment, and that most of the homeless persons in Israel are FSU immigrants and alcoholics. The paper also describes findings from other FSU immigrant studies in related fields such as genetics, workplace issues, pregnancy, emergency rooms and driving. Recommendations for future activities include the need for special analysis and focus on the FSU immigrants in national studies, as well as further investigations about cultural effects on FSU immigrants' drinking habits. PMID:19042195

  11. Effects of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Problems: Evaluating Chained Mediation through Generalized Anxiety, Depression, and Drinking Motives

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Nicholas P.; Albanese, Brian J.; Norr, Aaron M.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To test whether the relations between anxiety sensitivity (AS), a transdiagnostic risk factor, and alcohol problems are explained by chained mediation models, from AS through anxiety or depressive symptoms then drinking motives in an at-risk sample. It was hypothesized that AS would influence alcohol problems through generalized anxiety or depression symptoms and then through negatively-reinforced drinking motives (i.e., drinking to cope with negative affect and drinking to conform). Design Cross-sectional single- and chained-mediation models were tested. Setting Self-report measures were completed in clinics at Florida State University and the University of Vermont, USA. Participants Participants consisted of 523 adult daily cigarette smokers (M age = 37.23, SD = 13.53; 48.6% female). Measurements As part of a larger battery of self-report measures, participants completed self-report measures of AS, generalized anxiety, depression, drinking motives, and alcohol problems. Findings Chained mediation was found from AS to alcohol problems through generalized anxiety then through drinking to cope with negative affect (B = .04, 90% confidence interval [CI; .004, .10]). Chained mediation was also found from AS to alcohol problems through depression then through drinking to cope with negative affect (B = .11, 90% CI [.05, .21]) and, separately, through socially motivated drinking (B = .05, 90% CI [.003, .11]). Conclusions Anxiety sensitivity and alcohol problems are indirectly related through several intervening variables, such as through generalized anxiety or depression and then through drinking to cope with negative affect. PMID:25220033

  12. Disease versus Social-Learning Models of Alcoholism in the Prediction of Alcohol Problem Recognition, Help-Seeking, and Stigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rather, Bruce C.

    1991-01-01

    Examined college students' (n=254) attitudes after they were presented with either a disease or social learning view of alcoholism. Presentation of a disease view strengthened endorsement of that model, but attitudes toward alcoholics, treatment effectiveness, problem recognition, and help-seeking were not significantly different between the…

  13. Habitual Alcohol Seeking: Neural Bases and Possible Relations to Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Corbit, Laura H; Janak, Patricia H

    2016-07-01

    Loss of flexible control over alcohol use may contribute to the development of alcohol use disorders. An increased contribution of response habits to alcohol-related behaviors may help explain this loss of control. Focusing on data from outcome devaluation and Pavlovian-instrumental transfer procedures, we review evidence for loss of goal-directed control over alcohol seeking and consumption drawing from both preclinical findings and clinical data where they exist. Over the course of extended alcohol self-administration and exposure, the performance of alcohol-seeking responses becomes less sensitive to reduction in the value of alcohol and more vulnerable to the influences of alcohol-predictive stimuli. These behavioral changes are accompanied by a shift in the corticostriatal circuits that control responding from circuits centered on the dorsomedial to those centered on the dorsolateral striatum. These changes in behavioral and neural control could help explain failures to abstain from alcohol despite intention to do so. Understanding and ultimately ameliorating these changes will aid development of more effective treatment interventions. PMID:27223341

  14. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. Ung@hordaland, a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Lundervold, Astri J; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Jakobsen, Reidar; Hysing, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The use of alcohol and drugs is prevalent among adolescents, but too little is known about the association between debut of alcohol and drug use, problematic use and concurrent mental health. The aim of the study was to investigate the cross-sectional association between debut of any alcohol or drug use and alcohol-related and drug-related problems and mental health. We also wanted to examine potential interactions between gender and age, and alcohol-related and drug-related variables. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. Participants Data stem from the large population-based ung@hordaland study (N=9203), where all adolescents aged 17–19 years living in Hordaland county (Norway) were invited to participate. The main independent variables were debut of alcohol and drug use, alcohol consumption and the presence of alcohol and drug problems as measured by CRAFFT. Outcomes The dependent variables were self-reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, inattention and hyperactivity. Statistical analyses included logistic regression models. Results Debut of alcohol and drug use were associated with symptoms of depression, inattention and hyperactivity (crude ORs 1.69–2.38, p<0.001), while only debut of drug use was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety (OR=1.33, CI 95% 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.017). Alcohol-related and drug-related problems as measured by CRAFFT were associated with all mental health problems (crude ORs 1.68–3.24, p<0.001). There was little evidence of any substantial age or gender confounding on the estimated associations between alcohol-related and drug-related measures and mental health problems. Conclusions Early debut of alcohol and drug use and drug problems is consistently associated with more symptoms of mental health problems, indicating that these factors are an important general indicator of mental health in adolescence. PMID:25245403

  15. Early social isolation increases persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior in alcohol-related contexts.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Patiño, Diana M; Serrano, Catalina; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    Social conditions during rearing are well known to affect adult alcohol consumption, but few experiments have explored the effects of social conditions on behaviors that are related to alcohol dependence, such as the persistence of alcohol seeking. This study compared the effects of isolation (ISO) and interaction (INT) rearing on the persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior. Rats were trained to lever press for a solution of 10% alcohol diluted in water. They were then exposed to a two-component multiple schedule of reinforcement (baseline). Responses in one component were reinforced by a higher rate of alcohol delivery (rich component, variable interval 15 s) and responses in the other component were reinforced by a lower rate of delivery (lean component, variable interval 45 s). The persistence of lever pressing in the presence of each stimulus was then assessed during extinction. The results from baseline showed that response rates in rats in both groups were higher in the rich component than in the lean component, but ISO rats responded significantly more than INT rats in both components. The persistence of responding during extinction in ISO rats in both components was also higher than that in INT rats. The results show that effects of ISO are not restricted to alcohol consumption, but also affect persistence of alcohol-seeking behavior, which may reflect differences in the value of drug-related stimuli. PMID:26881772

  16. Inequalities in Alcohol-Related Mortality in 17 European Countries: A Retrospective Analysis of Mortality Registers

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Deboosere, Patrick; Kovács, Katalin; Looman, Caspar W. N.; Leinsalu, Mall; Mäkelä, Pia; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtaříková, Jitka; de Gelder, Rianne

    2015-01-01

    death, it is likely that our results underestimate the true extent of the problem. Conclusions Alcohol-related conditions play an important role in generating inequalities in total mortality in many European countries. Countering increases in alcohol-related mortality in lower socioeconomic groups is essential for reducing inequalities in mortality. Studies of why such increases have not occurred in countries like France, Switzerland, Spain, and Italy can help in developing evidence-based policies in other European countries. PMID:26625134

  17. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D; Hipskind, Philip A; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T; Hunt, Stephen P; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-11-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" in Volterra, Italy, May 6-9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol-related behaviors in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory, indicating a role of the urocortin 1 receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropeptide Y receptor system in the modulation of behaviors associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  18. Stress-related neuropeptides and alcoholism: CRH, NPY and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R.; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D.; Hipskind, Philip A.; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J.; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T.; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T.; Hunt, Stephen P.; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on “Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies” in Volterra, Italy, May 6–9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol related behaviours in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin releasing factor (CRH) receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory indicating a role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn) receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropetide Y (NPY) receptor system in the modulation of behaviours associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192

  19. Working with Alcoholic Families in a Child Welfare Agency: The Problem of Underdiagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lois

    1990-01-01

    Social Service agencies have been reluctant to focus on alcoholism as an issue in treating client and family problems, although there are 48 million alcoholics in the U.S., and 7 million of them are under age 18. Reasons for the reluctance to focus on alcoholism include lack of knowledge, poor prognosis, nihilism, denial, social workers' fears of…

  20. Treating Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on alcohol and stress, and the neurobiology of alcohol and drug addiction. "There are diverse treatment options of which people may be less aware, many of which can be undertaken with minimal disruption to home and work ... the way we treat alcohol use disorders," adds Robert Huebner, Ph.D., Acting ...

  1. Alcohol problems and the differentiation of partner, stranger, and general violence.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Rosemary; Ballinger, Bud C

    2006-07-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol problems and physical violence with partners and strangers, 457 college men and 958 college women with low, intermediate, or high scores on the Short Michigan Alcohol Screening Test reported conflict tactics on the Conflict Tactics Scale in the past year to and by partners and strangers. More men than women had high alcohol problems scores. Men with alcohol problems were more likely than other men to commit violence toward strangers or to partners and strangers. However, men with alcohol problems were not more likely than other men to commit violence toward partners only. Among women, alcohol problems had little relationship to committing violence or being the victim of violence. PMID:16731992

  2. Prevalence of alcohol-related pathologies at autopsy: Estonian Forensic Study of Alcohol and Premature Death

    PubMed Central

    Tuusov, Jana; Lang, Katrin; Väli, Marika; Pärna, Kersti; Tõnisson, Mailis; Ringmets, Inge; McKee, Martin; Helander, Anders; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Aims Alcohol can induce diverse serious pathologies, yet this complexity may be obscured when alcohol-related deaths are classified according to a single underlying cause. We sought to quantify this issue and its implications for analysing mortality data. Design, Setting and Participants Cross-sectional study included 554 men aged 25–54 in Estonia undergoing forensic autopsy in 2008–09. Measurements Potentially alcohol-related pathologies were identified following macroscopic and histological examination. Alcohol biomarkers levels were determined. For a subset (26%), drinking behaviour was provided by next-of-kin. The Estonian Statistics Office provided underlying cause of death. Findings Most deaths (75%) showed evidence of potentially alcohol-related pathologies, and 32% had pathologies in two or more organs. The liver was most commonly affected [60.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 56.3–64.6] followed by the lungs (18.6%, 95% CI = 15.4–22.1), stomach (17.5%, 95% CI = 14.4–20.9), pancreas (14.1%, 95% CI = 11.3–17.3), heart (4.9%, 95% CI = 3.2–7.0) and oesophagus (1.4%, 95% CI = 0.6–2.8). Only a minority with liver pathology had a second pathology. The number of pathologies correlated with alcohol biomarkers (phosphatidylethanol, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase in blood, ethylglucuronide, ethylsulphate in urine). Despite the high prevalence of liver pathology, few deaths had alcoholic liver disease specified as the underlying cause. Conclusion The majority of 554 men aged 25–54 undergoing forensic autopsy in Estonia in 2008–09 showed evidence of alcohol-related pathology. However, the recording of deaths by underlying cause failed to capture the scale and nature of alcohol-induced pathologies found. PMID:25066373

  3. A Qualitative Study of Service Provision for Alcohol Related Health Issues in Mid to Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Haighton, Catherine; Wilson, Graeme; Ling, Jonathan; McCabe, Karen; Crosland, Ann; Kaner, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Aims Epidemiological surveys over the last 20 years show a steady increase in the amount of alcohol consumed by older age groups. Physiological changes and an increased likelihood of health problems and medication use make older people more likely than younger age groups to suffer negative consequences of alcohol consumption, often at lower levels. However, health services targeting excessive drinking tend to be aimed at younger age groups. The aim of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of experiences of, and attitudes towards, support for alcohol related health issues in people aged 50 and over. Methods Qualitative interviews (n = 24, 12 male/12 female, ages 51–90 years) and focus groups (n = 27, 6 male/21 female, ages 50–95 years) were carried out with a purposive sample of participants who consumed alcohol or had been dependent. Findings Participants’ alcohol misuse was often covert, isolated and carefully regulated. Participants tended to look first to their General Practitioner for help with alcohol. Detoxification courses had been found effective for dependent participants but only in the short term; rehabilitation facilities were appreciated but seen as difficult to access. Activities, informal groups and drop-in centres were endorsed. It was seen as difficult to secure treatment for alcohol and mental health problems together. Barriers to seeking help included functioning at a high level, concern about losing positive aspects of drinking, perceived stigma, service orientation to younger people, and fatalistic attitudes to help-seeking. Facilitators included concern about risk of fatal illness or pressure from significant people. Conclusion Primary care professionals need training on improving the detection and treatment of alcohol problems among older people. There is also a compelling need to ensure that aftercare is in place to prevent relapse. Strong preferences were expressed for support to be provided by those who had experienced

  4. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  5. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  6. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  7. Determinants of Nurses' Attitudes toward the Care of Patients with Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Crothers, Cara Elizabeth; Dorrian, Jillian

    2011-01-01

    Nurses (n = 49, age = 39 ± 11 y) from an Australian metropolitan hospital completed the Marcus Alcoholism, Seaman Mannello Nurses' Attitudes toward Alcoholism, and the shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaires. The majority had personal (73%) and/or professional (93%) experience with people with alcohol problems. Not one reported receiving drug and alcohol training. On average, nurses held neutral to positive attitudes toward alcohol problems; however, 14.3% completely disagreed with the statement “I want to work with drinkers,” and 12.5% completely disagreed that they were likely to find working with people with alcohol problems rewarding. Attitudes to care were significantly influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about whether patients can be helped, whether alcoholism is a character defect, and the relationship between alcoholism and social status. Negative attitudes towards patient care persist and are influenced by age, personal drinking habits, and beliefs about alcoholism. Specific training in this area may be beneficial. PMID:22007327

  8. [Clinical application of neuroimaging to alcohol-related dementia].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toshifumi; Sakurai, Hideki; Toyama, Tomomi; Yoshimura, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2012-06-01

    Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is one of the most common dementing disorders in middle-aged people and occurs in heavy drinkers who are estimated to be 10 - 15 % of the adult men in a community. While the concept of ARD is multifactorial and includes all cognitive deficits in alcoholics, the central clinical manifestations are exemplified by Korsakoff's syndrome (KS), a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome, characterized by amnesia and disorientation that is caused by thiamine deficiency along with excessive alcohol consumption. Antemortem detection of intracranial changes has been made possible by MRI and many studies have revealed that alcoholics have atrophic changes in frontal lobe, cerebellum, medial temporal lobe and hippocampus. However, these brain regions are vulnerable to excessive alcohol and seem to be independent of cognitive deficits in alcoholics. This review shows the regional differences in gray matter volumes between cognitively normal alcoholics and patients with KS. By employing a 3-dimensional MRI method for voxel-based morphometry that enables an automated, unbiased, comprehensive assessment, we demonstrate that parahippocampal/hippocampal atrophy is specific to KS and thalamic atrophy and the third ventricle enlargement are more severe in patients with KS than in cognitively normal alcoholics. PMID:22894053

  9. Student Drinking-Related Problems in an Urban Campus: Implications for Research and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…

  10. Growth in Adolescent Delinquency and Alcohol Use in Relation to Young Adult Crime, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Risky Sex: A Comparison of Youth from Low- versus Middle-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, W. Alex; Hitch, Julia E.; Kosterman, Rick; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Hawkins, J. David

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined adolescent delinquency and alcohol use in relation to young adult crime, alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and risky sex. Analyses further examined the influences of late childhood involvement in these problem behavior outcomes, with mediation through teen delinquency and alcohol use, and examined differences in the…

  11. [Problem of sexual pathology in alcoholic delusions of jealousy].

    PubMed

    Terent'ev, E I

    1978-01-01

    The data on sex pathology in alcoholic delusions of jealousy with sado-masochist behaviour are reported. Such behaviour was seen when the patients tried to force their wives to "acknowledge" infidelity. A total amount of 196 patients were studied. Abnormal behaviour was characterized by moral and physical torture of their wives and selftorture. They were mostly expressed at late night hours and were connected with a peculiar satisfaction of the "tormenting voluptuosness" (Lemke-Rennert). There was also a sexual excitation with a dissociation between high necessities and a dropped possibilities in the sexual sphere against the background of lowered potency and other sexual disorders. Moreover, there was a high level of general excitation with a narrowing of consciousness, vegeto-vascular changes, which are described during ciotus and a satisfaction of sexual necessities by perversions. A visualization of images related to jealousy was observed, which lead to an increase of the affective shading in delusions. PMID:726769

  12. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" Past Issues / ... is Director of the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A renowned expert on how ...

  13. Exploring knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to alcohol in Mongolia: a national population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey. Methods A door-to-door, household-based questionnaire was conducted on 3450 people from across Mongolia. Participants were recruited using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique, and eligibility was granted to permanent residents of households who were aged between 15 and 64 years. A nationally representative sample size was calculated, based on methodologies aligned with the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance. Results Approximately 50% of males and 30% of females were found to be current drinkers of alcohol. Moreover, nine in ten respondents agreed that heavy episodic drinking of alcohol is common among Mongolians, and the harms of daily alcohol consumption were generally perceived to be high. Indeed, 90% of respondents regarded daily alcohol consumption as either ‘harmful’ or ‘very harmful’. Interestingly, morning drinking, suggestive of problematic drinking, was highest in rural men and was associated with lower-levels of education and unemployment. Conclusion This research suggests that Mongolia faces an epidemiological challenge in addressing the burden of alcohol use and related problems. Males, rural populations and those aged 25-34 years exhibited the highest levels of risky drinking practices, while urban populations exhibit higher levels of general alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a focus and context for public health measures addressing alcohol-related harm in Mongolia. PMID

  14. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  15. [Safety problems of occupational activity during alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Popov, V I

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that work efficiency of persons occupied by machine operating duties degrades markedly under the action of an acute alcoholic intoxication--less on real machines and more on simulators and when operating simple technical devices. Work efficiency degradation is manifested by the task execution time increase (to a lesser degree) and by erroneous action quantity increase after taking alcohol, i.e. by work reliability decease. Most heavily it is manifested during the first 0.7-1.5 hr. After taking alcohol. And direct work efficiency index is usually improved 12-16 hr. after taking alcohol. Increase of erroneous action quantity is caused probably by a series of physiological, psychophysiological and psychological changes in the condition of a man under the action of alcohol. Time of the day when the activity takes place after taking that dose of alcohol is practically non valid for changing work efficiency index. PMID:11965736

  16. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  17. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  18. [ENT emergency treatment and alcohol related head and neck injuries].

    PubMed

    Teudt, I; Grundmann, T; Pueschel, K; Hogan, B; Leventli, B

    2013-08-01

    The spectrum of ENT-diseases can differ widely among emergency departments (ED) of different geographic regions. Especially in terms of head and neck trauma a higher number of injuries can be expected in large cities due to alcohol related violence.The ED of a large hospital situated in the center of Hamburg Germany was analysed for ENT-emergency treatments in 2011 retrospectively. Beside usual patient statistics, the study focused on alcohol related injuries with an ENT-surgeon involved. All data were compared to reports by other EDs in Germany and alcohol related costs were approximated for initiation of prevention programs in the future.2 339 ENT-patients were admitted to the ED. 19% of all patients used an ambulance whereas 80% reached the ED by private transportation. The majority of patients were between 21 and 30 years of age. For 143 of all trauma cases alcohol involvement was documented. Subanalysis revealed male dominance and a high use of ambulance transportation.The high number of traumata differs considerably from other ENT studies. One reason is the hospital's close proximity to all time party districts like "Reeperbahn" and the "Port of Hamburg". In those areas high amounts of alcohol ingestion takes place leading to more injuries at the head- and neck region. Theoretically financial resources would be plenty after the initiation of those programs as the severe costs for alcohol related medical treatment would decline. PMID:23568584

  19. A social marketing approach to involving Afghans in community-level alcohol problem prevention.

    PubMed

    Cherry, L; Redmond, S P

    1994-06-01

    A program for preventing alcohol-related problems at the community level using environmentally-focused, public health approaches sought to involve a new segment of the community. That segment consisted of recently-immigrated Afghans from a traditionally abstinent culture. Social marketing research was employed to elicit value-based benefits to be used in promoting the product (involvement with environmental change efforts) to the target audience. While the channels of distribution for promotional messages were easily identified, special attention was required relative to effective spokespersons. Much was also learned about the immigration experience of Afghans in a San Francisco Bay Area community that has significance for other fields. PMID:24258928

  20. Severity of alcohol use and problem behaviors among school-based youths in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, William W.; Rojas, Vanessa Cecilia; Mancha, Brent Edward

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to: (a) categorize youths into groups based on their level of alcohol use and number of symptoms of alcohol abuse and dependence defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and (b) examine whether these categories were associated with other problem behaviors in which youths engage (marijuana use, sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having trouble with the law). Methods The study is based on a cross-sectional survey administered to 972 school-based youths from one middle school and one high school in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Youths were categorized based on their alcohol use and alcohol problems. These categories were then examined for associations with lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and having been arrested or having had trouble with the law in the past year. The original eight categories of alcohol use were collapsed into six categories based on the results. Results For virtually every group characterized by higher severity of alcohol use and alcohol problems, researchers found an increasing prevalence of marijuana use in their lifetimes, increasing odds of sexual intercourse in their lifetimes, and having had trouble with the law in the past year. Conclusions Knowing about variations in alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in measuring the degree to which youths may also be engaging in a range of other elevated risk behaviors and a progression to more serious forms of alcohol and drug use. PMID:18510792

  1. Intensive Motivational Interviewing for women with concurrent alcohol problems and methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Evans, Kristy; Bond, Jason C.; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) for the treatment of alcohol and drug problems is typically conducted over 1 to 3 sessions. The current work evaluates an intensive 9-session version of MI (Intensive MI) compared to a standard single MI session (Standard MI) using 163 methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals. The primary purpose of this paper is to report the unexpected finding that women with co-occurring alcohol problems in the Intensive MI condition reduced the severity of their alcohol problems significantly more than women in the Standard MI condition at the 6-month follow-up. Stronger perceived alliance with the therapist was inversely associated with alcohol problem severity scores. Findings indicate that Intensive MI is a beneficial treatment for alcohol problems among women with MA dependence. PMID:24074649

  2. Seasonality of alcohol-related phenomena in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein

    2005-03-01

    We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However

  3. Comprehensive Alcohol Education: A New Approach to an Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.; Kouba, James M.

    1979-01-01

    This is a program model for responsible decision-making on alcohol use. The intent is to encourage a philosophy about alcoholic beverages using a consistent example of moderate use. Moral implications are left to the individual. Drinking is not viewed as proof of adulthood, virility, or social acceptibility. (Author/BEF)

  4. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  5. Alcohol use and prior alcohol-related convictions as predictors of probation officer perceptions and sentencing.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A

    1980-11-01

    Presentence reports for 740 offenders were content analyzed. Regression techniques were used to evaluate a number of predictors of sentencing, including the effects of number of prior alcohol-related convictions and whether the offender was intoxicated while committing the offense he was charged with. The two most prominent variables affecting the severity of sentence were the probation officer's assessment of the offender's probable success on probation and the legal seriousness of the offense. While failing to have any significant direct effects on sentencing, our measures of alcohol use had significant indirect effects which were mediated by the probation officer's assessment of success on probation and legal seriousness. An extensive criminal record of prior alcohol-related convictions resulted in a poorer prognosis for success on probation this, in turn, led to more severe sentences for these offenders. Intoxication while committing an offense was related to the commission of minor crimes which, subsequently, yielded more lenient treatment for alcohol-users compared to nonusers. Finally, native offenders were more likely than nonnatives to have many prior alcohol-related convictions and to have been intoxicated while committing an offense. PMID:7216566

  6. The dark side of optimism: unrealistic optimism about problems with alcohol predicts subsequent negative event experiences.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Amanda J; Midboe, Amanda M; Klein, William M P

    2009-11-01

    College students were identified who were unrealistically optimistic about the likelihood they would experience severe problems due to alcohol consumption. These individuals were then followed over a 2-year period to determine whether they were more likely to report experiencing a range of alcohol-related negative events. Unlike the majority of studies on unrealistic optimism, this study (a) assessed bias at the individual rather than group level and (b) used a prospective rather than cross-sectional design. Participants completed measures at four times, each separated by 4-6 months. Findings showed that unrealistic optimism at Time 1 was associated with a greater number of negative events at Times 2, 3, and 4. Similarly, unrealistic optimism at Time 2 was associated with more negative events at Times 3 and 4. In all cases, the relationships were significant when controlling for previous negative events, suggesting the effects of unrealistic optimism can mount over time. PMID:19721102

  7. Legislation on alcohol detection in alcohol-related traffic accidents involving casualties in Japan and Canada.

    PubMed

    Hattori, H; Komura, S; Furuno, J

    1992-06-01

    A comparative study of the law concerning the arrest and conviction of alcohol-related casualty traffic accident was made between Japan and Canada. In Japan, the incidence of alcohol-related traffic accident has declined since 1970, but the number of fatal traffic accidents remains unchanged over the last 6 years, and amount to 9% of the total number of fatalities in traffic accidents. Hence, an effort is being made to reduce this number. According to the Road Traffic Act, a driver can be convicted for drunken driving if his or her blood alcohol level is above 0.5 mg/ml or above 0.25 mg/l in exhaled air, and if driver is judged as a drunken state by sobriety test. Unlike Canada, however, police officer cannot demand a blood sample from a suspected drunken driver. Instead, they must rely on the breath analysis and sobriety test. These tests are considered to be less accurate than blood test. These drawbacks are reflected in a number of court cases which are related to the relationship between alcohol concentration and the state of driving. In Canada, the operation of a motor vehicle with a blood alcohol level of over 0.8 mg/ml is a criminal offense punishable by fine or imprisonment or both, and results in the suspension of driving privileges for 6 months. Initially, a breath alcohol analysis is performed on everyone suspected of motor vehicle after consuming alcohol within the preceding two hours. Subsequently, with the suspect's consent, a police officer is allowed to request a blood sample for further analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1524523

  8. Clinical and pathological features of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    Zahr, Natalie M; Kaufman, Kimberley L; Harper, Clive G

    2011-05-01

    One of the sequelae of chronic alcohol abuse is malnutrition. Importantly, a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) can result in the acute, potentially reversible neurological disorder Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). When WE is recognized, thiamine treatment can elicit a rapid clinical recovery. If WE is left untreated, however, patients can develop Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a severe neurological disorder characterized by anterograde amnesia. Alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD) describes the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on human brain structure and function in the absence of more discrete and well-characterized neurological concomitants of alcoholism such as WE and KS. Through knowledge of both the well-described changes in brain structure and function that are evident in alcohol-related disorders such as WE and KS and the clinical outcomes associated with these changes, researchers have begun to gain a better understanding of ARBD. This Review examines ARBD from the perspective of WE and KS, exploring the clinical presentations, postmortem brain pathology, in vivo MRI findings and potential molecular mechanisms associated with these conditions. An awareness of the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on human behavior and brain structure can enable clinicians to improve detection and treatment of ARBD. PMID:21487421

  9. NIAAA's Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems Initiative: Reinforcing the Use of Evidence-Based Approaches in College Alcohol Prevention*

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, William; Larimer, Mary E.; Wood, Mark D.; Hartman, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) created the Rapid Response to College Drinking Problems initiative so that senior college administrators facing an alcohol-related crisis could get assistance from well-established alcohol researchers and NIAAA staff. Method: Based on a competitive grant process, NIAAA selected five teams of research scientists with expertise in college drinking research. NIAAA then invited college administrators to propose interventions to address a recently experienced alcohol-related problem. Between September 2004 and September 2005, NIAAA selected 15 sites and paired each recipient college with a scientific team. Together, each program development/evaluation team, working closely with NIAAA scientific staff, jointly designed, implemented, and evaluated a Rapid Response project. Results: This supplement reports the results of several Rapid Response projects, plus other findings of interest that emerged from that research. Eight articles present evaluation findings for prevention and treatment interventions, which can be grouped by the individual, group/interpersonal, institutional, and community levels of the social ecological framework. Additional studies provide further insights that can inform prevention and treatment programs designed to reduce alcohol-related problems among college students. This article provides an overview of these findings, placing them in the context of the college drinking intervention literature. Conclusions: College drinking remains a daunting problem on many campuses, but evidence-based strategies—such as those described in this supplement—provide hope that more effective solutions can be found. The Rapid Response initiative has helped solidify the necessary link between research and practice in college alcohol prevention and treatment. PMID:19538907

  10. A Personality-Based Description of Maturing Out of Alcohol Problems: Extension with a Five-Factor Model and Robustness to Modeling Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine the relation of changes in Five-Factor personality traits (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience; Costa & McCrae, 1985), drinking motives, and problematic alcohol involvement in a cohort of college students (N=467) at varying risk for alcohol use disorders from ages 21–35. Method Parallel process latent growth models were estimated to determine the extent that prospective changes in personality and alcohol problems covaried as well as the extent to which drinking motives appeared to mediate these relations. Results Changes in neuroticism and conscientiousness covaried with changes in problematic alcohol involvement. Specifically, increases in conscientiousness and decreases in neuroticism were related to decreases in alcohol from ages 21–35, even after accounting for marriage and/or parenthood. Change in coping (but not enhancement) motives specifically mediated the relation between changes in conscientiousness and alcohol problems in addition to the relation between changes in neuroticism and alcohol problems. Discussion Personality changes, as assessed by a Five-Factor model of personality, are associated with “maturing out” of alcohol problems. Of equal importance, change in coping motives may be an important mediator of the relation between personality change and the “maturing out.” PMID:20598445

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Alcohol-Related Behaviors in Mid- to Late Adolescence in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Gardner, Charles O; Hickman, Matt; Heron, Jon; Macleod, John; Lewis, Glyn; Dick, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and alcohol consumption and problems in adolescence have been inconclusive. Few studies have examined all three major SES indicators and a broad range of alcohol-related outcomes at different ages. Method: In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort, we examined (by logistic regression, with differential weighting to control for attrition) the relationship between family income and parental education and occupational status, and five alcohol outcomes assessed at ages 16 and 18 years. Results: At age 16, high SES—as indexed by income and education—significantly predicted frequent alcohol consumption. Low SES—as measured by education and occupational status—predicted alcohol-related problems. At age 18, high SES—particularly income and education—significantly predicted frequent alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking and, more weakly, symptoms of alcohol dependence. All three measures of SES were inversely related to high-quantity consumption and alcohol behavioral problems. Conclusions: In adolescents in the United Kingdom, the relationship between SES and alcohol-related behaviors is complex and varies as a function of age, SES measure, and specific outcome. High SES tends to predict increased consumption and, in later adolescence, heavy episodic drinking and perhaps symptoms of alcohol dependence. Low SES predicts alcohol-related behavioral problems and, in later adolescence, high-quantity alcohol consumption. PMID:24988252

  12. Less Drinking, Yet More Problems: Understanding African American Drinking and Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zapolski, Tamika C. B.; Pedersen, Sarah L.; McCarthy, Denis M.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but which also provides within group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  13. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    PubMed

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  14. Mediators of the relationship between religiousness/spirituality and alcohol problems in an adult community sample.

    PubMed

    Drerup, Michelle L; Johnson, Thomas J; Bindl, Stephen

    2011-12-01

    Johnson et al. (2008b) reported that, in a college student sample, the effect of religiousness on alcohol use was mediated by negative beliefs about alcohol, social influences, and spiritual well-being, and that these variables in turn impacted alcohol use and problems both directly and indirectly via motives for drinking. This study attempted to replicate those findings in a sample of community dwelling adults (N=211). The effect of Religious/Spiritual Involvement was mediated by Negative Beliefs about Alcohol, Social Modeling, and Spiritual-Well-Being. However, Social Modeling had stronger relationships with motives for drinking and alcohol consumption than the other two mediators. The effect of Religious Struggle on Alcohol Problems was mediated by Spiritual Well-Being and coping motives for drinking. Results provide further support for the motivational model of alcohol use and suggest plausible mechanisms by which religiousness could causally impact alcohol use and problems. Religious struggle may be a clinically significant correlate of alcohol problems. PMID:21868169

  15. The origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority.

    PubMed

    Larsen, S

    1993-04-01

    The present paper addressed the problem of the origin of alcohol-related social norms in the Saami minority in northern Norway. Based on data from studies of comparable ethnic minorities in Greenland, North America and Australia it could be expected that alcohol use- and abuse would be more prevalent in the Saami than in the Norwegian populations of northern Norway. No data to support this hypothesis exist. On the contrary, available data suggest that drinking problems in this group are similar to those of the majority in the area. The present paper developed the hypothesis that Saami alcohol-related social norms originated in the Laestadian religious revival. The paper investigated the impact of the Laestadian culture in the formation of alcohol-related social norms. It was concluded that the Laestadian sobriety norm, and the norm of abstinence from the use of adiafora, have influenced alcohol-related behaviour in the Saami group in such a way that this group does not conform to the drinking behaviour found in comparable minorities. PMID:8485427

  16. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  17. Motives to drink or not to drink: Longitudinal relations among personality, motives and alcohol use across adolescence and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristen G.; Briggs, Kristen E.L.; White, Helene R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Adolescent selective intervention programs for alcohol have focused on the identification of youth at risk as a function of personality and associated alcohol-related cognitions. Research into the role of personality, drinking motivations, and alcohol-related outcomes has generally focused exclusively on motives to drink. We expand on this literature by focusing on both motives to drink and motives not drink across time from adolescence to early adulthood in a community sample. Methods Using three waves of data from three cohorts from the Rutgers Health and Human Development Project (n = 1380; 49.4% women), we modeled the influence of baseline alcohol consumption, disinhibition and harm avoidance (ages 15, 18 and 21 years) on drinking motives and motives not to drink three years later (ages 18, 21 and 24 years) and alcohol use and drinking-related problems seven years subsequently (ages 25, 28, 31 years). Results Path analytic models were relatively invariant across cohort. Across cohorts, disinhibition and baseline alcohol consumption related to later positive reinforcement drinking motives, but less consistency was found for the prediction of negative reinforcement motives to drink. While positive reinforcement motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and problems seven years later, negative reinforcement motives were generally associated with problems alone. Positive reinforcement motives for drinking mediated relations between baseline consumption and later consumption. However, results were mixed when considering disinhibition as a predictor and drinking problems as an outcome. Similarly, personality and baseline consumption related to later motives not to drink and such motives predicted subsequent alcohol-related problems. However, mediation was not generally supported for pathways through motives to abstain. Conclusions The results of this study replicate and extend previous longitudinal findings with youth and add to the growing

  18. NUCLEAR AND CORTICAL OPACITIES IN RELATION TO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied lens opacification in relation to alcoholic beverage consumption in 519 nondiabetic Nurses' Health Study participants enrolled in the Nutrition and Vision Project. Odds ratios (ORs) generated by logistic regression analysis (SAS PROC GENMOD) related average weekly consumption of beer, wi...

  19. Q&A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... A with Dr. Koob about Treatment for Alcohol Problems Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents George ... FDA-approved medications that can help curb alcohol problems? It may be because medications are still a ...

  20. Pathways to Vulnerability for Alcohol Problem Severity in a Treatment-Seeking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Eddie, David; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cohn, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present investigation examined the role of gender, family history of alcohol and drug use disorders, temperament, childhood behavior problems, and adult psychopathology, on adult alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Methods Structural equation modeling was used to examine multiple etiological pathways to adult alcohol use disorder (AUD) severity. Participants included 335 treatment-seeking males and females with current or lifetime DSM-III-R alcohol dependence (96%) or abuse (4%) enrolled in one of five treatment outcome studies. Extensive assessment at treatment entry used a mixture of retrospective and current self-report. Results Results identified two significant paths associated with a latent factor of adult alcohol use disorder severity at entry to treatment. In Path 1, male gender and family history of drug use disorder predicted greater childhood behavior problems, which predicted antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and anxiety disorders (ADs), with anxiety disorders leading directly to alcohol use disorder severity. In Path 2, family history of alcohol use disorder predicted difficult temperament in childhood, which predicted borderline personality disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders; both major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders in turn predicted alcohol use disorder severity at treatment entry. Conclusions The present findings build on the literature on heterogeneity in developmental risk processes leading to the expression of adult alcohol use disorder symptomology among patients presenting for alcohol use disorder treatment. PMID:26170766

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  2. Effects of childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and family violence on adolescent substance use, conduct problems, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Jennifer; Stewart, Michael; Bernet, Christine; Coe, Michael; Brown, Sandra A

    2002-04-01

    Exposure to familial alcoholism has been associated with many behavioral and emotional difficulties among offspring. However, few studies have examined environmental risks that often coexist with familial alcoholism, and which may influence the development of offspring psychosocial problems. This study examined potential additive and interactive effects of childhood exposure to family violence and childhood exposure to familial alcoholism on adolescent functioning. Three domains of adolescent functioning were examined in a high-risk community sample of 109 families: lifetime levels of substance use, conduct disorder behaviors, and self-esteem. Results indicated that both childhood exposure to familial alcoholism and childhood exposure to family violence were associated with psychosocial functioning of offspring during adolescence, although the relations differ according to domain of functioning and gender. PMID:12013062

  3. OCCUPATION AND MORTALITY RELATED TO ALCOHOL DRUGS AND SEXUAL HABITS

    PubMed Central

    Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T

    2011-01-01

    AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041

  4. Skin Immunization Obviates Alcohol-Related Immune Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Rhonda M.; Stottlemyer, John Mark; Cline, Rachel A.; Donahue, Cara; Behari, Jaideep; Falo, Louis D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH)-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD) and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC) diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM), directly to liver (hydrodynamic), or cutaneously (biolistic, ID). We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg), and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects. PMID:26561838

  5. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  6. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  7. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  8. Parent Alcohol Problems and Peer Bullying and Victimization: Child Gender and Toddler Attachment Security as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiden, Rina D.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Colder, Craig R.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Orrange-Torchia, Toni

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between parents' alcoholism and peer bullying and victimization in middle childhood in 162 community-recruited families (80 girls and 82 boys) with and without alcohol problems. Toddler-mother attachment was assessed at 18 months of child age, and child reports of peer bullying and victimization were obtained in…

  9. Alcohol abuse-related severe acute pancreatitis with rhabdomyolysis complications

    PubMed Central

    SU, MAO-SHENG; JIANG, YING; YAN, XIAO-YUAN HU; ZHAO, QING-HUA; LIU, ZHI-WEI; ZHANG, WEN-ZHI; HE, LEI

    2013-01-01

    Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication of acute pancreatitis. One of the major risk factors of both acute pancreatitis and rhabdomyolysis is alcohol abuse. However, only a few studies have reported the prognosis and association of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and rhabdomyolysis in alcohol abuse patients. In the present study, we report two cases presenting with SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis following high-dose alcohol intake. The disease onset, clinical manifestations, laboratory data, diagnosis and treatment procedure of each patient were recorded, and the association with rhabdomyolysis was analyzed. Alcohol consumption was the most predominant cause of SAP and rhabdomyolysis in these patients. SAP-related rhabdomyolysis was primarily induced by the toxicity associated with pancreatic necrosis. The laboratory tests revealed that the concentration of serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin increased and acute renal failure symptoms were present, which provided an exact diagnosis for SAP-induced rhabdomyolysis. Rhabdomyolysis and subsequent hypermyoglobinuria severely impaired kidney function and aggravated hypocalcemia. The therapy of early stage SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis involved liquid resuscitation support. When first stage treatment fails, blood purification should be performed immediately. Both patients developed multiple organ failure (MOF) and succumbed to the disease. Considering the two cases presented, we conclude that alcohol-related SAP complicated by rhabdomyolysis may have a poor clinical prognosis. PMID:23251265

  10. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  11. Learning dominance relations in combinatorial search problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Chee-Fen; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1988-01-01

    Dominance relations commonly are used to prune unnecessary nodes in search graphs, but they are problem-dependent and cannot be derived by a general procedure. The authors identify machine learning of dominance relations and the applicable learning mechanisms. A study of learning dominance relations using learning by experimentation is described. This system has been able to learn dominance relations for the 0/1-knapsack problem, an inventory problem, the reliability-by-replication problem, the two-machine flow shop problem, a number of single-machine scheduling problems, and a two-machine scheduling problem. It is considered that the same methodology can be extended to learn dominance relations in general.

  12. Self concept and drinking problems of college students raised in alcohol-abused homes.

    PubMed

    Rearden, J J; Markwell, B S

    1989-01-01

    To examine drinking problems and self concept of college students raised in homes where alcohol is abused, 148 lower division college students were given the following paper and pencil tests: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test, The Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, and the "Personal Self" section of The Tennessee Self Concept Scale. Students classified as children of alcoholics had a significantly lower self concept (F = 4.23, p = .04). Tabulation of the incidence of heavy drinking (31%) and lapses of memory after drinking bouts (62%) show an amount of drinking on college campuses that is truly alarming. PMID:2728960

  13. Examining the role of drinking motives in college student alcohol use and problems.

    PubMed

    Read, Jennifer P; Wood, Mark D; Kahler, Christopher W; Maddock, Jay E; Palfai, Tibor P

    2003-03-01

    A motivational model of alcohol involvement (M. L. Cooper, M. R. Frone, M. Russell, & P. Mudar, 1995) was replicated and extended by incorporating social antecedents and motives and by testing this model cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of college students. Participants (N = 388) completed a questionnaire battery assessing alcohol use and problems, alcohol expectancies, sensation seeking, negative affect, social influences, and drinking motives. Associations among psychosocial antecedents, drinking motives, and alcohol involvement differed from those found by M. L. Cooper et al. (1995). These findings point to the importance of social influences and of positive reinforcement motives but not to the centrality of drinking motives in this population. PMID:12665077

  14. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  15. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brousse, Georges; Bendimerad, Patrick; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Perney, Pascal; Dematteis, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men) or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption. PMID:25402563

  16. Environmental Strategies To Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Deborah A.

    This document describes strategies that are used to create healthier campus environments in which alcohol is less available, more responsibly promoted and served, and poses less of a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of all students. The strategies described in this document accomplish these objectives by changing conditions on campus…

  17. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  18. Alcohol and Other Drugs on Campus: The Scope of the Problem. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapner, Daniel Ari

    2008-01-01

    The most widespread health problem on college and university campuses in the United States is high-risk alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Recent reports confirm that the nation's campuses continue to encounter significant consequences as a result of this problem. This "Infofacts/Resources" offers an overview of the problem and highlights effective…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  20. Nature and Treatment of Comorbid Alcohol Problems and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among American Military Personnel and Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Allen, John P.; Crawford, Eric F.; Kudler, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Many service members and veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems also have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article considers the effectiveness of treating alcohol problems and PTSD simultaneously. The authors begin by summarizing the extent of excessive alcohol use among military service members and veterans. They then explore the relationship between combat exposure and subsequent alcohol use; identify and briefly describe evidence-based treatments for alcohol problems and PTSD, separately; and review research on the effects of single treatments for both PTSD symptoms and alcohol use. PMID:27159820

  1. Alcohol-related emergency department admissions among adolescents in the Ghent and Sint-Niklaas areas.

    PubMed

    Calle, P; Hautekiet, A; François, H; Sundahl, N; Cornelis, C; Calle, S; Damen, J; Vanbrabant, P; De Turck, B; De Graeve, K; Mpotos, N; De Paepe, P

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major health concern. The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the alcohol-related emergency department (ED) admissions among adolescents in all hospitals of distinct areas during a 1-year period. In each hospital, all ED patients with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of at least 0.5 g/l were surveyed in a standardised way. Of the 3918 included patients, only 146 (3.7%) were < 18  years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a strong preponderance of weekend and night time admissions. Most of the patients were transported by ambulance (77% of 138 patients with information on this item). The main reason for ED admittance was depressed level of consciousness (64%), trauma (12%), vomiting and/or abdominal pain (12%), agitation or aggression (4%), syncope (4%) and psychological problems (4%). The context of the alcohol intoxication was related to some kind of festivity in 85%, mental problems in 14% and chronic abuse in 1%. Median BAC values (and range) were 2.08 g/l (0.73-3.70 g/l) for boys and 1.51 g/l (0.73-2.90 g/l) for girls. Most patients (87%) could be discharged home within 24  hours. Our study confirms that problematic alcohol use leading to ED admissions starts in adolescence. Although the numbers of cases below 18 years are low when compared to adults, the phenomenon is alarming as it is associated with substantial health problems. Therefore, Belgium urgently needs a global national alcohol plan, with youngsters being one of the target groups. PMID:25984783

  2. Overt behavior problems and serotonergic function in middle childhood among male and female offspring of alcoholic fathers.

    PubMed

    Twitchell, G R; Hanna, G L; Cook, E H; Fitzgerald, H E; Little, K Y; Zucker, R A

    1998-09-01

    A large body of literature indicates that the serotonergic system is involved in behavioral regulation, as evidenced by the inverse relationship between impulsive aggression and serotonergic function found in adult alcoholics and nonalcoholics. However, studies of this relationship among child and adolescent offspring of alcoholics (COAs) have not previously been done. This study examines the potentially parallel relationship between behavioral dysregulation and low serotonergic function in young COAs. The relationship is of potential interest as a phenotypic marker of biological vulnerability to aggressiveness, which itself has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for later antisocial alcoholism. The present work is part of an ongoing prospective study of the development of risk for alcohol abuse/dependence and other problematic outcomes in a sample of families subtyped by the fathers' alcoholism classification. We examined the relationship between overt behavior problems in middle childhood (mean age = 10.5 +/- 1.7 years) and whole blood serotonin (5-HT) in a subsample of the offspring (N = 32 boys and 12 girls). Using a Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) index of behavioral undercontrol, we obtained results indicating that high total behavior problem (TBP) children had lower levels of whole blood 5-HT than did low-TBP children (p < 0.01). These results support the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship between whole blood serotonin levels and behavior problems in young male and female COAs. A father's alcoholism status was not significantly related to his child's 5-HT level, i.e., the child's phenotypic expression of behavioral dysregulation was more reliably connected to serotonergic function than was paternal alcoholism. PMID:9756051

  3. Alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in adolescents and young adults at varying genetic and environmental risk*

    PubMed Central

    Glass, J.E.; Grant, J.D.; Yoon, H.Y.; Bucholz, K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorder symptoms frequently occur in adolescents and younger adults who seldom acknowledge a need for help. We identified sociodemographic, clinical, and familial predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking in an offspring of twins sample. Method We analyzed longitudinal data from the Children of Alcoholics and Twins as Parents studies, which are combinable longitudinal data sources due to their equivalent design. We analyzed respondents (n=1,073, 56.0% of the total sample) with alcohol use disorder symptoms at the baseline interview. Familial characteristics included perceptions of alcohol problems and help seeking for alcohol problems within the immediate family and a categorical variable indicating genetic and environmental risk. We used logistic regression to examine predictors of alcohol problem recognition and help seeking. Results Approximately 25.9% recognized their alcohol problems and 26.7% sought help for drinking. In covariate-adjusted analyses, help seeking among family members predicted problem recognition, several clinical characteristics predicted both problem recognition and help seeking, and familial risk predicted help seeking. Alcohol problem recognition mediated the association between alcohol use disorder symptoms and incident help seeking. Conclusions Facilitating the self-recognition of alcohol use disorder symptoms, and perhaps the awareness of family members’ help seeking for alcohol problems, may be potentially promising methods to facilitate help seeking. PMID:26036603

  4. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  5. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  6. Family Structure and Adolescent Alcohol Use Problems: Extending Popular Explanations to American Indiansc

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems. PMID:24014896

  7. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  8. Lesbians recovering from alcohol problems: an ethnographic study of health care experiences.

    PubMed

    Hall, J M

    1994-01-01

    The findings of this ethnographic study of 35 San Francisco lesbians in long-term alcohol recovery describe their identification of alcohol problems, help-seeking experiences, and barriers to recovery in health care interactions. Multiple addictions and "core difficulties," such as childhood trauma, were common yet poorly addressed by health care providers. Lesbian clients mistrusted culturally ignorant providers who often inappropriately reversed therapeutic roles. Provider-client conceptual incongruence about alcohol problems often impeded recovery, while providers' persuasive styles (paternalistic, maternalistic, confrontational, and influential) were pivotal to recovery. The confrontational approach caused the most problems. It could precipitate crises, be interpreted by the women as social ostracism, and retraumatize those who had histories of childhood trauma. Consensus favored the influential style, characterized by flexibility, negotiation, support, and avoidance of ultimatums. Conclusions challenge the assumptions that alcoholics are manipulative, "in denial," and require coercion to attain and maintain recovery. PMID:8047429

  9. “I Will Take a Shot for Every ‘Like’ I Get on This Status”: Posting Alcohol-Related Facebook Content Is Linked to Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Erin C; Neighbors, Clayton; Heppner, Hannes; Jahn, Susanna; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether self-reports of alcohol-related postings on Facebook by oneself or one’s Facebook friends were related to common motives for drinking and were uniquely predictive of self-reported alcohol outcomes (alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings). Method: Pacific Northwest undergraduates completed a survey of alcohol outcomes, drinking motives, and alcoholrelated Facebook postings. Participants completed the survey online as part of a larger study on alcohol use and cognitive associations. Participants were randomly selected through the university registrar’s office and consisted of 1,106 undergraduates (449 men, 654 women, 2 transgender, 1 declined to answer) between the ages of 18 and 25 years (M = 20.40, SD = 1.60) at a large university in the Pacific Northwest. Seven participants were excluded from analyses because of missing or suspect data. Results: Alcohol-related postings on Facebook were significantly correlated with social, enhancement, conformity, and coping motives for drinking (all ps < .001). After drinking motives were controlled for, self–alcohol-related postings independently and positively predicted the number of drinks per week, alcohol-related problems, risk of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol cravings (all ps < .001). In contrast, friends’ alcohol-related postings only predicted the risk of alcohol use disorders (p < .05) and marginally predicted alcohol-related problems (p = .07). Conclusions: Posting alcohol-related content on social media platforms such as Facebook is associated with common motivations for drinking and is, in itself, a strong predictive indicator of drinking outcomes independent of drinking motives. Moreover, self-related posting activity appears to be more predictive than Facebook friends’ activity. These findings suggest that social media platforms may be a useful target for future preventative and intervention efforts. PMID:24766750

  10. The neuropathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    Harper, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause structural and functional abnormalities of the brain and this has significant health, social and economic implications for most countries in the world. Even heavy social drinkers who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Changes are more severe and other brain regions are damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative studies and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood. A human brain bank targeting alcohol cases has been established in Sydney, Australia, and tissues can be used for structural and molecular studies and to test hypotheses developed from animal models and in vivo studies. The recognition of potentially reversible changes and preventative medical approaches are important public health issues. PMID:19147798

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  13. Oxidative stress, metabolism of ethanol and alcohol-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Zima, T; Fialová, L; Mestek, O; Janebová, M; Crkovská, J; Malbohan, I; Stípek, S; Mikulíková, L; Popov, P

    2001-01-01

    reactivity, liver disease progression, and they correlate significantly with the disease severity. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is supposed to be one of the most important pathogenic mechanisms of atherogenesis, and antibodies against oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are some kind of epiphenomenon of this process. We studied IgG oxLDL and four APA (anticardiolipin, antiphosphatidylserine, antiphosphatidylethanolamine and antiphosphatidylcholine antibodies). The IgG oxLDL (406.4 +/- 52.5 vs. 499.9 +/- 52.5 mU/ml) was not affected in alcoholic patients, but oxLDL was higher (71.6 +/- 4.1 vs. 44.2 +/- 2.7 micromol/l, p < 0.001). The prevalence of studied APA in alcoholics with mildly affected liver function was higher than in controls, but not significantly. On the contrary, changes of autoantibodies to IgG oxLDL revealed a wide range of IgG oxLDL titers in a healthy population. These parameters do not appear to be very promising for the evaluation of the risk of atherosclerosis. Free radicals increase the oxidative modification of LDL. This is one of the most important mechanisms, which increases cardiovascular risk in chronic alcoholic patients. Important enzymatic antioxidant systems - superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase - are decreased in alcoholics. We did not find any changes of serum retinol and tocopherol concentrations in alcoholics, and blood and plasma selenium and copper levels were unchanged as well. Only the zinc concentration was decreased in plasma. It could be related to the impairment of the immune system in alcoholics. Measurement of these parameters in blood compartments does not seem to indicate a possible organ, e.g. liver deficiency. PMID:11173977

  14. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men. PMID:26467937

  15. On the importance of distinguishing shame from guilt: Relations to problematic alcohol and drug use

    PubMed Central

    Dearing, Ronda L.; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June Price

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that shame-proneness (the tendency to feel bad about the self) relates to a variety of life problems, whereas guilt-proneness (the tendency to feel bad about a specific behavior) is more likely to be adaptive. The current analyses sought to clarify the relations of shame-proneness and guilt-proneness to substance use problems in three samples with differing levels of alcohol and drug problem severity: college undergraduates (Study 1 N =235, Study 2 N =249) and jail inmates (Study 3 N =332). Across samples, shame-proneness was generally positively correlated with substance use problems, whereas guilt-proneness was inversely related (or unrelated) to substance use problems. Results suggest that shame and guilt should be considered separately in the prevention and treatment of substance misuse. PMID:16022935

  16. Cortical morphology in children with alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rajaprakash, Meghna; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Lerch, Jason P; Rovet, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It is well established that individuals exposed to alcohol in utero have reduced cortical grey matter volumes. However, the candidate determinants of these reductions, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), have not been investigated exclusively in alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), the most prevalent fetal alcohol spectrum disorder subgroup that lacks the characteristic facial dysmorphology. Methods T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained from 88 participants (8–16 years), 36 diagnosed with ARND and 52 typically developing controls. Scans were submitted to the CIVET pipeline (version 1.1.10). Deformable models were used to construct the inner white matter surfaces and pial surfaces from which CT and SA measures were derived. Group differences in cortical volume, CT, and SA were computed using a general linear model covaried for age, sex, and handedness. Results Global cortical volume reductions in ARND did not reflect CT, which did not differ between groups. Instead, volume decreases were consistent with global SA reductions in bilateral frontal and temporal as well as right occipital regions. Local reductions in SA were observed in the right superior temporal gyrus and the right occipital-temporal region. Conclusion Results suggest that in ARND, prenatal alcohol exposure perturbs global SA to a greater degree than CT, particularly in the right temporal lobe. PMID:24653953

  17. Problem drinking in relation to treatment outcome among opiate addicts in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Stenbacka, M; Beck, O; Leifman, A; Romelsjö, A; Helander, A

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed indicators of alcohol-related problems in opiate addicts before, during, and after leaving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT), in relation to illicit drug use and retention in treatment. The study was based on 204 patients, admitted to MMT for the first time between 1 January 1995 and 31 July 2000, and followed until 31 December 2000. Three measures were used to indicate alcohol use and alcohol-related problems; records of hospital care with an alcohol-related diagnosis, any treatment with alcohol-sensitizing drugs (disulfiram or calcium carbimide) during MMT, and results of the 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid ratio (5HTOL/5HIAA) in urine, a sensitive biomarker for recent drinking. Use of illicit drugs was determined by routine urine drug testing. About one third of the patients (n = 69) had a lifetime prevalence of hospital treatment for an alcohol-related diagnosis, 45 of whom had been hospitalized (mean 4.2 stays) prior to the start of MMT. There was a significant association (p<0.05) between the number of alcohol-related diagnoses prior to treatment and a positive 5HTOL/5HIAA test during MMT. The alcohol indicators first became positive on average 1.6 years after admission to treatment, compared with after about 4 months for illicit drugs. Use of cannabis or benzodiazepines was significantly associated with alcohol use. Female methadone patients with indications of alcohol-related problems relapsed more often into illicit drug use than did women without such indications (3.9 vs. 2.5 relapse periods/year; p<0.005), whereas no significant association was found for men. The results of the present study indicate that drinking problems among patients undergoing MMT is associated with an increased risk of relapse into illicit drug use and with discharge from treatment. Concurrent treatment of alcohol-related problems, including systematic monitoring of alcohol use, therefore should be recommended to reduce the risk for relapse

  18. The Added Risk of Opioid Problem Use among Treatment-Seeking Youth with Marijuana and/or Alcohol Problem Use

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Geetha A; Ives, Melissa L.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added risk of opioid problem use (OPU) in youth with marijuana/alcohol problem use (MAPU). Method 475 youth (ages 14–21 years) with OPU+MAPU were compared to a weighted sample of 475 youth with MAPU only (i.e., no OPU) before and after propensity score matching on gender, age, race, level of care, and weekly use of marijuana/alcohol. Youth were recruited from 88 drug treatment sites participating in eight Center for Substance Abuse Treatment funded grants. At treatment intake, participants were administered the Global Appraisal of Individual Need to elicit information on demographic, social, substance, mental health, HIV, physical and legal characteristics. Odds ratios with confidence intervals were calculated. Results The added risk of OPU among MAPU youth was associated with greater comorbidity: higher rates of psychiatric symptoms and trauma/victimization; greater needle-use and sex-related HIV-risk behaviors and greater physical distress. The OPU+MAPU group was less likely to be African American or other race and more likely to be age 15–17 years, Caucasian; report weekly drug use at home and among peers; engage in illegal behaviors and be confined longer; have greater substance abuse severity and poly drug use; and use mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Conclusions These findings expand on the existing literature and highlight the substantial incremental risk of OPU on multiple comorbid areas, among treatment-seeking youth. Further evaluation is needed to assess their outcomes following standard drug treatment and to evaluate specialized interventions for this subgroup of severely impaired youth. PMID:20403020

  19. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  20. High rates of alcohol problems and history of physical and sexual abuse among women inpatients.

    PubMed

    Swett, C; Halpert, M

    1994-01-01

    A total of 88 consecutive new women patients were surveyed on an adult psychiatric inpatient unit which did not have a specific program for the treatment of alcoholics. Those with a self-reported history of physical and/or sexual abuse had significantly higher scores on the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) than those with no such history. Former drinkers and teetotalers were more likely to have been both physically and sexually abused than the others. Thirty-three patients (38%) reported a history of alcohol problems measured by scores of seven or more on the MAST, but only 20 had a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence made by a psychiatrist. PMID:8042607

  1. Binge drinking among Brazilians: Higher drinking frequency increases related problems.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Daniel Sócrates; Sanchez, Zila M; Zaleski, Marcos; Palhares Alves, Hamer Nastasy; Pinsky, Ilana; Caetano, Raul; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2014-05-14

    Abstract Aims: To correlate binge drinking (BD) with alcohol-related problems (ARP) in the Brazilian population. Methods: A representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 143 Brazilian cities. Associations between the frequencies of BD and ARP were gathered using an ordered logit regression model. Results: Higher BD frequencies significantly increased the chance of injury in accidents, job loss, and involvement in intense arguments and assaults over the year. High frequency in BD increases the odds of all ARP. Conclusion: There is a dose-response association between the frequency BD and ARP and is therefore a possible target for public prevention policies. PMID:24829095

  2. Social and Environmental Predictors of Alcohol-Related Legal Infractions in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M.; Thompson, Kevin; Nodes, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol consumption among college students is often limited by self-reported outcomes and a narrow focus of predictor factors. This study examined both traditional risk factors for alcohol use as well as broader factors (e.g., weather, seasons) in predicting objective negative outcomes of alcohol use--alcohol-related legal infractions…

  3. An evaluation of long-term changes in alcohol use and alcohol problems among clients of the Swedish National Alcohol Helpline

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish National Alcohol Helpline was developed with the intention to provide an easily available, low threshold service to hazardous and harmful alcohol users in the community. The primary aim of this study was to describe the 12-month outcome of a cohort of clients and to evaluate whether these varied as a function of the intensity of exposure to the intervention. Methods The alcohol use and alcohol problems of a cohort of 191 clients accessing the service between 1 April 2009 and 1 February 2011 were assessed by telephone survey at the time of the first call and after 12 months. Change in AUDIT score between baseline and follow-up was used as primary outcome. Intensity of exposure was defined by number of counselling sessions. Results At 12-month follow-up, respondents had significantly reduced their AUDIT score to half of the baseline values, and one third of the participants were abstinent or consumed alcohol at a low-risk level. Participating in more than one counselling session as compared to one session was associated with a tendency to shift to a lower AUDIT zone at follow-up among women. Conclusions The Alcohol Helpline provides a viable community service for harmful and hazardous alcohol users. Future randomized studies including other treatment or control conditions are warranted in order to strengthen our preliminary conclusion of possible effectiveness of the counselling provided at the helpline, as well as to explore further the role of gender in moderating the treatment’s effect. PMID:24893718

  4. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  5. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  6. Relationship of age of first drink to alcohol-related consequences among college students with unhealthy alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; DeJong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents who reported ever drinking, 14% reported an AFD before age 14. These early onset drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report frequent drinking, heavy drinking, and other unhealthy alcohol use behaviors. Among the subset of drinkers with unhealthy alcohol use (36%), early drinkers were more likely than later onset drinkers to report experiencing five out of 13 alcohol-related consequences, including driving while intoxicated, missing work or school due to drinking, getting into trouble at work or school due to drinking, receiving lower grades than they should have due to drinking, and developing a tolerance to alcohol. PMID:19042317

  7. Social anxiety and alcohol-related impairment: The mediational impact of solitary drinking.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Terlecki, Meredith A

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to drinking frequency. Inconsistent findings may be at least partially due to lack of attention to drinking context - it may be that socially anxious individuals are especially vulnerable to drinking more often in specific contexts that increase their risk for alcohol-related problems. For instance, socially anxious persons may drink more often while alone, before social situations for "liquid courage" and/or after social situations to manage negative thoughts about their performance. Among current (past-month) drinkers (N=776), social anxiety was significantly, positively related to solitary drinking frequency and was negatively related to social drinking frequency. Social anxiety was indirectly (via solitary drinking frequency) related to greater past-month drinking frequency and more drinking-related problems. Social anxiety was also indirectly (via social drinking frequency) negatively related to past-month drinking frequency and drinking-related problems. Findings suggest that socially anxious persons may be vulnerable to more frequent drinking in particular contexts (in this case alone) and that this context-specific drinking may play an important role in drinking problems among these high-risk individuals. PMID:26894561

  8. Alcohol Expectancies and Evaluations of Aggression in Alcohol-Related Intimate-Partner Verbal and Physical Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Kachadourian, Lorig K; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol aggression expectancies have been found to be associated with increases in aggressive behavior. However, research has not consistently examined evaluations of such behavior. This is unfortunate as both expectancies and evaluations may play a role in whether such behavior will occur. Given this, the current study cross-sectionally examined the associations between alcohol aggression expectancies, evaluations of alcohol-related aggression, indicators of excessive drinking, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression. Method: The sample consisted of 280 married and cohabiting couples. These couples reported on excessive drinking indicators, alcohol expectancies and evaluations, and alcohol-related verbal and physical aggression during the past year. Results: Findings showed that verbal aggression was positively associated with indicators of excessive drinking among females and with alcohol aggression expectancies for females who evaluated such aggression positively. For males, aggression expectancies and indicators of excessive drinking were positively associated with verbal aggression. For physical aggression, results showed that indicators of excessive drinking and aggression expectancies were associated with physical aggression for females. For males, aggression expectancies were positively associated and evaluations were negatively associated with physical aggression. Conclusions: These findings add to previous research on alcohol aggression expectancies in close relationships and emphasize the importance of considering evaluations of alcohol-related behavior and how they may play a role in intimate-partner violence and aggression. PMID:25208191

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  10. Analyzing HIV/AIDS and Alcohol and Other Drug Use as a Social Problem

    PubMed Central

    PATTERSON, DAVID A.; Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), Silver

    2012-01-01

    Most prevention and intervention activities directed toward HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug use separately as well as the combining of the two (e.g., those who are both HIV/AIDS and using alcohol and other drugs) comes in the form of specific, individualized therapies without consideration of social influences that may have a greater impact on this population. Approaching this social problem from the narrowed view of individualized, mi-cro solutions disregards the larger social conditions that affect or perhaps even are at the root of the problem. This paper analyzes the social problem of HIV/AIDS and alcohol and other drug abuse using three sociological perspectives—social construction theory, ethnomethodology, and conflict theory—informing the reader of the broader influences accompanying this problem. PMID:23264724

  11. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  12. Alcohol and Other Drugs as Cripplers: A Crucial Problem in the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darity, William A.

    1979-01-01

    Drug use and abuse, alcoholism, and addiction are the results of deeper social, economic, and political problems. Thus, the negative effects of these substances are more severe in the Black community. Civil rights and other political and social organizations must band together to plan strategies for solving these problems. (Author/GC)

  13. Parent Relationships, Emotion Regulation, Psychosocial Maturity and College Student Alcohol Use Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith L.; Forthun, Larry F.; Pidcock, Boyd W.; Dowd, Duane A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested associations between problems in parent-youth relationships and problems with alcohol use among college students (N = 1592) using structural equation modeling. Hypotheses were that relationships between both substance-specific parenting factors (parental drinking) and non-substance-specific parenting factors (parental intrusive…

  14. Twenty-Year Alcohol-Consumption and Drinking-Problem Trajectories of Older Men and Women*

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe older adults' 20-year alcohol-consumption and drinking-problem trajectories, identify baseline predictors of them, and determine whether older men and women differ on late-life drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Method: Two-group simultaneous latent growth modeling was used to describe the characteristics and baseline predictors of older community-residing men's (n = 399) and women's (n = 320) 20-year drinking trajectories. Chi-square difference tests of increment in fit of latent growth models with and without gender invariance constraints were used to determine gender differences in drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Results: Unconditional quadratic growth models best described older individuals' within-individual, 20-year drinking trajectories, with alcohol consumption following an average pattern of delayed decline, and drinking problems an average pattern of decline followed by leveling off. On average, older men declined in alcohol consumption somewhat later than did older women. The best baseline predictors of more rapid decline in alcohol consumption and drinking problems were drinking variables indicative of heavier, more problematic alcohol use at late middle age. Conclusions: The course of alcohol consumption and drinking problems from late middle age onward is one of net decline, but this decline is neither swift nor invariable. Gender differences in the timing of decline in drinking suggest that ongoing monitoring of alcohol consumption may be especially important for older men. Further research is needed to identify factors known at late middle age that prospectively explain long-term change in late-life use of alcohol. PMID:21388604

  15. Interactions between self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies and cognitive functioning in the prediction of alcohol use and associated problems: a further examination.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Vergés, Alvaro; McCarthy, Denis M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2011-09-01

    A recent debate regarding the theoretical distinction between explicit and implicit cognitive processes relevant to alcohol-related behaviors was strongly shaped by empirical findings from dual-process models (Moss & Albery, 2009; Wiers & Stacy, 2010; Moss & Albery, 2010). Specifically, as part of a broader discussion, Wiers & Stacy (2010) contended that alcohol-related behaviors are better predicted by self-reported alcohol expectancies for individuals with good executive control and verbal abilities relative to those without such abilities. The purpose of the current paper is to further test whether self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies are moderated by measures of cognitive functioning. Using multiple indices of alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies, and cognitive functioning, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted in a prospective sample of 489 individuals at varying risk for alcohol use disorders. Results from a series of regression analyses testing interactions between self-reported alcohol expectancies and cognitive functioning showed minimal support for the hypothesized pattern discussed by Wiers and Stacy, 2010 regarding self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies. The overall rates of significance were consistent with Type I error rates and a substantial proportion of the significant interactions were inconsistent with previous findings. Thus, the conclusion that cognitive measures consistently moderate the relation between self-reported alcohol expectancies and alcohol use and outcomes should be tempered. PMID:21443299

  16. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  17. Subtypes of Disordered Gamblers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Nower, Lia; Martins, Silvia S.; Lin, Keng-Han; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aims To derive empirical subtypes of problem gamblers based on etiological and clinical characteristics described in the Pathways Model, using data from a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults. Design & Measurement Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting The study utilized data from U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants All disordered gambling participants (N = 581) from a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of civilian non-institutionalized adults aged 18 years or older. Findings Latent class analyses indicated the best-fitting model was a three-class solution. Those in the largest class (Class 1: 51%, n=295) reported the lowest overall levels of psychopathology including gambling problem severity and mood disorders. In contrast, respondents in Class 2 (20%, n=117) had a high probability of endorsing past-year substance use disorders, moderate probabilities of having parents with alcohol/drug problems and of having a personality disorder, and the highest probability for past-year mood disorders. Respondents in Class 3 (29%, n=169) had the highest probabilities of personality and prior-to-past year mood disorders, substance use disorders, separation/divorce, drinking-related physical fights, and parents with alcohol/drug problems and/or a history of ASPD. Conclusions Three subtypes of disordered gamblers can be identified, roughly corresponding to the sub-types of the Pathways Model, ranging from a subgroup with low levels of gambling severity and psychopathology to one with high levels of gambling problem severity and comorbid psychiatric disorders. PMID:23072599

  18. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related disease mortality in New York State from 1969 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Delcher, Chris; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The relationship of increased alcohol taxes to reductions in alcohol-related harm is well established. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of sudden decreases in alcohol tax rates or effects of narrow tax changes limited to specific beverage types. In the current study, we: (1) examine whether tax increases on spirits have similar effects in reducing alcohol-related disease mortality as increasing taxes on all types of alcoholic beverages simultaneously, and (2) evaluate effects of beer-specific tax decreases in New York State on mortality. Method We used a time-series, quasi-experimental research design, including non-alcohol deaths within New York State and other states’ rates of alcohol-related disease mortality for comparison. The dataset included 456 monthly observations of mortality in New York State over a 38-year period (1969–2006). We used a random-effects approach and included several other important covariates. Results Alcohol-related disease mortality declined by 7.0% after a 1990 tax increase for spirits and beer. A spirits-only tax increase (in 1972) was not significantly associated with mortality but a data anomaly increased error in this effect estimate. Small tax decreases on beer between 1996 and 2006 had no measurable effect on mortality. Doubling the beer tax from $0.11 to $0.22 per gallon, a return to New York State’s 1990 levels, would decrease deaths by an estimated 250 deaths per year. Conclusions Excise tax increases on beer and spirits were associated with reductions in alcohol-related disease mortality. Modifying tax rates on a single beverage type does not appear to be as effective as doing so on multiple alcoholic beverages simultaneously. In New York, small decreases in beer taxes were not significantly associated with alcohol-related disease mortality. PMID:22436591

  19. Protective behavioral strategies when drinking alcohol and their relationship to negative alcohol-related consequences in college students.

    PubMed

    Martens, Matthew P; Taylor, Kari K; Damann, Krista M; Page, Jennifer C; Mowry, Emily S; Cimini, M Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Prior research has examined a number of individual characteristics (e.g., gender, family connectedness) that protect individuals from engaging in heavy drinking and experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, but less is known about specific behavioral strategies that might also serve as protective factors. In this study, 556 undergraduate students completed the National College Health Assessment (American College Health Association, 2000) and answered questions regarding the use of specific protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related consequences. Results indicated that less frequent use of PBS was related to a greater likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences, even after accounting for the effects of gender and alcohol consumption. These results suggest that PBS may be an important component of both prevention and treatment programs for college students. PMID:15631613

  20. An E-Health Solution for People With Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, David H.; Boyle, Michael G.; Shaw, Bret R.; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  1. An e-health solution for people with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, David H; Boyle, Michael G; Shaw, Bret R; Isham, Andrew; McTavish, Fiona; Richards, Stephanie; Schubert, Christopher; Levy, Michael; Johnson, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Self-management of chronic diseases has been a research focus for years. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have played a significant role in aiding patients and their families with that management task. The recent dramatic increase in smartphone capabilities has expanded the potential of these technologies by facilitating the integration of features specific to cell phones with advanced capabilities that extend the reach of what type of information can be assessed and which services can be provided. A recent review of the literature covering the use of ICTs in managing chronic diseases, including addiction, has examined the effectiveness of ICTs, with an emphasis on technologies tested in randomized controlled trials. One example of an addiction-relapse prevention system currently being tested is the Alcohol Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) Program. PMID:23293549

  2. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  3. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcohol-related incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported receiving 0 to 43 treatment experiences. Moreover, participants had a significantly greater number of alcohol-related incarcerations than all other treatments combined. These findings underline the importance of making alcohol treatment available within criminal justice settings. PMID:17602406

  4. Are All Alcohol and Energy Drink Users the Same? Examining Individual Variation in Relation to Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use, Risky Drinking and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared to non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multi-dimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmEd-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: Moderate drinker, low proportion AmEd users (ML); Heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); Moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and Heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs, however MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. PMID:23528198

  5. Community off-sales provision and the presence of alcohol-related detritus in residential neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alasdair J M; Davidson, Neil

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between community off-sales premises and alcohol-related detritus (litter/remains) in residential neighbourhoods. This was accomplished by photographing all brand-identifiable alcohol product detritus (glass, packaging, etc.) where they lay and mapping these against the presence of off-sales outlets (licensed convenience stores) in the community. It was hypothesised that alcohol-related detritus would be greatest near to such alcohol outlets. However, although there was some evidence of a "broken bottles effect", accumulations of alcohol-related detritus near some off-sales premises, it is concluded that local area deprivation is a better predictor of such alcohol-related incivility than is outlet provision. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current social responsibility policy developments which are designed to make the alcohol industry liable for alcohol-related incivilities. PMID:20004129

  6. Effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality in Florida: Time-series analyses from 1969–2004

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a hundred studies have established the effects of beverage alcohol taxes and prices on sales and drinking behaviors. Yet, relatively few studies have examined effects of alcohol taxes on alcohol-related mortality. We evaluated effects of multiple changes in alcohol tax rates in the State of Florida from 1969–2004 on disease (not injury) mortality. Methods A time-series quasi-experimental research design was used, including non-alcohol deaths within Florida and other states’ rates of alcohol-related mortality for comparison. A total of 432 monthly observations of mortality in Florida were examined over the 36-year period. Analyses included ARIMA, fixed-effects, and random effects models, including a noise model, tax independent variables, and structural covariates. Results We found significant reductions in mortality related to chronic heavy alcohol consumption following legislatively induced increases in alcohol taxes in Florida. The frequency of deaths (t=−2.73, p=.007) and the rate per population (t=−2.06, p=.04) declined significantly. The elasticity effect estimate is −0.22 (t=−1.88, p=.06), indicating a 10% increase in tax is associated with a 2.2% decline in deaths. Conclusions Increased alcohol taxes are associated with significant and sizable reductions in alcohol-attributable mortality in Florida. Results indicate that 600–800 lives per year could be saved if real tax rates were returned to 1983 levels (when the last tax increase occurred). Findings highlight the role of tax policy as an effective means for reducing deaths associated with chronic heavy alcohol use. PMID:20659073

  7. Relationship of Age of First Drink to Alcohol-Related Consequences among College Students with Unhealthy Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Dejong, William; Palfai, Tibor; Saitz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between age of first drink (AFD) and a broad range of negative alcohol-related outcomes among college students exhibiting unhealthy alcohol use. We conducted an anonymous on-line survey to collect self-report data from first-year college students at a large northeastern university. Among 1,792 respondents…

  8. Nintendo related injuries and other problems: review

    PubMed Central

    Heineman, Erik; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E N; ten Cate Hoedemaker, Henk O

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify all reported cases of injury and other problems caused by using a Nintendo video gaming system. Design Review. Data sources and review methods Search of PubMed and Embase in June 2014 for reports on injuries and other problems caused by using a Nintendo gaming system. Results Most of the 38 articles identified were case reports or case series. Injuries and problems ranged from neurological and psychological to surgical. Traditional controllers with buttons were associated with tendinitis of the extensor of the thumb. The joystick on the Nintendo 64 controller was linked to palmar ulceration. The motion sensitive Wii remote was associated with musculoskeletal problems and various traumas. Conclusions Most problems are mild and prevalence is low. The described injuries were related to the way the games are controlled, which varies according to the video game console. PMID:25515525

  9. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  10. Recurring alcohol-related care between 1998 and 2007 among people treated for an alcohol-related disorder in 1997: A register study in Stockholm County

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inpatient care for alcohol intoxication is increasing in Sweden, especially among young women. Since it is well known that alcohol disorder is a chronic relapsing illness, this study examines the extent to which people return for more care. Method All inpatients with alcohol-related diagnoses in Stockholm County during 1997 were followed prospectively to 2007 through registers. The proportion reappearing for the same diagnosis, other alcohol-related inpatient, or outpatient care each year after baseline, as well as the number of years the inpatients reappeared were calculated (n = 2735). Three diagnoses were examined separately; alcohol dependence, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol intoxication. Results Three out of five inpatients with an alcohol diagnoses reappeared for more alcohol-related inpatient care during the following decade. The proportion returning was largest the year after baseline and then decreased curvilinearly over time. The inclusion of outpatient care increased proportions, but did not change patterns. Of those with an alcohol dependence diagnosis at baseline 42 percent returned for more alcohol-related inpatient care the first, 28 percent the fifth, and 25 percent the tenth year. Corresponding proportions for harmful use and intoxication were smaller. One in five among those with an alcohol dependence returned for more than five of the ten years. Ordered logistic regressions confirmed that besides diagnosis, age and gender were independently related to the number of years returning to care. Conclusions While middle-aged males with alcohol dependence were in a revolving door, young female inpatients with intoxication diagnosis returned to a comparably lower degree. PMID:21771291

  11. Self-resolution of alcohol problems as a process of investing and re-investing in self.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld, D L

    1999-08-01

    Resolution of alcohol problems without formal treatment or participation in support groups was studied using a grounded theory approach. Thirteen former problem drinkers and their close associates were interviewed, and verbatim transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory methods. The core of self-resolving alcohol problems involves investing and/or reinvesting in self to gain or regain the essence of who or what one wants to be. Self-resolvers tend to independently change for their own benefit rather than the benefit of others, and personal resources may promote or delay the process. The effort required to self-resolve drinking problems varies, and close associates tend to be minority investors in the process. Input from health-care providers regarding the health-related hazards of drinking are largely ignored because threats to who or what one wants to be are perceived as more significant. As such, clinical interventions should emphasize personally relevant threats to self versus focusing solely on the physical consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:10478499

  12. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  13. Polygenic Scores Predict Alcohol Problems in an Independent Sample and Show Moderation by the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Jessica E.; Aliev, Fazil; Edwards, Alexis C.; Evans, David M.; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Lewis, Glyn; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Loukola, Anu; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol problems represent a classic example of a complex behavioral outcome that is likely influenced by many genes of small effect. A polygenic approach, which examines aggregate measured genetic effects, can have predictive power in cases where individual genes or genetic variants do not. In the current study, we first tested whether polygenic risk for alcohol problems—derived from genome-wide association estimates of an alcohol problems factor score from the age 18 assessment of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 4304 individuals of European descent; 57% female)—predicted alcohol problems earlier in development (age 14) in an independent sample (FinnTwin12; n = 1162; 53% female). We then tested whether environmental factors (parental knowledge and peer deviance) moderated polygenic risk to predict alcohol problems in the FinnTwin12 sample. We found evidence for both polygenic association and for additive polygene-environment interaction. Higher polygenic scores predicted a greater number of alcohol problems (range of Pearson partial correlations 0.07–0.08, all p-values ≤ 0.01). Moreover, genetic influences were significantly more pronounced under conditions of low parental knowledge or high peer deviance (unstandardized regression coefficients (b), p-values (p), and percent of variance (R2) accounted for by interaction terms: b = 1.54, p = 0.02, R2 = 0.33%; b = 0.94, p = 0.04, R2 = 0.30%, respectively). Supplementary set-based analyses indicated that the individual top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to the polygenic scores were not individually enriched for gene-environment interaction. Although the magnitude of the observed effects are small, this study illustrates the usefulness of polygenic approaches for understanding the pathways by which measured genetic predispositions come together with environmental factors to predict complex behavioral outcomes. PMID:24727307

  14. The Burnside problem and related topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adian, Sergei I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives a survey of results related to the famous Burnside problem on periodic groups. A negative solution of this problem was first published in joint papers of P.S. Novikov and the author in 1968. The theory of transformations of words in free periodic groups that was created in these papers and its various modifications give a very productive approach to the investigation of hard problems in group theory. In 1950 the Burnside problem gave rise to another problem on finite periodic groups, formulated by Magnus and called by him the restricted Burnside problem. Here it is called the Burnside-Magnus problem. In the Burnside problem the question of local finiteness of periodic groups of a given exponent was posed, but the Burnside-Magnus problem is the question of the existence of a maximal finite periodic group R(m,n) of a fixed period n with a given number m of generators. These problems complement each other. The publication in a joint paper by the author and Razborov in 1987 of the first effective proof of the well-known result of Kostrikin on the existence of a maximal group R(m,n) for any prime n, together with an indication of primitive recursive upper bounds for the orders of these groups, stimulated investigations of the Burnside-Magnus problem as well. Very soon other effective proofs appeared, and then Zel'manov extended Kostrikin's result to the case when n is any power of a prime number. These results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Bibliography: 105 titles.

  15. 75 FR 79385 - Submission for OMB; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... Collection: Title: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III. Type of...

  16. Sexual Minority Women and Alcohol: Intersections between drinking, relational contexts, stress and coping

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Megan; Kitaji, Kai; Drabble, Laurie; Trocki, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Few studies explore sexual minority women’s experiences and perceptions of alcohol. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six sexual minority women who reported having sought help for alcohol problems in the past and six who did not. Themes emerged in two broad areas: stressors that contributed to heavy or problem drinking and factors that enhanced coping and reduced both stress and problem use. Alcohol use across groups was framed in terms of social context (e.g., bar patronage), stress management, and addiction. The findings of the study underscore the importance of considering the role of alcohol in managing stress as well coping factors that may inform social service interventions. PMID:22228984

  17. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  18. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  19. Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Related Outcome Expectancies, and Partner Aggression Among Males Court-Mandated to Batterer Intervention Programs: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Hope; Morean, Meghan E; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Moore, Todd M; Zuckosky Zapor, Heather; Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Labrecque, Lindsay; Plasencia, Maribel; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    Additional work is needed to determine how and/or why the relationship between alcohol use and increased risk of partner aggression (PA) exists. Researchers have begun to examine whether alcohol-related outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the cognitive and behavioral effects of alcohol) are associated with PA irrespective of alcohol use. We examined the relationship between alcohol use, alcohol expectancies, and PA among 360 males arrested for a domestic violence offense and court-mandated to treatment. Results indicate that certain alcohol expectancies do play a role in the relationship between alcohol use and some forms of PA. PMID:25519237

  20. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  1. Alcohol marketing, drunkenness, and problem drinking among Zambian youth: findings from the 2004 Global School-Based Student Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Swahn, Monica H; Ali, Bina; Palmier, Jane B; Sikazwe, George; Mayeya, John

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol marketing strategies, alcohol education including knowledge about dangers of alcohol and refusal of alcohol, and drinking prevalence, problem drinking, and drunkenness. Analyses are based on the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) conducted in Zambia (2004) of students primarily 11 to 16 years of age (N = 2257). Four statistical models were computed to test the associations between alcohol marketing and education and alcohol use, while controlling for possible confounding factors. Alcohol marketing, specifically through providing free alcohol through a company representative, was associated with drunkenness (AOR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) and problem drinking (AOR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.06-1.87) among youth after controlling for demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, and alcohol education. However, alcohol education was not associated with drunkenness or problem drinking. These findings underscore the importance of restricting alcohol marketing practices as an important policy strategy for reducing alcohol use and its dire consequences among vulnerable youth. PMID:21647354

  2. Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and negative alcohol-related consequences: do race and gender moderate these associations?

    PubMed

    Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    White, non-Hispanic college students tend to drink more alcohol and experience more negative consequences than African American college students. However, racial differences have not been examined for protective behavioral strategies. This study examined whether race and gender moderated the associations that protective behavioral strategies had with alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. In general, the use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with greater deceases in consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences for White, non-Hispanic students than African American students, which suggests important racial differences related to protective strategy use. Research and clinical implications are provided. PMID:23967885

  3. Effects of Ads from a Drug and Alcohol Prevention Campaign on Willingness to Engage in Alcohol-Related Risky Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Comello, Maria Leonora G.; Slater, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether ads from a field-tested drug-and-alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign ads or consumer ads (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign ads lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  4. Malnutrition in alcoholic and virus-related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Caregaro, L; Alberino, F; Amodio, P; Merkel, C; Bolognesi, M; Angeli, P; Gatta, A

    1996-04-01

    The study aimed to define the prevalence, characteristics, and clinical importance of nutritional disorders in patients with liver cirrhosis. Nutritional status was evaluated in 120 hospitalized patients--77 with alcoholic and 43 with virus-related cirrhosis--by anthropometric, visceral, and immunologic measurements. Energy malnutrition, defined as triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and/or midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) below the 5th percentile of standard values, was found in 34% of the study population. Patients below the 5th percentile for MAMC and/or TSF showed significantly lower survival rates at e, 6, 12, and 24 mo compared with patients above the 5th percentile. Protein malnutrition (low albumin, transthyretin, transferrin, and retinol-binding-protein concentrations) and immunoincompetence (abnormal response to skin tests) were much more frequent (81% and 59%) than energy malnutrition (34%). Serum proteins correlated with the degree of liver function impairment, but not with immunologic tests. The prevalence, characteristics, and severity of protein-energy malnutrition were comparable in alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. Malnutrition was correlated with the clinical severity of the liver disease. The study shows that protein-energy malnutrition is a common complication of liver cirrhosis. Nutritional disorders appear to be related to the degree of liver injury rather than to its etiology. Compared with other methods, which have important limitations in liver disease, anthropometry is currently the most reliable method for nutritional assessment in clinical practice and may be valuable for predicting survival in cirrhotic patients. PMID:8599326

  5. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: impact on student drinking and drinking problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated. PMID:18482416

  6. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    1996-12-31

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it more effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.

  7. [Parents and children in families with alcohol problems--anthropologic and preventive study].

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Krzysztof Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the proposition of solution of a difficult dilemma concerning the real role of parents in the development of children in families with alcohol problem (alcohol misuse and dependency of parents). From one side drinking parents are the cause of serious destruction of child health and development. From the other side we have the data about positive influence of strong bonds between children and their parents in alcohol use prevention (parenting as protective factor). Original philosophical theory of person structure with additional theory of parenting supplies the possibility of the solution of the dilemma. It is necessary to differentiate the personal relationship and the emotions (and behaviours) as two different levels of bonding. Alcohol dependent parents have influence on both levels, they protect and make the risk at the same time. The proposal is that the protective influence is still more powerful and important, so it is necessary to protect bonds between children and their parents despite the fact of some lateral destruction. It is also necessary to confront parents with the effects of their behaviour (intervention, therapy) to develop their possibilities to renovate their parenting functions, which is necessary for effective prevention. The theory allows to understand the situation of the child in the alcohol family more precisely. It is especially important for social workers, teachers and therapists working with such families. Some rules for working with the children of alcoholics are formulated. PMID:14704491

  8. Alcohol Problems and Depression in Later Life: Development of Two Knowledge Quizzes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Clara C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Notes that effective measures of knowledge about mental health in later life are valuable in needs assessments and educational program evaluations. Describes development of two short, true/false quizzes, one on alcohol problems, other on depression and suicide in later life. Discusses usefulness of quizzes in planning and evaluating community…

  9. Screening for Patients with Alcohol Problems: Severity of Patients Identified by the CAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lairson, David R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed CAGE (first letters of keywords in series of 4 questions about drinking: cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener), instrument in routine screening for alcohol problems among 687 patients of 2 primary care physicians. Results showed that CAGE instrument was useful screening device for identifying those with mild to moderate substance abuse…

  10. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  11. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems through Drug Education. Policy Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Public schools have a responsibility to educate students about drug abuse, and states have a responsibility to assist schools in their efforts. Properly designed and implemented drug education programs are the most cost-effective means of preventing alcohol and other drug problems. Poorly designed and implemented programs, on the other hand, can…

  12. Mindfulness and Alcohol Problems in College Students: The Mediating Effects of Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenlos, Jamie S.; Noonan, Marleah; Wells, Stephanie Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between mindfulness and alcohol problems in college students, as well as the role of stress as a mediator in this relationship. Participants: Participants were 310 students from a small, private college in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed self-report measures, including the Perceived Stress Scale,…

  13. Faculty Member's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook for higher education faculty is designed to inform them of the nature and extent of alcohol and other drug abuse on the nation's campuses and to enlist their involvement in responding to these problems. Based on the premise that each individual can make a difference, the faculty member is encouraged to help shape the campus…

  14. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  16. A Qualitative Investigation of Barriers to Entry into Couples Treatment for Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Strong, David R.; Wetle, Terrie; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2011-01-01

    This study used qualitative methodology to evaluate barriers to entry into couples treatment for alcohol problems. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews. Patients were recruited from (1) treatment for primary substance use disorders, (2) treatment for psychiatric disorders (other than substance use disorders), and (3) court-mandated outpatient domestic violence programs. Mental health experts were recruited based on expertise in (1) couples treatment, (2) alcohol treatment, and (3) couples treatment for alcohol problems. Patients (N=57) met criteria for hazardous drinking, and were in committed romantic relationships. Partners (N=19) and mental health experts (N=12) also completed interviews. Interviews were analyzed using accepted qualitative strategies. Barriers to treatment entry were identified at the patient, partner, and couple level. Barriers identified included psychological barriers, alcohol illness factors, treatment preferences and beliefs, and interpersonal factors. Although many barriers are similar to those previously identified in individual alcohol treatment, barriers unique to couples treatment provide guidance for next directions for dissemination. PMID:21831561

  17. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  18. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  19. Bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…

  20. Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Problems in Missouri Parolees and Probationers.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Paul; Lundy, Christie; Stringer, Mark; Gallop, Robert; Gastfriend, David R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the naturalistic outcomes of parolees and probationers with alcohol and/or opioid problems who were treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to those treated with other medication-assisted therapies or psychosocial treatment only. Methods consisted of using intake and discharge data collected as part of SAMHSA's Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) assessments, controlling for group differences using propensity scores that were based on a range of intake variables. Results showed that patients receiving XR-NTX had longer durations of care (compared to oral naltrexone and psychosocial treatment only) and were more likely to become abstinent (compared to oral naltrexone, buprenorphine/naloxone, and psychosocial treatment only). Findings were similar for the total sample and those with opioid problems. These XR-NTX results were found in the absence of significant differences in rates of self-help participation. No differences were found in employment or arrests in this relatively short time frame. This study documents the real-world effectiveness study of current FDA-approved addiction medications in parolees/probationers and encourages the use of XR-NTX in such a criminal justice population. PMID:25841704

  1. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  2. Fast Edge-Searching and Related Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Boting

    Given a graph G = (V,E) in which a fugitive hides on vertices or along edges, graph searching problems are usually to find the minimum number of searchers required to capture the fugitive. In this paper, we consider the problem of finding the minimum number of steps to capture the fugitive. We introduce the fast edge-searching problem in the edge search model, which is the problem of finding the minimum number of steps (called the fast edge-search time) to capture the fugitive. We establish relations between the fast edge-search time and the fast search number. While the family of graphs whose fast search number is at most k is not minor-closed for any positive integer k ≥ 2, we show that the family of graphs whose fast edge-search time is at most k is minor-closed. We establish relations between the fast (edge-)searching and the node searching. These relations allow us to transform the problem of computing node search numbers to the problem of computing fast edge-search time or fast search numbers. Using these relations, we prove that the problem of deciding, given a graph G and an integer k, whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is less than or equal to k is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for Eulerian graphs. We also prove that the problem of determining whether the fast (edge-)search number of G is a half of the number of odd vertices in G is NP-complete; and it remains NP-complete for planar graphs with maximum degree 4. We present a linear time approximation algorithm for the fast edge-search time that always delivers solutions of at most (1+|V|-1/|E|+1) times the optimal value. This algorithm also gives us a tight upper bound on the fast search number of the graph. We also show a lower bound on the fast search number using the minimum degree and the number of odd vertices.

  3. Preventing Alcohol Problems Through a Student Assistance Program: A Manual for Implementation Based on the Westchester County, New York Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Gerald; And Others

    This manual was designed to provide school administrators, counselors, teachers, parent groups, and community members with a comprehensive school-based program for preventing alcohol problems. Detection and intervention before the onset of alcohol and drug problems is stressed. Modeled after employees' assistance programs used to identify and aid…

  4. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  5. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  6. Predictors of Aggression at School: The Effect of School-Related Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Frone, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Examines factors related to aggression at school, particularly involving alcohol use. Finds school aggression higher among students who are male, rebellious, have a weak sense of school identification, low academic achievement, and drink alcohol during the school day. Schools that encourage school involvement and alcohol resistance may help…

  7. American Indian/Alaska Native Alcohol-Related Incarceration and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldstein, Sarah W.; Venner, Kamilla L.; May, Philip A.

    2006-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Natives have high rates of alcohol-related arrests and are overrepresented in justice systems. To understand the relationship between alcohol dependence, treatment, and alcoholrelated incarceration, this study queried American Indian/Alaska Natives currently in remission from alcohol dependence. Participants reported…

  8. Unique Direct and Indirect Effects of Impulsivity-Like Traits on Alcohol-Related Outcomes via Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Kite, Benjamin A.; Henson, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether the use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) mediates the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related problems using a sample of 278 college students. Validating the 5-factor model of impulsivity, we showed that each impulsivity-like trait had a distinct pattern of relationships with PBS…

  9. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  10. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  11. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  12. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  13. Cyberbullying, depression, and problem alcohol use in female college students: a multisite study.

    PubMed

    Selkie, Ellen M; Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-02-01

    Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  14. Cyberbullying, Depression, and Problem Alcohol Use in Female College Students: A Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Rajitha; Chan, Ya-Fen; Moreno, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyberbullying and its effects have been studied largely in middle and high school students, but less is known about cyberbullying in college students. This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between involvement in cyberbullying and depression or problem alcohol use among college females. Two hundred and sixty-five female students from four colleges completed online surveys assessing involvement in cyberbullying behaviors. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) to assess depressive symptoms and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess problem drinking. Logistic regression tested associations between involvement in cyberbullying and either depression or problem drinking. Results indicated that 27% of participants had experienced cyberbullying in college; 17.4% of all participants met the criteria for depression (PHQ-9 score ≥10), and 37.5% met the criteria for problem drinking (AUDIT score ≥8). Participants with any involvement in cyberbullying had increased odds of depression. Those involved in cyberbullying as bullies had increased odds of both depression and problem alcohol use. Bully/victims had increased odds of depression. The four most common cyberbullying behaviors were also associated with increased odds for depression, with the highest odds among those who had experienced unwanted sexual advances online or via text message. Findings indicate that future longitudinal study of cyberbullying and its effects into late adolescence and young adulthood could contribute to the prevention of associated comorbidities in this population. PMID:25684608

  15. Relative Mortality among Criminals in Norway and the Relation to Drug and Alcohol Related Offenses

    PubMed Central

    Skardhamar, Torbjørn; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2013-01-01

    Background Registered offenders are known to have a higher mortality rate, but given the high proportion of offenders with drug-addiction, particularly among offenders with a custodial sentence, higher mortality is expected. While the level of overall mortality compared to the non-criminal population is of interest in itself, we also estimate the risk of death by criminal records related to substance abuse and other types of criminal acts, and separate between those who receive a prison sentence or not. Methods Age-adjusted relative risks of death for 2000–2008 were studied in a population based dataset. Our dataset comprise the total Norwegian population of 2.9 million individuals aged 15–69 years old in 1999, of whom 10% had a criminal record in the 1992–1999 period. Results Individuals with a criminal record have twice the relative risk (RR) of death of the control group (non-offenders). Males with a record of use/possession of drugs and a prison record have an 11.9 RR (females, 15.6); males with a drug record but no prison record have a 6.9 RR (females 10.5). Males imprisoned for driving under the influence of substances have a 4.4 RR (females 5.6); males with a record of driving under the influence but no prison sentence have a 3.2 RR (females 6.5). Other male offenders with a prison record have a 2.8 RR (females 3.7); other male offenders with no prison record have a 1.7 RR (females 2.3). Conclusion Significantly higher mortality was found for people with a criminal record, also for those without any record of drug use. Mortality is much higher for those convicted of substance-related crimes: more so for drug- than for alcohol-related crimes and for women. PMID:24223171

  16. Liver Transplantation for Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Narendra S; Kumar, Naveen; Saigal, Sanjiv; Rai, Rahul; Saraf, Neeraj; Soin, Arvinder S

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common indication for liver transplantation. It is a much debated indication for deceased donor liver transplantation due to organ shortage and potential of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. A six-month abstinence before liver transplantation is required at most centers to decrease chances of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. However, this rule is not relevant for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis or severely decompensated patients who are unlikely to survive till 6 months. Long-term care of these patients after liver transplantation includes assessment of relapse, smoking, and surveillance of de novo malignancies. Current review discusses role of abstinence, factors affecting alcohol relapse, liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis, role of living donor liver transplantation, and long-term care of ALD patients who undergo liver transplantation. PMID:27194896

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  18. Brand preferences of underage drinkers who report alcohol-related fights and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah P.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. Objectives We aimed to: 1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and 2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. Methods We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13–20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Results Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N=232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1–9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.0 and 1.1–3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. Conclusions/Importance Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes. PMID:25612075

  19. Self Efficacy, Alcohol Expectancy and Problem-Solving Appraisal as Predictors of Alcohol Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biscaro, Michael; Broer, Karen; Taylor, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are cause for concern because the educational process and quality of campus student life are disrupted. Abusive drinking can have serious consequences on all areas of college life, including economic, health, social and educational. Heavy alcohol use may result in personal injury, drunk driving, alcohol overdose, unplanned…

  20. Disorganization of Attachment in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between maternal alcohol consumption and infant attachment behavior at one year of age. Infants were classified as secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-ambivalent/resistant, or insecure-disorganized/disoriented. More infants of mothers who had consumed more alcohol were insecure in comparison with infants whose mothers…

  1. Examining Alcohol-Related Expectancies within College Class Standing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Aileen Cleyvis

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol is the most widely abused substance among America's youth (Department of Health and Human Services, 2007). A significant portion of alcohol abuse occurs in college. College is often symbolized by a tradition of drinking that is entrenched in every level of a student's environment. The purpose of this study was to examine alcohol…

  2. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  3. Adolescent Alcohol-Drinking Frequency and Problem-Gambling Severity: Adolescent Perceptions Regarding Problem-Gambling Prevention and Parental/Adult Behaviors and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, p<.0001). High-frequency-drinking versus low-frequency/non-drinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, p<.0001). Problem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928

  4. Links between Alcohol and Other Drug Problems and Maltreatment among Adolescent Girls: Perceived Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Ethnic Orientation as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Calonie M. K.; Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the links between maltreatment, posttraumatic stress symptoms, ethnicity-specific factors (i.e., perceived discrimination, ethnic identity, and ethnic orientation), and alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) problems among adolescent girls. Methods: These relations were examined using archived data from a community sample…

  5. Alcoholism prevalence and some related factors in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ekuklu, Galip; Deveci, Serol; Eskiocak, Muzaffer; Berberoglu, Ufuk; Saltik, Ahmet

    2004-04-30

    The aim of this research was to estimate the community prevalence of alcoholism and the potential risk factors that affect it in the Edirne provincial centre by using a scanning test. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Edirne provincial centre. A sample population composed of 500 women and 200 men was selected randomly after the categorisation of the population according to ethnicity, age and sex. Through face-to-face interviews, data collection sheets, which were prepared to analyse potential factors affecting alcoholism frequency, were filled in by the sample population. The Michigan Alcoholism Scanning Test (MAST) was employed. According to MAST's normal grading, individuals with 5 or more points are evaluated as alcoholics. Accordingly, 8.2% of the sample population fit the definition of alcoholic. Alcoholism frequency was considerably higher in gypsies, the self-employed, smokers, and people with higher income. From logistic regression analysis alcoholism frequency was 12.4 times higher in men than in women, 3.2 times higher in gypsies than in others, 1.9 times higher in people who earned an income in the preceding week than in the unemployed, and 3.7 times higher in individuals who had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their life or those who had smoked at least 1 cigarette for 3 months or for a longer period than in those who hadn't smoked any cigarettes. The prevalence of alcoholism in the Edirne provincial centre was similar to that in other countries in Europe. The most important finding was that alcohol consumption decreased in the unemployed, a finding that differs from that in other parts of the world. Gypsies, who differ in tradition, way of life, and job compared to the other strata of society, also suffered from higher alcohol consumption. This group usually consumed wine and generally did not eat while drinking. PMID:15118990

  6. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  7. A laboratory-based test of the relation between adolescent alcohol use and panic-relevant responding.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Cloutier, Renee M; Zamboanga, Byron L; Bunaciu, Liviu; Knapp, Ashley A

    2015-10-01

    A burgeoning literature supports a link between alcohol use and panic-spectrum problems (e.g., panic attacks, disorder) among adolescents, but the direction of influence has yet to be properly examined. From a theoretical perspective, panic-spectrum problems may increase risk for problematic drinking via affect regulation efforts (e.g., self-medication), and problematic consumption also may increase or initiate panic-relevant responding (e.g., learning or kindling models). The objective of the current investigation was to examine the role of prior alcohol use in predicting panic-relevant responding, as well as panic symptom history in predicting the desire to consume alcohol, in the context of either a voluntary hyperventilation or a low-arousal task. Participants were community-recruited adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 92, Mage = 15.42, SD = 1.51; 39.1% girls). Results indicated that prior alcohol use predicted panic-relevant responding among those undergoing the hyperventilation task (but not the low-arousal task), and that this finding was robust to the inclusion of theoretically relevant covariates (i.e., age, sex, negative affectivity). However, panic symptom history did not predict the desire to consume alcohol as a function of either the hyperventilation or low-arousal condition. This work sheds further light on the nature of the relation between panic-spectrum problems and problematic alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, the current findings suggest that frequent alcohol use may increase panic vulnerability among adolescents, whereas acute panic symptoms may not elicit the immediate (self-reported) desire to drink. PMID:26053320

  8. A Laboratory-Based Test of the Relation between Adolescent Alcohol Use and Panic-Relevant Responding

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Cloutier, Renee M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Bunaciu, Liviu; Knapp, Ashley A.

    2015-01-01

    A burgeoning literature supports a link between alcohol use and panic-spectrum problems (e.g., panic attacks, disorder) among adolescents, but the direction of influence has yet to be properly examined. From a theoretical perspective, panic-spectrum problems may increase risk for problematic drinking via affect regulation efforts (e.g., self-medication), and problematic consumption also may increase or initiate panic-relevant responding (e.g., learning or kindling models). The objective of the current investigation was to examine the role of prior alcohol use in predicting panic-relevant responding, as well as panic symptom history in predicting the desire to consume alcohol, in the context of either a voluntary hyperventilation or a low-arousal task. Participants were community-recruited adolescents aged 12-17 years (n = 92, Mage = 15.42, SD = 1.51; 39.1% girls). Results indicated that prior alcohol use predicted panic-relevant responding among those undergoing the hyperventilation task (but not the low-arousal task), and that this finding was robust to the inclusion of theoretically-relevant covariates (i.e. age, sex, negative affectivity). However, panic symptom history did not predict the desire to consume alcohol as a function of either the hyperventilation or low-arousal condition. This work sheds further light on the nature of the relation between panic-spectrum problems and problematic alcohol use in adolescence. Specifically, the current findings suggest that frequent alcohol use may increase panic vulnerability among adolescents, whereas acute panic symptoms may not elicit the immediate (self-reported) desire to drink. PMID:26053320

  9. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies E{sub macro} much larger than M{sub P}. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order E{sub macro}/N{center_dot}M{sub P}.

  10. Relative locality and the soccer ball problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Smolin, Lee

    2011-10-01

    We consider the behavior of macroscopic bodies within the framework of relative locality [G. Amelino-Camelia, L. Freidel, J. Kowalski-Glikman, and L. Smolin, arXiv:1101.0931]. This is a recent proposal for Planck scale modifications of the relativistic dynamics of particles which are described as arising from deformations in the geometry of momentum space. We consider and resolve a common objection against such proposals, which is that, even if the corrections are small for elementary particles in current experiments, they are huge when applied to composite systems such as soccer balls, planets, and stars, with energies Emacro much larger than MP. We show that this soccer ball problem does not arise within the framework of relative locality because the nonlinear effects for the dynamics of a composite system with N elementary particles appear at most of order Emacro/N·MP.

  11. Dispelling the myth of "smart drugs": cannabis and alcohol use problems predict nonmedical use of prescription stimulants for studying.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Wilcox, Holly C; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that college students' substance use problems would predict increases in skipping classes and declining academic performance, and that nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NPS) for studying would occur in association with this decline. A cohort of 984 students in the College Life Study at a large public university in the US participated in a longitudinal prospective study. Interviewers assessed NPS; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) cannabis and alcohol use disorders; and frequency of skipping class. Semester grade point average (GPA) was obtained from the university. Control variables were race, sex, family income, high school GPA, and self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Longitudinal growth curve modeling of four annual data waves estimated the associations among the rates of change of cannabis use disorder, percentage of classes skipped, and semester GPA. The associations between these trajectories and NPS for studying were then evaluated. A second structural model substituted alcohol use disorder for cannabis use disorder. More than one-third (38%) reported NPS for studying at least once by Year 4. Increases in skipping class were associated with both alcohol and cannabis use disorder, which were associated with declining GPA. The hypothesized relationships between these trajectories and NPS for studying were confirmed. These longitudinal findings suggest that escalation of substance use problems during college is related to increases in skipping class and to declining academic performance. NPS for studying is associated with academic difficulties. Although additional research is needed to investigate causal pathways, these results suggest that nonmedical users of prescription stimulants could benefit from a comprehensive drug and alcohol assessment to possibly mitigate future academic declines. PMID:23254212

  12. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  13. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  14. Childhood problem behavior and neuropsychological functioning in persons at risk for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Workman-Daniels, K L; Hesselbrock, V M

    1987-05-01

    The relationship of childhood hyperkinetic and minimal brain dysfunction (Hk-MBD) to neuropsychological functioning was examined in three groups of young adults. Nonalcoholic offspring of an alcoholic parent (N = 21) and of nonalcoholic parents (N = 21) were examined. A comparison group of similar age alcoholic patients (N = 21) was also studied. Each subject completed a battery of neuropsychological test measures and was administered a checklist on the presence of Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Offspring of an alcoholic parent and offspring of nonalcoholic parents could not be distinguished on the basis of their cognitive abilities or their frequency of reported Hk-MBD symptoms in childhood. Alcoholic subjects performed more poorly on measures of verbal and performance intelligence and reported a higher frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms. Further, it was found that the frequency of childhood Hk-MBD symptoms was related to poor performance on certain types of cognitive tasks, regardless of group membership. These findings do not support the suggestion that certain cognitive deficits distinguish persons with a family history for alcoholism. However, poor neuropsychological performance in adulthood, at least on certain types of tasks, appears to be associated with the presence of childhood Hk-MBD. PMID:3657159

  15. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples-the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  16. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  17. Determinants of alcohol use, risky sexual behavior and sexual health problems among men in low income communities of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Schensul, Jean J; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2010-08-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18-29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men's search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking rather

  18. Determinants of Alcohol Use, Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Health Problems Among Men in Low Income Communities of Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Schensul, Jean J.; Gupta, Kamla; Maharana, Barsharani; Kremelberg, David; Berg, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of the survey component of a mixed methods study of alcohol and sexual risk in a general population of young men 18–29 residing in low income communities in the Greater Mumbai area. The survey included demographic variables, and scales and indices measuring work related stress, social influence, exposure to alcohol in childhood, and currently, hyper masculinity, exposure to media and pornography, risk related leisure time activities and alcohol and alcohol/sex expectancies. Measures of alcohol use included frequency/amount/contextual use of six different types of alcohol, a general estimate of frequency and amount (AUDIT), and an estimate of total ml. alcohol consumed in the past 30 days, based on estimates of alcohol content in all types of alcohol consumed, by unit of consumption (glass, peg, bottle) etc. Sexual outcome measures included types and number of partners ever and in past year with and without alcohol, and a critical event with most recent partner (with or without alcohol) and culturally specific indicators of sexual health related to sexual risk taking. A cluster sampling protocol and the use of a screener produced a sample of 1239 men, 1071 thirty day drinkers and 161 nondrinkers. Logistic regression analysis (binary and multinomial) showed relationships between predictor variables and alcohol consumption and alcohol and sexual risk indicators as well as two of the sexual health indicators associated with extramarital sex. Risk behaviors are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in this low risk general population of married and unmarried men. Implications for intervention include: (a) reducing or eliminating home drinking, to reduce early childhood exposure; (b) including alcohol in sexual risk and HIV prevention programs; (c) improving couples (married or unmarried) communication to reduce men’s search for sexual alternatives, and (d) treating garmi as an indicator of sexual risk taking

  19. Gender and patterns of alcohol problems: pretreatment responses of women and men to the comprehensive drinker profile.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R; Cervantes, E A

    1997-04-01

    Gender differences were analyzed in a sample of 233 (83 women, 150 men) problem drinkers treated at the same clinic. Demographic and family history measures showed few gender differences. Men reported more alcohol consumption than did women, but patterns of drinking and intoxication levels were similar. Males reported drinking and intoxication at an earlier age, more beer and less wine drinking and more drinking away from home and driving after drinking. Women reported more negative emotional effects of drinking and more spouses with alcohol problems. Despite similar problem duration, men showed more lifetime alcohol problems but not dependence signs. Men were more likely to accept a disease concept of alcoholism. Rates of smoking, other drug use, and other life problems were similar. PMID:9075055

  20. Adolescent alcohol-related risk cognitions: the roles of social norms and social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook. PMID:21644803

  1. [Alcohol and drugs in Central Europe--problems and possible solutions].

    PubMed

    Nespor, K; Cs emy, L

    1994-08-22

    The high alcohol consumption and increasing abuse of other addictive inducing substances in Central Europe calls for broadley conceived preventive programmes and cheap and widely applicable therapeutic strategies (early treatment at the first contact level, self-help manuals, self-aid organizations). Social instability along with greater availability of alcohol and drugs create a dangerous combination. In addition to strategies of stress prevention at the societal level also strategy at the individual level is important (e.g. relaxation training, yoga, psychotherapy). It is also important to change the "image" of western society and commercial interests of those who make profits on alcohol and drugs should be under control and advertising should be greatly restricted if not prohibited. Prevention of problems caused by alcohol and drugs in particular in youths must be combined and really effective strategies should be used such as peer programmes. The authors mention also their own preventive programme FIT IN and print materials oriented specifically on certain population groups. PMID:7923324

  2. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development. PMID:26334710

  3. The Discursive Constitution of the UK Alcohol Problem in "Safe, Sensible, Social": A Discussion of Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackley, Chris; Bengry-Howell, Andrew; Griffin, Christine; Mistral, Willm; Szmigin, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we critically reflect on the constitution of the UK's alcohol problem in the government's "Safe, Social, Sensible" policy document, referring to findings from a 3-year ESRC funded study on young people, alcohol and identity. We suggest that discursive themes running throughout "Safe, Sensible, Social" include "shared…

  4. Research, Action, and the Community: Experiences in the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. OSAP Prevention Monograph-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman, Ed.; And Others

    This document presents modified and updated papers from a symposium held to examine alcohol and drug abuse prevention efforts worldwide. It contains 32 papers from 11 countries; papers include: (1) "Community Action on Alcohol Problems: The Demonstration Project as an Unstable Mixture" (Robin Room); (2) "Perspectives on the Community in Action…

  5. How Do Underage College Students Get Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabian, Lindsey E. A.; Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Erickson, Darin J.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and related problems are common among underage college students, yet qualitative, in-depth information on how/where these students obtain alcohol is limited. We conducted focus groups pertaining to access to alcohol and related issues with 19 underage college students. They reported that alcohol is easy to obtain from a variety…

  6. Absolute and relative stability of alexithymia in alcoholic inpatients undergoing alcohol withdrawal: relationship to depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Luts, Alain; Hers, Denis; Luminet, Olivier

    2008-01-15

    To evaluate whether alexithymia in alcohol-dependent patients is a personality trait or a state-dependent phenomenon related to depression and anxiety, we evaluated absolute stability (the extent to which alexithymia scores change over time) and relative stability (the extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) of alexithymia during alcohol withdrawal. Seventy alcohol-dependent inpatients were assessed for alexithymia, depression and anxiety with the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at the onset of withdrawal, after 2 days and 2 weeks. Paired t-tests and correlational analyses were performed to evaluate absolute and relative stability of alexithymia and hierarchical regression analyses to assess whether alexithymia was related to anxiety and depression. Alexithymia decreased significantly from onset to end of withdrawal, but two of its three subfactors remained stable. Alexithymia scores at onset correlated significantly with scores at end, after partialling out the effects of depression and anxiety. In conclusion, the relative stability of alexithymia contrasting with large decreases in depression and anxiety during alcohol withdrawal supports the view that alexithymia is a stable personality trait rather than a state-dependent phenomenon. PMID:17884180

  7. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  8. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. PMID:20117579

  9. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  10. [Therapeutic experiences with alcohol-related Korsakoff syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mrazek, M; Menges, C; Steffes, J; Thelen, B; Erkwoh, R

    1999-09-01

    Korsakoff's psychosis (Wernicke-Korsakoff-Syndrome) following severe, long-term alcoholism is considered to be widely resistant to treatment. We report two cases with beneficial effects of treatment by a combination of clonidine and fluvoxamine. PMID:10522246

  11. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Byrnes, Hilary F; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81-96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103-11). A total of 272 families with an 11-12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  12. Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behavior among College Drinkers: Associations with Protective Behaviors, Personality, and Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaak, Matthew I.; Perkins, David R.; Labatut, Tiffany R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Disregulated Alcohol-Related Behaviors Inventory (DARBI), a measure of harmful alcohol-related behavior, and the relationship between protective behavior use and scores on the DARBI and several other measures. Participants: Participants were 281 undergraduate volunteers (60%…

  13. Alcohol-Related Consequences among Intercollegiate Student Athletes: The Role of Drinking Motives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)

  14. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and alcohol-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic, Gordana; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2013-01-10

    Alcoholism is a chronic psychiatric disorder affecting neural pathways that regulate motivation, stress, reward and arousal. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates mood, response to stress and interacts with neurotransmitters and stress systems involved in reward pathways and addiction. Aim of the study was to evaluate the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (BDNF Val66Met or rs6265) and alcohol related phenotypes in Caucasian patients. In ethnically homogenous Caucasian subjects of the Croatian origin, the BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution was determined in 549 male and 126 female patients with alcohol dependence and in 655 male and 259 female healthy non-alcoholic control subjects. Based on the structured clinical interview, additional detailed clinical interview, the Brown-Goodwin Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impression scores, alcoholic patients were subdivided into those with or without comorbid depression, aggression, delirium tremens, withdrawal syndrome, early/late onset of alcohol abuse, prior suicidal attempt during lifetime, current suicidal behavior, and severity of alcohol dependence. The results showed no significant association between BDNF Val66Met variants and alcohol dependence and/or any of the alcohol related phenotypes in either Caucasian women, or men, with alcohol dependence. There are few limitations of the study. The overall study sample size was large (N=1589) but not well-powered to detect differences in BDNF Val66Met genotype distribution between studied groups. Healthy control women were older than female alcoholic patients. Only one BDNF polymorphism (rs6265) was studied. In conclusion, these data do not support the view that BDNF Val66Met polymorphism correlates with the specific alcohol related phenotypes in ethnically homogenous medication-free Caucasian subjects with alcohol dependence. PMID:23023098

  16. Alcoholics Anonymous-Related Helping and the Helper Therapy Principle

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.; Johnson, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The helper therapy principle (HTP) observes the helper’s health benefits derived from helping another with a shared malady. The HTP is embodied by the program of Alcoholics Anonymous as a method to diminish egocentrism as a root cause of addiction. This article reviews recent evidence of the HTP in alcohol populations, extends to populations with chronic conditions beyond addiction, and concludes with new directions of empirical inquiry. PMID:23525280

  17. Childhood Cognitive Measures as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Problems by Mid-Adulthood in a Non-Western Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (n = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample is from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily Caucasian samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A non-linear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were non-drinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. PMID:25621419

  18. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621419

  19. Inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Brenner, H; Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Adler, G

    1999-03-15

    Alcoholic beverages are known to have strong antibacterial activity. It is unclear, however, to what degree their consumption affects colonization of the human stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a risk factor of various chronic diseases. The authors assessed the relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with H. pylori in a cross-sectional study among employees of a health insurance company and their household members (n = 425) in southern Germany. Quantitative information on alcohol consumption by beverage type and other factors that were known or suspected to be related to infection status was collected by a standardized questionnaire, and active infection was measured by the 13C-urea breath test. After control for confounding factors, there was a monotonic inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection (p for trend = 0.017). The odds ratio of infection among subjects who consumed more than 75 g of alcohol per week compared with subjects who did not drink alcohol was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval 0.12-0.81). The inverse relation with H. pylori infection was stronger for alcohol consumed in the form of wine than for alcohol from beer. Notwithstanding its cross-sectional design, this study seems to support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, particularly wine consumption, may reduce the odds of active infection with H. pylori. PMID:10084247

  20. Treatment needs and experiences of Australian women with alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Swift, W; Copeland, J

    1996-03-01

    Two hundred and sixty-seven women were interviewed as part of a national survey examining the treatment needs and experiences of Australian women who had received assistance for their alcohol and other drug problems. The majority of women had previously received assistance for their substance use, and of these most had left alcohol and other drug treatment programs before completion. While the women cited a number of ways in which they were helped by such services, several areas were identified by the women as important and amenable to improvement. Among the service issues raised were access, models of service delivery, service structure and staffing, physical environment, physical and psychological safety and the handling of issues such as health status and sexual assault. PMID:8861399

  1. Dr. George Koob: "Alcohol use disorders are a major problem …" | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... addressing alcohol problems is increasing our understanding of underage drinking, particularly how high risk drinking by college students and other underage populations can be prevented. What's a "standard" drink? ...

  2. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  3. [What are the physician's role and responsibility in the law named "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm"?].

    PubMed

    Io, Aro; Yoshimoto, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Japan passed the national law "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm" on December 2013. This law is expected to prevent inappropriate drinking that leads to alcohol-related problems such as physical and mental disorder, drunk driving, suicide, domestic violence, child abuse, and poor work performance. The physician's responsibilities under this law are described as follows: i) to provide high quality and appropriate medical care concerning alcohol-related health harm; ii) to reduce or eliminate the consumption of alcohol, thus preventing the progression of alcohol-related health harm; and iii) to coordinate these efforts amongst medical institutions. Based on this law, we believe that Japanese physicians will have essential roles in achieving the goals of this law and that we can fulfill our responsibilities by observing the following aspects: a) changing our message to the patients from "drink sensibly and moderately" to "low-risk drinking; but any drinking has a risk of harm and low-risk drinking is not risk-free"; b) encouraging the spread and use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT); and c) establishing community healthcare systems for alcohol-related problems, including dementia in the elderly and during alcohol emergencies. PMID:26394525

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  5. Alcohol-Related Visual Cues Impede the Ability to Process Auditory Information: Seeing but Not Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Monem, Ramey G.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of visual attention find that drinkers spend more time attending to images of alcohol-related stimuli compared to neutral images. It is believed that this attentional bias contributes to the maintenance of alcohol use. However, no research has examined the possibility that this bias of visual attention might actually impede the functioning of other modalities, such as the processing of accompanying auditory stimuli. This study aimed to determine if alcohol-related images engender greater sensory dominance than neutral images, such that processing accompanying information from another modality (audition) would be impeded. Drinkers who had an attentional bias to alcohol-related images performed a multisensory perception task that measured how alcohol-related versus neutral visual images affected their ability to detect and respond to simultaneously presented auditory signals. In accord with the hypothesis, compared with neutral images, the presentation of alcohol-related images impaired the ability to detect and respond to auditory signals. Increased dominance of the visual modality was demonstrated by more bimodal targets being misclassified as visual-only targets in the alcohol target condition compared with that of the neutral. Findings suggest that increased processing of alcohol-related stimuli may impede an individual’s ability to encode and interpret information obtained from other sensory modalities. PMID:26653149

  6. Explicit and Implicit Measures of Expectancy and Related Alcohol Cognitions: A Meta-Analytic Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Below, Maureen C.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Implicit measures assess the influence of past experience on present behavior in the absence of respondents’ awareness of that influence. Application of implicit measurement to expectancy and related alcohol cognition research has helped elucidate the links between alcohol-related experiences, the functioning of alcohol-related memory, and alcohol-related behavior. Despite these advances, a coherent picture of the role of implicit measurement has been difficult to achieve due to the diversity of implicit measures used. Two central questions have emerged: do implicit measures assess a distinct aspect of the alcohol associative memory domain not accessible via explicit measurement; and, when compared to explicit measurement, do they offer unique prediction of alcohol consumption? To the end of addressing these questions, a meta-analysis of studies using both implicit and explicit measures of alcohol expectancy and other types of alcohol-related cognition is conducted. Results indicate that implicit and explicit measures are weakly related, and while they predict some shared variance in drinking, each also contributes a unique component. Results are discussed in the context of the theoretical distinction made between the two types of measures. PMID:20307108

  7. Impulsive and Reflective Processes Related to Alcohol Use in Young Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Sara; Burk, William J.; Van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples [for a meta-analysis, see Ref. (1)]. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity (WMC) are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that WMC would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male) between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = 0.78) who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility (SRC) Test; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) and a Word Association Test. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. WMC was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task. Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in alcohol use. The relations between alcohol-specific processes or

  8. [The influence of alcohol use and violent behaviour on the beliefs related to alcohol use and aggression].

    PubMed

    Bácskai, Erika; Pintye, István; Gerevich, József

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of personal involvement (drinking, violent behaviour) on beliefs concerning the causal connections between drinking alcohol and aggressive behavior. The sample of the study comprised 1200 persons representative of the population over 18 years of age and was selected by a two-step, group stratified sampling method. The measuring instruments used for the study were the questionnaire on alcohol-aggression beliefs applied by Paglia and Room, the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and the sociodemographic characteristics of gender, age and education. Analyses using multivariate regression models showed that aggressive behaviour, particularly verbal and physical aggression, and heavy drinking significantly influence the belief of a causal connection between alcohol and aggression. The more a person drinks and the more aggressive he becomes, the more likely he is not to believe the opinion that drinking leads to aggression. Women and older people have a stronger belief in the causal role played by alcohol in aggressive behaviour. These results draw attention to the importance of the cognitive effect of personal involvement. Heavy drinking and aggressivity can prevent a person from recognizing the danger that drinking can have aggressive, criminal consequences. This relationship can be used well in clinical and criminological practice of crime prevention strategy for patients treated with drinking problems and facing proceedings or condemned for criminal actions. The findings of the study also raise a theoretical consideration that the theory of social learning is not a sufficient explanatory model for the connections between drinking and aggression. PMID:16783033

  9. The Alcohol Improvement Programme: Evaluation of an Initiative to Address Alcohol-Related Health Harm in England

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Betsy; MacGregor, Susanne; Godfrey, Christine; Herring, Rachel; Lloyd, Charlie; Tchilingirian, Jordan; Toner, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008–March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). Methods: The evaluation (March 2010–September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. Results: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. Conclusion: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts. PMID:23729674

  10. Late-Life and Life History Predictors of Older Adults of High-Risk Alcohol Consumption and Drinking Problems

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This prospective, longitudinal study focused on late-life and life history predictors of high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems during a 20-year interval as adults matured from age 55–65 to age 75–85. Design, Setting, Participants A sample of older community residents (N=719) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 10 years and 20 years later. Measurements At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems, and personal and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking and help-seeking. Results Older adults who, at baseline, had more friends who approved of drinking, relied on substances for tension reduction, and had more financial resources were more likely to engage in high-risk alcohol consumption and to incur drinking problems at 10-year and 20-year follow-ups. With respect to life history factors, drinking problems by age 50 were associated with a higher likelihood of late-life high-risk alcohol consumption and drinking problems; having tried to cut down on drinking and participation in Alcoholics Anonymous were associated with a lower likelihood of high-risk consumption and problems. Conclusion Specific late-life and life history factors can identify older adults likely to engage in excessive alcohol consumption 10 and 20 years later. Targeted screening that considers current alcohol consumption and life context, and history of drinking problems and help-seeking, could help identify older adults at higher risk for excessive or problematic drinking. PMID:19969428

  11. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  12. Trends in the treatment of alcohol problems in the US general population, 1979 through 1990.

    PubMed Central

    Weisner, C; Greenfield, T; Room, R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of alcohol-treatment service utilization trends in the general population during the 1980s. METHODS. Three national surveys of the US household population (1979, 1984, and 1990) were used for trend analysis of treatment utilization. Trends in demographic characteristics of persons with lifetime treatment rates and particular types of treatment were examined by means of logistic regression analysis, controlling for alcohol problem severity and other variables. RESULTS. Substantial increases in the numbers reporting treatment were found. In all surveys, Alcoholics Anonymous was the treatment used most frequently and its use increased most, especially for women. Men were more likely than women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 5.39) and unmarried persons were twice as likely as married persons to have been treated [corrected]. Social consequences carried more predictive power than dependence symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. From a general population perspective, while overall treatment capacity has increased, the structural changes in the public/private balance of services have not positively affected the representation of women or other characteristics of the treatment population. PMID:7832262

  13. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  14. Prevalence of problem-related drinking among doctors: a review on representative samples

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Aims: This paper is a review of the literature on problem-related drinking of alcohol among medical doctors, and it deals with the epidemiology and results. Methods: A search of computer literature databases - PubMed and ETOH - was performed to locate articles reporting problem-related drinking among doctors, using population-based samples of doctors within the last two decades. Results: In the light of different definitions of problem-related drinking, there was found a breadth of prevalence of problem-related drinking - from heavy drinking and hazardous drinking (12%-16%) to misuse and dependence (6%-8%) - within the population-based samples of doctors. An increased risk was positively related to male doctors and doctors of the age of 40-45 years and older, and to some factors of work, lifestyle and health. Conclusion: For the future, it seems necessary to sensitise the research for problem-related drinking of doctors in Germany, e.g. initiating a representative survey, analysing the drinking of alcohol in the context of health, life-style and work-related factors. PMID:19675724

  15. Do Changes in Drinking Motives Mediate the Relation between Personality Change and “Maturing Out” of Problem Drinking?

    PubMed Central

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Wood, Phillip K.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that developmental changes in the personality traits of neuroticism and impulsivity correlate with changes in problem drinking during emerging and young adulthood. However, it remains unclear what potential mechanisms, or mediators, could account for these associations. Drinking motives, particularly drinking to regulate negative affect (drinking to cope) and to get “high” or “drunk” (drinking for enhancement) have been posited to mediate the relationship between personality and drinking problems. Recent work indicates changes in drinking motives parallel changes in alcohol involvement from adolescence to young adulthood. The current study examined changes in drinking motives (i.e., coping and enhancement) as potential mediators of the relation between changes in personality (impulsivity and neuroticism) with changes in alcohol problems in emerging and young adulthood. Analyses were based on data collected from a cohort of college students (N=489) at varying risk for AUDs from ages 18–35. Parallel process latent growth modeling indicated that change in coping (but not enhancement) motives specifically mediated the relation between changes in neuroticism and alcohol problems as well as the relation between changes in impulsivity and alcohol problems. Findings suggest that change in coping motives is an important mechanism in the relation between personality change and the “maturing out” of problematic alcohol involvement. PMID:20141246

  16. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araas, Teresa E.; Adams, Troy B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. Method: A national sample of 29,792 U. S. college students who…

  17. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  18. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  19. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  20. Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of…