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  1. Spatial Learning Requires mGlu5 Signalling in the Dorsal Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shawn Zheng Kai; Ganella, Despina E; Dick, Alec Lindsay Ward; Duncan, Jhodie R; Ong-Palsson, Emma; Bathgate, Ross A D; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We examined the role of hippocampal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) in spatial learning and memory. Although it has been shown that mGlu5 signalling is required for certain forms of learning and memory, its role in spatial learning is unclear since studies using pharmacological or knockout mice models provide inconsistent findings. Additionally, the location in the brain where mGlu5 signalling may modulate such learning is yet to be precisely delineated. We stereotaxically injected rAAV-Cre into the dorsal hippocampus of mGlu5(loxP/loxP) mice to knockdown mGlu5 in that region. We show for the first time that knockdown of mGlu5 in the dorsal hippocampus is sufficient to impair spatial learning in Morris Water Maze. Locomotor activity and memory retrieval were unaffected by the mGlu5 knockdown. Taken together, these findings support a key role for dorsal hippocampal mGlu5 signalling in spatial learning.

  2. The metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5, is required for extinction learning that occurs in the absence of a context change.

    PubMed

    André, Marion Agnes Emma; Güntürkün, Onur; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-02-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and, in particular, mGlu5 are crucially involved in multiple forms of synaptic plasticity that are believed to underlie explicit memory. MGlu5 is also required for information transfer through neuronal oscillations and for spatial memory. Furthermore, mGlu5 is involved in extinction of implicit forms of learning. This places this receptor in a unique position with regard to information encoding. Here, we explored the role of this receptor in context-dependent extinction learning under constant, or changed, contextual conditions. Animals were trained over 3 days to take a left turn under 25% reward probability in a T-maze with a distinct floor pattern (Context A). On Day 4, they experienced either a floor pattern change (Context B) or the same floor pattern (Context A) in the absence of reward. After acquisition of the task, the animals were returned to the maze once more on Day 5 (Context A, no reward). Treatment with the mGlu5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine, before maze exposure on Day 4 completely inhibited extinction learning in the AAA paradigm but had no effect in the ABA paradigm. A subsequent return to the original context (A, on Day 5) revealed successful extinction in the AAA paradigm, but impairment of extinction in the ABA paradigm. These data support that although extinction learning in a new context is unaffected by mGlu5 antagonism, extinction of the consolidated context is impaired. This suggests that mGlu5 is intrinsically involved in enabling learning that once-relevant information is no longer valid.

  3. DSR-98776, a novel selective mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator with potent antidepressant and antimanic activity.

    PubMed

    Kato, Taro; Takata, Makoto; Kitaichi, Maiko; Kassai, Momoe; Inoue, Mitsuhiro; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Hirose, Wataru; Yoshida, Kozo; Shimizu, Isao

    2015-06-15

    Modulation of monoaminergic systems has been the main stream of treatment for patients with mood disorders. However, recent evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. This study pharmacologically characterized a structurally novel metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor negative allosteric modulator, DSR-98776, and evaluated its effect on rodent models of depression and mania. First, DSR-98776 in vitro profile was assessed using intracellular calcium and radioligand binding assays. This compound showed dose-dependent inhibitory activity for mGlu5 receptors by binding to the same allosteric site as 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP), a known mGlu5 inhibitor. The in vivo therapeutic benefits of DSR-98776 were evaluated in common rodent models of depression and mania. In the rat forced swimming test, DSR-98776 (1-3mg/kg) significantly reduced rats immobility time after treatment for 7 consecutive days, while paroxetine (3 and 10mg/kg) required administration for 2 consecutive weeks to reduce rats immobility time. In the mouse forced swimming test, acute administration of DSR-98776 (10-30 mg/kg) significantly reduced immobility time. This effect was not influenced by 4-chloro-DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride-induced 5-HT depletion. Finally, DSR-98776 (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased methamphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced hyperactivity in mice, which reflects this compound antimanic-like effect. These results indicate that DSR-98776 acts as an orally potent antidepressant and antimanic in rodent models and can be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of a broad range of mood disorders with depressive and manic states. PMID:25823809

  4. Shining Light on an mGlu5 Photoswitchable NAM: A Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Dalton, James A R; Lans, Isaias; Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Gómez-Santacana, Xavier; Pittolo, Silvia; Gorostiza, Pau; Llebaria, Amadeu; Goudet, Cyril; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are important drug targets because of their involvement in several neurological diseases. Among mGluRs, mGlu5 is a particularly high-profile target because its positive or negative allosteric modulation can potentially treat schizophrenia or anxiety and chronic pain, respectively. Here, we computationally and experimentally probe the functional binding of a novel photoswitchable mGlu5 NAM, termed alloswitch-1, which loses its NAM functionality under violet light. We show alloswitch-1 binds deep in the allosteric pocket in a similar fashion to mavoglurant, the co-crystallized NAM in the mGlu5 transmembrane domain crystal structure. Alloswitch-1, like NAM 2-Methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), is significantly affected by P655M mutation deep in the allosteric pocket, eradicating its functionality. In MD simulations, we show alloswitch-1 and MPEP stabilize the co-crystallized water molecule located at the bottom of the allosteric site that is seemingly characteristic of the inactive receptor state. Furthermore, both NAMs form H-bonds with S809 on helix 7, which may constitute an important stabilizing interaction for NAM-induced mGlu5 inactivation. Alloswitch-1, through isomerization of its amide group from trans to cis is able to form an additional interaction with N747 on helix 5. This may be an important interaction for amide-containing mGlu5 NAMs, helping to stabilize their binding in a potentially unusual cis-amide state. Simulated conformational switching of alloswitch-1 in silico suggests photoisomerization of its azo group from trans to cis may be possible within the allosteric pocket. However, photoexcited alloswitch-1 binds in an unstable fashion, breaking H-bonds with the protein and destabilizing the co-crystallized water molecule. This suggests photoswitching may have destabilizing effects on mGlu5 binding and functionality.

  5. Location-Dependent Signaling of the Group 1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor mGlu5

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Yuh-Jiin I.; Sergin, Ismail; Purgert, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Although G protein–coupled receptors are primarily known for converting extracellular signals into intracellular responses, some receptors, such as the group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGlu5, are also localized on intracellular membranes where they can mediate both overlapping and unique signaling effects. Thus, besides “ligand bias,” whereby a receptor’s signaling modality can shift from G protein dependence to independence, canonical mGlu5 receptor signaling can also be influenced by “location bias” (i.e., the particular membrane and/or cell type from which it signals). Because mGlu5 receptors play important roles in both normal development and in disorders such as Fragile X syndrome, autism, epilepsy, addiction, anxiety, schizophrenia, pain, dyskinesias, and melanoma, a large number of drugs are being developed to allosterically target this receptor. Therefore, it is critical to understand how such drugs might be affecting mGlu5 receptor function on different membranes and in different brain regions. Further elucidation of the site(s) of action of these drugs may determine which signal pathways mediate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25326002

  6. Prolonged administration of antidepressant drugs leads to increased binding of [(3)H]MPEP to mGlu5 receptors.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Gabriel; Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Siwek, Agata; Niedzielska, Ewa; Pomierny, Bartosz; Pałucha-Poniewiera, Agnieszka; Pilc, Andrzej

    2014-09-01

    Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are functionally connected with NMDA receptors. The antidepressant activity of the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine in both preclinical and clinical studies, along with the antidepressant-like activities of negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) of mGlu5, led us to investigate if prolonged administration of various antidepressant drugs or the mGlu5 NAM, MTEP, causes changes in mGlu5 receptor availability or protein expression or in expression of Homer proteins in the rat brain. Our results clearly show that prolonged treatment with antidepressants with various mechanisms of action (such as escitalopram, reboxetine, milnacipran, moclobemide and imipramine) or with MTEP led to significant increases in [(3)H]MPEP binding in homogenates of the hippocampus and/or cerebral cortex. Increases in mGlu5 expression were also observed, though they did not always parallel the increase in binding. The results indicate that adaptive up-regulation of mGlu5 receptors may be a common change induced by antidepressant drugs. PMID:24796254

  7. Cellular distribution of AMPA receptor subunits and mGlu5 following acute and repeated administration of morphine or methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Herrold, Amy A; Persons, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2013-08-01

    Ionotropic AMPA receptors (AMPAR) and metabotropic glutamate group I subtype 5 receptors (mGlu5) mediate neuronal and behavioral effects of abused drugs. mGlu5 stimulation increases expression of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase isoform 61 (STEP61 ) which internalizes AMPARs. We determined the rat brain profile of these proteins using two different classes of abused drugs, opiates, and stimulants. STEP61 levels, and cellular distribution/expression of AMPAR subunits (GluA1, GluA2) and mGlu5, were evaluated via a protein cross-linking assay in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral pallidum (VP) harvested 1 day after acute, or fourteen days after repeated morphine (8 mg/kg) or methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) (treatments producing behavioral sensitization). Acute morphine decreased GluA1 and GluA2 surface expression in mPFC and GluA1 in NAc. Fourteen days after repeated morphine or methamphetamine, mGlu5 surface expression increased in VP. In mPFC, mGlu5 were unaltered; however, after methamphetamine, STEP61 levels decreased and GluA2 surface expression increased. Pre-treatment with a mGlu5-selective negative allosteric modulator, blocked methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization and changes in mPFC GluA2 and STEP61 . These data reveal (i) region-specific distinctions in glutamate receptor trafficking between acute and repeated treatments of morphine and methamphetamine, and (ii) that mGlu5 is necessary for methamphetamine-induced alterations in mPFC GluA2 and STEP61 .

  8. Discovery and SAR of a novel series of non-MPEP site mGlu5 PAMs based on an aryl glycine sulfonamide scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alice L.; Zhou, Ya; Williams, Richard; Weaver, C. David; Vinson, Paige N.; Dawson, Eric S.; Steckler, Thomas; Lavreysen, Hilde; Mackieg, Claire; Bartolomé, José M.; Macdonald, Gregor J.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the discovery and SAR of a novel series of non-MPEP site metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) based on an aryl glycine sulfonamide scaffold. This series represents a rare non-MPEP site mGlu5 PAM chemotype. PMID:23142615

  9. mGlu5 receptor antagonists: a novel class of anxiolytics?

    PubMed

    Spooren, Will; Gasparini, Fabrizio

    2004-05-01

    In the early 1990s, a new family of receptors were cloned that were found to mediate the intracellular metabolic effects of glutamate via coupling to secondary messenger systems, that is, the metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. Eight such receptors (mGlu1 to mGlu8) have been cloned to date, and according to their amino acid sequence, pharmacology and second-messenger coupling, these receptors have been clustered into three groups (I-III). In contrast to the glutamate-gated ion channels (NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors), which are responsible for fast excitatory transmission, mGlu receptors have been shown to play a modulatory role in the glutamatergic synaptic transmission either by modulating the ion channel activity or by influencing neurotransmitter release. Given the fact that the mGlu receptors are G-protein- coupled, they obviously constitute a new attractive group of "drugable" targets for the treatment of various CNS disorders. The recent discovery of small molecules that selectively bind to receptors of group I (mGlu1 and mGlu5) and group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3) allowed significant advances in our understanding of the roles of these receptors in brain physiology and pathophysiology. The identification of MPEP (2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine), a highly selective and brain-penetrant mGlu5 receptor antagonist, allowed the exploration of the therapeutic potential of this class of compounds. Subsequent behavior studies revealed that--with the exception of benzodiazepines--mGlu5 receptor antagonists exhibit the widest and most robust anxiolytic activity in preclinical models seen to date. Upcoming clinical studies will soon indicate if the preclinical anxiolytic-like efficacy translates into anxiolytic activity in humans. PMID:15334174

  10. Tetrahydronaphthyridine and Dihydronaphthyridinone Ethers As Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Starting from an acetylene-based lead from high throughput screening, an evolved bicyclic dihydronaphthyridinone was identified. We describe further refinements leading to both dihydronaphthyridinone and tetrahydronaphthyridine mGlu5 PAMs containing an alkoxy-based linkage as an acetylene replacement. Exploration of several structural features including western pyridine ring isomers, positional amides, linker connectivity/position, and combinations thereof, reveal that these bicyclic modulators generally exhibit steep SAR and within specific subseries display a propensity for pharmacological mode switching at mGlu5 as well as antagonist activity at mGlu3. Structure–activity relationships within a dihydronaphthyridinone subseries uncovered 12c (VU0405372), a selective mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency, low glutamate fold-shift, acceptable DMPK properties, and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis. PMID:24914612

  11. Biphasic modulation by mGlu5 receptors of TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation in sensory neurons contributes to heat sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Masuoka, T; Nakamura, T; Kudo, M; Yoshida, J; Takaoka, Y; Kato, N; Ishibashi, T; Imaizumi, N; Nishio, M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevation of glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, during inflammation and injury plays a crucial role in the reception and transmission of sensory information via ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the biphasic effects of metabotropic glutamate mGlu5 receptor activation on responses to noxious heat. Experimental Approach We assessed the effects of intraplantar quisqualate, a non-selective glutamate receptor agonist, on heat and mechanical pain behaviours in mice. In addition, the effects of quisqualate on the intracellular calcium response and on membrane currents mediated by TRPV1 channels, were examined in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons from mice. Key Results Activation of mGlu5 receptors in hind paw transiently increased, then decreased, the response to noxious heat. In sensory neurons, activation of mGlu5 receptors potentiated TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium elevation, while terminating activation of mGlu5 receptors depressed it. TRPV1-induced currents were potentiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors under voltage clamp conditions and these disappeared after washout. However, voltage-gated calcium currents were inhibited by the mGlu5 receptor agonist, even after washout. Conclusions and Implications These results suggest that, in sensory neurons, mGlu5 receptors biphasically modulate TRPV1-mediated intracellular calcium response via transient potentiation of TRPV1 channel-induced currents and persistent inhibition of voltage-gated calcium currents, contributing to heat hyper- and hypoalgesia. PMID:25297838

  12. Metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlu5 is a mediator of appetite and energy balance in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Margaret J; Campbell, Una; Giracello, Darlene; Chapman, Deborah; King, Chris; Tehrani, Lida; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Anderson, Jeff; Varney, Mark A; Strack, Alison M

    2005-04-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGlu5 modulates central reward pathways. Many transmitter systems within reward pathways affect feeding. We examined the potential role of mGlu5 in body weight regulation using genetic and pharmacological approaches. Adult mice lacking mGlu5, mGluR5-/-, weighed significantly less than littermate controls (mGluR5+/+, despite no difference in ad libitum food intake. After overnight food deprivation, mGluR5-/- mice ate significantly less than their mGluR5+/+ controls when refeeding. When on a high fat diet, mGluR5-/- mice weighed less and had decreased plasma insulin and leptin concentrations. The selective mGlu5 antagonist MTEP [3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)-ethynyl]-pyridine; 15 mg/kg s.c.] reduced refeeding after overnight food deprivation in mGluR5+/+, but not mGluR5-/- mice, demonstrating that feeding suppression is mediated via a mGlu5 mechanism. MTEP (1-10 mg/kg) decreased night-time food intake in rats in a dose-related manner. At 10 mg/kg, MTEP injected at 8.5, 4.5, or 0.5 h before refeeding reduced overnight food intake by approximately approximately 30%. Diet-induced obese (DIO) and age-matched lean rats were treated for 12 days with MTEP (3 or 10 mg/kg/day s.c.), dexfenfluramine (3 mg/kg/day s.c.), or vehicle. Daily and cumulative food intakes were reduced in DIO rats by MTEP and dexfenfluramine. Weight gain was prevented with MTEP (3 mg/kg), and weight and adiposity loss was seen with MTEP (10 mg/kg) and dexfenfluramine. Caloric efficiency was decreased, suggesting increased energy expenditure. In lean rats, similar, although smaller, effects were observed. In conclusion, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we have shown that mGlu5 modulates food intake and energy balance in rodents.

  13. Dihydrothiazolopyridone Derivatives as a Novel Family of Positive Allosteric Modulators of the Metabotropic Glutamate 5 (mGlu5) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bartolomé-Nebreda, José Manuel; Conde-Ceide, Susana; Delgado, Francisca; Iturrino, Laura; Pastor, Joaquín; Pena, Miguel Ángel; Trabanco, Andrés A.; Tresadern, Gary; Wassvik, Carola M.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Jadhav, Satyawan; Gogi, Kiran; Vinson, Paige N.; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Days, Emily; Weaver, C. David; Lindsley, Craig W.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Rombouts, Frederik; Lavreysen, Hilde; Macdonald, Gregor J.; Mackie, Claire; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Starting from a singleton chromanone high throughput screening (HTS) hit, we describe a focused medicinal chemistry optimization effort leading to the identification of a novel series of phenoxymethyl-dihydrothiazolopyridone derivatives as selective positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor. These dihydrothiazolopyridones potentiate receptor responses in recombinant systems. In vitro and in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) evaluation allowed us to select compound 16a for its assessment in a preclinical animal screen of possible antipsychotic activity. 16a was able to reverse amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in rats in a dose-dependent manner without showing any significant motor impairment or overt neurological side effects at comparable doses. Evolution of our medicinal chemistry program, structure activity, and properties relationships (SAR and SPR) analysis as well as a detailed profile for optimized mGlu5 receptor PAM 16a are described. PMID:23947773

  14. Pharmacological enhancement of mGlu5 receptors rescues behavioral deficits in SHANK3 knock-out mice

    PubMed Central

    Vicidomini, Cinzia; Ponzoni, Luisa; Lim, Dmitry; Schmeisser, Michael; Reim, Dominik; Morello, Noemi; Orelanna, Daniel; Tozzi, Alessandro; Durante, Valentina; Scalmani, Paolo; Mantegazza, Massimo; Genazzani, Armando A.; Giustetto, Maurizio; Sala, Mariaelvina; Calabresi, Paolo; Boeckers, Tobias M.; Sala, Carlo; Verpelli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    SHANK3 (also called PROSAP2) genetic haploinsufficiency is thought to be the major cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS). PMS is a rare genetic disorder that causes a severe form of intellectual disability (ID), expressive language delays and other autistic features. Furthermore, a significant number of SHANK3 mutations have been identified in patients with Autism Spectrum disorders ASD, and SHANK3 truncating mutations are associated with moderate to profound ID. The Shank3 protein is a scaffold protein that is located in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of excitatory synapses and is crucial for synapse development and plasticity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with the ASD-like behaviors observed in Shank3Δ11-/- mice in which exon 11 has been deleted. Our results indicate that Shank3 is essential to mediating mGlu5 receptor signaling by recruiting Homer1b/c to the PSD, specifically in the striatum and cortex. Moreover, augmenting mGlu5 receptor activity by administering 3-Cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) ameliorated the functional and behavioral defects that were observed in Shank3Δ11-/- mice, suggesting that pharmaceutical treatments that increase mGlu5 activity may represent a new approach for treating patients that are affected by PMS and SHANK3 mutations. PMID:27021819

  15. Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats

    PubMed Central

    D’Amore, V.; Santolini, I.; van Rijn, C.M.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Prete, A.; Conn, P.J.; Lindsley, C.W.; Zhou, Y.; Vinson, P.N.; Rodriguez, A.L.; Jones, C.K.; Stauffer, S.R.; Nicoletti, F.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Ngomba, R.T.

    2013-01-01

    Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. PMID:22705340

  16. Potentiation of mGlu5 receptors with the novel enhancer, VU0360172, reduces spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, V; Santolini, I; van Rijn, C M; Biagioni, F; Molinaro, G; Prete, A; Conn, P J; Lindsley, C W; Zhou, Y; Vinson, P N; Rodriguez, A L; Jones, C K; Stauffer, S R; Nicoletti, F; van Luijtelaar, G; Ngomba, R T

    2013-03-01

    Absence epilepsy is generated by the cortico-thalamo-cortical network, which undergoes a finely tuned regulation by metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors. We have shown previously that potentiation of mGlu1 receptors reduces spontaneous occurring spike and wave discharges (SWDs) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, whereas activation of mGlu2/3 and mGlu4 receptors produces the opposite effect. Here, we have extended the study to mGlu5 receptors, which are known to be highly expressed within the cortico-thalamo-cortical network. We used presymptomatic and symptomatic WAG/Rij rats and aged-matched ACI rats. WAG/Rij rats showed a reduction in the mGlu5 receptor protein levels and in the mGlu5-receptor mediated stimulation of polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis in the ventrobasal thalamus, whereas the expression of mGlu5 receptors was increased in the somatosensory cortex. Interestingly, these changes preceded the onset of the epileptic phenotype, being already visible in pre-symptomatic WAG/Rij rats. SWDs in symptomatic WAG/Rij rats were not influenced by pharmacological blockade of mGlu5 receptors with MTEP (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.p.), but were significantly decreased by mGlu5 receptor potentiation with the novel enhancer, VU0360172 (3 or 10 mg/kg, s.c.), without affecting motor behaviour. The effect of VU0360172 was prevented by co-treatment with MTEP. These findings suggest that changes in mGlu5 receptors might lie at the core of the absence-seizure prone phenotype of WAG/Rij rats, and that mGlu5 receptor enhancers are potential candidates to the treatment of absence epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors'. PMID:22705340

  17. [(18)F]FPEB and [(18)F]FDEGPECO comparative study of mGlu5 quantification in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee Hae; Lee, Minkyung; Ryu, Young Hoon; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Kim, Chul Hoon; Lee, Kyo Chul; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Jae Yong

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to compare [(18)F]FPEB and [(18)F]FDEGPECO for the quantification of mGlu5 receptors in rodent brains. After preparation of radioligands, dynamic PET data was acquired for 90min. Estimated non-displaceable binding potential (BPND) values were calculated from the non-invasive Logan's graphical analysis method. Although both radioligands showed similar radiochemical amenability, [(18)F]FPEB PET showed higher brain uptake and superior binding potential values than those of [(18)F]FDEGPECO PET (peak brain uptakes in the hippocampus and the striatum: 7.2-8.7 vs. 5.0-6.2, BPND: 7.3-9.6 vs. 0.3-0.4 for [(18)F]FPEB and [(18)F]FDEGPECO, respectively). In addition, the target-to-reference ratios for [(18)F]FPEB is >4 fold than those of [(18)F]FDEGPECO. From this evidence, we conclude that [(18)F]FPEB is a superior radioligand for mGlu5 imaging in preclinical studies.

  18. Differential Modulation of Thresholds for Intracranial Self-Stimulation by mGlu5 Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulators: Implications for Effects on Drug Self-Administration

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, Richard M.; Watterson, Lucas R.; Johnson, Meagan A.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of the type 5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu5) receptor alters various addiction related behaviors such as drug self-administration and the extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. However, the effects of pharmacological modulation of mGlu5 receptors on brain reward function have not been widely investigated. We examined the effects of acute administration of positive and negative allosteric modulators (PAMs and NAMs, respectively) on brain reward function by assessing thresholds for intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). In addition, when acute effects were observed, we examined changes in ICSS thresholds following repeated administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bipolar electrodes into the medial forebrain bundle and trained to respond for ICSS, followed by assessment of effects of mGlu5 ligands on ICSS thresholds using a discrete trials current–intensity threshold determination procedure. Acute administration of the selective mGlu5 NAMs MTEP (0, 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg) and fenobam (0, 3, 10, or 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased ICSS thresholds (∼70% at the highest dose tested), suggesting a deficit in brain reward function. Acute administration of the mGlu5 PAMs CDPPB (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) or ADX47273 (0, 10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) was without effect at any dose tested. When administered once daily for five consecutive days, the development of tolerance to the ability of threshold-elevating doses of MTEP and fenobam to increase ICSS thresholds was observed. We conclude that mGlu5 PAMs and NAMs differentially affect brain reward function, and that tolerance to the ability of mGlu5 NAMs to reduce brain reward function develops with repeated administration. These brain reward deficits should be taken into consideration when interpreting acute effects of mGlu5 NAMs on drug self-administration, and repeated administration of these ligands may be an effective method to reduce these deficits. PMID:22232603

  19. Discovery and SAR of novel series of imidazopyrimidinones and dihydroimidazopyrimidinones as positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5)

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Martín, María Luz; Bartolomé-Nebreda, José Manuel; Conde-Ceide, Susana; Alonso de Diego, Sergio A.; López, Silvia; Martínez-Viturro, Carlos M.; Tong, Han Min; Lavreysen, Hilde; Macdonald, Gregor J.; Steckler, Thomas; Mackie, Claire; Bridges, Thomas M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Niswender, Colleen M.; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Jones, Carrie K.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery and SAR of two novel series of imidazopyrimidinones and dihydroimidazopyrimidinones as metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). Exploration of several structural features in the western and eastern part of the imidazopyrimidinone core and combinations thereof, revealed compound 4a as a mGlu5 PAM with good in vitro potency and efficacy, acceptable drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic (DMPK) properties and in vivo efficacy in an amphetamine-based model of psychosis. However, the presence of CNS-mediated adverse effects in preclinical species precluded any further in vivo evaluation. PMID:25683622

  20. Rational design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship of benzoxazolones: new potent mglu5 receptor antagonists based on the fenobam structure.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Simona M; Jaeschke, Georg; Buettelmann, Bernd; Huwyler, Jörg; Kolczewski, Sabine; Peters, Jens-Uwe; Prinssen, Eric; Porter, Richard; Spooren, Will; Vieira, Eric

    2007-03-01

    A novel class of potent and stable mGlu5 receptor antagonists was developed by combining information from a high-throughput screening campaign with the structure of the known anxiolytic fenobam. Representative compounds from this class show favorable pharmacokinetic properties and are active in an in vivo model of anxiety.

  1. Differential regulation of mGlu5 R and ΜOPr by priming- and cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviour in mice.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Ehteramyan, Mazdak; Hourani, Susanna; Kitchen, Ian; Maldonado, Rafael; Bailey, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    The key problem for the treatment of drug addiction is relapse to drug use after abstinence that can be triggered by drug-associated cues, re-exposure to the drug itself and stress. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying relapse is essential in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies for its prevention. Given the evidence implicating the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5 R), μ-opioid receptor (MOPr), κ-opioid receptor (ΚOPr) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) systems in cocaine addiction and relapse, our aim was to assess the modulation of these receptors using a mouse model of cue- and priming-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Male mice were trained to self-administer cocaine (1 mg/kg/infusion, i.v.) and were randomized into different groups: (1) cocaine self-administration; (2) cocaine extinction; (3) cocaine-primed (10 mg/kg i.p.); or (4) cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Mice undergoing the same protocols but receiving saline instead of cocaine were used as controls. Quantitative autoradiography of mGlu5 R, MOPr, KOPr and OTR showed a persistent cocaine-induced upregulation of the mGlu5 R and OTR in the lateral septum and central amygdala, respectively. Moreover, a downregulation of mGlu5 R and MOPr was observed in the basolateral amygdala and striatum, respectively. Further, we showed that priming- but not cue-induced reinstatement upregulates mGlu5 R and MOPr binding in the nucleus accumbens core and basolateral amygdala, respectively, while cue- but not priming-induced reinstatement downregulates MOPr binding in caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens core. This is the first study to provide direct evidence of reinstatement-induced receptor alterations that are likely to contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning relapse to cocaine seeking.

  2. Development of a novel, CNS-penetrant, metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3) NAM probe (ML289) derived from a closely related mGlu5 PAM.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Douglas J; Wenthur, Cody J; Bruner, Joshua A; Carrington, Sheridan J S; Vinson, Paige N; Gogi, Kiran K; Blobaum, Anna L; Morrison, Ryan D; Vamos, Mitchell; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Stauffer, Shaun R; Daniels, J Scott; Niswender, Colleen M; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2012-06-15

    Herein we report the discovery and SAR of a novel metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu(3)) NAM probe (ML289) with 15-fold selectivity versus mGlu(2). The mGlu(3) NAM was discovered via a 'molecular switch' from a closely related, potent mGlu(5) positive allosteric modulator (PAM), VU0092273. This NAM (VU0463597, ML289) displays an IC(50) value of 0.66 μM and is inactive against mGlu(5). PMID:22607673

  3. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  4. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  5. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  6. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  7. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  8. Binary surfactant mixtures for minimizing alcohol cosolvent requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Fortney, L.N.; Lalanne-Cassov, C.; Schechter, R.S.; Wade, W.H.; Yiv, S.H.

    1983-10-01

    The role of alcohols in microemulsion formation is two-fold. They are used to bring the oil/water/surfactant system to its optimum formulation and they destroy highly extended structures, generating instead microemulsion. Given the freedom of choice among surfactants and their mixtures, the former role of the alcohol can easily be obviated. However, the latter requirement is more fundamental and not so easily removed. This study provides guidance in the purposeful construction of mixtures of synthetic surfactants which can minimize or eliminate alcohol requirements, depending on temperature and salinity. The approach was to mix straight tailed (high solubilization) species with mid-chain branched (low cosolvent requirement) species in a spectrum of mole ratios and reduce the alcohol concentration to the point that phase transitions destroyed the microemulsion. A number of systems were identified with acceptably large solubilization parameters and no residual cosolvent requirements.

  9. Effects of response requirement and alcohol on human aggressive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Cherek, D R; Spiga, R; Egli, M

    1992-01-01

    Nine men participated in two experiments to determine the effects of increased response requirement and alcohol administration on free-operant aggressive responding. Two response buttons (A and B) were available. Pressing Button A was maintained by a fixed-ratio 100 schedule of point presentation. Subjects were instructed that completion of each fixed-ratio 10 on Button B resulted in the subtraction of a point from a fictitious second subject. Button B presses were defined as aggressive because they ostensibly resulted in the presentation of an aversive stimulus to another person. Aggressive responses were engendered by a random-time schedule of point loss and were maintained by initiation of intervals free of point loss. Instructions attributed these point losses to Button B presses of the fictitious other subject. In Experiment 1, increasing the ratio requirement on Button B decreased the number of ratios completed in 4 of 5 subjects. In Experiment 2, the effects of placebo and three alcohol doses (0.125, 0.25, and 0.375 g/kg) were determined when Button B presses were maintained at ratio values of 20, 40 and 80. Three subjects who reduced aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values reduced aggressive responding further at higher alcohol doses. One subject who did not reduce aggressive responding with increasing fixed-ratio values increased aggressive responding at the highest alcohol dose. The results of this study support suggestions that alcohol alters aggressive behavior by reducing the control of competing contingencies. PMID:1447545

  10. Exploration of Allosteric Agonism Structure-Activity Relationships within an Acetylene Series of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 (mGlu5) Positive Allosteric Modulators (PAMs): discovery of 5-((3-fluorophenyl)ethynyl)-N-(3-methyloxetan-3-yl)picolinamide (ML254)

    PubMed Central

    Turlington, Mark; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Chun, Aspen; Zhou, Ya; Gogliotti, Rocco D.; Nguyen, Elizabeth D.; Gregory, Karen J.; Vinson, Paige N.; Rook, Jerri M.; Gogi, Kiran K.; Xiang, Zixiu; Bridges, Thomas M.; Daniels, J. Scott; Jones, Carrie; Niswender, Colleen M.; Meiler, Jens; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Stauffer, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of schizophrenia. Both allosteric agonism and high glutamate fold-shift have been implicated in the neurotoxic profile of some mGlu5 PAMs; however, these hypotheses remain to be adequately addressed. To develop tool compounds to probe these hypotheses, the structure-activity relationship of allosteric agonism was examined within an acetylenic series of mGlu5 PAMs exhibiting allosteric agonism in addition to positive allosteric modulation (ago-PAMs). PAM 38t, a low glutamate fold-shift allosteric ligand (maximum fold-shift ~3.0), was selected as a potent PAM with no agonism in the in vitro system used for compound characterization and in two native electrophysiological systems using rat hippocampal slices. PAM 38t (ML254) will be useful to probe the relative contribution of cooperativity and allosteric agonism to the adverse effect liability and neurotoxicity associated with this class of mGlu5 PAMs. PMID:24050755

  11. 27 CFR 26.202 - Requirements of the Federal Alcohol Administration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements of the Federal Alcohol Administration Act. 26.202 Section 26.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands §...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1263 - Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1263 Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA, CAS Reg. No. 97-99-4) is exempt from...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1263 - Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1263 Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA, CAS Reg. No. 97-99-4) is exempt from...

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  18. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must service agents comply with DOT drug and... Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  19. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  20. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... verified positive drug test result or an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater to a Substance Abuse... (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE...

  1. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... verified positive drug test result or an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater to a Substance Abuse... (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE...

  2. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  3. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  4. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  5. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  6. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  7. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  8. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  9. Hepatic Steatosis in Response to Acute Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish requires Srebp Activation

    PubMed Central

    Passeri, Michael J.; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse and may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying steatosis following acute alcohol exposure are unknown. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidant stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop hepatomegaly and steatosis accompanied by changes in the expression of genes required for hepatic lipid metabolism. Based on the importance of SREPBs in chronic ALD, we explored the role of Srebps in this model of acute ALD. Srebp activation was prevented in gonzo larvae, which harbor a mutation in the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1) gene, and in embryos injected with a morpholino to knock-down Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap). Both gonzo mutants and scap morphants were resistant to steatosis in response to 2% EtOH, and the expression of many Srebp target genes are down regulated in gonzo mutant livers. Conclusion Zebrafish larvae develop signs of acute ALD, including steatosis. Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. PMID:19127516

  10. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... requirements of this part and 49 CFR Part 40. (d) Procedures for referring a covered employee who has a verified positive drug test result or an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or greater to a Substance...

  11. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT... Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a... DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations, consistent with the requirements of Subpart Q...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  15. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  1. The Metabotropic Glutamate 5 Receptor Modulates Extinction and Reinstatement of Methamphetamine-Seeking in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chesworth, Rose; Brown, Robyn M.; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant with no therapeutics registered to assist addicts in discontinuing use. Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in the development and maintenance of addiction. We sought to assess the involvement of the metabotropic glutamate 5 receptor (mGlu5) in behaviours relevant to METH addiction because this receptor has been implicated in the actions of other drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine and opiates. mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice were tested in intravenous self-administration, conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization. Self-administration of sucrose was used to assess the response of KO mice to a natural reward. Acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, as well as the motivation to self-administer METH was intact in mGlu5 KO mice. Importantly, mGlu5 KO mice required more extinction sessions to extinguish the operant response for METH, and exhibited an enhanced propensity to reinstate operant responding following exposure to drug-associated cues. This phenotype was not present when KO mice were tested in an equivalent paradigm assessing operant responding for sucrose. Development of conditioned place preference and locomotor sensitization were intact in KO mice; however, conditioned hyperactivity to the context previously paired with drug was elevated in KO mice. These data demonstrate a role for mGlu5 in the extinction and reinstatement of METH-seeking, and suggests a role for mGlu5 in regulating contextual salience. PMID:23861896

  2. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for...

  3. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug content. (1) Refusal by an operator to submit to a test is prohibited and proof of refusal may be admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and...

  4. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  5. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  6. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  7. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  8. Polysubstance abuse: alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines require coordinated engagement by society, patients, and physicians.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, Uzor C; Lotfipour, Shahram; Chakravarthy, Bharath

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR), benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse.

  9. 27 CFR 26.202 - Requirements of the Federal Alcohol Administration Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO... political subdivision thereof or any officer or employee of any such agency, bringing liquors into the... copy thereof, and every person and any agency of a State or political subdivision thereof or...

  10. [Normative definition of staff requirement for a guideline-adherent inpatient qualified detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, F; Koopmann, A; Godemann, F; Wolff, J; Batra, A; Mann, K

    2016-03-01

    The central element of the "qualified withdrawal treatment" of alcohol dependence is - in addition to physical withdrawal treatment - psychotherapy. The treatment of the underlying addictive disorder that is displayed by intoxication, harmful behaviour and withdrawal symptoms is only possible with a combination of somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment elements. The successfully established multimodal therapy of the "qualified alcohol withdrawal treatment", postulated in the current S3-Treatment Guidelines, requires a multi-disciplinary treatment team with psychotherapeutic competence. The aim of the present work is to calculate the normative staff requirement of a guideline-based 21-day qualified withdrawal treatment and to compare the result with the staffing regulations of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. The present data support the hypothesis that even in the case of a hundred per cent implementation of these data, adequate therapy of alcohol-related disorders, according to the guidelines, is not feasible. This has to be considered when further developing the finance compensation system based on the described superseded elements of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. PMID:26842899

  11. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking. PMID:26896648

  12. Chronic alcohol binging injures the liver and other organs by reducing NAD⁺ levels required for sirtuin's deacetylase activity.

    PubMed

    French, Samuel W

    2016-04-01

    NAD(+) levels are markedly reduced when blood alcohol levels are high during binge drinking. This causes liver injury to occur because the enzymes that require NAD(+) as a cofactor such as the sirtuin de-acetylases cannot de-acetylate acetylated proteins such as acetylated histones. This prevents the epigenetic changes that regulate metabolic processes and which prevent organ injury such as fatty liver in response to alcohol abuse. Hyper acetylation of numerous regulatory proteins develops. Systemic multi-organ injury occurs when NAD(+) is reduced. For instance the Circadian clock is altered if NAD(+) is not available. Cell cycle arrest occurs due to up regulation of cell cycle inhibitors leading to DNA damage, mutations, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. NAD(+) is linked to aging in the regulation of telomere stability. NAD(+) is required for mitochondrial renewal. Alcohol dehydrogenase is present in every visceral organ in the body so that there is a systemic reduction of NAD(+) levels in all of these organs during binge drinking.

  13. Ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are required for unfolded protein response activation and steatosis in zebrafish with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vacaru, Ana M.; Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Secretory pathway dysfunction and lipid accumulation (steatosis) are the two most common responses of hepatocytes to ethanol exposure and are major factors in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the mechanisms by which ethanol elicits these cellular responses are not fully understood. Recent data indicates that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to secretory pathway dysfunction can cause steatosis. Here, we examined the relationship between alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, secretory pathway stress and steatosis using zebrafish larvae. We found that ethanol was immediately internalized and metabolized by larvae, such that the internal ethanol concentration in 4-day-old larvae equilibrated to 160 mM after 1 hour of exposure to 350 mM ethanol, with an average ethanol metabolism rate of 56 μmol/larva/hour over 32 hours. Blocking alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (Cyp2e1), the major enzymes that metabolize ethanol, prevented alcohol-induced steatosis and reduced induction of the UPR in the liver. Thus, we conclude that ethanol metabolism causes ALD in zebrafish. Oxidative stress generated by Cyp2e1-mediated ethanol metabolism is proposed to be a major culprit in ALD pathology. We found that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in larvae exposed to ethanol, whereas inhibition of the zebrafish CYP2E1 homolog or administration of antioxidants reduced ROS levels. Importantly, these treatments also blocked ethanol-induced steatosis and reduced UPR activation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acted as a pro-oxidant that synergized with low doses of ethanol to induce the UPR. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are conserved mechanisms required for the development of steatosis and hepatic dysfunction in ALD, and that these processes contribute to ethanol-induced UPR activation and secretory pathway stress in hepatocytes. PMID

  14. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid is required for normal alcohol response behaviors in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Richard C; Mathies, Laura D; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol.

  15. The Omega-3 Fatty Acid Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Required for Normal Alcohol Response Behaviors in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Richard C.; Mathies, Laura D.; Davies, Andrew G.; Bettinger, Jill C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a widespread societal problem, for which there are few treatments. There are significant genetic and environmental influences on abuse liability, and understanding these factors will be important for the identification of susceptible individuals and the development of effective pharmacotherapies. In humans, the level of response to alcohol is strongly predictive of subsequent alcohol abuse. Level of response is a combination of counteracting responses to alcohol, the level of sensitivity to the drug and the degree to which tolerance develops during the drug exposure, called acute functional tolerance. We use the simple and well-characterized nervous system of Caenorhabditis elegans to model the acute behavioral effects of ethanol to identify genetic and environmental factors that influence level of response to ethanol. Given the strong molecular conservation between the neurobiological machinery of worms and humans, cellular-level effects of ethanol are likely to be conserved. Increasingly, variation in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels has been implicated in complex neurobiological phenotypes in humans, and we recently found that fatty acid levels modify ethanol responses in worms. Here, we report that 1) eicosapentaenoic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, is required for the development of acute functional tolerance, 2) dietary supplementation of eicosapentaenoic acid is sufficient for acute tolerance, and 3) dietary eicosapentaenoic acid can alter the wild-type response to ethanol. These results suggest that genetic variation influencing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid levels may be important abuse liability loci, and that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may be an important environmental modulator of the behavioral response to ethanol. PMID:25162400

  16. mTOR activation is required for the anti-alcohol effect of ketamine, but not memantine, in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sabino, Valentina; Narayan, Aditi R; Zeric, Tamara; Steardo, Luca; Cottone, Pietro

    2013-06-15

    Glutamate NMDA receptors mediate many molecular and behavioral effects of alcohol, and they play a key role in the development of excessive drinking. Uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists may, therefore, have therapeutic potential for alcoholism. The first aim was to compare the effects of the NMDA antagonists memantine and ketamine on ethanol and saccharin drinking in alcohol-preferring rats. The second aim was to determine whether the effects of the two NMDA receptor antagonists were mediated by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). TSRI Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats were allowed to self-administer either 10% w/v ethanol or 0.08% w/v saccharin, and water. Operant responding and motor activity were assessed following administration of either memantine (0-10mg/kg) or ketamine (0-20mg/kg). Finally, ethanol self-administration was assessed in rats administered with either memantine or ketamine but pretreated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2.5mg/kg). The uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists memantine and ketamine dose-dependently reduced ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats; while memantine had a preferential effect on alcohol over saccharin, ketamine reduced responding for both solutions. Neither antagonist induced malaise, as shown by the lack of effect on water intake and motor activity. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin blocked the effects of ketamine, but not those of memantine. Memantine and ketamine both reduce alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but only memantine is selective for alcohol. The effects of ketamine, but not memantine, are mediated by mTOR. The results support the therapeutic potential of uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonists, especially memantine, in alcohol addiction.

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. Tissue plasminogen activator is required for the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melissa; Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2011-03-22

    Ethanol exposure during developmental synaptogenesis can lead to brain defects referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which can include mental health problems such as cognitive deficits and mental retardation. In FAS, widespread neuronal death and brain mass loss precedes behavioral and cognitive impairments in adulthood. Because tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurodegeneration, we examined whether it mediates FAS. Neonatal WT and tPA-/- mice were injected with ethanol to mimic FAS in humans. In WT mice, ethanol elicited caspase-3 activation, significant forebrain neurodegeneration, and decreased contextual fear conditioning in adults. However, tPA-deficient mice were protected from these neurotoxicities, and this protection could be abrogated by exogenous tPA. Selective pharmacological modulators of NMDA and GABAA receptor pathways revealed that the effects of tPA were mediated by the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. This study identifies tPA as a critical signaling component in FAS.

  19. Alcohol absorption inhibitors from bay leaf (Laurus nobilis): structure-requirements of sesquiterpenes for the activity.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Shimoda, H; Uemura, T; Morikawa, T; Kawahara, Y; Matsuda, H

    2000-08-01

    Through a bioassay-guided separation using inhibitory activity on blood ethanol elevation in oral ethanol-loaded rat, various sesquiterpenes having an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety, costunolide (1), dehydrocostus lactone (2), zaluzanin D (3), reynosin (4), santamarine (5), 3alpha-acetoxyeudesma-1,4(15),11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-+ ++olide (6) and 3-oxoeudesma-1,4,11(13)-trien-12,6alpha-olide (7), were isolated as the active principle from the leaves of Laurus nobilis (bay leaf, laurel). In order to characterize the structure requirement for the activity, several reduction products (2a-2d) and amino acid adducts (2e, 2f) of the alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone moiety were synthesized from 2 and the inhibitory activities of these sesquiterpenes, together with alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone (12) and its related compounds (13-16), were examined. These results indicated that the gamma-butyrolactone or gamma-butyrolactol moiety having alpha-methylene or alpha-methyl group was essential for the inhibitory activity on ethanol absorption. Since 1, 2 and 12 showed no significant effect on glucose absorption, these sesquiterpenes appeared to selectively inhibit ethanol absorption. In addition, the acute toxicities of 1 and 2 in a single oral administration were found to be lower than that of 12.

  20. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  1. Identification of an Arabidopsis Fatty Alcohol:Caffeoyl-Coenzyme A Acyltransferase Required for the Synthesis of Alkyl Hydroxycinnamates in Root Waxes1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kosma, Dylan K.; Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B.; Pollard, Mike

    2012-01-01

    While suberin is an insoluble heteropolymer, a number of soluble lipids can be extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots. These extracts include esters of saturated long-chain primary alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Such fatty alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids are also present in suberin. We demonstrate that alkyl coumarates and caffeates, which are the major components of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root waxes, are present primarily in taproots. Previously we identified ALIPHATIC SUBERIN FERULOYL TRANSFERASE (At5g41040), a HXXXD-type acyltransferase (BAHD family), responsible for incorporation of ferulate into aliphatic suberin of Arabidopsis. However, aliphatic suberin feruloyl transferase mutants were unaffected in alkyl hydroxycinnamate ester root wax composition. Here we identify a closely related gene, At5g63560, responsible for the synthesis of a subset of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters, the alkyl caffeates. Transgenic plants harboring PAt5g63560::YFP fusions showed transcriptional activity in suberized tissues. Knockout mutants of At5g63560 were severely reduced in their alkyl caffeate but not alkyl coumarate content. Recombinant At5g63560p had greater acyltransferase activity when presented with caffeoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrate, thus we have named this acyltransferase FATTY ALCOHOL:CAFFEOYL-CoA CAFFEOYL TRANSFERASE. Stress experiments revealed elevated alkyl coumarate content in root waxes of NaCl-treated wild-type and fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-CoA caffeoyl transferase plants. We further demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-CoA REDUCTASEs (FARs) FAR5 (At3g44550), FAR4 (At3g44540), and FAR1 (At5g22500) are required for the synthesis of C18, C20, and C22 alkyl hydroxycinnamates, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple acyltransferases are utilized for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters of Arabidopsis root waxes and that FAR1/4/5 provide the fatty alcohols required for alkyl hydroxycinnamate synthesis. PMID:22797656

  2. Identification of an Arabidopsis fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-Coenzyme A acyltransferase required for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamates in root waxes.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Dylan K; Molina, Isabel; Ohlrogge, John B; Pollard, Mike

    2012-09-01

    While suberin is an insoluble heteropolymer, a number of soluble lipids can be extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots. These extracts include esters of saturated long-chain primary alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Such fatty alcohols and hydroxycinnamic acids are also present in suberin. We demonstrate that alkyl coumarates and caffeates, which are the major components of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) root waxes, are present primarily in taproots. Previously we identified ALIPHATIC SUBERIN FERULOYL TRANSFERASE (At5g41040), a HXXXD-type acyltransferase (BAHD family), responsible for incorporation of ferulate into aliphatic suberin of Arabidopsis. However, aliphatic suberin feruloyl transferase mutants were unaffected in alkyl hydroxycinnamate ester root wax composition. Here we identify a closely related gene, At5g63560, responsible for the synthesis of a subset of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters, the alkyl caffeates. Transgenic plants harboring P(At5g63560)::YFP fusions showed transcriptional activity in suberized tissues. Knockout mutants of At5g63560 were severely reduced in their alkyl caffeate but not alkyl coumarate content. Recombinant At5g63560p had greater acyltransferase activity when presented with caffeoyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrate, thus we have named this acyltransferase FATTY ALCOHOL:CAFFEOYL-CoA CAFFEOYL TRANSFERASE. Stress experiments revealed elevated alkyl coumarate content in root waxes of NaCl-treated wild-type and fatty alcohol:caffeoyl-CoA caffeoyl transferase plants. We further demonstrate that FATTY ACYL-CoA REDUCTASEs (FARs) FAR5 (At3g44550), FAR4 (At3g44540), and FAR1 (At5g22500) are required for the synthesis of C18, C20, and C22 alkyl hydroxycinnamates, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that multiple acyltransferases are utilized for the synthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamate esters of Arabidopsis root waxes and that FAR1/4/5 provide the fatty alcohols required for alkyl hydroxycinnamate synthesis.

  3. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  8. Emotional Impairment and Persistent Upregulation of mGlu5 Receptor following Morphine Abstinence: Implications of an mGlu5-MOPr Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Panos; Georgiou, Polymnia; Gonzalez, Loreto Rojo; Hourani, Susanna; Chen, Ying; Kitchen, Ian; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: A difficult problem in treating opioid addicts is the maintenance of a drug-free state because of the negative emotional symptoms associated with withdrawal, which may trigger relapse. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in opioid addiction; however, its involvement during opioid withdrawal is not clear. Methods: Mice were treated with a 7-day escalating-dose morphine administration paradigm. Following withdrawal, the development of affective behaviors was assessed using the 3-chambered box, open-field, elevated plus-maze and forced-swim tests. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 autoradiographic binding was performed in mouse brains undergoing chronic morphine treatment and 7 days withdrawal. Moreover, since there is evidence showing direct effects of opioid drugs on the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 system, the presence of an metabotropic glutamate receptor 5/μ-opioid receptor interaction was assessed by performing metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 autoradiographic binding in brains of mice lacking the μ-opioid receptor gene. Results: Withdrawal from chronic morphine administration induced anxiety-like, depressive-like, and impaired sociability behaviors concomitant with a marked upregulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding. Administration of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 antagonist, 3-((2-Methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethynyl)pyridine, reversed morphine abstinence-induced depressive-like behaviors. A brain region-specific increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding was observed in the nucleus accumbens shell, thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala of μ-opioid receptor knockout mice compared with controls. Conclusions: These results suggest an association between metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 alterations and the emergence of opioid withdrawal-related affective behaviors. This study supports metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 system as a target for the development of pharmacotherapies for the treatment of opioid addiction. Moreover, our data show direct effects of μ-opioid receptor system manipulation on metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 binding in the brain. PMID:26861145

  9. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  10. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  11. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  13. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  14. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  15. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  16. 27 CFR 7.71 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71... Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content. (a) General. Alcoholic content and the percentage and... alcoholic content is stated, and the manner of statement is not required under State law, it shall be...

  17. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  18. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  19. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  20. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  1. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  2. Pharmacological stress is required for the anti-alcohol effect of the α3β4* nAChR partial agonist AT-1001.

    PubMed

    Cippitelli, Andrea; Brunori, Gloria; Gaiolini, Kelly A; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Toll, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. The mechanisms underlying this frequent co-abuse are not well known. Genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) containing the α3 and β4 subunits play a role in alcohol as well as nicotine addiction. AT-1001 is a high affinity α3β4 nAChR partial agonist recently found to block nicotine self-administration and relapse-like behavior in rats. Here, to study the involvement of α3β4 nAChRs in the mechanisms that regulate alcohol abuse we evaluated the effects of AT-1001 on alcohol taking and seeking in Sprague-Dawley rats. AT-1001 reduced operant alcohol self-administration at the highest dose examined (3.0 mg/kg), an effect also observed for food self-administration. A dose of 1.5 mg/kg AT-1001, which had no effect on alcohol or food self-administration, essentially eliminated reinstatement of alcohol seeking induced by yohimbine (0.625 mg/kg) whereas, reinstatement induced by alcohol-associated cues was not altered, nor did AT-1001 induce reinstatement of extinguished self-administration on its own. Finally, AT-1001 showed an anxiolytic activity when measured in the presence or absence of yohimbine stress in the elevated plus maze paradigm. Together, these observations do not support a specific involvement of the α3β4 nAChR in mediating alcohol reward or cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking but rather indicate that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonism may constitute an attractive approach for treating alcohol use disorders exacerbated by elevated stress response.

  3. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. Low-Pressure Alcohol Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Zur Burg, F. W.; Cody, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Heat requirements lowered for process. Temperature requirements lowered enough to make solar heat absorbed by flat-plate collectors feasible energy source. Alcohol produced without adding other solvents, eliminating need for dehydration or hydrocarbon stripping as final step.

  6. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  7. 27 CFR 19.496 - Cases of industrial alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cases of industrial alcohol. 19.496 Section 19.496 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Requirements for Spirits § 19.496 Cases of industrial alcohol. (a) Mandatory marks. A proprietor must mark...

  8. 27 CFR 19.496 - Cases of industrial alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cases of industrial alcohol. 19.496 Section 19.496 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Requirements for Spirits § 19.496 Cases of industrial alcohol. (a) Mandatory marks. A proprietor must mark...

  9. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  10. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    portopulmonary hypertension. Alcoholic cirrhotics have increased risk of developing hepatomas. Liver transplantation is the ultimate therapy for severe ALD, but generally requires 6 mo of proven abstinence for eligibility. Alcoholic cirrhotics who maintain abstinence generally have a relatively favorable prognosis after liver transplantation. PMID:24605013

  11. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  12. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  13. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  14. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  15. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  16. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  17. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  18. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  19. 14 CFR 121.575 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 121.575 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.575 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder...

  20. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  1. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  2. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  3. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  4. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  5. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  6. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  7. Asr1, an alcohol-responsive factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is dispensable for alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shingo; Ikeda, Kayo; Kita, Takeomi; Inoue, Yoshiharu

    2006-09-01

    Yeast Asr1 is the first reported protein whose intracellular distribution changes specifically in response to alcohol (Betz et al. (2004) J Biol Chem 279:28174-28181). It was reported that Asr1 is required for tolerance to alcohol and plays an important role in the alcohol stress response. Therefore, Asr1 is of interest to brewers and winegrowers attempting to improve the techniques of alcoholic fermentation. We verified the importance of Asr1 in the alcohol stress response during alcoholic fermentation. Although we reconfirmed the alcohol-responsive changes in the intracellular localization of Asr1, we could not detect the effects of Asr1-deficiency on Japanese sake brewing or winemaking. In addition, we could not reconfirm the hypersensitivity of Asr1-deficient mutants to alcohol and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Instead, we conclude that Asr1 is not required and nor important for tolerance to alcohol stress.

  8. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  9. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    abuse have been established in about 90 percent of major companies, and Federal employees' access to treatment is being expanded through health insurance coverage. Collective public efforts are required to encourage prevention and treatment efforts, and to begin to reduce the economic effects of alcohol abuse that the country can no longer afford. PMID:3141948

  10. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    abuse have been established in about 90 percent of major companies, and Federal employees' access to treatment is being expanded through health insurance coverage. Collective public efforts are required to encourage prevention and treatment efforts, and to begin to reduce the economic effects of alcohol abuse that the country can no longer afford.

  11. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  12. Preventing and Responding to Alcohol Overdose on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Ross J.

    Rapid ingestion of alcohol is common and unfortunately an all too frequent cause of alcohol-related death among young people. Drinking a lot of alcohol over a short amount of time may result in an alcohol overdose. This situation is a medical emergency and requires sound decision making. The information the campus community needs to know includes…

  13. 27 CFR 19.608 - Cases of industrial alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Proof gallons; (6) “Tax-Free”; and (7) Information required by 27 CFR part 28, for cases withdrawn for... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cases of industrial alcohol. 19.608 Section 19.608 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND...

  14. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  15. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  17. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  18. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  19. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  20. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  1. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  2. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  3. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  4. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders.

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  7. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  8. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  10. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.22 General requirements. (a) Legibility. (1) All labels shall be so... integral part of the container shall be affixed to containers of alcoholic beverages in such manner...

  13. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.22 General requirements. (a) Legibility. (1) All labels shall be so... integral part of the container shall be affixed to containers of alcoholic beverages in such manner...

  14. Dual N- and C-Terminal Helices Are Required for Endoplasmic Reticulum and Lipid Droplet Association of Alcohol Acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Wheeldon, Ian

    2014-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae two alcohol acetyltransferases (AATases), Atf1 and Atf2, condense short chain alcohols with acetyl-CoA to produce volatile acetate esters. Such esters are, in large part, responsible for the distinctive flavors and aromas of fermented beverages including beer, wine, and sake. Atf1 and Atf2 localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Atf1 is known to localize to lipid droplets (LDs). The mechanism and function of these localizations are unknown. Here, we investigate potential mechanisms of Atf1 and Atf2 membrane association. Segments of the N- and C-terminal domains of Atf1 (residues 24–41 and 508–525, respectively) are predicted to be amphipathic helices. Truncations of these helices revealed that the terminal domains are essential for ER and LD association. Moreover, mutations of the basic or hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix and hydrophobic residues in the C-terminal helix disrupted ER association and subsequent sorting from the ER to LDs. Similar amphipathic helices are found at both ends of Atf2, enabling ER and LD association. As was the case with Atf1, mutations to the N- and C-terminal helices of Atf2 prevented membrane association. Sequence comparison of the AATases from Saccharomyces, non-Saccharomyces yeast (K. lactis and P. anomala) and fruits species (C. melo and S. lycopersicum) showed that only AATases from Saccharomyces evolved terminal amphipathic helices. Heterologous expression of these orthologs in S. cerevisiae revealed that the absence of terminal amphipathic helices eliminates LD association. Combined, the results of this study suggest a common mechanism of membrane association for AATases via dual N- and C-terminal amphipathic helices. PMID:25093817

  15. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  16. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  17. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  18. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  19. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  20. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  1. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  2. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  3. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  4. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  5. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  6. 27 CFR 646.146 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 646.146 Section 646.146 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  7. 27 CFR 646.147 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Required information. 646.147 Section 646.147 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  8. 27 CFR 646.147 - Required information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required information. 646.147 Section 646.147 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  9. 27 CFR 646.146 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true General requirements. 646.146 Section 646.146 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO...

  10. 27 CFR 19.283 - When gauges are required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When gauges are required. 19.283 Section 19.283 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Required Gauges § 19.283 When gauges are required. The proprietor must...

  11. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  12. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-05-24

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups.

  13. Strengthening the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Heung, Carly M; Rempel, Benjamin; Krank, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Research evidence points to harmful effects from alcohol advertising among children and youth. In particular, exposure to alcohol advertising has been associated with adolescents drinking both earlier and heavier. Although current federal and provincial guidelines have addressed advertising practices to prevent underage drinking, practice has not been supported by existing policy. While protective measures such as social marketing campaigns have the potential for counteracting the effects from alcohol advertising, the effectiveness of such measures can be easily drowned out with increasing advertising activities from the alcohol industry, especially without effective regulation. Research reviewed by the European Focus on Alcohol Safe Environment (FASE) Project has identified a set of key elements that are necessary to make alcohol advertising policy measures effective at protecting children and youth from the harmful effects of alcohol marketing. Using these key elements as an evaluation framework, there are critical components in the Canadian alcohol advertising regulatory system that clearly require strengthening. To protect impressionable children and youth against the harmful effects of alcohol advertising, 13 recommendations to strengthen current alcohol advertising regulations in Canada are provided for Canadian policy-makers, advertising standard agencies, and public health groups. PMID:23618638

  14. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients.

  15. [Maternal alcoholism and its impact on child health].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Y P

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcoholism hinders the normal development of child and threatens his mental and physical health due to three factors: the hereditary transmission of predisposition to alcohol abuse; alcohol consumption during pregnancy; adverse family environment. The children of mothers suffering from alcoholism revealed are characterized by increased risk of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders, including alcohol and substance dependence. The adverse impact of maternal alcoholism (or, to speak more widely, parents' alcoholism) on the child health requires special preventive and treatment programs for both parents and children. Separation from the mother (even if the mother is addicted to alcohol) seriously injures the child, and therefore treatment programs for alcohol abusing women should be focused on the possible continuation of the parental rights of patients. PMID:27030835

  16. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  19. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  20. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  1. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  2. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...

  3. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  4. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60..., AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...

  5. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  6. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  7. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  8. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  9. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  10. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  11. Alcohol and the heart: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1982-06-01

    It is now well established that consumption of ethyl alcohol, both acute and chronic, exerts deleterious effects on the heart. Evidence is presented that the initial event that precipitates both acute and chronic changes reflects the physical effects of alcohol on membrane phospholipids and perhaps proteins. The presence of alcohol increases membrane fluidity, a condition that leads to an adaptive change in the phospholipid composition of the membranes, with resultant greater rigidity of the membranes. The effects of alcohol on the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, when combined with other nonspecific insults, may lead to a drastic increase in calcium permeability; the resulting calcium influx may cause cell necrosis and initiate irreversibly cardiomyopathy. It is likely that changes in membrane fluidity also exert profound effects on enzyme and transport activities of membrane-bound proteins. In addition, alcohol may interact directly with the hydrophobic regions of proteins. Such interactions may play an important role not only in membrane-bound proteins, but also in alcohol-induced changes in contractile proteins of the heart. It is suggested that, in general, the effects of alcohol are similar to those of other anesthetic agents, and that the elucidation of the pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy may require a deeper understanding of the physical interaction among alcohol, phospholipids, and proteins.

  12. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  13. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Rbin M.; Burgess, Helen J.; Swanson, Garth R.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20–30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyper-permeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in ClockΔ19 mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  14. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(▵19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  15. Circadian rhythms, alcohol and gut interactions.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(▵19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our

  16. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  17. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  18. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  19. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.22 General requirements. (a) Legibility. (1) All labels shall be so... integral part of the container shall be affixed to containers of alcoholic beverages in such manner...

  20. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.22 General requirements. (a) Legibility. (1) All labels shall be so... integral part of the container shall be affixed to containers of alcoholic beverages in such manner...

  1. 27 CFR 16.22 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE HEALTH WARNING STATEMENT Health Warning Statement Requirements for Alcoholic Beverages § 16.22 General requirements. (a) Legibility. (1) All labels shall be so... integral part of the container shall be affixed to containers of alcoholic beverages in such manner...

  2. 27 CFR 26.272 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 26.272 Section 26.272 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... § 26.272 General requirements. Except as provided in § 26.273, every person, other than a...

  3. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....

  4. 27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....

  5. 27 CFR 17.183 - Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... proposed method of destruction. (c) Spent vanilla beans. Specific approval from the appropriate TTB officer is not required when spent vanilla beans containing residual alcohol are destroyed on...

  6. 27 CFR 17.183 - Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... proposed method of destruction. (c) Spent vanilla beans. Specific approval from the appropriate TTB officer is not required when spent vanilla beans containing residual alcohol are destroyed on...

  7. 27 CFR 17.183 - Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... proposed method of destruction. (c) Spent vanilla beans. Specific approval from the appropriate TTB officer is not required when spent vanilla beans containing residual alcohol are destroyed on...

  8. 27 CFR 17.183 - Disposition of recovered alcohol and material from which alcohol can be recovered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... proposed method of destruction. (c) Spent vanilla beans. Specific approval from the appropriate TTB officer is not required when spent vanilla beans containing residual alcohol are destroyed on...

  9. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  10. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  13. Alcohol Warning Posters: How To Get Legislation Passed in Your City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, DC.

    This manual was developed to assist citizens seeking alcohol warning posters wherever alcoholic beverages are sold. Warning posters can include health information about drinking during pregnancy, the danger of using alcohol while driving or using machinery, or alcohol dependency and addiction. Warning posters are now required in cities such as New…

  14. 27 CFR 19.492 - Marks on containers of completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marks on containers of completely denatured alcohol. 19.492 Section 19.492 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Marks Marking Requirements for Spirits § 19.492 Marks on containers of completely denatured...

  15. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  16. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  17. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  18. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  19. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN STORES, OWNING ALCOHOL PROMOTIONAL ITEMS, AND ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    HURTZ, SHANNON Q.; HENRIKSEN, LISA; WANG, YUN; FEIGHERY, ELLEN C.; FORTMANN, STEPHEN P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper describes adolescents’ exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. Results Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items. Conclusions This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study. PMID:17218364

  1. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  2. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  3. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  4. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  5. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  6. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  7. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  8. [Suicidality and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Smulders, Yvo M; Biesaart, Monique C H I; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the role played by a patient's mental competency in the assessment and treatment of patients who are under the influence of alcohol and expressing suicidal thoughts. The factors that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of suicidality are not always clear: somatic complications or possible discharge from the emergency room. The treating physician at the emergency department should evaluate the mental competency. The risk of suicide should also be assessed by a psychiatrist. In order to make the right decisions about treatment and mental competency, the key concepts of proportionality, effectiveness and subsidiarity in the assessment of mental competency are crucial. These concepts require a personalized, multidisciplinary approach and result in unique decisions which may differ from case to case. In the assessment and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol who are suicidal and do not want to have a proper medical evaluation, communication between the emergency physician, internist and psychiatrist is crucial to optimize both evaluation and treatment. In this context, tasks and responsibilities should be clearly defined in order to minimize the risk of errors and complications. PMID:26443116

  9. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  10. Alcohol questionnaires and HDL: screening scores as scaled markers of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas; Williams, Emily C; Bryson, Chris L; Rubinsky, Anna D; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-09-01

    Improving the quality of alcohol-related care requires practical approaches to assessing alcohol consumption to guide management and monitor outcomes. Given the increasing use of alcohol screening questionnaires to identify alcohol misuse it would be ideal if scores on screening questionnaires were also indicators of average alcohol consumption. However, the questionnaires were not designed for this purpose and include dimensions of drinking that may not reflect average consumption (e.g. heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems). In a general population sample, scores on the AUDIT-C screen correlated with reports of alcohol consumption in detailed interviews, but the relationship is unknown for clinical populations and other questionnaires. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is a biomarker routinely obtained in clinical care and is known to rise with average alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study of 11,175 male U.S. Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in a primary care study used HDL as an objective biomarker to evaluate whether average alcohol consumption increased as scores increased on 3 brief alcohol screens - the AUDIT-C, AUDIT Question #3 (a single-item screen), and the CAGE questionnaire. Mean HDL progressively increased as screening scores increased for the AUDIT-C and AUDIT Question #3: about 12 mg/dL from the lowest to the highest scores. The association was much weaker for the CAGE questionnaire. Results were minimally affected by adjustment for covariates (e.g. age, race, medical comorbidity, smoking, medication count, and depression) but the association was modified (p = 0.008) and mildly attenuated by adherent use of lipid-lowering medications. This study using HDL as a biomarker of average alcohol consumption adds to evidence that some alcohol screening scores may also serve as scaled markers of average alcohol consumption.

  11. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  12. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  13. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  14. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  15. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  16. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  17. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  18. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  19. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  20. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  1. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  2. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  3. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  4. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  5. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  6. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  7. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  8. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  9. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  10. Alcohol: impact on sports performance and recovery in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used recreational drug globally and its consumption, often in large volume, is deeply embedded in many aspects of Western society. Indeed, athletes are not exempt from the influence alcohol has on society; they often consume greater volumes of alcohol through bingeing behaviour compared with the general population, yet it is often expected and recommended that athletes abstain from alcohol to avoid the negative impact this drug may have on recovery and sporting performance. While this recommendation may seem sensible, the impact alcohol has on recovery and sports performance is complicated and depends on many factors, including the timing of alcohol consumption post-exercise, recovery time required before recommencing training/competition, injury status and dose of alcohol being consumed. In general, acute alcohol consumption, at the levels often consumed by athletes, may negatively alter normal immunoendocrine function, blood flow and protein synthesis so that recovery from skeletal muscle injury may be impaired. Other factors related to recovery, such as rehydration and glycogen resynthesis, may be affected to a lesser extent. Those responsible for the wellbeing of athletes, including the athlete themselves, should carefully monitor habitual alcohol consumption so that the generic negative health and social outcomes associated with heavy alcohol use are avoided. Additionally, if athletes are to consume alcohol after sport/exercise, a dose of approximately 0.5 g/kg body weight is unlikely to impact most aspects of recovery and may therefore be recommended if alcohol is to be consumed during this period.

  11. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  13. Alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment among college students: a behavioral theories of choice analysis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Barnett, Nancy P; Colby, Suzanne M

    2006-08-01

    College student alcohol abuse remains a significant public health problem, and there is a need for theory-driven and empirically based models to guide prevention efforts. Behavioral theories of choice assume that the decision to consume alcohol is influenced by the relative value of alcohol versus other available activities. In the present study, a sample of college student drinkers (N=108; 56% female, 44% male) who had previously completed a mandatory alcohol intervention completed a measure of alcohol-related and alcohol-free activity participation and enjoyment. The goals of the study were to examine the influence of drinking quantity and contextual variables on activity enjoyment and to identify enjoyable alcohol-free activities that take place on evenings when students might otherwise be drinking. Overall, students found alcohol-related activities more enjoyable than alcohol-free activities, and drinking quantity was positively related to enjoyment. However, alcohol-free activities such as watching movies, going to the theater or museums, going to bars or parties, hanging out with friends, eating at restaurants, and engaging in creative activity were generally as enjoyable as drinking. Alcohol-free activities that included peers or dates were more enjoyable than solitary activities. Men were less likely to engage in alcohol-free activities that included peers and reported less enjoyment related to alcohol-free activities than did women. Further research is required to identify procedures for increasing participation in alcohol-free activities and to determine whether increased alcohol-free activity participation results in decreased alcohol consumption. PMID:16893277

  14. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  17. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  18. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  19. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  20. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  1. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  2. 27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Supplemental or Form 5110.38 shall remain in effect until revoked, superseded, or voluntarily surrendered....

  3. 27 CFR 18.27 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional requirements. 18.27 Section 18.27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification...

  4. 27 CFR 18.31 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General requirements. 18.31 Section 18.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification...

  5. 27 CFR 18.31 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 18.31 Section 18.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification...

  6. 27 CFR 26.163 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General requirements. 26.163 Section 26.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... person, other than a tourist, bringing liquor into the United States from Puerto Rico shall keep...

  7. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  8. Reflections on alcohol and the young.

    PubMed

    Paton, A

    1999-01-01

    Young people's exposure to alcohol in Britain is a major cause of concern to alcohol workers, yet little impact has been made on the problem despite extensive research and numerous recommendations for tackling it. To some extent, this is due to permissive public attitudes and the general lack of knowledge among the public and professionals of the dangers of alcohol misuse, but lack of leadership by government and targetting of alcohol at the young by the drinks industry must take some of the blame. Particular issues of relevance to young people are excessive drinking in pregnancy, which may affect the fetus, alcoholic parents, drinking among 11-15 year olds, and heavy consumption by older adolescents. The pressure that these put on social and health services (and the expense) is considerable. Rather than concentrating resources on treating the damage, greater emphasis should be placed on prevention and detection, for example recognizing risk factors -- immaturity, poor educational performance, antisocial behaviour, mental heath problems and dysfunctional families -- which lead to harm. This will require better education about alcohol for child specialists, teachers, social workers, the police, the legal professions, and others who have to deal with young people. Self-help groups among the young could help spread the message of sensible drinking among their peers. In addition, the number of alcohol agencies in the community which support parents and young people, at present woefully inadequate, need to be increased as a matter of urgency.

  9. 27 CFR 19.283 - When gauges are required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When gauges are required. 19.283 Section 19.283 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Required Gauges § 19.283 When gauges are required. The proprietor must...

  10. 27 CFR 19.283 - When gauges are required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false When gauges are required. 19.283 Section 19.283 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Gauging Required Gauges § 19.283 When gauges are required. The proprietor must...

  11. 27 CFR 19.573 - Location of required records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Location of required records. 19.573 Section 19.573 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Records § 19.573 Location of required records. A proprietor may keep the records required by this part...

  12. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  13. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  14. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  15. Converging actions of alcohol on liver and brain immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Lippai, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration and impaired regeneration. Alcohol-induced cell injury in the brain results in release of damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box 1, that trigger inflammatory changes through activation of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability and results in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular pattern such as endotoxin in the systemic circulation that triggers PRRs and inflammation. The Toll-like receptor-4 pathway that activates nuclear factor-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1-beta, and chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been suggested to contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Alcohol-induced IL-1β secretion also requires Nod-like receptor-mediated inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and, consistent with this, disruption of IL-1/IL-1-receptor signaling prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Delicate regulators of inflammatory gene expressions are micro-RNAs (miRs) that have recently been identified in alcohol-related neuroinflammation. Alcohol induces miR155, a regulator of inflammation in the brain, and deficiency in mi

  16. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  18. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  19. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  20. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  1. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  2. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  3. IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Mirijello, Antonio; D’Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop within 6–24 hours after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is represented by benzodiazepines. Among them, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as alpha2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and beta-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptics can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin, and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents will be discussed in the text. PMID:25666543

  4. Genetic approaches to addiction: genes and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David

    2008-01-01

    Aims Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with an enormous societal impact. Understanding the genetic basis of alcoholism is crucial to characterize individuals' risk and to develop efficacious prevention and treatment strategies. Methods We examined the available scientific literature to provide an overview of different approaches that are being integrated increasingly to advance our knowledge of the genetic bases of alcoholism. Examples of genes that have been shown to influence vulnerability to alcoholism and related phenotypes are also discussed. Results Genetic factors account for more than 50% of the variance in alcoholism liability. Susceptibility loci for alcoholism include both alcohol-specific genes acting either at the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic levels, as well as loci moderating neuronal pathways such as reward, behavioral control and stress resiliency, that are involved in several psychiatric diseases. In recent years, major progress in gene identification has occurred using intermediate phenotypes such as task-related brain activation that confer the advantage of increased power and the opportunity of exploring the neuronal mechanisms through which genetic variation is translated into behavior. Fundamental to the detection of gene effects is also the understanding of the interplay between genes as well as genes/environment interactions. Whole Genome Association studies represent a unique opportunity to identify alcohol-related loci in hypothesis-free fashion. Finally, genome-wide analyses of transcripts and chromatin remodeling promise an increase in our understanding of the genome function and of the mechanisms through which gene and environment cause diseases. Conclusions Although the genetic bases of alcoholism remain largely unknown, there are reasons to think that more genes will be discovered in the future. Multiple and complementary approaches will be required to piece together the mosaic of causation. PMID:18422824

  5. U.S. mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease in 1999-2004: regional and state variation in relation to per capita alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Apparent per-capita alcohol consumption in 2001 in four U.S. regions (West, Northeast, South, and Midwest), and in 50 states was examined in relation to mortality rates (1999-2004) from liver cirrhosis and for the subcategory alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol consumption and mortality rates were highest in the west. The alcoholic liver disease mortality rate by state was strongly correlated with alcohol consumption, but several outlier or mismatch states were identified. Per-capita alcohol consumption should be useful for US public health policy, as suggested for Europe and Canada, but outlier states require further study.

  6. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  7. Over-expression of the miRNA cluster at chromosome 14q32 in the alcoholic brain correlates with suppression of predicted target mRNA required for oligodendrocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, A M; Gunewardena, S; Butler, M G

    2013-09-10

    We examined miRNA expression from RNA isolated from the frontal cortex (Broadman area 9) of 9 alcoholics (6 males, 3 females, mean age 48 years) and 9 matched controls using both the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA 2.0 and Human Exon 1.0 ST Arrays to further characterize genetic influences in alcoholism and the effects of alcohol consumption on predicted target mRNA expression. A total of 12 human miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in alcohol dependent subjects (fold change≥1.5, false discovery rate (FDR)≤0.3; p<0.05) compared with controls including a cluster of 4 miRNAs (e.g., miR-377, miR-379) from the maternally expressed 14q32 chromosome region. The status of the up-regulated miRNAs was supported using the high-throughput method of exon microarrays showing decreased predicted mRNA gene target expression as anticipated from the same RNA aliquot. Predicted mRNA targets were involved in cellular adhesion (e.g., THBS2), tissue differentiation (e.g., CHN2), neuronal migration (e.g., NDE1), myelination (e.g., UGT8, CNP) and oligodendrocyte proliferation (e.g., ENPP2, SEMA4D1). Our data support an association of alcoholism with up-regulation of a cluster of miRNAs located in the genomic imprinted domain on chromosome 14q32 with their predicted gene targets involved with oligodendrocyte growth, differentiation and signaling. PMID:23747354

  8. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  9. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  10. 27 CFR 7.26 - Alcoholic content [suspended as of April 19, 1993; see § 7.71].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.26 Alcoholic content . (a) The alcoholic content and the percentage and quantity of the...” may be used only on malt beverage products containing less than 2.5 percent alcohol by volume. (c)...

  11. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  12. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  13. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  15. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  17. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  18. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  19. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  20. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  1. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  2. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  5. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  6. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  7. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  8. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  11. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  12. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  13. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  14. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  16. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  17. Young Adult's Immediate Reaction to a Personal Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Harned, Ilene; Riley, William

    2004-01-01

    Following an emergency medical transport for alcohol overdose, first-year college students were asked to complete a survey assessing their reactions to the transport experience, their assessment of why they required this emergency response, and plans for future personal alcohol consumption. Transported students who responded to a baseline survey…

  18. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  19. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ..., 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 22649) that amended the regulations governing FAA-required drug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing...

  20. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  1. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  2. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  3. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  4. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  5. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  6. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver].

    PubMed

    Tagle Arrospide, Martín

    2003-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more agressive form, non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are entities that are becoming subject of interest of the medical community in general, especially because of the increased prevalence of diabetes and obesity in the world population. There is solid evidence linking NAFLD with the so called metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, to the point of accepting hepatic steatosis and its spectrum as one more element of the latter, along with diabetes, hipertension, hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. Insulin resistance seems to be the common link between these entities. Clinical evaluation of every patient with abnormal aminotransferase levels should take into account non alcoholic fatty liver and its spectrum, especially if the subject is obese or diabetic. Despite the important developments in the field of imaging, currenty the only way to differentiate NASH from simple NAFLD is by performing a liver biopsy, which should be discussed extensively with the patient. The prognosis of simple NAFLD is generally benign, but if there is fibrosis, ballooning of the hepatocytes, inflammation and Mallory bodies there is risk to progression to cirrhosis. Liver histology in NAFLD is indistinguishable from alcoholic hepatitis, although the clinical course is generally more benign. Despite this long and protracted clinical course, an important number of subjects have complications of cirrhosis including hepatocellular carcinoma, and many patients require a liver transplantation. There is no specific treatment for this condition, although every therapeutic regimen should include a gradual and supervised weight reduction, a balanced diet and exercise, as well as correction of precipitant factors. There is currently no specific pharmacologic treatment for NASH or NAFLD. Current body of evidence and some pilot studies suggest that the future might be concentrated in agents improving insulin resistance. Meanwhile, we should do our best to

  7. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  8. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  9. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  10. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  11. [Genetic predisposition for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, D P

    2000-04-01

    A number of socio-economic, cultural, biobehavioral factors and ethnic/gender differences are among the strongest determinants of drinking patterns in a society. Both epidemiological and clinical studies have implicated the excessive use of alcohol in the risk of developing a variety of organ, neuronal and metabolic disorders. Alcohol abuse related metabolic derangements affect almost all body organs and their functions. Race and gender differences in drinking patterns may play an important role in the development of medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse. The incidence of alcoholism in a community is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption and covariates with the relative price and availability of alcoholic drinks. The majority of the family, twin and adoption studies suggest that alcoholism is familial, a significant proportion of which can be attributed to genetic factors. The question is how much of the variance is explained by genetic factors and to what degree is this genetically mediated disorder moderated by personal characteristics. Among the most salient personal characteristics moderating, the genetic vulnerability may be factors such as age, ethnicity, and presence of psychiatric co morbidity. Cultural factors and familial environmental factors are most likely predictors as well.

  12. Should physicians be allowed to use alcohol while on call?

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, J; Desbiens, N

    2005-01-01

    Although physician alcohol use that leads to impairment has been extensively discussed, few statements address the issue of alcohol use of physicians who are on call. In this paper the authors review recent information on physicians' perceptions of alcohol use by themselves and their colleagues while on call. It is argued that conflicts in physicians' perceptions are due to the fact that the larger society has not addressed the question of whether drinking on call is public or private behaviour. The authors argue that when medicine is understood as a practice defined partly in terms of standards of excellence, the present approach of the American Medical Association to prohibit practicing medicine under the influence of alcohol requires a prohibition of drinking alcohol while on call, unless studies determine a clear threshold for drinking alcohol without placing patients at risk. PMID:15634748

  13. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety. Volume II of II. A Curriculum Manual for Elementary Level. A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual for the elementary school level is the first in a series on alcohol and alcohol safety and is designed as a teacher's activities guide. Each activity provided is a self-contained learning experience which requires varying numbers of class period and focuses on one or more objectives. Activities are numbered consecutively and…

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of phosgenation of aliphatic alcohols. VI. The role of the association of the alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, S.I.; Chimishkyan, A.L.; Negrebetskii, V.V.

    1988-07-10

    Investigation of the effect of the association of a series of alcohols on the phosgenation rate in heptane showed that the tetramer of the alcohol enters exclusively into reaction with phosgene. This is explained by the formation of a bicyclic transition state (or tetrahedral intermediate), which does not require previous desolvation or association of the alcohol and secures effective intramolecular assistance to the elimination of hydrogen chloride. The electronic structure was determined by CNDO/2 quantum-chemical calculations, which reproduces the three-dimensional structure and electron density distribution in the molecules fairly well. Methanol was chosen as model alcohol in order to simplify the calculations.

  15. 27 CFR 31.3 - Basic permit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basic permit requirements..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS General Provisions § 31.3 Basic permit... use, is required under part 1 of this chapter to obtain a basic permit authorizing such person...

  16. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  17. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  18. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  19. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  20. 27 CFR 40.526 - Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. 40.526 Section 40.526 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Manufacturers of Processed Tobacco § 40.526 Minimum manufacturing and activity requirements. A permit...

  1. 27 CFR 46.235 - Filing requirements for multiple locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing requirements for multiple locations. 46.235 Section 46.235 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... requirements for multiple locations. The dealer may file a consolidated return if all locations or places...

  2. Anxiety and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua P.; Randall, Carrie L.

    2012-01-01

    The co-occurrence of anxiety disorders and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is relatively common and is associated with a complex clinical presentation. Sound diagnosis and treatment planning requires that clinicians have an integrated understanding of the developmental pathways and course of this comorbidity. Moreover, standard interventions for anxiety disorders or AUDs may need to be modified and combined in targeted ways to accommodate the unique needs of people who have both disorders. Optimal combination of evidence-based treatments should be based on a comparative balance that considers the advantages and disadvantages of sequential, parallel, and integrated approaches. PMID:23584108

  3. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  4. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  5. ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE AS PREDICTORS OF INTENTIONAL INJURIES IN TWO EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA

    PubMed Central

    Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Martin, Gina; Macdonald, Scott; Brubacher, Jeffrey R.; Stenstrom, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The risk of intentional injury due to alcohol and other drug use prior to injury is analyzed in a sample of emergency department patients in Vancouver, BC (n=436). Those reporting only alcohol use were close to 4 times more likely (OR = 3.73) to report an intentional injury, and those reporting alcohol combined with other drug(s) almost 18 times more likely (OR = 17.75) than those reporting no substance use. Those reporting both alcohol and drug use reported drinking significantly more alcohol (15.7 drinks) than those reporting alcohol use alone (5 drinks). While these data suggest that alcohol in combination with other drugs may be more strongly associated with intentional injury than alcohol alone, this may be due to the increased amount of alcohol consumed by those using both substances, and is an area requiring more research with larger samples of intentional injury patients. PMID:23414491

  6. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  7. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  8. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  9. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  10. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same...

  11. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  12. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  13. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  14. 75 FR 79385 - Submission for OMB; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... Collection: Title: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III. Type of...

  15. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink alcohol. Previous Index Next Español English Español PDF Version Download "I'm amazed I didn't ... the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services . PDF documents require the free Adobe Reader . Microsoft Word ...

  16. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  17. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  18. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  19. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  20. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  1. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  2. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  3. Alcohol and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  4. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  5. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  6. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  7. CTEP: a novel, potent, long-acting, and orally bioavailable metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Lothar; Jaeschke, Georg; Michalon, Aubin; Vieira, Eric; Honer, Michael; Spooren, Will; Porter, Richard; Hartung, Thomas; Kolczewski, Sabine; Büttelmann, Bernd; Flament, Christophe; Diener, Catherine; Fischer, Christophe; Gatti, Silvia; Prinssen, Eric P; Parrott, Neil; Hoffmann, Gerhard; Wettstein, Joseph G

    2011-11-01

    The metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a glutamate-activated class C G protein-coupled receptor widely expressed in the central nervous system and clinically investigated as a drug target for a range of indications, including depression, Parkinson's disease, and fragile X syndrome. Here, we present the novel potent, selective, and orally bioavailable mGlu5 negative allosteric modulator with inverse agonist properties 2-chloro-4-((2,5-dimethyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (CTEP). CTEP binds mGlu5 with low nanomolar affinity and shows >1000-fold selectivity when tested against 103 targets, including all known mGlu receptors. CTEP penetrates the brain with a brain/plasma ratio of 2.6 and displaces the tracer [(3)H]3-(6-methyl-pyridin-2-ylethynyl)-cyclohex-2-enone-O-methyl-oxime (ABP688) in vivo in mice from brain regions expressing mGlu5 with an average ED(50) equivalent to a drug concentration of 77.5 ng/g in brain tissue. This novel mGlu5 inhibitor is active in the stress-induced hyperthermia procedure in mice and the Vogel conflict drinking test in rats with minimal effective doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively, reflecting a 30- to 100-fold higher in vivo potency compared with 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) and fenobam. CTEP is the first reported mGlu5 inhibitor with both long half-life of approximately 18 h and high oral bioavailability allowing chronic treatment with continuous receptor blockade with one dose every 48 h in adult and newborn animals. By enabling long-term treatment through a wide age range, CTEP allows the exploration of the full therapeutic potential of mGlu5 inhibitors for indications requiring chronic receptor inhibition. PMID:21849627

  8. Alcoholism and liver disease in Mexico: genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-11-28

    Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.

  9. Alcoholism and liver disease in Mexico: Genetic and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide. PMID:24307790

  10. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, C. S., Jr.; Day, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ehtyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54 percent of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  11. Net energy analysis of alcohol production from sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkinson, C.S. Jr.; Day, J.W. Jr.

    1980-01-18

    Energy requirements were calculated for the agricultural and the industrial phase of ethyl alcohol production from sugarcane grown in Louisiana. Agricultural energy requirements comprised 54% of all energy inputs, with machinery, fuel, and nitrogen fertilizer representing most of the energy subsidies. Overall net energy benefits (output:input) for alcohol production ranged from 1.8:1 to 0.9:1 depending on whether crop residues or fossil fuels were used for industrial processes.

  12. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  13. Contribution of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase to Metabolism of Alcohols in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Leidal, Kevin G.; Murch, Bruce P.; Green, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5–20 mmole/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmole/kg•h. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5–10 mmole/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmole/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6 ± 1 mmole/kg•h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD+ for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD+ for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD+ is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  14. Alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction targets the outer dynein arm.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Pavlik, Jacqueline; Fox, Laura; Scarbrough, Chasity; Sale, Winfield S; Sisson, Joseph H; Wirschell, Maureen

    2015-03-15

    Alcohol abuse results in an increased incidence of pulmonary infection, in part attributable to impaired mucociliary clearance. Analysis of motility in mammalian airway cilia has revealed that alcohol impacts the ciliary dynein motors by a mechanism involving altered axonemal protein phosphorylation. Given the highly conserved nature of cilia, it is likely that the mechanisms for alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD) are conserved. Thus we utilized the experimental advantages offered by the model organism, Chlamydomonas, to determine the precise effects of alcohol on ciliary dynein activity and identify axonemal phosphoproteins that are altered by alcohol exposure. Analysis of live cells or reactivated cell models showed that alcohol significantly inhibits ciliary motility in Chlamydomonas via a mechanism that is part of the axonemal structure. Taking advantage of informative mutant cells, we found that alcohol impacts the activity of the outer dynein arm. Consistent with this finding, alcohol exposure results in a significant reduction in ciliary beat frequency, a parameter of ciliary movement that requires normal outer dynein arm function. Using mutants that lack specific heavy-chain motor domains, we have determined that alcohol impacts the β- and γ-heavy chains of the outer dynein arm. Furthermore, using a phospho-threonine-specific antibody, we determined that the phosphorylation state of DCC1 of the outer dynein arm-docking complex is altered in the presence of alcohol, and its phosphorylation correlates with AICD. These results demonstrate that alcohol targets specific outer dynein arm components and suggest that DCC1 is part of an alcohol-sensitive mechanism that controls outer dynein arm activity.

  15. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  16. [Clinical concept of alcoholic dementia].

    PubMed

    Kato, N

    1991-06-01

    Intellectual deterioration, changing in behavior and affect are often seen in association with long continued and heavy alcohol ingestion and such deteriorated states of patients are called alcoholic dementia. A large number of investigators have attempted to designate clinical concept of alcoholic dementia throughout the centuries and many kinds of term like as alcoholic pseudo-paralysis, alcoholic mental deficiency and alcoholic deterioration, etc, have been submitted since the beginning of 19th century. Numerous psychometric studies have indicated cognitive impairment and memory disturbance in chronic alcohol abusers and moreover brain PEG and CT-scan studies have shown sulcal widening and enlarged ventricles to be common in alcoholics. However, alcoholic dementia is hard to classify as a distinct disorder caused by alcoholic ingestion. The reason is lack of specific findings, both clinical and histopathological, like as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other nutritional disorders in alcoholics. Victor, M. describes in his work the majority of patients who have come to autopsy with the clinical diagnosis of primary alcoholic dementia have shown the lesions of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and he postulates alcoholic dementia is heavily contaminated with burned-out Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. The clinical and pathological observations presented by this time represent alcoholic dementia is a residual category for cases in which there are severe impairment of intelligence with marked deterioration of personality following prolonged and heavy drinking.

  17. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    PubMed

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  18. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  19. Alcoholic myopathy and acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Crabb, David W; Farrés, Jaume; Emery, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by biochemical and morphological lesions within muscle, ranging from impairment of muscle strength and loss of lean tissue to cellular disturbances and altered gene expression. The chronic form of the disease is five times more common than cirrhosis and is characterized by selective atrophy of type 11 (anaerobic) fibres: type I (aerobic) fibres are relatively protected. Although the causative agent is known (i.e. ethanol), the intervening steps between alcohol ingestion and the development of symptoms and lesions are poorly understood. However, acetaldehyde appears to have an important role in the aetiology of the disease. For example, alcohol is a potent perturbant of muscle protein synthesis in vivo, and this effect is exacerbated by cyanamide pre-dosage, which raises acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde alone also reduces muscle protein synthesis in vivo and proteolytic activity in vitro. The formation of acetaldehyde protein adducts is another mechanism of putative importance in alcoholic myopathy. These adducts are formed within muscle in response to either acute or chronic alcohol exposure and the adducts are located preferentially within the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal regions. However, the significance of protein adduct formation is unclear since we do not currently know the identity of the adducted muscle proteins nor whether adduction alters the biochemical or functional properties of skeletal muscle proteins.

  20. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of n-alcohols adsorbed on an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of normal alcohol (n-alcohol) on water and the effect of salt on the structural and dynamical properties of n-alcohol on aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The stability of the alcohol distribution was studied for three types of n-alcohol (n-propanol, C3H7OH; n-heptanol, C7H15OH; and n-undecanol, C11H23OH), four or five concentrations of alcohol, and three concentrations of salt. The simulation results reveal the following. The distribution of n-propanol on water is homogeneous at all n-alcohol concentrations studied here and the distribution of n-heptanol and n-undecanol on water is heterogeneous. The n-alcohol concentration at which fluctuations in the alcohol distribution begin to increase depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. Salt concentration affects the surface excess concentration of n-alcohol and the stability of the adsorbed layer of n-alcohol. The degree of each effect depends on the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the n-alcohol. For n-undecanol, the surface structure of n-alcohol is independent of salt concentration because interaction between the hydrocarbon chains is sufficiently strong. In absorption refrigeration technology, to enhance the absorption rate of water vapor into a highly concentrated aqueous electrolyte solution, a small amount of alcohols is added to the aqueous electrolyte solution, which induces cellular convection referred to as Marangoni instability. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, only n-heptanol induces strong cellular convection. The simulations reveal two required conditions for Marangoni instability: generation of fluctuations in the alcohol distribution on water, and strong correlation between the structural and dynamical properties and salt concentration. Among the three types of n-alcohol studied here, based on the simulations, only n-heptanol satisfies both conditions.

  2. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  3. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  4. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  5. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  6. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  7. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  8. Commentary: Doxasozin for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A

    2013-02-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that α(1) -blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on α(1) -blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O'Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another α(1) -blocker, doxazosin, which has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O'Neil and colleagues' main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O'Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis.

  9. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  10. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  11. Withdrawal from cocaine self-administration and yoked cocaine delivery dysregulates glutamatergic mGlu5 and NMDA receptors in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Pomierny-Chamiolo, Lucyna; Miszkiel, Joanna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Smaga, Irena; Fumagalli, Fabio; Filip, Małgorzata

    2015-04-01

    In human addicts and in animal models, chronic cocaine use leads to numerous alterations in glutamatergic transmission, including its receptors. The present study focused on metabotropic glutamatergic receptors type 5 (mGluR(5)) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits (NMDAR: GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B) proteins during cocaine self-administration and after 10-day of extinction training in rats. To discriminate the contingent from the non-contingent cocaine delivery, we employed the "yoked"-triad control procedure. Protein expression in rat prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, and dorsal striatum was determined. We also examined the Homer1b/c protein, a member of the postsynaptic density protein family that links NMDAR to mGluR(5). Our results revealed that cocaine self-administration selectively increased GluN1 and GluN2A subunit in the rat hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively, while mGluR(5) protein expression was similarly increased in the dorsal striatum of both experimental groups. Withdrawal from both contingent and non-contingent cocaine delivery induced parallel increases in prefrontal cortical GluN2A protein expression, hippocampal mGluR(5), and GluN1 protein expression as well as in accumbal GluN1 subunit expression, while the mGluR(5) expression was reduced in the prefrontal cortex. Extinction training in animals with a history of cocaine self-administration resulted in an elevation of the hippocampal GluN2A/GluN2B subunits and accumbal mGluR(5), and in a 50 % decrease of mGluR(5) protein expression in the dorsal striatum. The latter reduction was associated with Homer1b/1c protein level decrease. Our results showed that both contingent and non-contingent cocaine administration produces numerous, brain region specific, alterations in the mGluR(5), NMDA, and Homer1b/1c protein expression which are dependent on the modality of cocaine administration. PMID:25408547

  12. Combined behavioral studies and in vivo imaging of inflammatory response and expression of mGlu5 receptors in schnurri-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Kyung; Zhu, Aijun; Jenkins, Bruce G; Hattori, Satoko; Kil, Kun-Eek; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Shunsuke; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Brownell, Anna-Liisa

    2015-11-16

    Schnurri-2 (Shn-2) knockout (KO) mice have been proposed as a preclinical neuroinflammatory schizophrenia model. We used behavioral studies and imaging markers that can be readily translated to human populations to explore brain effects of inflammation. Shn-2 KO mice and their littermate control mice were imaged with two novel PET ligands; an inflammation marker [(11)C]PBR28 and the mGluR5 ligand [(18)F]FPEB. Locomotor activity was measured using open field exploration with saline, methamphetamine or amphetamine challenge. A significantly increased accumulation of [(11)C]PBR28 was found in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of Shn-2 KO mice. Increased mGluR5 binding was also observed in the cortex and hippocampus of the Shn-2 KO mice. Open field locomotor testing revealed a large increase in novelty-induced hyperlocomotion in Shn-2 KO mice with abnormal (decreased) responses to either methamphetamine or amphetamine. These data provide additional support to demonstrate that the Shn-2 KO mouse model exhibits several behavioral and pathological markers resembling human schizophrenia making it an attractive translational model for the disease.

  13. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  14. ALCOHOL AND THE SOLDIER

    PubMed Central

    Saldanka, D.; Goel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted during a two year period in a zonal referral hospital were studied. Vie majority of the subject were between the age of 30 to 50 years and had more than 10 year's history of alcohol abuse. 19.26% of the subjects had to be invalided out of service. 66.09% remained under various categories of observation after the treatment. At the end of two year′s follow-up only 12% of them had recovered completely. Preventive measures in the light of state policies are discussed. PMID:21776144

  15. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  16. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  17. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-09-01

    for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06-1.18).Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use. PMID:27661013

  2. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  3. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. ... drinking include: distorted vision, hearing, and coordination altered perceptions and emotions impaired judgment, which can lead to ...

  4. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  5. Alcohol-medical drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Seneviratne, Chamindi

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of alcohol and medications may lead to potentially serious medical conditions. Increasing prescription medication abuse in today's society necessitates a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-medication interactions in order to help prevent adverse events. Interactions of medications with alcohol result in altered bioavailability of the medication or alcohol (pharmacokinetic interactions) or modification of the effects at receptor or ion channel sites to alter behavioral or physical outcome (pharmacodynamic interactions). The nature of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions involved in alcohol-medication interactions may differ between acute and chronic alcohol use and be influenced by race, gender, or environmental or genetic factors. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between alcohol and medications and provides examples for such interactions from replicated research studies. In conclusion, further translational research is needed to address several gaps in our current knowledge of alcohol-medication interactions, including those under various pathologic conditions.

  6. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  7. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  8. Polyvinyl alcohol hydrogels for iontohporesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Prasanta; Alam, Asif Ali; Arora, Neha; Tibarewala, Dewaki Nandan; Basak, Piyali

    2013-06-01

    Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. The iontophoresis deal with the systemic delivery of the bioactive agents (drug) by applying an electric current. It is basically an injection without the needle. The iontophoretic system requires a gel-based matrix to accommodate the bioactive agent. Hydrogels have been used by many investigators in controlled-release drug delivery systems because of their good tissue compatibility and easy manipulation of swelling level and, thereby, solute permeability. In this work we have prepared polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We have cross linked polyvinyl alcohol chemically with Glutaraldehyde with different wt%. FTIR study reveals the chemical changes during cross linking. Swelling in water, is done to have an idea about drug loading and drug release from the membrane. After drug loading to the hydrogels, we have studied the drug release property of the hydrogels using salicylic acid as a model drug.

  9. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: an Italian position statement.

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the "6-mo rule". Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The "Group of Italian Regions" suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups.

  10. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: An Italian position statement

    PubMed Central

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the “6-mo rule”. Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The “Group of Italian Regions” suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027

  11. Acute alcoholic hepatitis, end stage alcoholic liver disease and liver transplantation: an Italian position statement.

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni; Burra, Patrizia; Bonino, Ferruccio; Piani, Francesco; Sumberaz, Alessandro; Peressutti, Roberto; Giannelli Castiglione, Andrea; Patussi, Valentino; Fanucchi, Tiziana; Ancarani, Ornella; De Cerce, Giovanna; Iannini, Anna Teresa; Greco, Giovanni; Mosti, Antonio; Durante, Marilena; Babocci, Paola; Quartini, Mariano; Mioni, Davide; Aricò, Sarino; Baselice, Aniello; Leone, Silvia; Lozer, Fabiola; Scafato, Emanuele; Borro, Paolo

    2014-10-28

    Alcoholic liver disease encompasses a broad spectrum of diseases ranging from steatosis steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. Forty-four per cent of all deaths from cirrhosis are attributed to alcohol. Alcoholic liver disease is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). The vast majority of transplant programmes (85%) require 6 mo of abstinence prior to transplantation; commonly referred to as the "6-mo rule". Both in the case of progressive end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and in the case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), not responding to medical therapy, there is a lack of evidence to support a 6-mo sobriety period. It is necessary to identify other risk factors that could be associated with the resumption of alcohol drinking. The "Group of Italian Regions" suggests that: in a case of ESLD with model for end-stage liver disease < 19 a 6-mo abstinence period is required; in a case of ESLD, a 3-mo sober period before LT may be more ideal than a 6-mo period, in selected patients; and in a case of severe AAH, not responding to medical therapies (up to 70% of patients die within 6 mo), LT is mandatory, even without achieving abstinence. The multidisciplinary transplant team must include an addiction specialist/hepato-alcohologist. Patients have to participate in self-help groups. PMID:25356027

  12. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, and 44 [Docket No. TTB-2013-0006; Notice No... Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade...

  13. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among adolescents in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-01-01

    .98–2.16). Having higher Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression scores was positively associated with current drinking (AOR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05–1.11) and having alcohol-related problems (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.06–1.18). Alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems among Chinese adolescents are major public health problems, and effective preventive programs will require full consideration of the individual, social, and environmental factors that facilitate and prevent alcohol use. PMID:27661013

  14. 49 CFR 219.401 - Requirement for policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to encourage and facilitate the identification of those covered employees who abuse alcohol or drugs..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Identification of Troubled Employees § 219.401 Requirement for policies. (a) The purpose of this subpart is to prevent the use of alcohol and drugs...

  15. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  16. 27 CFR 28.250 - Bills of lading required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....C. 5066)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 28.250, see the List of CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bills of lading required..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Shipment or Delivery for Export Bills of...

  17. 27 CFR 18.14 - Emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency variations from requirements. 18.14 Section 18.14 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  18. 27 CFR 18.14 - Emergency variations from requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency variations from requirements. 18.14 Section 18.14 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE...

  19. Alcohol and American Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, George A.

    The growing problem of teenage drinking and alcoholism in the United States, especially among Indian segments of society, increases the necessity for adequate education concerning alcoholism. This document is prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) schools to acquaint Indian students with social concepts of alcohol outside their cultural…

  20. Counseling Young Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brake, Kathryn J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…

  1. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  2. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  3. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudrai, R.; Jayakar, J.; Raju, B.; Pattamuthu, R.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of alcoholism in Madras City. A locality in North Madras was chosen and the houses were selected at random. The family members in these houses were assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening test. 222 persons were thus studied. 16.67 of the males were found to be suffering from alcoholism. PMID:21927497

  4. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.

  5. Saying No to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  6. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  7. [Ambulatory alcohol withdrawal].

    PubMed

    Grehl, Oliver

    2014-10-01

    Alcohol addiction is a common problem in daily life as well as in medicine. Apart from inpatient therapy programs, ambulatory withdrawal is a relatively new option, which may be done safely, efficient and cost-effective close to the domicile an without stigmatisation of the patient.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... childhood and last a lifetime. The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments ... these individuals. Risk Factors 9 The severity of alcohol’s effects on a fetus primarily depends on the following: » ...

  9. Alcoholism in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Vernelie

    1973-01-01

    A review of the research and literature on the subject of alcohol and youth which points out the complexity of the problem. Paper presented at the 14th Annual AMA-ASHA Session on School Health at San Francisco, California 1972. (JC)

  10. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  11. Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevention Forum, 1990

    1990-01-01

    The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…

  12. Cognitive Studies in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Terence

    1987-01-01

    Commends cognitive studies for extending our understanding of alcohol use and abuse. The role of vicarious learning and efficacy and outcome expectations in the development, maintenance, and prevention of drinking, is stressed. Reinterpreted concepts of craving and loss of control as well as models of relapse and prevention treatment strategies,…

  13. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  14. Anion solvation in alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jonah, C.D.; Xujia, Zhang; Lin, Yi

    1996-03-01

    Anion solvation is measured in alcohols using pump-probe pulse radiolysis and the activation energy of solvation is determined. Solvation of an anion appears to be different than excited state solvation. The continuum dielectric model does not appear to explain the results.

  15. Proteomics in alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Anni, Helen; Israel, Yedy

    2002-01-01

    The proteome is the complete set of proteins in an organism. It is considerably larger and more complex than the genome--the collection of genes that encodes these proteins. Proteomics deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome under physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., after exposure to alcohol, which causes major changes in numerous proteins of different cell types). To map large proteomes such as the human proteome, proteins from discrete tissues, cells, cell components, or biological fluids are first separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and multidimensional liquid chromatography. Then, individual proteins are identified by mass spectrometry. The huge amount of data acquired using these techniques is analyzed and assembled by fast computers and bioinformatics tools. Using these methods, as well as other technological advances, alcohol researchers can gain a better understanding of how alcohol globally influences protein structure and function, protein-protein interactions, and protein networks. This knowledge ultimately will assist in the early diagnosis and prognosis of alcoholism and the discovery of new drug targets and medications for treatment.

  16. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  17. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  18. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  19. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  20. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  1. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  2. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  3. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  4. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  5. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  6. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01). PMID:18173101

  7. Imaging the Addicted Brain: Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, M; Chanraud, S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) represents a major public health issue due to its prevalence and severe health consequences. It may affect several aspects of an individual's life including work and relationships, and it also increases risk for additional problems such as brain injury. The causes and outcomes of AUD are varied; thus, attempting to understand this complex phenomenon requires investigation from multiple perspectives. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful means to investigate brain anatomical and functional alterations related to AUD. Recent advances in MRI methods allow better investigation of the alterations to structural and functional brain networks in AUD. Here, we focus on findings from studies using multiple MRI techniques, which converge to support the considerable vulnerability of frontal systems. Indeed, MRI studies provide evidence for a "disconnection syndrome" which could be involved in the poor behavioral control observed in AUD. PMID:27503446

  8. Role of the ghrelin system in alcoholism: Acting on the growth hormone secretagogue receptor to treat alcohol-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Leggio, L

    2010-04-01

    There exists a substantial need to identify new neuropharmacological targets to treat alcohol-dependent individuals. Ghrelin represents a gut-brain peptide, initially discovered as the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). The existing literature clearly demonstrates that ghrelin affects appetite and food intake. Both animal and human studies provide evidence that ghrelin not only influences hunger but also has a role in the search for rewarding substances, such as alcohol. Animal studies provide evidence that ghrelin stimulates the reward system, acting on specific brain reward nodes, and that ghrelin signaling is required for stimulation of the reward system by alcohol. Human studies show that ethanol acutely affects ghrelin levels. Interestingly, human studies with alcohol-dependent individuals suggest that higher ghrelin levels are associated with higher self-reported measurements of alcohol craving. Altogether, these findings suggest that the ghrelin system plays a role in alcohol dependence. Ghrelin antagonists (i.e., GHS-R1a antagonists and/or inverse agonists) might affect alcohol-seeking behavior, thus having therapeutic potential in alcohol use disorders. Future laboratory and clinical studies testing this hypothesis are warranted. PMID:20440417

  9. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  10. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  11. Expression Profiling in Alcoholism Research.

    PubMed

    Bergeson, Susan E; Berman, Ari E; Dodd, Peter R; Edenberg, Howard J; Hitzemann, Robert J; Lewohl, Joanne M; Lodowski, Kerrie H; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2005-06-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2004 International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim, Germany, organized and co-chaired by Susan E. Bergeson and Wolfgang Sommer. The presentations and presenter were (1) Gene Expression in Brains of Alcohol-Preferring and Non-Preferring Rats, by Howard J. Edenberg (2) Candidate Treatment Targets for Alcoholism: Leads from Functional Genomics Approaches, by Wolfgang Sommer (3) Microarray Analysis of Acute and Chronic Alcohol Response in Brain, by Susan E. Bergeson (4) On the Integration of QTL and Gene Expression Analysis, by Robert J. Hitzemann (5) Microarray and Proteomic Analysis of the Human Alcoholic Brain, by Peter R. Dodd.

  12. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics.

  13. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  14. The binding site of a steroid hormone receptor-like protein within the Drosophila Adh adult enhancer is required for high levels of tissue-specific alcohol dehydrogenase expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, S; Benyajati, C

    1992-01-01

    Developmental and tissue-specific transcription from the Adh distal promoter is regulated in part by the Adh adult enhancer, located 450 to 600 bp upstream from the distal RNA start site. We have characterized four proteins (DEP1 to DEP4), present in Drosophila tissue culture cell nuclear extracts, which bind to this enhancer. DEP1 and DEP2 bind to a positive cis-acting element (-492 to -481) and share nucleotide contacts. A small linker replacement deletion mutation, which disrupts the overlapping DEP1- and DEP2-binding sites, reduces Adh distal transcription in an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-expressing cultured cell line, in the adult fat body (the major tissue of ADH expression), as well as in some but not all adult tissues where ADH is normally expressed. This enhancer element contains an imperfect palindromic sequence similar to steroid hormone receptor superfamily response elements. Binding-site screening of a lambda gt11 expression library has identified the steroid receptor superfamily member fushi tarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1) as a protein that binds to this site. Anti-FTZ-F1 antibodies have identified DEP1 as FTZ-F1. DEP2 also binds to the FTZ-F1 site from the fushi tarazu zebra element, suggesting that DEP2 may also be a steroid receptor superfamily member. Our results raise the possibility that Adh regulation in certain adult tissues involves a hormone-mediated pathway. Because DEP1 (FTZ-F1) and DEP2 contact some of the same nucleotides within the positive cis element, it is unlikely that they can bind simultaneously. Such alternative binding may play a role in the tissue-specific and developmental transcription of Adh. Images PMID:1732738

  15. Change in alcohol outlet density and alcohol-related harm to population health (CHALICE)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1) alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2) alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3) Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4) alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1) multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2) spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics, geographical information science

  16. In Situ Cross-Linking of Polyvinyl Alcohol Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, W. H.; Shu, L. C.; May, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Films or impregnated matrices readily made from aqueous polyvinyl alcohol solution. Controlled thickness films made by casting precise quantities of aqueous polymer solution on smooth surface, allowing water to evaporate and then removing film. Composite separators formed in similar fashion by impregnating cloth matrix with polyvinyl alcohol solution and drying composite. Insoluble thin hydrophilic membranes made from aqueous systems, and use of undesirable organic solvents not required.

  17. Role of Alcohol Metabolism in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393

  18. Alcoholic abstinence in elderly subjects with misuse of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Verny, Marc; Fernandez, Lydia; Ploton, Louis

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder does not disappear with aging, neither the associated induced-suffering. While the prevalence of alcohol use disorder still remains around 10% in the subjects over 65 year old age, and daily encountered by hospital or nursing-home caregivers. Alcohol misuse is often overlooked in elderly people, which then obtain lesser care than younger adults although the care prognosis remains as good as or better than before the age of 65, alcoholic abstinence gets always a place among care offers to elders suffering of alcohol use disorders and dependence. However abstinence is a complex notion gathering various representations or meanings, and induces necessary psychological changes. Alcoholic abstinence seems thus to be feared by families or caregivers, because of lack of knowledge about the addictive dimension of the disorder. On behalf of ultimate freedom, and allowing a last pleasure, alcohol use disorders and its associated suffering can be neglected because abstinence is considered as aggressive and harmful. However, modalities of reduction of alcohol consumption as well as access control or regulated supply of alcoholic beverages, keep having a place in graduate care offers. Beyond the choice of decreasing or suppress drinking alcohol beverages, which only are terms or conditions of improvement, the main point remains the improvement of well-fare, quality of life and elders' health. PMID:27277151

  19. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications.

  20. Immune dysfunction in acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanda, Ashwin D; Collins, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    Acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) is a serious complication of alcohol misuse and has high short term mortality. It is a clinical syndrome characterised by jaundice and coagulopathy in a patient with a history of recent heavy alcohol use and is associated with profound immune dysfunction with a primed but ineffective immune response against pathogens. Here, we review the current knowledge of the pathogenesis and immune defects of AAH and identify areas requiring further study. Alcohol activates the immune system primarily through the disruption of gut tight junction integrity allowing the escape of pathogen-associated molecular particles (PAMPs) into the portal venous system. PAMPs stimulate cells expressing toll-like receptors (mainly myeloid derived cells) and initiate a network of intercellular signalling by secretion of many soluble mediators including cytokines and chemokines. The latter coordinates the infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes and T cells and results in hepatic stellate cell activation, cellular damage and hepatocyte death by necrosis or apoptosis. On the converse of this immune activation is the growing evidence of impaired microbial defence. Neutrophils have reduced phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst and there is recent evidence that T cell exhaustion plays a role in this. PMID:26576079

  1. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy.

  2. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael K; Burkhardt, Christin; Juckel, Georg; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models. Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and the Banger score were obtained to estimate the severity of withdrawal. In addition, the Beck depression inventory was used to estimate the influence of depressive symptoms on pain perception. The data presented provide substantial evidence that subjects undergoing alcohol withdrawal show increased heat pain sensitivity. Interestingly, this effect was observed both on the left hand and sternum. Pain thresholds and tolerances of electric stimuli did not differ between groups. However, in a subgroup analysis, a higher sensitivity for electrical pain thresholds and tolerances was observed in those patients that were identified to require pharmacological treatment for withdrawal according to disease severity. Furthermore, the perceived painful thermal and electrical sensation was substantially influenced by the affective state of patients. No differences were found between patients of the abstained group and control subjects for any pain parameter. In conclusion, we demonstrate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia upon thermal stimulation in patients. Since the influence of affective symptoms on pain perception during withdrawal is remarkable, we assume that peripheral and central mechanisms might account for this finding, which should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  3. [Medicine and driving: Alcohol and other toxins].

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Francis

    2015-10-01

    General practitioners and specialists, beyond their role of health care providers, have a societal responsibility regarding the use or misuse of alcohol, drugs including cannabis, and some medications. Alcohol remains the leading cause of road accidents, and more than 100,000 drivers were found to be driving while intoxicated in 2000. Other drugs are now systematically tested for in serious accidents. The various government and road safety websites as well as several significant studies on the subject show that drunk driving is still a major problem and that other drugs and medication are also a significant cause of accidents, either alone or in combination with alcohol. The role of psychiatric disorders sometimes complicates the risk. Doctors have an obligation to provide their patients with information and must have an accurate knowledge of relevant legislation. They may be liable for accidents caused by the driving of their patients. This liability requires them to be able to demonstrate that they gave the individual some information about insurance, the possible limitation of their driver's license, and the steps they should take should they misuse alcohol or other drugs, including some medications. PMID:26453285

  4. 27 CFR 7.26 - Alcoholic content [suspended as of April 19, 1993; see § 7.71].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.26 Alcoholic content . (a) The alcoholic content and the percentage and quantity of the...” may be used only on malt beverage products containing less than 2.5 percent alcohol by volume. (c)...

  5. 27 CFR 7.26 - Alcoholic content [suspended as of April 19, 1993; see § 7.71].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.26 Alcoholic content . (a) The alcoholic content and the percentage and quantity of the...” may be used only on malt beverage products containing less than 2.5 percent alcohol by volume. (c)...

  6. 27 CFR 7.26 - Alcoholic content [suspended as of April 19, 1993; see § 7.71].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Labeling Requirements for Malt Beverages § 7.26 Alcoholic content . (a) The alcoholic content and the percentage and quantity of the...” may be used only on malt beverage products containing less than 2.5 percent alcohol by volume. (c)...

  7. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  8. Alcohol-Impaired Driving Among Adults - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Jewett, Amy; Shults, Ruth A; Banerjee, Tanima; Bergen, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving crashes account for approximately one third of all crash fatalities in the United States. In 2013, 10,076 persons died in crashes in which at least one driver had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥0.08 grams per deciliter (g/dL), the legal limit for adult drivers in the United States. To estimate the prevalence, number of episodes, and annual rate of alcohol-impaired driving, CDC analyzed self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. An estimated 4.2 million adults reported at least one alcohol-impaired driving episode in the preceding 30 days, resulting in an estimated 121 million episodes and a national rate of 505 episodes per 1,000 population annually. Alcohol-impaired driving rates varied by more than fourfold among states, and were highest in the Midwest U.S. Census region. Men accounted for 80% of episodes, with young men aged 21-34 years accounting for 32% of all episodes. Additionally, 85% of alcohol-impaired driving episodes were reported by persons who also reported binge drinking, and the 4% of the adult population who reported binge drinking at least four times per month accounted for 61% of all alcohol-impaired driving episodes. Effective strategies to reduce alcohol-impaired driving include publicized sobriety checkpoints, enforcement of 0.08 g/dL BAC laws, requiring alcohol ignition interlocks for everyone convicted of driving while intoxicated, and increasing alcohol taxes.

  9. An economic approach to animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Heyman, G M

    2000-01-01

    Researchers have long sought an animal model for human alcohol consumption. This article describes an economic-based approach to a model of alcohol preference in rats. The procedures are based on an analogy between clinical accounts of human drinking and the economic analysis of consumption. Both clinical and economic investigators typically define consumption patterns in terms of the influence of negative consequences. For example, the clinical account emphasizes the persistence of heavy drinking despite mounting alcohol-related aversive consequences, and in economic analyses, the term "inelastic demand" is used to refer to the persistence of consumption despite large increases in prices. In the experimental procedure described here, rats worked for alcohol and food. Presses on one lever earned a drink of 10 percent alcohol plus saccharin, and presses on a second lever earned isocaloric drinks of a starch solution. After behavior stabilized, the response requirements (which are analogous to prices) for one or both drinks were increased. The rats maintained baseline alcohol consumption levels despite large increases in the "price" of alcohol. In contrast, the same price increases markedly reduced starch intake. That is, food consumption was sensitive to price hikes, but alcohol consumption was not. The results demonstrate that a common economic framework can be used to describe human and animal behavior and, hence, the possibility of an animal model of human alcohol consumption. The article also points out that economic concepts provide a framework for understanding a wide range of human drinking patterns, including controlled social drinking and excessive alcoholic drinking. PMID:11199280

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview from the Glia Perspective.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Clare J; Guizzetti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Overview from the Glia Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Clare J.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities in the offspring resulting in a broad spectrum of cognitive and behavioral impairments that constitute the most severe and long-lasting effects observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Alcohol-induced abnormalities in glial cells have been suspected of contributing to the adverse effects of alcohol on the developing brain for several years, although much research still needs to be done to causally link the effects of alcohol on specific brain structures and behavior to alterations in glial cell development and function. Damage to radial glia due to prenatal alcohol exposure may underlie observations of abnormal neuronal and glial migration in humans with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), as well as primate and rodent models of FAS. A reduction in cell number and altered development has been reported for several glial cell types in animal models of FAS. In utero alcohol exposure can cause microencephaly when alcohol exposure occurs during the brain growth spurt a period characterized by rapid astrocyte proliferation and maturation; since astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the brain, microenchephaly may be caused by reduced astrocyte proliferation or survival, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Delayed oligodendrocyte development and increased oligodendrocyte precursor apoptosis has also been reported in experimental models of FASD, which may be linked to altered myelination/white matter integrity found in FASD children. Children with FAS exhibit hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure, two areas requiring guidance from glial cells and proper maturation of oligodendrocytes. Finally, developmental alcohol exposure disrupts microglial function and induces microglial apoptosis; given the role of microglia in synaptic pruning during brain development, the effects of alcohol on microglia may be involved in the abnormal brain

  12. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  13. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: pathophysiologic insights.

    PubMed

    Piano, Mariann R; Phillips, Shane A

    2014-12-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. ACM is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of ACM.

  14. Alcohol and error processing.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2003-08-01

    A recent study indicates that alcohol consumption reduces the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), a negative deflection in the electroencephalogram associated with error commission. Here, we explore possible mechanisms underlying this result in the context of two recent theories about the neural system that produces the ERN - one based on principles of reinforcement learning and the other based on response conflict monitoring.

  15. Alcoholic myopathy: biochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Preedy, V R; Paice, A; Mantle, D; Dhillon, A S; Palmer, T N; Peters, T J

    2001-08-01

    Between one- and two-thirds of all alcohol abusers have impairment of muscle function that may be accompanied by biochemical lesions and/or the presence of a defined myopathy characterised by selective atrophy of Type II fibres. Perturbations in protein metabolism are central to the effects on muscle and account for the reductions in muscle mass and fibre diameter. Ethanol abuse is also associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate (as well as lipid) metabolism in skeletal muscle. Ethanol-mediated insulin resistance is allied with the inhibitory effects of ethanol on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism. It acutely impairs insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism, although it is not known whether it has an analogous effect on insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, insulin resistance occurs with respect to carbohydrate metabolism, although the actions of insulin to suppress protein degradation and stimulate amino acid uptake are unimpaired. In acute alcohol-dosing studies defective rates of protein synthesis occur, particularly in Type II fibre-predominant muscles. The relative amounts of mRNA-encoding contractile proteins do not appear to be adversely affected by chronic alcohol feeding, although subtle changes in muscle protein isoforms may occur. There are also rapid and sustained reductions in total (largely ribosomal) RNA in chronic studies. Loss of RNA appears to be related to increases in the activities of specific muscle RNases in these long-term studies. However, in acute dosing studies (less than 1 day), the reductions in muscle protein synthesis are not due to overt loss of total RNA. These data implicate a role for translational modifications in the initial stages of the myopathy, although changes in transcription and/or protein degradation may also be superimposed. These events have important implications for whole-body metabolism.

  16. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided.

  17. Alcoholics who drink mouthwash: the spectrum of nonbeverage alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Egbert, A M; Reed, J S; Powell, B J; Liskow, B I; Liese, B S

    1985-11-01

    Nonbeverage alcohol (NBA), or substitutes for traditional forms of beverage alcohol, includes such substances as mouthwash, aftershave lotion and alcohol-based fuels. Literature pertaining to the prevalence, clinical significance and toxicity of this practice is reviewed, using illustrative cases from a series of 48 NBA consumers. It was found that 10-15% of alcoholics hospitalized in detoxication units have consumed NBA; half of these patients are regular consumers. Addiction to NBA itself may occur. Its use is primarily related to easy accessibility, rather than social or monetary factors. Polydrug misuse and antisocial personality disorder are more frequent in NBA users, but use is not pathognomic of end-stage alcoholism. The 48 NBA users reported surprisingly few toxic symptoms from acute ingestion, perhaps because tolerance to some substances in NBA may occur. Isopropyl alcohol was the exception, reproducibly causing symptoms suggestive of severe gastritis.

  18. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome. PMID:22611692

  19. Alcohol and the young child.

    PubMed

    Bradford, D E

    1984-01-01

    With the increasing availability of alcohol in modern times, the child neglect and abuse portrayed in Hogarth's engraving Gin Lane may once again be witnessed. Reports occur occasionally of alcohol being given deliberately to infants to quieten them, but alcohol poisoning in the slightly older child is not uncommon. The introduction of child-proof containers has altered poisoning figures recently. However, alcohol poisoning tends to occur at ages 3 and 4, that is, about 2 years after the peak of all poisonings in children. This difference may be an indication that alcohol is taken in imitation of parents' drinking, a suggestion which has some support from reported cases of mouthwash poisoning. Holidays and high days where children and alcohol mix, are potentially dangerous periods. Since alcohol poisoning can be fatal, yet if recognised is relatively easily managed, every child with the slightest degree of drowsiness should be suspect until proven or not by blood alcohol. The prevention of alcohol poisoning in the young child consists in protecting the alcohol by lock and key, not setting an example by drinking or gargling in front of children. Many substances such as mouthwash and perfume should also be under supervision. Once actual poisoning has occurred blood sugar is probably more important than the level of blood ethanol and blood sugar levels should be monitored frequently and the child treated with glucose, preferably intravenously.

  20. [Current peculiarities of alcoholic psychosis].

    PubMed

    Aleksin, D S; Egorov, A Iu

    2011-01-01

    The follow-up study of alcoholic psychoses in male patients admitted to a clinical department of a psychiatric hospital in 2005-2007 was carried out. Patients with alcoholic psychoses made up from 15 to 30% of all patients. The number of psychosis had seasonal variations with the elevations in spring and autumn, peaks in January, lune and October. Alcoholic delirium morbidity made up from 69 to 82% of the total number of alcoholic psychoses, alcoholic hallucinosis varied from 14 to 27%. Other forms were presented by single cases. In alcoholic delirium hallucinations had brighter, sated character. The most specific were visual hallucinations in the form of zoohallucinations, hallucinations of an oral cavity ("sensation of threads, hair etc"). The most often observable characters were "extraneous people, animal, demons". In alcoholic hallucinosis, verbal contrast hallucinations, making comment hallucinations, visual illusions were most frequent. The family history of mental disorders and alcoholism was noted in 30% of patients with alcoholic psychosis. The probability of occurrence of alcoholic psychoses depended on the quality of consumed drinks. The presence of a cranial-brain injury in the anamnesis considerably aggravated the disease forecast and increased the risk of seizure syndrome.

  1. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  2. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  3. The direct polymerization of vinyl alcohol and vinyl alcohol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, B.M.; Cederstav, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    The copolymerization of vinyl alcohol with a number of electron deficient olefins is reported. Vinyl alcohol was formed through the acid catalyzed hydrolysis of ketene methyl vinyl acetal. Under water starved conditions, the kinetics of tautomerization have a zero order dependence upon the concentration of vinyl alcohol (k{sub obs} = 3.5 x 10{sup -6} M/s). Hence, under these conditions, the half life of vinyl alcohol can be several hours at room temperature. We found that this meta-stable species could be quantitatively polymerized in a copolymerization (AIBN, h{upsilon}, -10 to 25{degrees}C) with maleic anhydride, maleimide or acrylonitrile.

  4. Review article: Nutritional therapy in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Stickel, F; Hoehn, B; Schuppan, D; Seitz, H K

    2003-08-15

    Chronic alcohol consumption may lead to primary and secondary malnutrition. In particular, protein energy malnutrition not only aggravates alcoholic liver disease but also correlates with impaired liver function and increased mortality. Therefore, in these patients, adequate nutritional support should be implemented in order to improve their prognosis. Clinical trials addressing this issue have shown that nutritional therapy either enterally or parenterally improves various aspects of malnutrition, and there is increasing evidence that it may also improve survival. Therefore, malnourished alcoholics should be administered a diet rich in carbohydrate- and protein-derived calories preferentially via the oral or enteral route. Micronutrient deficiencies typically encountered in alcoholics, such as for thiamine and folate, require specific supplementation. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may be treated with branched-chain amino acids in order to achieve a positive nitrogen balance. Fatty liver represents the early stage of alcoholic liver disease, which is usually reversible with abstinence. Metadoxine appears to improve fatty liver but confirmatory studies are necessary. S-adenosyl-L-methionine may be helpful for patients with severe alcoholic liver damage, since various mechanisms of alcohol-related hepatotoxicity are counteracted with this essential methyl group donor, while a recent large trial showed that the use of polyenylphosphatidylcholine is of limited efficacy. PMID:12940921

  5. The epigenetic landscape of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Harish R; Sakharkar, Amul J; Teppen, Tara L; Berkel, Tiffani D M; Pandey, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex psychiatric disorder that has a multifactorial etiology. Epigenetic mechanisms are uniquely capable of accounting for the multifactorial nature of the disease in that they are highly stable and are affected by environmental factors, including alcohol itself. Chromatin remodeling causes changes in gene expression in specific brain regions contributing to the endophenotypes of alcoholism such as tolerance and dependence. The epigenetic mechanisms that regulate changes in gene expression observed in addictive behaviors respond not only to alcohol exposure but also to comorbid psychopathology such as the presence of anxiety and stress. This review summarizes recent developments in epigenetic research that may play a role in alcoholism. We propose that pharmacologically manipulating epigenetic targets, as demonstrated in various preclinical models, hold great therapeutic potential in the treatment and prevention of alcoholism.

  6. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  7. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  8. Locus coeruleus neuronal activity determines proclivity to consume alcohol in a selectively-bred line of rats that readily consumes alcohol.

    PubMed

    West, Charles H K; Boss-Williams, Katherine A; Ritchie, James C; Weiss, Jay M

    2015-11-01

    larger than evident in the test. Finally, when increased LC activity was associated with (i.e., conditioned to) i.p. alcohol, subsequent alcohol consumption by SUS rats was markedly reduced, indicating that SUS rats consume large amounts of alcohol because of rewarding physiological consequences requiring increased VTA-DA activity. The findings reported here are consistent with the view that the influence of alcohol on LC activity leading to changes in VTA-DA activity strongly affects alcohol-mediated reward, and may well be the basis of the proclivity of SUS rats to avidly consume alcohol.

  9. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  10. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Alcohol use and the risk for alcohol-related problems ...

  11. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October 11,...

  12. Human alcohol-related neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Kril, Jillian J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related diseases of the nervous system are caused by excessive exposures to alcohol, with or without co-existing nutritional or vitamin deficiencies. Toxic and metabolic effects of alcohol (ethanol) vary with brain region, age/developmental stage, dose, and duration of exposures. In the mature brain, heavy chronic or binge alcohol exposures can cause severe debilitating diseases of the central and peripheral nervous systems, and skeletal muscle. Most commonly, long-standing heavy alcohol abuse leads to disproportionate loss of cerebral white matter and impairments in executive function. The cerebellum (especially the vermis), cortical-limbic circuits, skeletal muscle, and peripheral nerves are also important targets of chronic alcohol-related metabolic injury and degeneration. Although all cell types within the nervous system are vulnerable to the toxic, metabolic, and degenerative effects of alcohol, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and synaptic terminals are major targets, accounting for the white matter atrophy, neural inflammation and toxicity, and impairments in synaptogenesis. Besides chronic degenerative neuropathology, alcoholics are predisposed to develop severe potentially life-threatening acute or subacute symmetrical hemorrhagic injury in the diencephalon and brainstem due to thiamine deficiency, which exerts toxic/metabolic effects on glia, myelin, and the microvasculature. Alcohol also has devastating neurotoxic and teratogenic effects on the developing brain in association with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder/fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol impairs function of neurons and glia, disrupting a broad array of functions including neuronal survival, cell migration, and glial cell (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) differentiation. Further progress is needed to better understand the pathophysiology of this exposure-related constellation of nervous system diseases and better correlate the underlying pathology with in vivo imaging and biochemical lesions

  13. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in peri-adolescent and adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Sable, Helen J K; Schultz, Jonathon A; Hsu, Cathleen C; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents continues to be a major health problem for our society. Our laboratory has used the peri-adolescent alcohol-preferring, P, rat as an animal model of adolescent alcohol abuse. Even though peri-adolescent P rats consume more alcohol (g/kg/day) than their adult counterparts, it is uncertain whether their drinking is sufficiently aggregated to result in measurable blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). The objectives of this study were to examine daily alcohol drinking patterns of adolescent and adult, male and female P rats, and to determine whether alcohol drinking episodes were sufficiently aggregated to result in meaningful BECs. Male and female P rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to alcohol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that (a) peri-adolescent P rats consumed more water and total fluids than adult P rats, (b) female P rats consumed more water and total fluids than male P rats, (c) there were differences in alcohol, and water, licking patterns between peri-adolescent and adult and female and male P rats, (d) individual licking patterns revealed that alcohol was consumed in bouts often exceeding the amount required to self-administer 1 g/kg of alcohol, and (e) BECs at the end of the dark cycle, on the 30th day of alcohol access, averaged 50 mg%, with alcohol intakes during the last 1 to 2 h averaging 1.2 g/kg. Overall, these findings indicate that alcohol drinking patterns differ across the age and sex of P rats. This suggests that the effectiveness of treatments for reducing excessive alcohol intake may vary depending upon the age and/or sex of the subjects being tested.

  14. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  15. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  16. 27 CFR 4.36 - Alcoholic content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36... Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall be stated in the case of wines containing more than 14..., either the type designation “table” wine (“light” wine) or the alcoholic content shall be stated....

  17. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  18. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  19. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  20. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...