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Sample records for alcohol retail sales

  1. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  2. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  3. 27 CFR 31.51 - Wholesale dealers making retail sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sales. 31.51 Section 31.51 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Exempt from Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.51 Wholesale dealers making retail sales. A... under this part, is exempt from registration at that place as a retail dealer in liquors or in beer....

  4. 27 CFR 6.67 - Sales to retailer whose account is in arrears.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales to retailer whose account is in arrears. 6.67 Section 6.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Extension of Credit § 6.67 Sales to retailer whose account...

  5. Alcohol Sales and Risk of Serious Assault

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Joel G; Moineddin, Rahim; Bell, Chaim M; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Cusimano, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a contributing cause of unintentional injuries, such as motor vehicle crashes. Prior research on the association between alcohol use and violent injury was limited to survey-based data, and the inclusion of cases from a single trauma centre, without adequate controls. Beyond these limitations was the inability of prior researchers to comprehensively capture most alcohol sales. In Ontario, most alcohol is sold through retail outlets run by the provincial government, and hospitals are financed under a provincial health care system. We assessed the risk of being hospitalized due to assault in association with retail alcohol sales across Ontario. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based case-crossover analysis of all persons aged 13 years and older hospitalized for assault in Ontario from 1 April 2002 to 1 December 2004. On the day prior to each assault case's hospitalization, the volume of alcohol sold at the store in closest proximity to the victim's home was compared to the volume of alcohol sold at the same store 7 d earlier. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine the associated relative risk (RR) of assault per 1,000 l higher daily sales of alcohol. Of the 3,212 persons admitted to hospital for assault, nearly 25% were between the ages of 13 and 20 y, and 83% were male. A total of 1,150 assaults (36%) involved the use of a sharp or blunt weapon, and 1,532 (48%) arose during an unarmed brawl or fight. For every 1,000 l more of alcohol sold per store per day, the relative risk of being hospitalized for assault was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–1.26). The risk was accentuated for males (1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.33), youth aged 13 to 20 y (1.21, 95% CI 0.99–1.46), and those in urban areas (1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.35). Conclusions The risk of being a victim of serious assault increases with alcohol sales, especially among young urban men. Akin to reducing the risk of driving while impaired

  6. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... language: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retailer notification at sale. 3288.5 Section 3288.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  7. 24 CFR 3288.5 - Retailer notification at sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... language: The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Manufactured Home Dispute Resolution... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retailer notification at sale. 3288.5 Section 3288.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  8. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    PubMed

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed. PMID:19748884

  9. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than...

  10. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than...

  11. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than...

  12. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1....164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January 1...) and tax on the sale of gasoline, diesel fuel or other motor fuel paid by the consumer (other than...

  13. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of... INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. (a) The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous, or fermented liquor, containing more than 1 percent of alcohol by...

  14. 26 CFR 1.164-5 - Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. 1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.164-5 Certain retail sales taxes and gasoline taxes. For taxable years beginning before January...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4041-17 - Tax-free retail sales to certain nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free retail sales to certain nonprofit educational organizations. 48.4041-17 Section 48.4041-17 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Special Fuels § 48.4041-17 Tax-free retail sales to certain nonprofit educational organizations. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  17. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  18. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  19. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  20. 36 CFR 1005.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 1005.2 Section 1005.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.2 Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. The sale of alcoholic, spirituous, vinous,...

  1. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.815 Section 10.815 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  2. 19 CFR 10.878 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.878 Section 10.878 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  3. 16 CFR 503.6 - Packagers' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. 503.6 Section 503.6 Commercial Practices FEDERAL...' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price representations. To clarify... marked with retail sale price representations available in any circumstance where he knows or should...

  4. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  5. 19 CFR 10.815 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retail sale and for shipment. 10.815 Section 10.815 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale and packing materials and containers for shipment are to...

  6. Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Mackay, Daniel; McCartney, Gerry; Curnock, Esther; Beeston, Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A ban on multi-buy discounts of off-trade alcohol was introduced as part of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in October 2011. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this legislation on alcohol sales, which provide the best indicator of population consumption. Design, Setting and Participants Interrupted time–series regression was used to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol sales among off-trade retailers in Scotland. Models accounted for underlying seasonal and secular trends and were adjusted for disposable income, alcohol prices and substitution effects. Data for off-trade retailers in England and Wales combined (EW) provided a control group. Measurements Weekly data on the volume of pure alcohol sold by off-trade retailers in Scotland and EW between January 2009 and September 2012. Findings The introduction of the legislation was associated with a 2.6% (95% CI = −5.3 to 0.2%, P = 0.07) decrease in off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, but not in EW (−0.5%, 95% CI = −4.6 to 3.9%, P = 0.83). A statistically significant reduction was observed in Scotland when EW sales were adjusted for in the analysis (−1.7%, 95% CI = −3.1 to −0.3%, P = 0.02). The decline in Scotland was driven by reduced off-trade sales of wine (−4.0%, 95% CI = −5.4 to −2.6%, P < 0.001) and pre-mixed beverages (−8.5%, 95% CI = −12.7 to −4.1%, P < 0.001). There were no associated changes in other drink types in Scotland, or in sales of any drink type in EW. Conclusions The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. PMID:25099127

  7. Tobacco advertising and sales practices in licensed retail outlets after the Food and Drug Administration regulations.

    PubMed

    Frick, Ryan G; Klein, Elizabeth G; Ferketich, Amy K; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    To assess retailer compliance with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on tobacco sales and advertising practices, including point-of-sale advertisements, in two distinct Columbus, Ohio neighborhood groups by income. Data were gathered from a random sample of 129 licensed tobacco retailers, which included data on both exterior and interior advertisements as well as sales practices. Descriptive analyses compared retail outlets by high and low income neighborhood locations. Compliance with FDA regulations was high in the random sample of urban tobacco retail outlets. None of the retail outlets sold loose cigarettes or offered free items with purchase. Less than 10% of the outlets surveyed offered self-service access to cigarettes or smokeless tobacco products. From all surveyed retail outlets 95% had cigarette, 57% had smokeless, and 57% had cigar advertisements at the point-of-sale. There were no significant differences in compliance by income, but the mean number of advertisements on the building and self-service access to cigars was significantly different by neighborhood income. There was a high degree of compliance with the new FDA regulation on tobacco marketing and sales practices in urban retail tobacco outlets in Columbus, Ohio. Tobacco advertising and marketing remain highly prevalent in retail outlets, with some significant differences between high and low income neighborhoods. PMID:22197961

  8. “People over Profits”: Retailers Who Voluntarily Ended Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. Methods We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer’s decision. Results Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store’s image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers’ values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Conclusion Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers

  9. Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax

    MedlinePlus

    ... David Jernigan, director of Hopkins' Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, in Baltimore. "The findings of this ... benefit of increasing alcohol sales taxes as a strategy for reducing excessive drinking in states across the ...

  10. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  11. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.321 Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment. (a) Only those sales or services to which the retail concept applies may be recognized as...

  12. The Junior College Approach to Retail Marketing and Sales Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voris, Clyde A.

    The primary objective of this study was to ascertain from retail merchants the amount and type of formal college education desirable for optimum performance of typical mid-management retail positions, such as store manager, department manager, and buyer-merchandiser. The investigation also was concerned with any job stability differences between…

  13. Propensity for and Correlates of Alcohol Sales to Underage Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Heather; Toomey, Traci I.; Dunsmuir, William; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study assessed the propensity for alcohol sales to youth in the late 1990s, following increased efforts to reduce youth access to alcohol. Male and female pseudo-underage buyers (i.e., age [greater than or equal to] 21 but judged to appear less than 21) attempted to purchase alcohol without age identification at 741 alcohol…

  14. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the different…

  15. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing. PMID:15015859

  16. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  17. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  18. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  19. Oklahoma Retailers' Perspectives on Mutual Benefit Exchange to Limit Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertisements.

    PubMed

    Chan, Andie; Douglas, Malinda Reddish; Ling, Pamela M

    2015-09-01

    Businesses changing their practices in ways that support tobacco control efforts recently have gained interest, as demonstrated by CVS Health's voluntary policy to end tobacco sales. Point-of-sale (POS) advertisements are associated with youth smoking initiation, increased tobacco consumption, and reduced quit attempts among smokers. There is interest in encouraging retailers to limit tobacco POS advertisements voluntarily. This qualitative exploratory study describes Oklahoma tobacco retailers' perspectives on a mutual benefit exchange approach, and preferred message and messenger qualities that would entice them to take voluntary action to limit tobacco POS advertisements. This study found that mutual benefit exchange could be a viable option along with education and law as strategies to create behavior change among tobacco retailers. Many retailers stated that they would be willing to remove noncontractual POS advertisements for a 6-month commitment period when presented with mutual exchange benefit, tailored message, and appropriate messenger. Mutual benefit exchange, as a behavior change strategy to encourage voluntary removal of POS tobacco advertisements, was acceptable to retailers, could enhance local tobacco control in states with preemption, and may contribute to setting the foundation for broader legislative efforts. PMID:25767197

  20. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  1. 27 CFR 31.55 - Limited retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealers. 31... Registration And/or Recordkeeping § 31.55 Limited retail dealers. (a) Sales by limited retail dealers. Limited retail dealers, as described in § 31.35, are not required to register or keep records under this part....

  2. Alcohol sales to pseudo-intoxicated bar patrons.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, T L; Wagenaar, A C; Kilian, G; Fitch, O; Rothstein, C; Fletcher, L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many establishments serve alcoholic beverages to obviously intoxicated patrons despite laws against such sales. To guide the development of interventions to reduce these illegal alcohol sales, this study used actors feigning intoxication to determine whether servers recognized obvious signs of intoxication and to assess the tactics servers used when dealing with intoxicated patrons. METHODS: Male actors ages 30 to 50 acted out signs of obvious intoxication as they attempted to purchase alcoholic beverages. If served during the first attempt, these pseudo-intoxicated buyers made second purchase attempts during the same visit. Observers accompanied the actors; after each visit, actors and observers recorded the servers' behavior and comments. RESULTS: Alcoholic beverages were served to actors portraying intoxicated patrons at 68% of first purchase attempts and 53% of second purchase attempts (62% of a total of 106 purchase attempts). The most common refusal technique was a direct refusal (68% of refusals), made with either no excuse or with reference to the actors' apparent intoxication level. Servers' second most commonly used refusal technique was offering alcohol-free beverages, such as coffee or water (18% of refusals). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed to determine why servers who recognize intoxication serve alcoholic beverages and what training, outlet policies, and external pressures are needed to reduce illegal alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. PMID:10501134

  3. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 36 CFR 5.2 - Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Rocky Mountain, Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Yellowstone, or Yosemite National Parks, unless a permit for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages; sale of intoxicants. 5.2 Section 5.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4063-2 - Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. 48.4063-2 Section 48.4063-2... or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. (a) In general. Under section 4063... resold by the purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck as...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4063-2 - Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. 48.4063-2 Section 48.4063-2... or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. (a) In general. Under section 4063... resold by the purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck as...

  9. 26 CFR 48.4063-2 - Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. 48.4063-2 Section 48.4063-2... or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. (a) In general. Under section 4063... resold by the purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck as...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4063-2 - Tax-free sales of parts or accessories sold for resale on or in connection with the first retail...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... resale on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. 48.4063-2 Section 48.4063-2... or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck. (a) In general. Under section 4063... resold by the purchaser on or in connection with the first retail sale of a light-duty truck as...

  11. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  12. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  13. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  14. Retail Price and Point of Sale Display of Tobacco in the UK: A Descriptive Study of Small Retailers

    PubMed Central

    Spanopoulos, Dionysis; Ratschen, Elena; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the implementation of the 2002 Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Act, point-of-sale (PoS) tobacco displays are one of few remaining means of communication between the tobacco industry and customers in the UK. This study aimed to explore the characteristics of tobacco displays in a UK city, and particularly to assess the tobacco prices and promotional offers, types and pack sizes on display. Methods Digital pictures of PoS displays were taken in 117 small retail shops in Nottingham in mid 2010. Data were analysed using Windows Photo Gallery software and SPSS version 16. Results Just over half (52%) of cigarette packs on display were packs of 20, and 43% packs of 10. Cigarette prices differed substantially between brands, ranging from £4.19 to £6.85 for 20-packs, and from £2.12 to £3.59 for 10-packs. Forty four percent of cigarette packs and 40% of RYO (Roll-Your-Own) tobacco pouches, almost exclusively lower priced brands, were displayed with a pricemark, implying a promotional price offer. Eighty percent of 20-pack cigarette brand or brand variants on sale were priced below the EU-defined Most Popular Price Category (MPPC) for the UK in 2010; 45% were priced below the Weighted Average Price (WAP), which replaced the MPPC in 2011. Conclusion PoS displays communicate value by displaying a high proportion of lower cost brands, and smaller and hence lower-cost packs, and by displaying price discounts on packs. The MPPC substantially overestimated the prices at which most 20-cigarette packs were available. Removal of PoS displays will prevent this means of price marketing but our study also suggests that minimum pricing of 20-pack cigarettes, prohibition of sale of cigarettes in packs less than 20, and plain packaging to prevent pricemarking are necessary if price is to be used effectively as a tobacco control measure. PMID:22242183

  15. The spatiotemporal association of non-prescription retail sales with cases during the 2009 influenza pandemic in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Stacy; Diggle, Peter J; White, Peter J; Fearne, Andrew; Read, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess whether retail sales of non-prescription products can be used for syndromic surveillance and whether it can detect influenza activity at different spatial scales. A secondary objective was to assess whether changes in purchasing behaviour were related to public health advice or levels of media or public interest. Setting The UK. Participants National and regional influenza case estimates and retail sales from a major British supermarket. Outcome measures Weekly, seasonally adjusted sales of over-the-counter symptom remedies and non-pharmaceutical products; recommended as part of the advice offered by public health agencies; were compared with weekly influenza case estimates. Comparisons were made at national and regional spatial resolutions. We also compared sales to national measures of contemporaneous media output and public interest (Internet search volume) related to the pandemic. Results At a national scale there was no significant correlation between retail sales of symptom remedies and cases for the whole pandemic period in 2009. At the regional scale, a minority of regions showed statistically significant positive correlations between cases and sales of adult ‘cold and flu’ remedies and cough remedies (3.2%, 5/156, 3.8%, 6/156), but a greater number of regions showed a significant positive correlation between cases and symptomatic remedies for children (35.6%, 55/156). Significant positive correlations between cases and sales of thermometers and antiviral hand gels/wash were seen at both spatial scales (Cor 0.477 (95% CI 0.171 to 0.699); 0.711 (95% CI 0.495 to 0.844)). We found no significant association between retail sales and media reporting or Internet search volume. Conclusions This study provides evidence that the British public responded appropriately to health messaging about hygiene. Non-prescription retail sales at a national level are not useful for the detection of cases. However, at finer spatial scales, in particular

  16. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  17. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  18. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an industry member of requiring a retailer to...

  19. 16 CFR 503.6 - Packagers' duty to withhold availability of packages imprinted with retail sale price...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 503.6 Packagers... packaging or special package sizes bearing retail sale price representations should contain the condition... such steps, the fact that a particular customer has failed to resell the packages at a price...

  20. 29 CFR 779.320 - Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Partial list of establishments whose sales or service may be recognized as retail. 779.320 Section 779.320 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR...

  1. 19 CFR 10.775 - Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Packaging and packing materials and containers for retail sale and for shipment. 10.775 Section 10.775 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.775 Packaging and...

  2. Risk factors among handgun retailers for frequent and disproportionate sales of guns used in violent and firearm related crimes

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, G; Cook, P; Wright, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the retailer and community level factors associated with frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes (VFC handguns). Design: Cross sectional. The authors used California records to identify all handguns sold by study subjects during 1996–2000 and federal gun tracing records to determine which of these guns had been recovered by a police agency in the US or elsewhere and traced by 30 September 2003. Subjects and setting: The 421 licensed gun retailers in California selling at least 100 handguns annually during 1996–2000. Main outcome measure: The number of VFC handguns per 1000 gun years of exposure. Differences are expressed as incidence rate ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Subjects accounted for 11.7% of California retailers with handgun sales, 81.5% of handgun sales, and 85.5% of VFC handguns. Among subjects, the 3426 VFC handguns accounted for 48.0% of all traced handguns and 65.0% of those linked to a specified crime. The median VFC handgun trace rate was 0.5/1000 gun years (range 0–8.8). In multivariate analysis, this rate increased substantially for each single-point increase in the percentage of proposed sales that were denied because the purchasers were prohibited from owning guns (RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.56), and was increased for pawnbrokers (RR 1.26; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.55). Community level crime rates and sociodemographics had little predictive value. Conclusions: Risk factors, largely determined at the retailer level, exist for frequent and disproportionate sales of handguns that are later used in violent and firearm related crimes. Screening to identify high risk retailers could be undertaken with data that are already available. PMID:16326771

  3. Alcohol Outlet Densities and Alcohol Price: The British Columbia Experiment in the Partial Privatization of Alcohol Sales Off-Premise

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Ponicki, William R.; Stockwell, Tim; Macdonald, Scott; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Zhao, Jinhui; Martin, Gina; Greer, Alissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol beverage prices or taxes have been shown to be related to alcohol sales and use and related problems. What is not clear are the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Methods This study examines the relationship between alcohol outlet density under conditions of the partial privatization of off-premise consumption in British Columbia (BC) occurring over the past decade. Two hypotheses are tested. First, reflecting basic supply–demand principles, greater geographic densities of alcohol outlets will be directly related to reductions in beverage prices in response to greater competition. Second, reflecting the effects of niche marketing and resulting market stratification, increased densities of private liquor stores will be especially related to reductions in beverage prices within this outlet category. Data were collected from: (i) a survey of BC private store prices and practices, (ii) alcohol outlet location information, and (iii) data on demographic characteristics. Multilevel models examine the relationships between prices at individual private liquor stores and the densities of government liquor stores, private liquor stores, bars, and restaurants, controlling for background demographics and geographic unit level effects. Spatial dependencies were also examined. Results Increased densities of private liquor stores were associated with lower mean prices of beer and all alcohol aggregated across brands at the store level. There appeared to be no outlet level effect on discounting patterns, however, with the mean price differences apparently reflecting differences in the quality of brands carried rather than unequal prices for any given brand. Conclusions Increased densities of private off-sale alcohol outlets appear to result in lower prices charged at said establishments independently of other types of alcohol outlets suggesting that they represent an emerging marketing niche in the context of off-sale outlet privatization. PMID:23316802

  4. Community off-sales provision and the presence of alcohol-related detritus in residential neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Alasdair J M; Davidson, Neil

    2010-03-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between community off-sales premises and alcohol-related detritus (litter/remains) in residential neighbourhoods. This was accomplished by photographing all brand-identifiable alcohol product detritus (glass, packaging, etc.) where they lay and mapping these against the presence of off-sales outlets (licensed convenience stores) in the community. It was hypothesised that alcohol-related detritus would be greatest near to such alcohol outlets. However, although there was some evidence of a "broken bottles effect", accumulations of alcohol-related detritus near some off-sales premises, it is concluded that local area deprivation is a better predictor of such alcohol-related incivility than is outlet provision. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current social responsibility policy developments which are designed to make the alcohol industry liable for alcohol-related incivilities. PMID:20004129

  5. [Clandestine places: illegal sale of alcohol for urban worker populations].

    PubMed

    Hamel, P; Asún, D

    1978-03-01

    The authors have studied the illegal commerce of alcohol in popular urban communities. This sale is done in so called clandestine places. The study was approached from a cultural-anthropological point of view and its objective is a descriptive-exploratory study based on observation and interview techniques. A definition and a tipology of these places was attempted, emphasizing group dynamics and interpersonal relations between the owner of the place and the customer; among the customers; among the place itself and the rest of the community organizations, formal and informal ones. A primary analysis was done, according to which these clandestine places appear legitimized by nets of interpersonal relations, critical economic situations and places that satisfy recreational needs of the inhabitants. In order to eliminate the former, adecuate substitutes for recreation and social interaction ought to be considered. PMID:685704

  6. Does proximity to retailers influence alcohol and tobacco use among Latino adolescents?

    PubMed

    West, Joshua H; Blumberg, Elaine J; Kelley, Norma J; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L; Schmitz, Katherine E; Ryan, Sherry; Clapp, John D; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-10-01

    Despite decades of research surrounding determinants of alcohol and tobacco (A&T) use among adolescents, built environment influences have only recently been explored. This study used ordinal regression on 205 Latino adolescents to explore the influence of the built environment (proximity to A&T retailers) on A&T use, while controlling for recognized social predictors. The sample was 45% foreign-born. A&T use was associated with distance from respondents' home to the nearest A&T retailer (-), acculturation (+), parents' consistent use of contingency management (-), peer use of A&T (+), skipping school (+), attending school in immediate proximity to the US/Mexico border (+), and the interaction between the distance to the nearest retailer and parents' consistent use of contingency management (+). The association between decreasing distance to the nearest A&T retailer and increased A&T use in Latino adolescents reveals an additional risk behavior determinant in the US-Mexico border region. PMID:19936923

  7. 75 FR 14569 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) has determined that imports of polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Taiwan are being, or are likely to be, sold in the United States at less than fair value (LFTV), as provided in section 735 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The estimated margins of sales at LTFV are listed in the ``Continuation of Suspension of Liquidation''......

  8. “A Breath of Fresh Air Worth Spreading”: Media Coverage of Retailer Abandonment of Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    Offen, Naphtali; Yerger, Valerie B.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Media play an important role in the diffusion of innovations by spreading knowledge of their relative advantages. We examined media coverage of retailers abandoning tobacco sales to explore whether this innovation might be further diffused by media accounts. Methods. We searched online media databases (Lexis Nexis, Proquest, and Access World News) for articles published from 1995 to 2011, coding retrieved items through a collaborative process. We analyzed the volume, type, provenance, prominence, and content of coverage. Results. We found 429 local and national news items. Two retailers who were the first in their category to end tobacco sales received the most coverage and the majority of prominent coverage. News items cited positive potential impacts of the decision more often than negative potential impacts, and frequently referred to tobacco-caused disease, death, or addiction. Letters to the editor and editorials were overwhelmingly supportive. Conclusions. The content of media coverage about retailers ending tobacco sales could facilitate broader diffusion of this policy innovation, contributing to the denormalization of tobacco and moving society closer to ending the tobacco epidemic. Media advocacy could increase and enhance such coverage. PMID:24432885

  9. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  10. Socio-Spatial Patterning of Off-Sale and On-Sale Alcohol Outlets in a Texas City

    PubMed Central

    Han, Daikwon; Gorman, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and Aims To examine the socio-spatial patterning of off-sale and on-sale alcohol outlets following a policy change that ended prohibition of off-sale outlets in Lubbock, Texas. Design and Methods The spatial patterning of alcohol outlets by licensing type was examined using the k-function difference (D statistic) to compare the relative degree of spatial aggregation of the two types of alcohol outlets and by the spatial scan statistic to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of outlets. The sociodemographic characteristics of the areas containing clusters of outlets were compared to the rest of the city. In addition, the socioeconomic characteristics of census block groups with and without existing on-sale outlets were compared, as were the socioeconomic characteristics of census block groups with and without the newly issued off-sale licenses. Results The existing on-sale premises in Lubbock and the newly established off-sale premises introduced as a result of the 2009 policy change displayed different spatial patterns, with the latter being more spatially dispersed. A large cluster of on-sale outlets identified in the north-east of the city was located in a socially and economically disadvantaged area of the city. Discussion and Conclusion The findings support the view that it is important to understand the local context of deprivation within a city when examining the location of alcohol outlets and add to the existing research by drawing attention to the importance of geographic scale in assessing such relationships. PMID:24320205

  11. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ryota; Pechey, Rachel; Suhrcke, Marc; Jebb, Susan A; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-05-01

    In-store product placement is perceived to be a factor underpinning impulsive food purchasing but empirical evidence is limited. In this study we present the first in-depth estimate of the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, focussing on alcohol. Data on store layout and product-level sales during 2010-11 were obtained for one UK grocery store, comprising detailed information on shelf space, price, price promotion and weekly sales volume in three alcohol categories (beer, wine, spirits) and three non-alcohol categories (carbonated drinks, coffee, tea). Multiple regression techniques were used to estimate the effect of end-of-aisle display on sales, controlling for price, price promotion, and the number of display locations for each product. End-of-aisle display increased sales volumes in all three alcohol categories: by 23.2% (p = 0.005) for beer, 33.6% (p < 0.001) for wine, and 46.1% (p < 0.001) for spirits, and for three non-alcohol beverage categories: by 51.7% (p < 0.001) for carbonated drinks, 73.5% (p < 0.001) for coffee, and 113.8% (p < 0.001) for tea. The effect size was equivalent to a decrease in price of between 4% and 9% per volume for alcohol categories, and a decrease in price of between 22% and 62% per volume for non-alcohol categories. End-of-aisle displays appear to have a large impact on sales of alcohol and non-alcoholic beverages. Restricting the use of aisle ends for alcohol and other less healthy products might be a promising option to encourage healthier in-store purchases, without affecting availability or cost of products. PMID:24632050

  12. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  13. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  14. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  15. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  16. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  17. Access to alcohol and heart disease among patients in hospital: observational cohort study using differences in alcohol sales laws

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Jonathan W; Dewland, Thomas A; Vittinghoff, Eric; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Pletcher, Mark J; Hahn, Judith A; Gladstone, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and heart disease by using differences in county level alcohol sales laws as a natural experiment. Design Observational cohort study using differences in alcohol sales laws. Setting Hospital based healthcare encounters in Texas, USA. Population 1 106 968 patients aged 21 or older who were residents of “wet” (no alcohol restrictions) and “dry” (complete prohibition of alcohol sales) counties and admitted to hospital between 2005 and 2010, identified using the Texas Inpatient Research Data File. Outcome measures Prevalent and incident alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease were used for validation analyses. The main cardiovascular outcomes were atrial fibrillation, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Results Residents of wet counties had a greater prevalence and incidence of alcohol misuse and alcoholic liver disease. After multivariable adjustment, wet county residents had a greater prevalence (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.09; P=0.007) and incidence (hazard ratio 1.07, 1.01 to 1.13; P=0.014) of atrial fibrillation, a lower prevalence (odds ratio 0.83, 0.79 to 0.87; P<0.001) and incidence (hazard ratio 0.91, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.019) of myocardial infarction, and a lower prevalence (odds ratio 0.87, 0.84 to 0.90; P<0.001) of congestive heart failure. Conversion of counties from dry to wet resulted in statistically significantly higher rates of alcohol misuse, alcoholic liver disease, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart failure, with no detectable difference in myocardial infarction. Conclusions Greater access to alcohol was associated with more atrial fibrillation and less myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, although an increased risk of congestive heart failure was seen shortly after alcohol sales were liberalized. PMID:27301557

  18. State pre-emption, local control, and alcohol retail outlet density regulation.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F; Treffers, Ryan D

    2013-04-01

    The substantial health and economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption make its reduction a major public health and economic concern. The Community Preventive Services Task Force, based on a systematic review of the research literature, concluded that restricting alcohol retail outlet density through local land use and zoning regulations is an effective strategy for reducing these costs. Yet the implementation of the Task Force's recommendation is limited by state pre-emption, which determines the extent to which states allow local government to adopt policies and enact legislation. This article summarizes the state pre-emption doctrine, its status in the 50 states pertaining to alcohol retail outlet density regulation, and findings from state legal analyses conducted in six states. Data reflect state laws in effect as of January 1, 2012. Analyses were conducted during the 2012 calendar year. An examination of relevant state laws found five distinct pre-emption categories: exclusive state licensing, exclusive state licensing and concurrent local zoning, joint licensing, exclusive local licensing, and a mixed system. The analysis demonstrated wide variability across the states, ranging from exclusive state pre-emption to broad state delegation of authority to local governments. Pre-emption is applied differentially in many states based on retail outlet characteristics. In many cases, state pre-emption laws are ambiguous in terms of their application, leading to inconsistent and confusing court interpretations. Reforms targeting the adverse impact of state pre-emption on alcohol retail outlet density have the potential for reducing the harm associated with excessive alcohol consumption. State and local public health departments can support such reforms by implementing educational, analytic, monitoring, and technical assistance activities. PMID:23498107

  19. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  20. Retail marijuana purchases in designer and commercial markets in New York City: sales units, weights, and prices per gram.

    PubMed

    Sifaneck, Stephen J; Ream, Geoffrey L; Johnson, Bruce D; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-09-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several varities of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for marijuana sales include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from 5 dollars to 50 dollars and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (average 8.20 dollars/g) and designer (average 18.02 dollars/g) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of 10 dollar bags, 50 dollar cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of 5 dollar and 20 dollar bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  1. Improving the alcohol retail environment to reduce youth access: a randomized community trial of a best practices toolkit intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Lisa S; El Ayadi, Alison M; Lyons, Nancy J; Herr-Zaya, Kathleen; Noll, Debra; Perfas, Fernando; Rots, Gisela

    2011-06-01

    Underage alcohol use remains a significant public health problem throughout the United States and has important consequences for the health of individuals and communities. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of distributing an alcohol retailer toolkit via direct mail on increasing positive alcohol retailer attitudes towards checking IDs, encouraging retail managers to formalize ID checking procedures with their employees, and promoting consumers to be prepared to show ID when purchasing alcohol. This community randomized study included five matched Massachusetts community pairs. Our analysis sample consisted of 209 retailers (77 intervention; 132 control). In models adjusted for baseline response and matching community and establishment characteristics, intervention communities reported posting, on average, one additional sign or wall decal in their establishments (β = 0.937, P = 0.0069), and a twofold higher odds of handing out written materials on ID checking to staff (OR: 2.074, 95%CI: 1.003-4.288) compared to control establishments. However, the intervention was not found to have an effect on changing establishment policies, retailer attitudes, or other establishment practices. Intervention retailers perceived all components of the toolkit to be very useful for their establishments, and nearly all reported having shared materials with their employees and customers. These results suggest that some significant changes in alcohol retailer establishment practices can be achieved among motivated owners or managers through the distribution of a toolkit targeting best retailer practices. We do, however, recommend that future program planners consider alternative dissemination and marketing strategies beyond direct mail to encourage greater utilization. PMID:20927574

  2. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, E.A.; Hill, S.E.; Mitchell, R.; Pearce, J.; Shortt, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18–25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  3. Is local alcohol outlet density related to alcohol-related morbidity and mortality in Scottish cities?

    PubMed

    Richardson, E A; Hill, S E; Mitchell, R; Pearce, J; Shortt, N K

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol consumption may be influenced by the local alcohol retailing environment. This study is the first to examine neighbourhood alcohol outlet availability (on- and off-sales outlets) and alcohol-related health outcomes in Scotland. Alcohol-related hospitalisations and deaths were significantly higher in neighbourhoods with higher outlet densities, and off-sales outlets were more important than on-sales outlets. The relationships held for most age groups, including those under the legal minimum drinking age, although were not significant for the youngest legal drinkers (18-25 years). Alcohol-related deaths and hospitalisations were higher in more income-deprived neighbourhoods, and the gradient in deaths (but not hospitalisations) was marginally larger in neighbourhoods with higher off-sales outlet densities. Efforts to reduce alcohol-related harm should consider the potentially important role of the alcohol retail environment. PMID:25840352

  4. 29 CFR 779.321 - Inapplicability of “retail concept” to some types of sales or services of an eligible establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... at a stipulated price, of items such as certain plumbing and heating equipment, electrical fixtures... alteration, or repair job at a contract price for materials and labor required, see § 779.355(a)(1) is... the parties is for a construction job at an overall price for the job, involving no retail sale...

  5. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  6. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  7. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL...

  8. 7 CFR 205.308 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as â100 percent organicâ or âorganic.â 205.308 Section 205.308 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards,...

  9. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  10. 7 CFR 205.309 - Agricultural products in other than packaged form at the point of retail sale that are sold...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (1) Such statement must not list more than three organic ingredients or food groups, and (2) In any... the point of retail sale that are sold, labeled, or represented as âmade with organic (specified ingredients or food group(s)).â 205.309 Section 205.309 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  11. Village Alcohol Control and the Local Option Law. A Report to the Alaska State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonner, Thomas D.; Duff, J. Kenneth

    This is a report on Alaska's "local option law" which allows villages to choose one of the following four options on alcohol availability in their communities: (1) the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited unless sold under a community liquor license; (2) the sale of alcoholic beverages is limited to one of several types of retail licenses…

  12. Potential consequences from possible changes to Nordic retail alcohol monopolies resulting from European Union membership.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Giesbrecht, N; Horverak, O; Nordlund, S; Norström, T; Olsson, O; Osterberg, E; Skog, O J

    1995-12-01

    This paper projects the consequences of modifying or eliminating the current national alcohol retail monopolies in Sweden, Norway and Finland as a possible result of those countries' membership in the European Union (EU). First, the authors project absolute alcohol consumption in each country based on different possible changes in alcohol price and availability. Then they predict the future levels of alcohol-related problems likely to result from increased per capita alcohol consumption (Sweden and Norway only). All of the scenarios examined in this paper are expected to lead to increases in per capita alcohol consumption. The smallest increase in consumption would result from a partial elimination of the current monopoly and a modest reduction in alcohol prices. In that case, projected per capita consumption in Sweden for inhabitants 15 years and older would rise from 6.3 to 9.3 litres; in Norway, from 4.7 to 6.7 litres; and in Finland, from 8.4 to 11.1 litres. The greatest projected increase in consumption would result from a complete elimination of the state monopolies such that all beer, wine and spirits were sold in food shops, grocery stores and gasoline stations, along with a substantial drop in alcohol prices as a result of private competition within each country and increased cross-border alcohol purchases. That scenario would result in projected per capita consumption of 12.7 litres in Sweden, 11.1 litres in Norway and 13.7 litres in Finland. The authors project that a 1-litre increase in consumption would result in a 9.5% increase in total alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 9.7% increase in Norway. Further, alcohol-related assaults would increase by 9% in Sweden and 9.6% in Norway. A 5-litre increase in consumption would result in a 62% increase in alcohol-related mortality in Sweden and a 60% increase in Norway, and a 57% increase in alcohol-involved assaults in both countries. PMID:8555952

  13. Retailer branding of consumer sales promotions. A major development in food marketing?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert P; Lindsay, Sophie; Insch, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    This article examines retailer branding of consumer price promotions. It discusses the mechanics of price promotions, consumers' reactions to them and the benefits that accrue to those that use them. It describes how large food retailers can now deploy branded price promotion systems that are fundamentally different to 'traditional' price promotions in both their mechanics and their effects on consumer decision processes. The article describes a field experiment that compared the performance of a food retailer's branded price promotion system with that of a generic (manufacturer) price promotion. The research involved three experiments that covered two food categories (sliced bread and margarine) and two levels of discount (10% and 20%). The results indicate that food retailers are able to attach powerful brands to their price promotion systems, and these brand heuristics can significantly increase consumer purchase intent relative to an equivalent generic/manufacturer promotion. This incremental heuristic effect was stable in both categories and for both levels of price discount studied. These results are consistent with the predictions of alternative, non-cognitive and heuristic based models of food consumer choice that have been published recently in 'Appetite'. PMID:22036836

  14. Retail Marijuana Purchases in Designer and Commercial Markets in New York City: Sales Units, Weights, and Prices per Gram

    PubMed Central

    Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Ream, Geoffrey L.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the bifurcation of the market for commercial marijuana from the market for designer marijuana in New York City. Commercial marijuana is usually grown outdoors, imported to NYC, and of average quality. By contrast, several strains of designer marijuana are usually grown indoors from specially-bred strains and carefully handled for maximum quality. The mechanisms for selling include street/park sellers, delivery services, private sales, and storefronts. Retail sales units vary from $5 to $50 and more, but the actual weights and price per gram of retail marijuana purchases lacks scientific precision. Ethnographic staff recruited marijuana purchasers who used digital scales to weigh a purposive sample of 99 marijuana purchases. Results indicate clear differences in price per gram between the purchases of commercial (avg. $8.20/gram) and designer (avg. $18.02/gram) marijuana. Designer purchases are more likely to be made by whites, downtown (Lower East Side/Union Square area), via delivery services, and in units of $10 bags, $50 cubes, and eighth and quarter ounces. Commercial marijuana purchases are more likely to be made by blacks, uptown (Harlem), via street dealers, and in units of $5 and $20 bags. Imported commercial types Arizona and Chocolate were only found uptown, while designer brand names describing actual strains like Sour Diesel and White Widow were only found downtown. Findings indicate clear divisions between commercial and designer marijuana markets in New York City. The extent that these differences may be based upon different THC potencies is a matter for future research. PMID:17055670

  15. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  16. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  17. The relationship of perceived age and sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage customers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Stanford, E J; Lindsay, G B; Neiger, B L

    2000-10-01

    The ability of store clerks to estimate the age of their customers is critical in preventing illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage individuals. To avoid illegal sales of tobacco products to minors, the Food and Drug Administration created a policy in 1997 requiring store clerks to request identification of anyone perceived to be underage 27. A similar age standard has not been implemented for alcohol. The purpose of this article is to assess whether age 27 is adequate for minimizing tobacco sales to those under age 18 and whether this age is also a useful standard for minimizing illegal alcohol sales to those under age 21. The analysis is based on age estimates from 49 gas station and convenience store clerks. Each clerk estimated ages of 45 people filmed on video whose actual ages ranged from 15 to 29. T-tests, analysis of variance, contingency tables and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Store clerks found it more difficult to estimate ages of female customers than male customers. In addition, the store clerks significantly underestimated age of male customers under 18 and of female customers under 21. In contrast, the clerks significantly overestimated age of customers 21 years and older. Among underage customers, the store clerks' age, gender, work experience, education, and training in requesting identification had no influence on ability to judge age, nor did it have a strong influence on whether an underage customer was considered 18 or older or 21 or older. The results suggest that age 27 is adequate for minimizing illegal tobacco sales. Adoption of a similar or slightly older age may be appropriate for minimizing illegal alcohol sales. PMID:10982013

  18. How well are national guidelines relating to the general sales of aspirin and paracetamol, adhered to by retail stores: a mystery shopper study

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Phillip; Chambers, Ruth; Cork, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether non-pharmaceutical retail outlets are aboding to the current Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) national guidelines for over-the-counter (OTC) sales of aspirin and paracetamol. Methods Stages 1 and 2 of the study deployed eight and four medical students, respectively, to undertake a mystery shopper style investigation. Stage 1: eight medical students attempted to buy ≥96 tablets/capsules aspirin or paracetamol in one transaction in 62 shops. Stage 2: four medical students attempted to purchase 32 paracetamol 500 mg along with a ‘flu remedy preparation also containing paracetamol, in 54 shops. Results Stage 1 data revealed that 58% and 57% retailers sold more than the MHRA guidelines recommended for paracetamol and aspirin, respectively. We observed that 23% and 28% retailers were willing to sell ≥96 tablets of paracetamol or aspirin with no questions asked. Stage 2 results showed that 57% retailers sold 32×500 mg paracetamol in conjunction with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu preparation; while 98% shops sold 16×paracetamol 500 mg along with a paracetamol-containing ‘flu remedy, with no questions asked of the shopper or advice given. Discussion MHRA national guidelines for OTC medicines sales appear to be poorly adhered to in non-pharmacy shops. Sales of aspirin and paracetamol OTC must be better regulated in the UK to ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality rates of deliberate and accidental overdoses. PMID:26781508

  19. Assessment of the microbiological safety of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England, with a focus on Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Jemmott, W; Surman-Lee, S; Hucklesby, L; de Pinnal, E

    2009-04-01

    There is little published information on the prevalence of Salmonella in edible nut kernels. A study in early 2008 of edible roasted nut kernels on retail sale in England was undertaken to assess the microbiological safety of this product. A total of 727 nut kernel samples of different varieties were examined. Overall, Salmonella and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.2 and 0.4% of edible roasted nut kernels. Of the nut varieties examined, Salmonella Havana was detected from 1 (4.0%) sample of pistachio nuts, indicating a risk to health. The United Kingdom Food Standards Agency was immediately informed, and full investigations were undertaken. Further examination established the contamination to be associated with the pistachio kernels and not the partly opened shells. Salmonella was not detected in other varieties tested (almonds, Brazils, cashews, hazelnuts, macadamia, peanuts, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts). E. coli was found at low levels (range of 3.6 to 4/g) in walnuts (1.4%), almonds (1.2%), and Brazils (0.5%). The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in edible nut kernels. Prevention of microbial contamination in these products lies in the application of good agricultural, manufacturing, and storage practices together with a hazard analysis and critical control points system that encompass all stages of production, processing, and distribution. PMID:19435237

  20. Survey of Salmonella contamination of edible nut kernels on retail sale in the UK.

    PubMed

    Little, C L; Rawal, N; de Pinna, E; McLauchlin, J

    2010-02-01

    Consumption of nut kernels has shown an upward trend due to people's increasing tendency to eat healthy snacks. The purpose of this survey was to establish the microbiological safety of retail edible nut kernel samples of different varieties. Overall Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were detected from 0.1% and 0.8% of 2886 edible nut kernels, respectively. S. Senftenberg and S. Tennessee were detected from two pre-packed samples of Brazil nuts (0.4%) and S. Anatum from a pre-packed mixed nuts sample (0.9%; mix: almonds, Brazils, cashews, peanuts, walnuts) indicating a risk to health. The levels of Salmonella ranged from <0.01 to 0.23/g. E. coli at unsatisfactory levels (150/g) was present in another pre-packed Brazils nuts sample (0.2%). E. coli was additionally found at lower levels (range: 3.6-43/g) in Brazils (1.9%), macadamia (1.5%), pistachios (1.1%), walnuts (0.7%), peanuts (0.7%), hazels (0.5%), cashews (0.4%), and almonds (0.3%). Levels of E. coli did not correlate with the presence of Salmonella. The batches contaminated with Salmonella were recalled and Food Standards Agency food alerts were issued to advise against the consumption of the affected products. The presence of Salmonella is unacceptable in ready-to-eat foods and follows that the need for applying good agricultural and hygiene practices and effective decontamination procedures during the production of edible kernels cannot be overemphasized. PMID:19913709

  1. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Meat Pies from Retail Sale in England 2013.

    PubMed

    McLauchlin, Jim; Aird, Heather; Charlett, Andre; Elviss, Nicola; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira; Willis, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes in England associated with meat pie consumption were detected in 2012. To obtain baseline data for pies unrelated to outbreaks, 862 samples of ready-to-eat meat pies were collected at retail or from catering facilities in England in 2013 and examined to enumerate food-poisoning bacteria and indicator organisms using Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods for Listeria spp. including L. monocytogenes (ISO 11290), Clostridium perfringens (ISO 21528), coagulase-positive staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus (ISO 6888), Bacillus spp. including B. cereus (ISO 1737), Escherichia coli (ISO 16649), Enterobacteriaceae (ISO 21528), and aerobic colony counts (ACCs; ISO 4833). Microbiological quality was satisfactory in 94% of samples, borderline in 5%, and unsatisfactory in 1%. The proportion of pies from markets that were borderline or unsatisfactory significantly increased, and the proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory pies from supermarkets significantly decreased. Among the refrigerated (0 to 15°C) pies, microbiological quality significantly decreased in pies stored at >8°C and further significantly decreased at in pies stored at ambient temperature (>15 to 25°C). Samples collected at 25 to 40°C had the highest proportion of borderline or unsatisfactory results, but results improved in pies stored at >40°C. The most common cause for borderline or unsatisfactory results was elevated ACCs (5% of all samples). Within the individual microbiological parameters, borderline or unsatisfactory results resulted from elevated Enterobacteriaceae or Bacillus levels (10 samples for each), C. perfringens levels (2 samples), and S. aureus or E. coli levels (1 sample each). L. monocytogenes was recovered from one pie at <10 CFU/g. A literature review revealed a range of microbiological hazards responsible for food poisoning and meat pie consumption, and surveillance data from 1992

  2. Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). PMID:22952719

  3. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

  4. Why should i comply? Sellers' accounts for (non-)compliance with legal age limits for alcohol sales

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Availability is an important predictor of early and excessive alcohol consumption by adolescents. Many countries have implemented age limits to prevent underage purchases of alcohol. However, shop-floor compliance with these age limits appears to be problematic. This study addresses the issue of non-compliance with age limits. Which measures do vendors take to avoid underage alcohol sales, and what do they report as important reasons to comply or not with age limits for alcohol sales? Methods Open-ended telephone interviews were conducted with store managers selling alcohol (N = 106). Prior to the interviews, all outlets were visited by an underage mystery shopper in order to measure compliance with the legal age limits on alcohol sales. The interview results are compared against actual compliance rates. Results Several measures have been taken to prevent underage sales, but the compliance level is low. Furthermore, open coding resulted in 19 themes, representing both valid and invalid arguments, that vendors mentioned as relevant to their decisions of whether to comply with the law. Compliance with age limits is dependent on the knowledge of the rules and the ability and motivation to follow the rules. The ability aspect in particular seems to be problematic, but in many cases, the motivation to actively comply with the age limits is lacking. Conclusions To enhance compliance, it is important to raise the awareness of the importance of age limits and to connect possible violations of the regulations to negative consequences. PMID:22269016

  5. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., that what is a retail sale for purposes of a sales tax law is not necessarily a retail sale for... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS... that sales of goods or services are not wholesale or are made to the ultimate consumer and are not...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall determine a constructive sale price for his sales of taxable articles at retail, and to retail... articles at retail, or to retailers, or both, as the case may be, (2) The manufacturer also regularly sells... normal method of sales for such articles within the industry is not to sell such articles at retail or...

  7. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-3 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall determine a constructive sale price for his sales of taxable articles at retail, and to retail... articles at retail, or to retailers, or both, as the case may be, (2) The manufacturer also regularly sells... normal method of sales for such articles within the industry is not to sell such articles at retail or...

  8. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. Materials and Methods A discreet observational audit was conducted 7–14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Results Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Conclusions Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people’s awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should

  9. 75 FR 16431 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Postponement of Final Determination, 74 FR 56807 (November 3... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 74 FR 63720 (December 4, 2009) (collectively, Preliminary... Preliminary Determination, 74 FR at 56808. \\1\\ Because these two companies function as one common...

  10. Career Oriented Mathematics, Teacher's Manual. [Includes Mastering Computational Skill: A Use-Based Program; Owning an Automobile and Driving as a Career; Retail Sales; Measurement; and Area-Perimeter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This manual is designed for teachers using the Career Oriented Mathematics units on owning an automobile and driving as a career, retail sales, measurement, and area-perimeter. The volume begins with a discussion of the philosophy and scheduling of the program which is designed to improve students' attitudes and ability in computation by…

  11. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    PubMed

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes. PMID:26569378

  12. Retail Point-of-Sale Guardianship and Juvenile Tobacco Purchases: Assessing the Prevention Capabilities of Undergraduate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Troy

    2007-01-01

    This randomized experiment evaluates the attitudes and behavioral intentions of 458 undergraduate college students about intervening with the intent of preventing an illegal retail purchase of tobacco products by a minor after exposure to a factorial combination of three pieces of information. MANOVA results show that none of the treatment…

  13. The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09. Participants A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients. Measurements Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK unit 8 g ethanol), purchase place and price. Findings Patients consumed mean 197.7 UK units/week. The mean price paid per unit was £0.43 (lowest £0.09/unit) (£1 = 1.6 US$ or 1.2€), which is below the mean unit price, £0.71 paid in Scotland in 2008. Of units consumed, 70.3% were sold at or below £0.40/unit (mid-range of price models proposed for minimum pricing legislation by the Scottish Government), and 83% at or below £0.50/unit proposed by the Chief Medical Officer of England. The lower the price paid per unit, the more units a patient consumed. A continuous increase in unit price from lower to higher social status, ranked according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (based on postcode), was not seen; patients residing in postcodes in the mid-quintile paid the highest price per unit. Cheapness was quoted commonly as a reason for beverage choice; ciders, especially ‘white’ cider, and vodka were, at off-sales, cheapest per unit. Stealing alcohol or drinking alcohol substitutes was only very rarely reported. Conclusions Because patients with serious alcohol problems tend to purchase very cheap alcohol, elimination of the cheapest sales by minimum price or other legislation might reduce their consumption. It is unknown whether proposed price legislation in Scotland will encourage patients with serious alcohol problems to start stealing alcohol or drinking substitutes or will reduce the recruitment of new drinkers with serious alcohol problems and produce predicted longer-term gains in

  14. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption. PMID:24697652

  15. Careers Canada, Volume 10: Careers in Sales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Manpower and Immigration, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series on Canadian career opportunities, is designed for those who are interested in a career in sales. The sales occupations described include manufacturers, wholesale, technical and scientific sales representatives, sales managers, purchasing agents and buyers, and retail sales persons and managers. Special sales careers…

  16. Alcohol Sales to Youth: Data from Rural Communities Within the Cherokee Nation.

    PubMed

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Kominsky, Terrence K; Livingston, Melvin D; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Komro, Kelli A

    2016-01-01

    Access to alcohol among individuals under 21 years of age continues to be a public health concern with approximately 5000 youth deaths attributable to alcohol each year (US Department of Health and Human Services 2007). To date, there is no research on youth access to alcohol from commercial sources within rural communities with large populations of Native American families. We evaluated commercial access to alcohol by underage-appearing female confederates in 4 rural towns within the Cherokee Nation, a non-reservation tribal jurisdiction that includes a high proportion of Native Americans embedded within a predominately White population. Alcohol purchase attempts were conducted approximately every 4 weeks on 10 occasions for a total of 997 alcohol purchase attempts. In addition to purchase attempt outcome, we collected data on characteristics of the outlets and clerks. Alcohol was sold to confederates without use of age identification on 23 % of all purchase attempts. Across repeated attempts, 76 % of outlets sold alcohol to a confederate at least once. Males and younger clerks were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederates. Grocery stores and gas stations were more likely to sell alcohol to the confederate than liquor stores, but this effect was no longer significant once seller age was accounted for in a multivariable model. Three out of 4 outlets sold alcohol to young-appearing buyers at least once across repeated attempts. Results reinforce the continuing need for regular enforcement of laws against selling alcohol to minors. PMID:26228479

  17. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  18. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  19. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. PMID:24074215

  20. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.30 Recordkeeping for retail transactions. (a) Except for purchase by an...

  1. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  2. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  3. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.25 Requirements for retail...

  5. 21 CFR 1314.30 - Recordkeeping for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recordkeeping for retail transactions. 1314.30 Section 1314.30 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.30 Recordkeeping for retail transactions. (a)(1) Except for purchase by...

  6. How Might the Alcohol Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) Impact upon Local Off-Sales Shops and the Communities Which They Serve?

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Alasdair J.M.; Ellaway, Anne; Davidson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the likely impact of the Scottish Government's proposed alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) policy on community off-sales outlets (convenience stores or corner shops), and, in turn, on the local people who purchase drinks at such premises. This research adds to our knowledge by linking sales of alcohol products which will be affected by MUP (e.g. at the proposed 50 ppu) to the types of communities where these are the ‘drinks-of-choice’. Methods: A survey of independent community off-sales operating within the city of Glasgow, Scotland (n = 271) returned 144 completed questionnaires enquiring about each shop's customer base, best-selling alcohol products and participating shopkeepers' views on MUP. Responses were measured against current alcohol product prices (i.e. whether potentially affected by MUP) and local levels of socio-economic deprivation. Results: Participating shopkeepers were divided in their support for MUP, although more were in favour than against. Support for MUP tended to be rooted in business concerns. A majority reported having at least one best-selling alcohol product which will be affected by the proposed MUP policy at current prices, with the beverages that would be most affected (e.g. white cider) tending to be best-sellers at shops serving deprived communities. Conclusion: MUP is likely to impact most in socio-economically deprived communities. This is also where alcohol-related health and other inequalities are currently greatest. PMID:24293505

  7. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  8. 27 CFR 31.181 - Requirements for retail dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Retail Dealer's Records § 31.181 Requirements for retail dealers. (a) Records of receipt. All retail dealers must keep...

  9. Alcohol and opioid dependence medications: prescription trends, overall and by physician specialty.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Kassed, Cheryl A; Vandivort-Warren, Rita; Levit, Katharine R; Kranzler, Henry R

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in addiction neurobiology have led to the approval of new medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence. This study examined data from the IMS National Prescription Audit (NPA) Plus database of retail pharmacy transactions to evaluate trends in U.S. retail sales and prescriptions of FDA-approved medications to treat substance use disorders. Data reveal that prescriptions for alcoholism medications grew from 393,000 in 2003 ($30 million in sales) to an estimated 720,000 ($78 million in sales) in 2007. The growth was largely driven by the introduction of acamprosate in 2005, which soon became the market leader ($35 million in sales). Prescriptions for the two buprenorphine formulations increased from 48,000 prescriptions ($5 million in sales) in the year of their introduction (2003) to 1.9 million prescriptions ($327 million in sales) in 2007. While acamprosate and buprenorphine grew rapidly after market entry, overall substance abuse retail medication sales remain small relative to the size of the population that could benefit from treatment and relative to sales for other medications, such as antidepressants. The extent to which substance dependence medications will be adopted by physicians and patients, and marketed by industry, remains uncertain. PMID:18819759

  10. The Effect of Point of Sale Promotions on the Alcohol Purchasing Behaviour of Young People in Metropolitan, Regional and Rural Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sandra C.; Smith, Kylie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study, part of a larger project examining marketing and alcohol, looked specifically at the effects of point of sale (POS) promotions on young people, with a view to providing evidence which could be used to inform policy and regulation in this area. A series of focus groups were conducted in three different locations with young people aged…

  11. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  12. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  13. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  14. Off-Premise Alcohol Outlets On and Around Tribal Land: Risks for Rural California Indian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.; Roberts, Jennifer; Nelson, Nadeana; Calac, Daniel; Gilder, David A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the alcohol environment for rural American Indian youth, we conducted 70 interviews with leading members and youth representatives of nine Southern California tribes. We also conducted brief observations in all 13 stores licensed to sell alcohol on and close to the reservation lands of the nine tribes. Underage youth may obtain alcoholic beverages at stores either directly through illegal sales to minors or indirectly through social sources. Stores are also environments within which alcoholic beverages and heavy drinking may become normalized for youth. Limitations and implications for convenience store-based prevention research on alcohol retail environment for youth in rural population areas are discussed. PMID:25529892

  15. 29 CFR 779.315 - Traditional local retail or service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Traditional local retail or service establishments. 779.315... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.315 Traditional local retail...

  16. 29 CFR 779.315 - Traditional local retail or service establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Traditional local retail or service establishments. 779.315... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.315 Traditional local retail...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-1 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 4216(b)(1) applies to: (i) Arm's-length sales at retail or on consignment, other than those sales at... than at arm's length, and at less than fair market price. (2) Section 4216(b)(2) applies generally to arm's-length sales of an article at retail or to retailers, or both, where the manufacturer also...

  18. 27 CFR 53.94 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Arm's-length sales at retail or on consignment, other than those sales at retail and to retailers to which section 4216(b)(2) of the Code and § 53.96 apply; and (ii) Sales otherwise than at arm's length, and at less than fair market price. (2) Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code applies generally to...

  19. 27 CFR 53.94 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Arm's-length sales at retail or on consignment, other than those sales at retail and to retailers to which section 4216(b)(2) of the Code and § 53.96 apply; and (ii) Sales otherwise than at arm's length, and at less than fair market price. (2) Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code applies generally to...

  20. 27 CFR 53.94 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Arm's-length sales at retail or on consignment, other than those sales at retail and to retailers to which section 4216(b)(2) of the Code and § 53.96 apply; and (ii) Sales otherwise than at arm's length, and at less than fair market price. (2) Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code applies generally to...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-1 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 4216(b)(1) applies to: (i) Arm's-length sales at retail or on consignment, other than those sales at... than at arm's length, and at less than fair market price. (2) Section 4216(b)(2) applies generally to arm's-length sales of an article at retail or to retailers, or both, where the manufacturer also...

  2. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  3. 29 CFR 779.360 - Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Liquefied-Petroleum-Gas and Fuel Oil Dealers § 779.360 Classification of liquefied-petroleum-gas... establishment's sales are not for resale and are recognized as retail sales in the industry, sales to...

  4. 21 CFR 1314.35 - Training of sales personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Training of sales personnel. 1314.35 Section 1314.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED... seller must ensure that its sales of a scheduled listed chemical product at retail are made in...

  5. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  6. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  7. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  8. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors. 31.31 Section 31.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors....

  10. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  11. Relationship Between Tobacco Retailers' Point-of-Sale Marketing and the Density of Same-Sex Couples, 97 U.S. Counties, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph G L; Goldstein, Adam O; Pan, William K; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-08-01

    The reasons for higher rates of smoking among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people than among heterosexual people are not well known. Research on internal migration and neighborhood selection suggests that LGB people are more likely to live in neighborhoods where the tobacco industry has historically targeted their marketing efforts (lower income, more racial/ethnic diversity). We used multi-level models to assess the relationship between the rate of same-sex couples per 1000 coupled households and 2012 marketing characteristics of tobacco retailers (n = 2231) in 1696 census tracts in 97 U.S. counties. We found no evidence of tobacco marketing at retailers differing by same-sex couple rates in census tracts with the exception of three findings in the opposite direction of our hypotheses: a small, significant positive relationship for the rate of same-sex male couples and the price of Newport Green (mentholated) cigarettes. For male and female same-sex couples, we also found a small negative relationship between tobacco advertisements and same-sex household rate. Tobacco retailers' tobacco marketing characteristics do not differ substantially by the rate of same-sex couples in their neighborhood in ways that would promote LGB health disparities. Further work is needed to determine if these patterns are similar for non-partnered LGB people. PMID:26225987

  12. 27 CFR 8.54 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... retailer independence. 8.54 Section 8.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... determining retailer independence. The criteria specified in this section are indications that a particular practice, other than those in §§ 8.52 and 8.53, places retailer independence at risk. A practice need...

  13. 21 CFR 1314.25 - Requirements for retail transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for retail transactions. 1314.25 Section 1314.25 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF... that customers do not have direct access to the product before the sale is made (in this...

  14. RETAIL ORGANIZATION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAURO, RALPH N.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A COURSE ON RETAIL ORGANIZATION IS PLANNED FOR FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) EVOLUTION OF RETAIL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE, (2) ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES, AND PRACTICES, (3) TYPICAL RETAIL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS, (4) ORGANIZATIONAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANAYSIS, INCLUDING MERCHANDISING, SALES PROMOTION, AND…

  15. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  17. 19 CFR 10.1022 - Retail packaging materials and containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Retail packaging materials and containers. 10.1022... Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.1022 Retail packaging materials and containers. (a) Effect on tariff shift rule. Packaging materials and containers in which a good is packaged for retail sale,...

  18. Information Systems and Technology Sourcing Strategies and Performance of E-Retailers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Juliana Yuh-Shun

    2012-01-01

    The e-Retail industry has grown rapidly over the last few years and is projected to continue its upward trend as consumers shift from traditional channels to online channels. In March 2010, Forrester Research forecasted that online retail sales will grow by 10% a year for the next 5 years and e-Retail sales will amount to $249 billion by 2014.…

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  20. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled...

  1. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale. (a) Sale by...

  2. 76 FR 1131 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Monthly Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...-month merchandise inventories, and quarterly e- commerce sales of retailers in the United States by... are requested to report sales, e-commerce sales, and/or inventories each month. The sample, consisting...-44(06)S Non Department Store/Sales Only/WO E-Commerce. SM-44(06)SE Non Department Store/Sales Only...

  3. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... regulation restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (75 FR 13225... Register of July 16, 2010 (75 FR 41498), FDA announced the availability of a draft guidance entitled... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer...

  4. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  5. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  6. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  7. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  8. 27 CFR 6.153 - Criteria for determining retailer independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for determining retailer independence. 6.153 Section 6.153 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.153 Criteria for determining retailer independence. The...

  9. 27 CFR 6.100 - Participation in retailer association activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Participation in retailer association activities. 6.100 Section 6.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.100 Participation in retailer association activities....

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-16 - Sales for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales for export. 48.4041-16 Section 48.4041-16... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-16 Sales for export. (a) General rule. In order for a sale to be exempt from tax under section 4041 as a sale for export, it...

  11. 21 CFR 1314.35 - Training of sales personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training of sales personnel. 1314.35 Section 1314.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.35 Training of sales personnel. Each...

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  15. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  16. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  17. 75 FR 55552 - Polyvinyl Alcohol From Taiwan: Preliminary Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-13

    ... Fair Value: Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate From South Africa, 62 FR 61731, 61733 (November 19.... See, e.g., Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Sheet and... FR 59204 (October 4, 2004) (Initiation Notice). On October 22, 2004, the International...

  18. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as retail.... 4, No. 5, and No. 6 fuel oil as these heavy oils are “special purpose” goods to which the retail... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification of other fuel oil sales. 779.361 Section...

  19. 29 CFR 779.361 - Classification of other fuel oil sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sales of fuel oil (as differentiated from sales of butane and propane gases) are classified as retail.... 4, No. 5, and No. 6 fuel oil as these heavy oils are “special purpose” goods to which the retail... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification of other fuel oil sales. 779.361 Section...

  20. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limited retail dealer... Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. Any person selling distilled... “limited retail dealer” if the person or organization is not otherwise engaged in business as a dealer....

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  2. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â 31.94 Section 31.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer...

  3. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  4. 29 CFR 779.330 - Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.330 Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.” The third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service...

  5. 29 CFR 779.330 - Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.330 Third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service establishment.” The third requirement for qualifying as a “retail or service...

  6. Differences in liquor prices between control state-operated and license-state retail outlets in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aims to compare the average price of liquor in the United States between retail alcohol outlets in states that have a monopoly ('control' states) with those that do not ('licence' states). Design A cross-sectional study of brand-specific alcohol prices in the United States. Setting We determined the average prices in February 2012 of 74 brands of liquor among the 13 control states that maintain a monopoly on liquor sales at the retail level and among a sample of 50 license-state liquor stores, using their online-available prices. Measurements We calculated average prices for 74 brands of liquor by control vs. license state. We used a random effects regression model to estimate differences between control and license state prices – overall and by alcoholic beverage type. We also compared prices between the 13 control states. Findings The overall mean price for the 74 brands was $27.79 in the license states (95% confidence interval [CI], $25.26–$30.32) and $29.82 in the control states (95% CI, $26.98–$32.66). Based on the random effects linear regression model, the average liquor price was approximately two dollars lower (6.9% lower) in license states. Conclusions In the United States monopoly of alcohol retail outlets appears to be associated with slightly higher liquor prices. PMID:22934914

  7. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  8. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  9. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  10. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  11. 27 CFR 53.96 - Constructive sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; special rule for arm's-length sales. 53.96 Section 53.96 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... sale price; special rule for arm's-length sales. (a) In general. Section 4216(b)(2) of the Code... distributors in arm's-length transactions, and the manufacturer establishes that its prices in such cases...

  12. 24 CFR 3286.605 - After sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false After sale. 3286.605 Section 3286.605 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....605 After sale. (a) Tracking installation information. The retailer is responsible for providing...

  13. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95 Consumer tasting or sampling at retail...

  14. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  15. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  16. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95 Consumer tasting or sampling at retail...

  17. Retail applications of signature verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  18. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  19. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  20. 27 CFR 72.61 - Alternative methods of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative methods of sale. 72.61 Section 72.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROPERTY Administrative Sale or Disposition of Personal Property § 72.61 Alternative methods of sale....

  1. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The...

  2. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  3. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  4. Mapping the Tobacco Retailers in Edirne, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karlıkaya, Celal; İnce, Hüseyin; Özkan, Nurcan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. Material and Methods: In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. Results: There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. Conclusion: We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment. PMID:25207039

  5. Retailers' Views of Tobacco Policy and Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Bonita; Carver, Vivien; Range, Lillian M.; Pike, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Tobacco retailers are in a unique position to implement policies that can influence sales and ultimately tobacco use, so the present survey explored retailers' tobacco policies, involvement and problems with law enforcement, and pessimism about whether youth will obtain tobacco products. Methods: 144 randomly selected tobacco retailers…

  6. A Services Marketing Perspective on E-Retailing: Implications for E-Retailers and Directions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolesar, Mark B.; Galbraith, R. Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Applying a body of theory and empirical research in the study of customer loyalty drivers in the services sector, this paper sets out a number of marketing and Web site design implications for e-retailers. It then suggests several means by which e-retailers can manage customer perceptions to increase sales and develop greater customer loyalty.…

  7. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising in retailer publications. 6.54 Section 6.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service §...

  8. 27 CFR 31.35 - Limited retail dealer; persons eligible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limited retail dealer; persons eligible. 31.35 Section 31.35 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.35 Limited...

  9. The Relation between the Number of Hours That Authorize the Sale of Alcoholic Beverages and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, Hernán; Gonzalez, Marco; Huaco, Carlos; Sotelo, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Background: La Victoria was considered, the most violent area in Lima City, the local government enforced a public policy regarding number of hours for selling of alcoholic beverages in January 2007. The study was designed to compare its results in Violence between one district with the law and other without the law. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional was an ecological study with a chronological and geographical comparison between La Victoria, with the restriction and Cercado de Lima without the ban. The participants in the study were patients from a local National Hospital, with aggressions from fighting, or were wounded in traffic accidents, and violent death bodies at National Institute of Legal Medicine. Data were analyzed, using clinical histories (2006 vs. 2007-8) and necropsies (2005-6 vs. 2007-8) Results: The reduction of aggression rates at La Victoria in 2007 and 2008 in comparison to 2006, were 40.7% and 36.4% respectively (P< 0.05). It was related to the number of hours of liquor authorized selling Y= -11.25+27.32 X (P<0.05). There was a reduction of 44% in homicide (P<0.05) and 35% in suicide rates between biennia’s. The female/ male ratio of homicides changed from 1/7.3 to 1/4.6. A significant increase in the rate of alcohol positive dead bodies was observed (20.3% to 41.5%), (Relative Risk (RR) = 2.03, (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = (1.09-3.8), χ2(1)=5.24, ( P< 0.05). Conclusions: The reduction of violence was probably due to the ban, indicating the importance of programs to control alcohol consumption which lead to decrease the rate of violence and its’ consequences like homicides, impulsive violence. PMID:24688919

  10. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  11. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  12. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  13. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  14. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95 Consumer tasting or sampling at retail...

  15. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95 Consumer tasting or sampling at retail...

  16. 27 CFR 6.152 - Practices which put retailer independence at risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Practices which put retailer independence at risk. 6.152 Section 6.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.152 Practices which put retailer independence at risk....

  17. New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. Design: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. Results: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. Conclusions: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail–tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change. PMID:14645954

  18. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  19. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  20. Iodized Salt Sales in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Barron, Jessica; Gunn, Janelle P.; Yuan, Keming; Perrine, Cria G.; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Iodized salt has been an important source of dietary iodine, a trace element important for regulating human growth, development, and metabolic functions. This analysis identified iodized table salt sales as a percentage of retail salt sales using Nielsen ScanTrack. We identified 1117 salt products, including 701 salt blends and 416 other salt products, 57 of which were iodized. When weighted by sales volume in ounces or per item, 53% contained iodized salt. These findings may provide a baseline for future monitoring of sales of iodized salt. PMID:25763528

  1. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  2. 75 FR 23667 - Antidumping Duty Orders: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags from Indonesia, Taiwan, and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... from Taiwan: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 14569 (March 26, 2010). On... Retail Carrier Bags From Indonesia: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 16431... Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value, 75 FR 16434 (April 1, 2010). On April 26, 2010, the ITC...

  3. Understanding Community Norms Surrounding Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. Methods We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Results Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Conclusion Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions. PMID:25180772

  4. 27 CFR 53.92 - Exclusions from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from sale price... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.92 Exclusions from sale price. (a) Tax—(1) Tax not part of taxable sale price. The tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the sale of an article is not part of...

  5. 27 CFR 53.92 - Exclusions from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exclusions from sale price... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.92 Exclusions from sale price. (a) Tax—(1) Tax not part of taxable sale price. The tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the sale of an article is not part of...

  6. 27 CFR 53.92 - Exclusions from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exclusions from sale price... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.92 Exclusions from sale price. (a) Tax—(1) Tax not part of taxable sale price. The tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the sale of an article is not part of...

  7. 27 CFR 53.92 - Exclusions from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusions from sale price... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.92 Exclusions from sale price. (a) Tax—(1) Tax not part of taxable sale price. The tax imposed by chapter 32 of the Code on the sale of an article is not part of...

  8. 29 CFR 779.316 - Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.316 Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement. The term “retail” is alien to some businesses or operations. For example, transactions of...

  9. 29 CFR 779.316 - Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Making Sales of Goods and Services ârecognized As Retailâ § 779.316 Establishments outside “retail concept” not within statutory definition; lack first requirement. The term “retail” is alien to some businesses or operations. For example, transactions of...

  10. 26 CFR 145.4051-1 - Imposition of tax on heavy trucks and trailers sold at retail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sold at retail. 145.4051-1 Section 145.4051-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... trailers sold at retail. (a) Imposition of tax—(1) In general. Section 4051(a)(1) imposes a tax on the first retail sale (as defined in § 145.4052-1(a)) of the following articles (including in each...

  11. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising in retailer publications. 6.54 Section 6.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service §...

  12. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising in retailer publications. 6.54 Section 6.54 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display...

  13. 27 CFR 6.54 - Advertising in retailer publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising in retailer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.54 Advertising in retailer publications. The purchase, by an industry member,...

  14. 27 CFR 10.24 - Sales promotion contests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales promotion contests. 10.24 Section 10.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.24 Sales promotion...

  15. 27 CFR 478.94 - Sales or deliveries between licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales or deliveries between licensees. 478.94 Section 478.94 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL... AMMUNITION Conduct of Business § 478.94 Sales or deliveries between licensees. A licensed importer,...

  16. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  17. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  18. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  19. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  20. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease considered as sale. 53.103 Section 53.103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32...

  1. 27 CFR 53.99 - Sales of installment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of installment accounts. 53.99 Section 53.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... the Code as in effect on the date of the sale of the installment account, is (or is to be) in...

  2. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  3. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports...

  4. 27 CFR 6.95 - Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or... TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95 Consumer... retailer, but may not purchase them from the retailer for more than the ordinary retail price....

  5. 27 CFR 70.185 - Certificate of sale; deed of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of real property. 70.185 Section 70.185 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... of sale; deed of real property. (a) Certificate of sale. In the case of property sold as provided in... puchaser's a certificate of sale upon payment in full of the purchase price. A certificate of sale of...

  6. 27 CFR 70.185 - Certificate of sale; deed of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of real property. 70.185 Section 70.185 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... of sale; deed of real property. (a) Certificate of sale. In the case of property sold as provided in... puchaser's a certificate of sale upon payment in full of the purchase price. A certificate of sale of...

  7. 24 CFR 3282.253 - Removal of prohibition of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Removal of prohibition of sale. 3282.253 Section 3282.253 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Distributor Responsibilities § 3282.253 Removal of prohibition of sale. (a) If a distributor or retailer has...

  8. 32 CFR 736.3 - Sale of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marketing Office, Defense Logistics Agency, Battle Creek, Michigan. (2) Retail sales at fixed prices based... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of personal property. 736.3 Section 736.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY,...

  9. 32 CFR 736.3 - Sale of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marketing Office, Defense Logistics Agency, Battle Creek, Michigan. (2) Retail sales at fixed prices based... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of personal property. 736.3 Section 736.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY,...

  10. 32 CFR 736.3 - Sale of personal property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marketing Office, Defense Logistics Agency, Battle Creek, Michigan. (2) Retail sales at fixed prices based... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sale of personal property. 736.3 Section 736.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PROCUREMENT, PROPERTY,...

  11. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Single sale. 479.41 Section 479.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  12. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single sale. 479.41 Section 479.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  13. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Single sale. 479.41 Section 479.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  14. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Single sale. 479.41 Section 479.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  15. 27 CFR 479.41 - Single sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Single sale. 479.41 Section 479.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER...

  16. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  17. 27 CFR 6.72 - “Tie-in” sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false âTie-inâ sales. 6.72 Section 6.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.72 “Tie-in” sales. The act by an industry member of requiring that...

  18. 27 CFR 1.80 - Sales of distilled spirits in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of distilled spirits... ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK SALES AND BOTTLING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Bulk Sales and Bottling of Distilled Spirits Bulk Sales and Bottling § 1.80 Sales of distilled...

  19. 27 CFR 31.94 - Retail dealers “At Large.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealers âAt Large.â... Locations § 31.94 Retail dealers “At Large.” A retail dealer in liquors or a retail dealer in beer whose... circuses, must register “At Large” covering the dealer's activities throughout the United States by...

  20. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  1. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  2. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  3. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  4. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  5. 75 FR 39026 - Disclosure of Nutrient Content Information for Standard Menu Items Offered for Sale at Chain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Menu Items Offered for Sale at Chain Restaurants or Similar Retail Food Establishments and for Articles... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act), requires chain restaurants and similar retail food... substantially ] the same menu items (hereinafter ``chain retail food establishments'') to disclose...

  6. Attitudes of meat retailers to animal welfare in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Villarroel, Morris; María, Gustavo A

    2013-11-01

    This study analyzes retailer attitude towards animal welfare in Spain, and how this attitude has changed over recent years (2006-2011). Retailers were concerned about animal welfare issues but a declining trend is observed recently, probably due to the financial crisis. The concern about animal welfare was affected by sex, with women retailers expressing a more positive attitude towards animal welfare issues than men. Retailers, based on their experience, perceive a low level of willingness to pay more for welfare friendly products (WFP) on behalf of their customers. This fact is reflected in the sales of the WFP, which declined from 2006 to 2011. The main reason for consumers to buy WFP, according to retailer perception, is organoleptic quality, with improved welfare being second. The results obtained provide a pessimistic picture in relation to the current market positioning of WFP, which is probably a consequence of market contraction. PMID:23797014

  7. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2014-02-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, and attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancellation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancellations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item is allowed to pay on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than from the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  8. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancelations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangam, A.

    2015-03-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers etc. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancelation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancelations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also he offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item has allowed paying on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  9. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 4041. Such excise taxes are levied at the retail level on any liquid fuel sold for use, or used in a diesel-powered highway vehicle. A similar tax is imposed on the sale of such special motor fuels as benzene...

  10. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 4041. Such excise taxes are levied at the retail level on any liquid fuel sold for use, or used in a diesel-powered highway vehicle. A similar tax is imposed on the sale of such special motor fuels as benzene...

  11. 29 CFR 779.262 - Excise taxes at the retail level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the retail level on highway vehicle fuels other than gasoline under the provisions of 26 U.S.C. 4041. Such excise taxes are levied at the retail level on any liquid fuel sold for use, or used in a diesel-powered highway vehicle. A similar tax is imposed on the sale of such special motor fuels as benzene...

  12. 75 FR 36359 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Thailand. See Antidumping Duty Order: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 48204 (August 9... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand, 69 FR 34122, 34123... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 74 FR 48224, 48226 (September 22, 2009).\\1\\ The...

  13. Alcohol-attributable deaths and years of potential life lost--11 States, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Katherine; Roeber, Jim; Kanny, Dafna; Tran, Annie; Saiki, Cathy; Johnson, Hal; Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Tom; Creppage, Kathleen; Lepp, Alicia; Miller, Tracy; Tarkhashvili, Nato; Lynch, Kristine E; Watson, Joanna R; Henderson, Danielle; Christenson, Megan; Geiger, Sarah Dee

    2014-03-14

    Excessive alcohol consumption, the fourth leading preventable cause of death in the United States, resulted in approximately 88,000 deaths and 2.5 million years of potential life lost (YPLL) annually during 2006-2010 and cost an estimated $223.5 billion in 2006. To estimate state-specific average annual rates of alcohol-attributable deaths (AAD) and YPLL caused by excessive alcohol use, 11 states analyzed 2006-2010 data (the most recent data available) using the CDC Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) application. The age-adjusted median AAD rate was 28.5 per 100,000 population (range = 50.9 per 100,000 in New Mexico to 22.4 per 100,000 in Utah). The median YPLL rate was 823 per 100,000 (range = 1,534 YPLL per 100,000 for New Mexico to 634 per 100,000 in Utah). The majority of AAD (median = 70%) and YPLL (median = 82%) were among working-age (20-64 years) adults. Routine monitoring of alcohol-attributable health outcomes, including deaths and YPLL, in states could support the planning and implementation of evidence-based prevention strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force to reduce excessive drinking and related harms. Such strategies include increasing the price of alcohol, limiting alcohol outlet density, and holding alcohol retailers liable for harms related to the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors and intoxicated patrons (dram shop liability). PMID:24622285

  14. 27 CFR 6.43 - Sale of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of equipment. 6.43 Section 6.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.43 Sale of equipment. A transaction in which equipment...

  15. 27 CFR 6.43 - Sale of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of equipment. 6.43 Section 6.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.43 Sale of equipment. A transaction in which equipment...

  16. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  17. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  18. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports...

  19. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  20. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  1. 27 CFR 53.95 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Constructive sale price... AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.95 Constructive sale price; basic rules... to construct a sale price on which to compute a tax imposed under chapter 32 of the Code on the...

  2. 27 CFR 53.95 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is less than the actual sale price, the constructive sale price shall be used as the tax base. If the... not less than fair market, and shall be used as the tax base. In determining the highest price for...; basic rules. 53.95 Section 53.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  3. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document is the instructor's manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The manual consists primarily of instructor's guides to the 22 learning modules contained in the student manual, which provide the subject matter needed by workers in these…

  4. Retail Flower Shop Salesperson and Floral Designer. Student's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This document consists of the student manual for a course in retail flower shop sales and floral design for use in vocational education courses in high schools in South Carolina. The guide consists of 22 learning modules that incorporate the subject matter needed by workers in these jobs. Each learning module consists of an introduction,…

  5. 77 FR 19610 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Advance Monthly Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... requests sales and e-commerce sales for the month just ending. If reporting data for a period other than...; ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE U.S. Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Advance Monthly Retail Trade Survey AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  6. Social marketing program sales.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    A table presents the latest available statistics on social marketing program sales and status in the countries of Bangladesh, the Caribbean, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Jamaica, Mexico, and Nepal. The Bangladesh Family Planning Social Marketing Program was implemented in 1975 and is active at this time. Over the June 1983 to May 1984 period, 87,034,000 Raja condoms, 4,242,000 Panther condoms, 1.157,000, Maya pills, 846,000 Ovacon low-dose pills, and 4,332,000 Joy foaming tablets were sold for 1,109,000 couple years of protection (CYP). Over the March 1984 to May 1984 period, the Caribbean Social Marketing Project, implemented in 1983, sold 16,000 Panther condoms, 1000 Perle pills, and 1000 Perle low-dose pills. Sales are expected to begin in Ecaudor's program in August 1984. Egypt's program is active. Data for July 1983 to June 1984 show that 6,722,000 condoms, 1,988,000 Amman foaming tablets, 114,600 Cu-T IUDs, 66,600 Cu-7 IUDs, and 578,000 Norminest low-dose pills were sold for a total of 515,000 years of protection. Over the March 1983 to February 1984 period, El Salvador's program sold 537,000 Condor condoms, 125,000 Perla pills, and 61,000 Suave foaming tablets for 16,000 CYP. There have been no sales as yet in Guatemala's program. Sales for the Honduras program began in March 1984, but no data are available as yet. India's Nirodh Marketing program was implemented in 1968. For the January 1983 to September 1983 period, 83,140,000 Nirodh condoms were sold for 1,109,000 CYP. Over the May 1983 to April 1984 period, Jamaica's program sold 1,031,000 Panther condoms and 330,000 Perle oral contraceptives for 35,000 CYP. Mexico's Profam, implemented in 1978, sold 6,602,000 condoms, 18,000 pills, and 9000 injectables for 35,000 CYP for the May 1983 to June 1984 period. Nepal's Contraceptive Retail Sales Corporation was implemented in 1976. For the May 1983 to April 1984 period, 2,833,000 condoms, 82,000 Gulaf pills, 15,000 Nilocon low

  7. 27 CFR 53.91 - Charges to be included in sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or display of the article, for sales promotion programs, or otherwise. With respect to the rules... sale price. 53.91 Section 53.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.91 Charges to be included in sale...

  8. 27 CFR 53.93 - Other items relating to tax on sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... tax on sale price. 53.93 Section 53.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... tax on sale price. (a) Exchanges. If, in connection with the sale of an article subject to a tax imposed under chapter 32 of the Code on the price for which sold, a manufacturer receives from its...

  9. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  10. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... beginning June 1, 2010? Any retailer or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers for... or wholesale purchaser-consumer who sells, dispenses, or offers for sale or dispensing, motor...

  11. Firearm retailers' willingness to participate in an illegal gun purchase.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen

    2010-09-01

    Firearm-related violence is a significant public health and public safety problem for cities in the USA, and licensed firearm retailers are an important source of the guns used in that violence. Using a scripted telephone interview, we screened a sample of licensed retailers in California to assess their willingness to participate in the surrogate or "straw" purchase of a handgun; such purchases are illegal under federal law. Of 149 retailers who provided a response, 30 (20.1%) agreed to participate. In multivariate analysis, pawnbrokers were more likely to agree than were gun dealers (odds ratio 6.58, 95% confidence interval 1.99-21.71). Sales of handguns that were later subjected to ownership tracing (a proxy measure for a gun's use in crime) were not more frequent among retailers who agreed to participate than among others, and other findings were unexpected as well. PMID:20803095

  12. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  13. 27 CFR 6.43 - Sale of equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of equipment. 6.43 Section 6.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.43 Sale of equipment. A transaction in which equipment...

  14. A population-based study of premature mortality in relation to neighbourhood density of alcohol sales and cheque cashing outlets in Toronto, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Flora I; Creatore, Maria Isabella; Gozdyra, Piotr; Park, Alison L; Ray, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol overuse and poverty, each associated with premature death, often exist within disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Cheque cashing places (CCPs) may be opportunistically placed in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, where customers abound. We explored whether neighbourhood density of CCPs and alcohol outlets are each related to premature mortality among adults. Design Retrospective population-based study. Setting 140 neighbourhoods in Toronto, Ontario, 2005–2009. Participants Adults aged 20–59 years. Measures Our primary outcome was premature all-cause mortality among adults aged 20–59 years. Across neighbourhoods we explored neighbourhood density, in km2, of CCPs and alcohol outlets, and the relation of each to premature mortality. Poisson regression provided adjusted relative risks (aRRs) and 95% CIs, adjusting for material deprivation quintile (Q), crime Q and number of banks. Results Intentional self-harm, accidental poisoning and liver disease were among the top five causes of premature death among males aged 20–59 years. The overall premature mortality rate was 96.3/10 000 males and 55.9/10 000 females. Comparing the highest versus lowest CCP density Q, the aRR for death was 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36) among males and 1.11 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.24) among females. The corresponding aRR comparing the highest Q versus lowest Q alcohol outlet density in relation to premature mortality was 1.36 (95% CI 1.25 to 1.48) for males and 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) for females. The pattern of the relation between either CCPs or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality was typically J shaped. Conclusions There is a J-shaped relation between CCP or alcohol outlet density and premature mortality, even on controlling for conventional measures of poverty. Formal banking and alcohol reduction strategies might be added to health promotion policies aimed at reducing premature mortality in highly affected neighbourhoods. PMID:25518874

  15. Project S.T.A.R.S. Student Training at Retail Stores. Cooperative Demonstration Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Barbara

    The Student Training at Retail Stores (STARS) project was evaluated during the 1989-90 school year. With the collaboration of business a 3-semester program of intense occupational, vocational, and career education was developed to enhance job skills and secure retail sales jobs for high school juniors with moderate learning, speech, emotional, and…

  16. A shopper's eye view of food safety at retail stores: lessons from photographs taken while grocery shopping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retail grocery stores are the source of over 50% of food sales in the U.S., representing the most important sector for consumer food choices. Food safety-related infrastructure, procedures, and practices at retail grocery stores play an important role in protecting public health. Beyond actual risk ...

  17. Ethics in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Retailers must decide whether to make the most money or help the most people. This conflict between democratic ideals and the free enterprise system must be made within the corporate structure and thus puts a great deal of pressure on the businessman. Suggests questions that the retailer can ask himself regarding his professional ethics. (JMD)

  18. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  19. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.84 Point of sale advertising...

  20. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Records § 478.134 Sale...

  1. 27 CFR 40.187 - Record of sales prices of large cigars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of sales prices of large cigars. 40.187 Section 40.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Record of sales prices of large cigars. Every manufacturer of tobacco products who removes large...

  2. Stochastic cooperative advertising in a manufacturer-retailer decentralized supply channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezimadu, Peter E.; Nwozo, Chukwuma R.

    2016-08-01

    This work considers cooperative advertising in a manufacturer-retailer supply chain. While the manufacturer is the Stackelberg leader, the retailer is the follower. Using Sethi model it models the dynamic effect of the manufacturer and retailer's advertising efforts on sale. It uses optimal control technique and stochastic differential game theory to obtain the players' advertising strategies and the long-run value of the awareness share. Further, it models the relationship between the payoffs of both players and the awareness share. The work shows that with the provision of subsidy the retail advertising effort increases while the manufacturer's advertising effort reduces. It further shows that the total channel payoff is higher for subsidised retail advertising. However, the subsidy can only be possible if the rate of growth of the manufacturer's payoff is twice higher than that of the retailer.

  3. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  4. Electric sales and revenue, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-21

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  5. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  6. Design of a national retail data monitor for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Michael M; Robinson, J Michael; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U; Hogan, William R

    2003-01-01

    The National Retail Data Monitor receives data daily from 10,000 stores, including pharmacies, that sell health care products. These stores belong to national chains that process sales data centrally and utilize Universal Product Codes and scanners to collect sales information at the cash register. The high degree of retail sales data automation enables the monitor to collect information from thousands of store locations in near to real time for use in public health surveillance. The monitor provides user interfaces that display summary sales data on timelines and maps. Algorithms monitor the data automatically on a daily basis to detect unusual patterns of sales. The project provides the resulting data and analyses, free of charge, to health departments nationwide. Future plans include continued enrollment and support of health departments, developing methods to make the service financially self-supporting, and further refinement of the data collection system to reduce the time latency of data receipt and analysis. PMID:12807802

  7. Sales promotion strategies and youth drinking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Jones, Sandra C; Daube, Mike; Kirby, Gary; Stafford, Julia; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-09-01

    This study employed an exploratory approach to generate detailed information about how in-store shopping experiences and exposure to sales promotion activities feature in the alcohol choices of Australian 18-21 year old drinkers. The qualitative methods of interviews, focus groups, and emailed narratives were used during 2014 to collect relevant data. The findings suggest that young drinkers' in-store shopping experiences and exposure to sales promotions influence the type, range, and quantity of alcohol purchased. In particular, the role of sales staff can be critical in increasing the amount of alcohol purchased by drawing drinkers' attention to and encouraging their participation in sales promotions. There thus appears to be an important interaction between promotional practices and young drinkers purchasing substantially larger quantities of alcohol than originally intended. Such practices need review in light of the high risk of alcohol-related harm experienced by many members of this age group. PMID:26262574

  8. Patterns of Consumption of Beer and Wine, Retail Availability, and DUI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Larry L.; Holman, C. B.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of public policies designed to curtail alcohol consumption by restricting physical availability of alcoholic beverages. Gave particular attention to impact of prohibiting concurrent sales of alcohol and gasoline at gasoline minimarts in California. Findings revealed that restriction on physical availability of alcohol had…

  9. How Newspaper Advertising Sales Managers Spend Their Time: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Jerry C.; Saathoff, Roger C.

    A pilot study examined how newspaper advertising sales managers in five southwestern states spend their time during a typical work day. Of the 360 questionnaires mailed, 176 responses were received. The largest number of responses (93) came from retail sales managers of newspapers in markets with less than 50,000 population. The questionnaire…

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-12 - Sales by United States, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales by United States, etc. 48.4041-12 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-12 Sales by United... United States or by any agency or instrumentality of the United States, unless by statute...

  11. 27 CFR 31.233 - Mixing cocktails in advance of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixing cocktails in advance of sale. 31.233 Section 31.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.233...

  12. 27 CFR 31.233 - Mixing cocktails in advance of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixing cocktails in advance of sale. 31.233 Section 31.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.233...

  13. 29 CFR 779.258 - Sales made or business done.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales made or business done. 779.258 Section 779.258 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  14. Considering retail health clinics.

    PubMed

    Mullin, Kathy

    2009-12-01

    By gaining increasing acceptance from consumers and traditional providers, retail-based convenient care clinics have moved from the innovative fringe into the mainstream of healthcare delivery. Nationwide, resourceful administrators are experimenting with retail-based delivery systems, using the clinic's unique attributes to promote wellness, expand accessibility, reduce delivery costs, and enhance brand recognition. This article takes an in-depth look at the convenient care business model, pertinent regulatory issues, and some of the associated benefits and concerns. PMID:19955967

  15. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-4 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(b)-4 Section 48.4161(b... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-4 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(b) see: (a) Section...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-5 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(a)-5 Section 48.4161(a... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-5 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to the tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(a) see: (a) Section...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-4 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales. 48.4161(b)-4 Section 48.4161(b... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-4 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(b) see: (a) Section...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-5 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Tax-free sales. 48.4161(a)-5 Section 48.4161(a... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-5 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to the tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(a) see: (a) Section...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-5 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(a)-5 Section 48.4161(a... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-5 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to the tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(a) see: (a) Section...

  20. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-4 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(b)-4 Section 48.4161(b... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-4 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(b) see: (a) Section...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-5 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(a)-5 Section 48.4161(a... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-5 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to the tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(a) see: (a) Section...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-4 - Tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax-free sales. 48.4161(b)-4 Section 48.4161(b... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-4 Tax-free sales. For provisions relating to tax-free sales of articles referred to in section 4161(b) see: (a) Section...

  3. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  4. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  5. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  6. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  7. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  8. Handgun sales, beer sales, and youth homicide, California, 1972-1993.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, S B; Berk, R A

    2001-01-01

    Whether regulating access to firearms and alcohol will reduce violent injuries is an important policy question. Empirical answers are difficult to obtain because only observational data are available. The present study estimated the association of firearm sales and alcohol sales with subsequent homicides, after adjusting statistically for potential confounders (e.g., unemployment rates) using California data from 1972 through 1993. Handgun sales and beer sales were lagged one year and used to explain variation in the homicides of Californians (e.g., 1990 sales were used to explain 1991 homicides). Differences across population groups were investigated, with a focus on 15- to 34-year-olds, the highest risk age group. Even when taking potential confounders in the base population into account, beer sales and handgun sales generally are associated positively one year later with homicide, particularly among young men. Reducing beer sales may reduce homicides. And, although they represent a small fraction of existing firearms, regulating the number of handguns sold may reduce the number of homicides. PMID:11469152

  9. Responding to Rapid and Unexpected Retail Innovations: Planning Retail Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Fujie

    Retail areas within cities have traditionally not only satisfied the demands for various goods and services, but also promoted community sustainability and healthy lifestyles. Since the end of World War II (WWII), retail innovations have occurred rapidly and unexpectedly. In retail development, economic efficiency is highly prioritized over other functions, in opposition to sustainable development. In retail planning, a communicative approach frequently results in the public responses by "Not In My Back Yard" sentiments, contradicting the projected cooperation between different stakeholders. This research implements the resilience theory to tackle the shocks created by these rapid and unexpected retail changes, based on a comparative case of Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) and Portland (Oregon, USA). Primarily through interviews with senior planners in both cities, it is found that adaptive retail management, polycentric retail planning, a well-informed public, and the use of consensus building could better stimulates resilient retail outcomes.

  10. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. 31.36 Section 31.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales...

  11. Tobacco Retailer Proximity and Density and Nicotine Dependence Among Smokers With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Henriksen, Lisa; Delucchi, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the density and proximity of tobacco retailers and associations with smoking behavior and mental health in a diverse sample of 1061 smokers with serious mental illness (SMI) residing in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Methods. Participants’ addresses were geocoded and linked with retailer licensing data to determine the distance between participants’ residence and the nearest retailer (proximity) and the number of retailers within 500-meter and 1-kilometer service areas (density). Results. More than half of the sample lived within 250 meters of a tobacco retailer. A median of 3 retailers were within 500 meters of participants’ residences, and a median of 12 were within 1 kilometer. Among smokers with SMI, tobacco retailer densities were 2-fold greater than for the general population and were associated with poorer mental health, greater nicotine dependence, and lower self-efficacy for quitting. Conclusions. Our findings provide further evidence of the tobacco retail environment as a potential vector contributing to tobacco-related disparities among individuals with SMI and suggest that this group may benefit from progressive environmental protections that restrict tobacco retail licenses and reduce aggressive point-of-sale marketing. PMID:24922145

  12. 27 CFR 31.121 - Sale of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of business. 31.121... Requiring Registration As A New Business § 31.121 Sale of business. Under this part, registration is... occurs in the proprietorship of a business for which registration has been completed, the successor...

  13. 27 CFR 31.121 - Sale of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of business. 31.121... Requiring Registration As A New Business § 31.121 Sale of business. Under this part, registration is... occurs in the proprietorship of a business for which registration has been completed, the successor...

  14. 27 CFR 53.63 - Other tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: (a) Section 4221 and 27 CFR 53.131, “Tax-free sales; general rule”. (b) Section 4223 and 27 CFR 53... and 27 CFR 53.140, “Registration”. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Other tax-free sales....

  15. 27 CFR 53.63 - Other tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (a) Section 4221 and 27 CFR 53.131, “Tax-free sales; general rule”. (b) Section 4223 and 27 CFR 53... and 27 CFR 53.140, “Registration”. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other tax-free sales....

  16. 27 CFR 53.63 - Other tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: (a) Section 4221 and 27 CFR 53.131, “Tax-free sales; general rule”. (b) Section 4223 and 27 CFR 53... and 27 CFR 53.140, “Registration”. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other tax-free sales....

  17. 27 CFR 53.63 - Other tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: (a) Section 4221 and 27 CFR 53.131, “Tax-free sales; general rule”. (b) Section 4223 and 27 CFR 53... and 27 CFR 53.140, “Registration”. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other tax-free sales....

  18. 27 CFR 53.63 - Other tax-free sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: (a) Section 4221 and 27 CFR 53.131, “Tax-free sales; general rule”. (b) Section 4223 and 27 CFR 53... and 27 CFR 53.140, “Registration”. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other tax-free sales....

  19. Retail trade incentives: how tobacco industry practices compare with those of other industries.

    PubMed Central

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Achabal, D D; Tyebjee, T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study compared the incentive payments for premium shelf space and discounts on volume purchases paid to retailers by 5 types of companies. METHODS: Merchants were interviewed at 108 randomly selected small retail outlets that sell tobacco in Santa Clara County, California. RESULTS: Significantly more retailers reported receiving slotting/display allowances for tobacco (62.4%) than for any other product type. An average store participating in a retailer incentive program received approximately $3157 annually from all sampled product types, of which approximately $2462 (78%) came from tobacco companies. CONCLUSIONS: Future research should assess the impact of tobacco industry incentive programs on the in-store marketing and sales practices of retailers. PMID:10511841

  20. The State of Online Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamimi, Nabil; Rajan, Murli; Sebastianelli, Rose

    2003-01-01

    Benchmarks online retailing transactions against critical factors that impact online retailing. Findings suggest several areas that e-retailers should target for improvement, including the speed of home page loading, ability to translate into multiple languages, capabilities of search engines, security policies display, payment options, minimum…

  1. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use. PMID:22358120

  2. Neighbourhood availability of alcohol outlets and hazardous alcohol consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ayuka, Francis; Barnett, Ross; Pearce, Jamie

    2014-09-01

    The socio-spatial arrangement of alcohol retailers is potentially important in understanding the relationship between neighbourhood context and 'excessive' alcohol consumption. This New Zealand study examines whether the availability of alcohol products is associated with individual-level alcohol consumption. Measures capturing the availability of alcohol retailers were calculated for neighbourhoods across the country and then appended to a national health survey. At the national level there was no evidence for an association between hazardous consumption and alcohol outlet access. However, there was evidence of associations with neighbourhood retailing for younger Māori and Pacific peoples males; younger European females; middle-aged European men; and older men. The findings provide evidence that 'alcogenic' environments are associated with excessive drinking in New Zealand, albeit that the associations are restricted to particular vulnerable groups. PMID:25128780

  3. Exploration of the Link between Tobacco Retailers in School Neighborhoods and Student Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Pokorny, Steven; Hunt, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND School smoking bans give officials the authority to provide a smoke-free environment, but enacting policies within the school walls is just one step in comprehensive tobacco prevention among students. It is necessary to investigate factors beyond the school campus and into the neighborhoods that surround schools. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and the illegal tobacco sales rate within school neighborhoods and smoking behaviors among students. METHODS This study utilized secondary data from the baseline of the Youth Tobacco Access Project. Data were collected from 10,662 students attending 21 middle schools and 19 high schools, in addition to 512 tobacco retailers, all within 24 towns in Illinois during 2002. A random-effects regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the density of tobacco retailers and illegal tobacco sales rates on current smoking and lifetime smoking prevalence. RESULTS Schools had a range of between zero and 9 tobacco retailers within their neighborhood with a mean of 2.76 retailers (SD= 2.45). The illegal sales rate varied from zero to 100%, with a mean of thirteen percent. The density of tobacco retailers was significantly related to the prevalence of ever smoking among students (b= 0.09, t(29) = 2.03, p = .051, OR = 1.10), but not to current smoking (p >.05); the illegal tobacco sales rate was not related to current smoking or lifetime smoking prevalence (p >.05). CONCLUSION Results indicate that tobacco retailer density may impact smoking experimentation/initiation PMID:23331271

  4. 27 CFR 31.233 - Mixing cocktails in advance of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixing cocktails in advance of sale. 31.233 Section 31.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.233...

  5. 27 CFR 31.233 - Mixing cocktails in advance of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixing cocktails in advance of sale. 31.233 Section 31.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.233...

  6. 27 CFR 31.233 - Mixing cocktails in advance of sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixing cocktails in advance of sale. 31.233 Section 31.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.233...

  7. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions and Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors...

  8. 27 CFR 31.36 - Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales of 20 wine gallons... to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.36 Sales of 20 wine gallons (75.7 liters) or more. Any person who sells or offers for sale distilled spirits, wines, or beer, in quantities of 20 wine gallons...

  9. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chaiton, Michael O.; Mecredy, Graham C.; Cohen, Joanna E.; Tilson, Melodie L.

    2013-01-01

    Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1) whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2) what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:24351748

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  11. 29 CFR 779.357 - May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments; classification of coal sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; classification of coal sales. 779.357 Section 779.357 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Coal Dealers § 779.357 May qualify as exempt 13(a)(2) establishments; classification of coal sales. (a) General. A coal dealer's establishment may qualify as an...

  12. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms....84 Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. (a) General. The act...

  13. The Effects of a Sunday Liquor Sales Ban on DUI Arrests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Jan; Thyer, Bruce A.

    1993-01-01

    Examined Sunday ban on sales of alcohol in terms of its effects on incidence of arrests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI). Both visual and statistical analyses supported the contention that the sales ban was effective in reducing the incidence of DUIs. Findings illustrate further extension of behavior analysis to the evaluation of…

  14. Management Training in Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veness, C. Rosina

    Intended for prospective members of the new Distributive Industrial Training Board in Great Britain, this training guide concentrates on managerial functions in retailing; the selection of trainees; the planning of in-company and external training programs; scheduling and continuity of training; roles of training personnel; and the use of various…

  15. Exploration of Retailing Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Barbara J.

    Designed as a semester unit of instruction at the middle or junior high school level in the exploration of retailing careers, this distributive education curriculum guide is divided into two sections: The Teacher's Guide and Student Materials. One of the elective courses intended as a followup to "Orientation to Marketing Careers," it provides the…

  16. Commercial Building Partnership Retail Food Sales Energy Savings Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    The Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) paired selected commercial building owners and operators with representatives of DOE, national laboratories and private sector exports to explore energy efficiency measures across general merchandise commercial buildings.

  17. Retail Location Choice with Complementary Goods: An Agent-Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Arthur; Levinson, David

    This paper models the emergence of retail clusters on a supply chain network comprised of suppliers, retailers, and consumers. Firstly, an agent-based model is proposed to investigate retail location distribution in a market of two complementary goods. The methodology controls for supplier locales and unit sales prices of retailers and suppliers, and a consumer’s willingness to patronize a retailer depends on the total travel distance of buying both goods. On a circle comprised of discrete locations, retailers play a non-cooperative game of location choice to maximize individual profits. Our findings suggest that the probability distribution of the number of clusters in equilibrium follows power law and that hierarchical distribution patterns are much more likely to occur than the spread-out ones. In addition, retailers of complementary goods tend to co-locate at supplier locales. Sensitivity tests on the number of retailers are also performed. Secondly, based on the County Business Patterns (CBP) data of Minneapolis-St. Paul from US Census 2000 database, we find that the number of clothing stores and the distribution of food stores at the zip code level follows power-law distribution.

  18. Adding Value through Program Integration: A Kayaking Model (Rental, Retail, Repair, Clinics and Outings).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poff, Raymond

    Outdoor programs can offset initial investment costs in services and products by developing integrated program areas. The experience of Outdoors Unlimited, a recently created kayaking program at Brigham Young University (Utah), is provided as a model. The purchase of 11 kayaks for rental was followed by the introduction of retail sales, repair…

  19. The Effect of Implicit and Explicit Rules on Customer Greeting and Productivity in a Retail Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca A.; Houmanfar, Ramona; Smith, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of presenting organizational information through implicit and explicit rules on sales-related target behaviors in a retail setting. Results indicated that when organizational information was presented in a specific form, productivity was increased and maintained longer than when presented in…

  20. 77 FR 28799 - Animal Welfare; Retail Pet Stores and Licensing Exemptions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... the number of breeding female dogs, cats, and/or small exotic or wild mammals that a person may... as pets are considered retail pet stores: Dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils, rats..., dogs, or cats, and who derives no more than $500 gross income from the sale of such animals....

  1. 21 CFR 1140.10 - General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers. 1140.10 Section 1140.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) TOBACCO PRODUCTS CIGARETTES AND SMOKELESS TOBACCO; Eff. 6-22-10 Prohibition of Sale and Distribution...

  2. 76 FR 30102 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene retail carrier bags (PRCBs) from Thailand. The review covers 11 companies. The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. We have preliminarily determined that sales have been made below normal......

  3. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles...

  4. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles...

  5. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles...

  6. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles...

  7. 27 CFR 20.148 - Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacture of articles with completely denatured alcohol. 20.148 Section 20.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... ALCOHOL AND RUM Sale and Use of Completely Denatured Alcohol § 20.148 Manufacture of articles...

  8. Purchasing a cycle helmet: are retailers providing adequate advice?

    PubMed Central

    Plumridge, E.; McCool, J.; Chetwynd, J.; Langley, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the selling of cycle helmets in retail stores with particular reference to the adequacy of advice offered about the fit and securing of helmets. METHODS: All 55 retail outlets selling cycle helmets in Christchurch, New Zealand were studied by participant observation. A research entered each store as a prospective customer and requested assistance to purchase a helmet. She took detailed field notes of the ensuing encounter and these were subsequently transcribed, coded, and analysed. RESULTS: Adequate advice for helmet purchase was given in less than half of the stores. In general the sales assistants in specialist cycle shops were better informed and gave more adequate advice than those in department stores. Those who have good advice also tended to be more good advice also tended to be more active in helping with fitting the helmet. Knowledge about safety standards was apparent in one third of sales assistants. Few stores displayed information for customers about the correct fit of cycle helmets. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the advice and assistance being given to ensure that cycle helmets fit properly is often inadequate and thus the helmets may fail to fulfil their purpose in preventing injury. Consultation between retailers and policy makers is a necessary first step to improving this situation. PMID:9346053

  9. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  10. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  11. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  13. Book Sale Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Elaine, Comp.; Reinhardt, Richard, Comp.

    The Friends of the San Francisco Public Library have compiled detailed information about its benefit book sales and presents it here as a guide for those who wish to organize sales in their own communities. The committees needed to operate the sale are listed, and the duties of the chairmen are described. Suggestions are given for collecting…

  14. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons

    PubMed Central

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the U.S. to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55% of local agencies and 90% of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60% of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies. PMID:24068596

  15. IPhone or Kindle: Competition of Electronic Books Sales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li

    With the technical development of the reading equipment, e-books have witnessed a gradual and steady increase in sales in recent years. Last year, smart phones announced to be able to perform additional functions as e-book reading devices, making it possible for retailers selling e-books for smart phones (SPR) such as iPhone to differentiate with those selling e-books for specific reading equipment (SER) such as Amazon Kindle. We develop a game theory model to examine the competition between SER and SPR retailers. We derive the equilibrium price and analyze the factors that affect equilibrium outcomes under both scenarios of complete and incomplete information. Our results suggest that reduced cost due to inconvenience of reading e-books over iPhone lowers equilibrium prices, and reduced cost of specific reading equipment leads to more intense price competition. Under information asymmetry, we show that SER retailers will increase the price at equilibrium.

  16. Consumer preferences for over-the-counter drug retailers in the reregulated Swedish pharmacy market.

    PubMed

    Håkonsen, Helle; Sundell, Karolina Andersson; Martinsson, Johan; Hedenrud, Tove

    2016-03-01

    Following a large regulatory reform in 2009, which ended the state's pharmacy monopoly, non-pharmacy retailers in Sweden today sell certain over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate consumer preferences regarding OTC drug retailers and the reasons for choosing a pharmacy versus non-pharmacy retailer. We conducted a web survey aimed at Swedish adults. Out of a stratified sample of 4058 persons, 2594 agreed to take part (48% women; mean age: 50.3 years). Questions related to OTC drug use, retailer choice and factors affecting the participants' preferences for OTC drug retailers. Logistic regression was conducted to analyse OTC drug use and reasons for retailer choice in relation to sex, age and education. Nine in ten participants reported OTC drug use in the 6 months prior to the study. For their last OTC purchase, 76% had gone to a pharmacy, 20% to a grocery shop and 4% to a convenience store, gas station or online. Geographic proximity, opening hours and product range were reported as the most important factors in retailer choice. Counselling by trained staff was important to 57% of participants. The end of the state's pharmacy monopoly and the increase in number of pharmacies seem to have impacted more on Swedish consumers' purchase behaviours compared with the deregulation of OTC drug sales. PMID:26861972

  17. Alcohol-impaired motor vehicle crash risk and the location of alcohol purchase.

    PubMed

    Cotti, Chad; Dunn, Richard A; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving alcohol impairment are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the U.S. In this study, we examine how the probability of driving after a binge-drinking episode varies with the location of consumption and type of alcohol consumed. We also investigate the relationship between the location of alcohol purchase and the number of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. Using multiple datasets that are representative of the U.S. between 2003 and 2009, we find that binge-drinkers are significantly more likely to drive after consuming alcohol at establishments that sell alcohol for on-premises consumption, e.g., from bars or restaurants, particularly after drinking beer. Further, per capita sales of alcohol for off-premises consumption are unrelated to the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. When disaggregating alcohol types, per capita sales of beer for off-premises consumption are negatively associated with the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes. In contrast, total per capita sales of alcohol from all establishments (on- and off-premises) are positively related to the rate of alcohol-impaired fatal motor vehicle crashes and the magnitude of this relationship is strongest for beer sales. Thus, policies that shift consumption away from bars and restaurants could lead to a decline in the number of motor vehicle crashes. PMID:24675388

  18. Geisinger's Retail Innovation Journey.

    PubMed

    Prince, Denise B; Graf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, Geisinger Health System formed a new group, Geisinger Ventures (GV), to accelerate the growth of new lines of business that were extensions of the core mission of the organization. Careworks, the convenient care clinic line of business, began in early 2006 as one of the early components of the GV portfolio. Over the past nine years, Geisinger has tested several retail and walk-in models, including in-store clinics, separate retail sites, and models colocated with primary care practices and emergency departments. Each site and model presents different benefits and challenges with respect to patient care, marketing, staffing, and clinical integration. With the implementation of healthcare reform and a decision to participate in Medicaid'managed care, Geisinger's strategic need for convenient care options has intensified, and new models, including e-visits and telemedicine specialty consultations, are being actively explored. Geisinger's view is that healthcare is rapidly changing, being affected by demographic shifts, diagnostic and treatment options, payment changes, and communication technologies. Healthcare delivery must flex to adjust to these and other trends, and retail clinics are part of that response. Careful examination of the critical elements necessary for optimal care (including wellness, prevention, and management of chronic disease and severe multimorbid disease) and then matching those elements to the optimal mode and site of care will lead to a streamlined healthcare system. The historical--and still most prevalent--methodology of traditional office, emergency department, and inpatient care options are not ideal for all patients' care needs in the twenty-first century. A thoughtful, deliberate extension of those options will be necessary. Rather than simply adding a static retail or virtual offering, medical professionals should develop a process to continually assess patients, technology, payment, and disease changes so that they are

  19. Causes for Retail Industry Globalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesha, M.

    2012-12-01

    The heading of this article itself pushing me to think why retail industry is globalizing! Because to increase their presence worldwide and profit on the onside and for the sake of ìname and fameî in industry is other side, but todayís trend and compitetitation force industrial giants to forget the word ìname and fameî globalization is the only strategy to compensate their market share or profit from one country to another country or domestic market. The presence of retail industry in the global level from centuries, but the global recognaization of retail industry came to limelight only two decades ago. As soon as restrictions are removed in this sector, all the retail industry big giants spread across the world to extend their operations especially in emerging markets. Is this a good sign for retailers? Off course it is good sign for some countries and some countries are stick to their own perceptions. Some of the countries welcome this move because the FDI will improve their economic structure. On the other side employment opportunity is also one of the issues in globalization of retail sector. Because retail industry needs huge workforce, so significance of retail has been undoubted.

  20. Alcohol and alcohol-related harm in China: policy changes needed.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-lang; Xiang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Xu-yi; Cubells, Joseph F; Babor, Thomas F; Hao, Wei

    2013-04-01

    In China, alcohol consumption is increasing faster than anywhere else in the world. A steady increase in alcohol production has also been observed in the country, together with a rise in alcohol-related harm. Despite these trends, China's policies on the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages are weak compared with those of other countries in Asia. Weakest of all are its policies on taxation, drink driving laws, alcohol sale to minors and marketing licenses. The authors of this descriptive paper draw attention to the urgent need for public health professionals and government officials in China to prioritize population surveillance, research and interventions designed to reduce alcohol use disorders. They describe China's current alcohol policies and recent trends in alcohol-related harm and highlight the need for health officials to conduct a thorough policy review from a public health perspective, using as a model the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23599550

  1. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2006-09-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called "Saturday night specials." The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. PMID:16937085

  2. Effects of a Gun Dealer's Change in Sales Practices on the Supply of Guns to Criminals

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Bulzacchelli, Maria T.

    2006-01-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called “Saturday night specials.” The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. PMID:16937085

  3. 27 CFR 478.98 - Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms. 478.98 Section 478.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  4. 27 CFR 478.98 - Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms. 478.98 Section 478.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  5. 27 CFR 478.98 - Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms. 478.98 Section 478.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  6. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  7. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  8. 27 CFR 478.98 - Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms. 478.98 Section 478.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  9. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. 478.134 Section 478.134 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS...

  10. 27 CFR 478.98 - Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales or deliveries of destructive devices and certain firearms. 478.98 Section 478.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION...

  11. 27 CFR 6.84 - Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Point of sale advertising materials and consumer advertising specialties. 6.84 Section 6.84 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §...

  12. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  13. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  14. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  15. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  16. 27 CFR 72.65 - Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of forfeited tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes. 72.65 Section 72.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  17. 27 CFR 40.187 - Record of sales prices of large cigars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of sales prices of large cigars. 40.187 Section 40.187 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED...

  18. 27 CFR 53.91 - Charges to be included in sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Charges to be included in sale price. 53.91 Section 53.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS MANUFACTURERS EXCISE TAXES-FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable...

  19. 27 CFR 70.332 - Unauthorized use or sale of stamps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use or sale of stamps. 70.332 Section 70.332 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND PRACTICES PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection of Excise and Special...

  20. 27 CFR 53.98 - Computation of tax on leases and installment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of tax on leases and installment sales. 53.98 Section 53.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... each lease payment is a percentage of each payment based on the rate of tax, if any, in effect on...

  1. 27 CFR 53.136 - Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations. 53.136 Section 53.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS...

  2. 27 CFR 53.136 - Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations. 53.136 Section 53.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS...

  3. 27 CFR 53.136 - Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations. 53.136 Section 53.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS...

  4. 27 CFR 53.136 - Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations. 53.136 Section 53.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS...

  5. 27 CFR 53.136 - Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales of articles to nonprofit educational organizations. 53.136 Section 53.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FIREARMS...

  6. Coordinating a Supply Chain with a Loss-Averse Retailer and Effort Dependent Demand

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  7. Coordinating a supply chain with a loss-averse retailer and effort dependent demand.

    PubMed

    Li, Liying; Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the channel coordination issue of a supply chain with a risk-neutral manufacturer and a loss-averse retailer facing stochastic demand that is sensitive to sales effort. Under the loss-averse newsvendor setting, a distribution-free gain/loss-sharing-and-buyback (GLB) contract has been shown to be able to coordinate the supply chain. However, we find that a GLB contract remains ineffective in managing the supply chain when retailer sales efforts influence the demand. To effectively coordinate the channel, we propose to combine a GLB contract with sales rebate and penalty (SRP) contract. In addition, we discover a special class of gain/loss contracts that can coordinate the supply chain and arbitrarily allocate the expected supply chain profit between the manufacturer and the retailer. We then analyze the effect of loss aversion on the retailer's decision-making behavior and supply chain performance. Finally, we perform a numerical study to illustrate the findings and gain additional insights. PMID:25197696

  8. CONCENTRATION AND DRUG PRICES IN THE RETAIL MARKET FOR MALARIA TREATMENT IN RURAL TANZANIA

    PubMed Central

    GOODMAN, CATHERINE; KACHUR, S. PATRICK; ABDULLA, SALIM; BLOLAND, PETER; MILLS, ANNE

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The impact of market concentration has been little studied in markets for ambulatory care in the developing world, where the retail sector often accounts for a high proportion of treatments. This study begins to address this gap through an analysis of the consumer market for malaria treatment in rural areas of three districts in Tanzania. We developed methods for investigating market definition, sales volumes and concentration, and used these to explore the relationship between antimalarial retail prices and competition. The market was strongly geographically segmented and highly concentrated in terms of antimalarial sales. Antimalarial prices were positively associated with market concentration. High antimalarial prices were likely to be an important factor in the low proportion of care seekers obtaining appropriate treatment. Retail sector distribution of subsidised antimalarials has been proposed to increase the coverage of effective treatment, but this analysis indicates that local market power may prevent such subsidies from being passed on to rural customers. Policymakers should consider the potential to maintain lower retail prices by decreasing concentration among antimalarial providers and recommending retail price levels. PMID:19301420

  9. 76 FR 28358 - Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 55409 (Sept. 10, 2010... Act. Regulation of Off-Exchange Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions and Intermediaries, 75 FR 3281 (Jan. 20, 2010) (Proposed CFTC Retail Forex Rule). \\13\\ See Retail Foreign Exchange Transactions, 76...

  10. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity to... system. (i) Retailers who do not have immediate access to telephones at the time of authorization...

  11. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity to... system. (i) Retailers who do not have immediate access to telephones at the time of authorization...

  12. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity to... system. (i) Retailers who do not have immediate access to telephones at the time of authorization...

  13. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  14. Sorbate and benzoate in Turkish retail foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Ulca, Pelin; Atamer, Beril; Keskin, Mehtap; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2013-01-01

    From 2008 to 2011, surveys were conducted to determine the levels of benzoic and sorbic acids and their respective salts in 983 retail food samples which included sauces, vegetable and fruit preparations, flavoured syrups, food supplements, cereals, bakery products, jelly, synthetic cream, sprays, mustards, jam and preserves, molasses, chewing gum, confectionery, non-alcoholic beverages, tea, wine, vinegar, brine and beers. The analysis involved methanol extraction of the foodstuff and direct determination by HPLC with UV detection. Quality assurance was employed with each batch of samples. Accuracy was ensured through regular participation in proficiency tests. Over this four-year period, a total of 23 samples (2.3%), some syrups, tomato sauces and fruit contained individual or combined levels of sorbic and benzoic acids above regulatory limits. Unauthorised use of benzoic acid was also detected in a syrup sample, bakery products and fruit preserves. PMID:24779907

  15. 77 FR 64463 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ..., the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e- commerce sales, year-end..., accounts receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales..., annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total and detailed operating expenses,...

  16. Relative efficiency benefits of wholesale and retail competition in electricity: An analysis and a research agenda

    SciTech Connect

    Bohi, D R; Palmer, K L

    1996-03-01

    A central issue in the debate over restructuring the electric power industry is the extent to which the market should be open to competition. One aspect of this debate is whether competition ought to be restricted to the whole sale power market or be extended to final retail consumers. This report begins to explore the potential differences in economic efficiency between wholesale and retail competition in the electric power industry. The two market-structure scenarios are defined and the factors responsible for differences in efficiency are described. The report also contains an assessment of the relative importance of the factors and recommendations for pursuing further research.

  17. 26 CFR 48.4216(d)-1 - Sales of installment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales of installment accounts. 48.4216(d)-1 Section 48.4216(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable...

  18. 26 CFR 48.4216(d)-1 - Sales of installment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales of installment accounts. 48.4216(d)-1 Section 48.4216(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable...

  19. 26 CFR 48.4216(d)-1 - Sales of installment accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales of installment accounts. 48.4216(d)-1 Section 48.4216(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable...

  20. 29 CFR 779.331 - Meaning of sales “for resale.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Meaning of sales âfor resale.â 779.331 Section 779.331 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR...

  1. 26 CFR 48.4216(c)-1 - Computation of tax on leases and installment sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Computation of tax on leases and installment sales. 48.4216(c)-1 Section 48.4216(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes §...

  2. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-1 - Constructive sale price; scope and application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Constructive sale price; scope and application. 48.4216(b)-1 Section 48.4216(b)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes §...

  3. Sale of Theses on Contentville Raises Hackles in U.S. and Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the controversy over the arrangement between UMI, a company that stores, reproduces, and sells master's theses and doctoral dissertations, and the commercially based online retailer, Contentville.com. Both American and Canadian scholars have been surprised to find their work being offered, without their permission, for sale online by…

  4. 26 CFR 48.4216(e)-1 - Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exclusion of local advertising charges from sale price. 48.4216(e)-1 Section 48.4216(e)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes §...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-4 - Constructive sale price; affiliated corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the lowest price for which the distributor regularly sells the article in arm's-length... normal method of sales for such articles within the industry is to sell such articles in arm's-length... distributors in arm's-length transactions sell such comparable articles to retailers, is of (ii) The...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4216(b)-4 - Constructive sale price; affiliated corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the lowest price for which the distributor regularly sells the article in arm's-length... normal method of sales for such articles within the industry is to sell such articles in arm's-length... distributors in arm's-length transactions sell such comparable articles to retailers, is of (ii) The...

  7. 21 CFR 1314.110 - Reports for mail-order sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1314.110 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED... Import/Export Unit, Drug Enforcement Administration (see the Table of DEA Mailing Addresses in § 1321.01... should be submitted to the Import/Export Unit, Drug Enforcement Administration. See the Table of...

  8. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-03-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  9. The availability of electronic cigarettes in US retail outlets, 2012: results of two national studies

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Shyanika W; Barker, Dianne C; D'Angelo, Heather; Khan, Tamkeen; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their introduction in 2007, electronic cigarette (‘e-cigarette’) awareness and use has grown rapidly. Little is known about variation in e-cigarette availability across areas with different levels of tobacco taxes and smoke-free air policies. This paper looks at US retail availability of e-cigarettes and factors at the store, neighbourhood and policy levels associated with it. Methods In-person store audit data collected in 2012 came from two national samples of tobacco retailers in the contiguous US. Study 1 collected data from a nationally representative sample of tobacco retailers (n=2165). Study 2 collected data from tobacco retailers located in school enrolment zones for nationally representative samples of 8th, 10th and 12th grade public school students (n=2526). Results In 2012, e-cigarette retail availability was 34% in study 1 and 31% in study 2. Tobacco, pharmacy and gas/convenience stores were more likely to sell e-cigarettes than beer/wine/liquor stores. Retail availability of e-cigarettes was more likely in neighbourhoods with higher median household income (study 1), and lower percent of African–American (studies 1 and 2) and Hispanic residents (study 2). Price of traditional cigarettes was inversely related to e-cigarette availability. Stores in states with an American Lung Association Smoke-Free Air grade of F (study 1) or D (study 2) compared with A had increased likelihood of having e-cigarettes. Conclusions Currently, e-cigarette availability appears more likely in areas with weak tax and smoke-free air policies. Given the substantial availability of e-cigarettes at tobacco retailers nationwide, states and localities should monitor the sales and marketing of e-cigarettes at point of sale (POS). PMID:24935892

  10. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  11. Construction Method of Display Proposal for Commodities in Sales Promotion by Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, Masaki

    In a sales promotion task, wholesaler prepares and presents the display proposal for commodities in order to negotiate with retailer's buyers what commodities they should sell. For automating the sales promotion tasks, the proposal has to be constructed according to the target retailer's buyer. However, it is difficult to construct the proposal suitable for the target retail store because of too much combination of commodities. This paper proposes a construction method by Genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed method represents initial display proposals for commodities with genes, improve ones with the evaluation value by GA, and rearrange one with the highest evaluation value according to the classification of commodity. Through practical experiment, we can confirm that display proposal by the proposed method is similar with the one constructed by a wholesaler.

  12. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  13. Survival Sales Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradiso, James; Stair, Kenneth

    Intended to provide insight into the dynamics of demand analysis, this paper presents an eight-step method for forecasting sales. Focusing on sales levels that must be achieved to enjoy targeted profits in favor of the usual approach of emphasizing how much will be sold within a given period, a sample situation is provided to illustrate this…

  14. Clostridium perfringens in retail chicken.

    PubMed

    Nowell, Victoria J; Poppe, Cornelis; Parreira, Valeria R; Jiang, Yan-Fen; Reid-Smith, Richard; Prescott, John F

    2010-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens isolates were recovered by enrichment from retail grocery chicken samples (n = 88) in Ontario, Canada, with one sample per site. The gene associated with necrotic enteritis in chickens, netB, was found in 21% of the isolates. The tpeL gene was found in 2% and the cpb2 gene in 68% (95% "atypical" genes) of isolates. This study suggests that netB-positive C. perfringens can reach people through retail chicken. PMID:19961943

  15. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  16. Food retailing and food service.

    PubMed

    Capps, Oral; Park, John L

    2003-07-01

    The food retailing and food service sector is not only an important component of the food marketing channel but is also vital to the United States economy, accounting for more than 7% of the United States gross domestic product in 2001. The business of food retailing and food service is undergoing salient change. The authors argue that the singular force driving this change is the consumer. To understand the linkages in the food marketing channel, this article provides information on the farm-to-retail price spread and the economic forces that influence their magnitude. Examples are given of farm-to-retail price spreads for red meat and dairy industries. In addition, the economics behind the provision of retail services and the growth of the food service industry are discussed. Further, the authors demonstrate that the structure of the food market channel is consumer driven, and present three characteristics of convenience (preparation, delivery, and service) and identify four food distribution channels in terms of convenience (complete convenience, traditional food service, consumer direct, and traditional retail). PMID:12951742

  17. The association of retail promotions for cigarettes with the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco control programmes and cigarette excise taxes

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, Brett R; Farrelly, Matthew C; Mann, Nathan H

    2006-01-01

    Background Retail stores are the primary medium for marketing cigarettes to smokers in the US. The prevalence and characteristics of cigarette retail advertising and promotions have been described by several investigators. Less is known about the proportion of cigarette sales occurring as part of a retail promotion and about the effects of tobacco control policies on cigarette promotions. Objective To estimate the effect of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), state tobacco control programme funding and cigarette taxes on retail promotions for cigarettes in supermarkets in the US. Outcome measures Proportion of cigarette sales occurring under a retail promotion and the value of multipack promotions (eg, buy one pack, get one pack free) and cents‐off promotions, measured using scanner data in supermarkets from 50 retail market areas from 1994 to 2004. Results Promoted cigarette sales have increased significantly since the MSA (p<0.01), and are higher in market areas with high tobacco control programme funding (p<0.01) and high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a multipack promotion is higher since the MSA (p<0.01) and in market areas with high cigarette tax (p<0.01). The value of a cents‐off promotion is negatively related to the MSA (p<0.01), with mixed results for tobacco control programme funding (p<0.05), and is unassociated with tax. Conclusions Higher promoted cigarette sales and increased promotional values in market areas with strong tobacco control policies, compared with market areas with weaker tobacco control policies, may partially offset the decline in smoking achieved in those areas. PMID:17130375

  18. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments.

    PubMed

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-01-01

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an "approved" planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed. PMID:26343659

  19. Embedded Vision Sensor Network for Planogram Maintenance in Retail Environments

    PubMed Central

    Frontoni, Emanuele; Mancini, Adriano; Zingaretti, Primo

    2015-01-01

    A planogram is a detailed visual map that establishes the position of the products in a retail store. It is designed to supply the best location of a product for suppliers to support an innovative merchandising approach, to increase sales and profits and to better manage the shelves. Deviating from the planogram defeats the purpose of any of these goals, and maintaining the integrity of the planogram becomes a fundamental aspect in retail operations. We propose an embedded system, mainly based on a smart camera, able to detect and to investigate the most important parameters in a retail store by identifying the differences with respect to an “approved” planogram. We propose a new solution that allows concentrating all the surveys and the useful measures on a limited number of devices in communication among them. These devices are simple, low cost and ready for immediate installation, providing an affordable and scalable solution to the problem of planogram maintenance. Moreover, over an Internet of Things (IoT) cloud-based architecture, the system supplies many additional data that are not concerning the planogram, e.g., out-of-shelf events, promptly notified through SMS and/or mail. The application of this project allows the realization of highly integrated systems, which are economical, complete and easy to use for a large number of users. Experimental results have proven that the system can efficiently calculate the deviation from a normal situation by comparing the base planogram image with the images grabbed. PMID:26343659

  20. Characteristics of federally licensed firearms retailers and retail establishments in the United States: initial findings from the firearms licensee survey.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2013-02-01

    Firearms have widely supported legitimate purposes but are also frequently used in violent crimes. Owners and senior executives of federally licensed firearms dealers and pawnbrokers are a potentially valuable source of information on retail commerce in firearms, links between legal and illegal commerce, and policies designed to prevent the firearms they sell from being used in crimes. To our knowledge, there has been no prior effort to gather such information. In 2011, we conducted the Firearms Licensee Survey on a probability sample of 1,601 licensed dealers and pawnbrokers in the United States believed to sell 50 or more firearms per year. This article presents details of the design and execution of the survey and describes the characteristics of the respondents and their business establishments. The survey was conducted by mail, using methods developed by Dillman and others. Our response rate was 36.9 % (591 respondents), similar to that for other establishment surveys using similar methods. Respondents had a median age of 54; 89 % were male, 97.6 % were White, and 98.1 % were non-Hispanic. Those who held licenses under their own names had been licensed for a median of 18 years. A large majority of 96.3 % agreed that "private ownership of guns is essential for a free society"; just over half (54.9 %) believed that "it is too easy for criminals to get guns in this country." A match between the job and a personal interest in the shooting sports was the highest-ranking reason for working as a firearms retailer; the highest-ranking concerns were that "there are too many 'gun control' regulations" and that "the government might confiscate my guns." Most respondents (64.3 %) were gun dealers, with significant variation by region. Residential dealers accounted for 25.6 % of all dealers in the Midwest. Median annual sales volume was 200 firearms for both dealers and pawnbrokers. Dealers appeared more likely than pawnbrokers to specialize; they were more likely

  1. 27 CFR 478.134 - Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of firearms to law... AMMUNITION Records § 478.134 Sale of firearms to law enforcement officers. (a) Law enforcement officers... complete Form 4473 or Form 5300.35. The law enforcement officer purchasing the firearm may purchase...

  2. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  3. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  4. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  5. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  6. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  7. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  8. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  9. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  10. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  11. 27 CFR 31.83 - Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ball park, race track, etc... to Registration Sales in Two Or More Areas on the Same Premises § 31.83 Ball park, race track, etc.; sales throughout the premises. The proprietor of a ball park, race track, stadium, pavilion, or...

  12. 27 CFR 53.131 - Tax-free sales; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tax-free sales; general... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 53.131 Tax-free sales; general rule. (a) In general. Section 4221... chapter 32 of the Code may be sold tax-free by the manufacturer, producer, or importer: (1) For use by...

  13. 27 CFR 53.131 - Tax-free sales; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tax-free sales; general... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 53.131 Tax-free sales; general rule. (a) In general. Section 4221... chapter 32 of the Code may be sold tax-free by the manufacturer, producer, or importer: (1) For use by...

  14. 27 CFR 53.131 - Tax-free sales; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax-free sales; general... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 53.131 Tax-free sales; general rule. (a) In general. Section 4221... chapter 32 of the Code may be sold tax-free by the manufacturer, producer, or importer: (1) For use by...

  15. 27 CFR 53.131 - Tax-free sales; general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax-free sales; general... AMMUNITION Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 53.131 Tax-free sales; general rule. (a) In general. Section 4221... chapter 32 of the Code may be sold tax-free by the manufacturer, producer, or importer: (1) For use by...

  16. A survey of Mexican retail chain stores for fresh U.S. pork.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Leidenz, N; Howard, S T; Ruíz Flores, A; Ngapo, T M; Belk, K E

    2016-09-01

    An overview of fresh US pork in the Mexican market was achieved by surveying fresh US pork packages (n=342) for sale in five Mexican cities. Data on cut, primal/sub-primal from which the cut was sourced, subcutaneous and seam fat thicknesses, marbling scores, and presence of bone were collated. The most prevalent identifiable retail cuts were milanesa (thin slice of pork, breaded or non-breaded) and trozos (diced pork) derived primarily from the leg and accounting for 68% of the total US pork on sale. Over 90% of the retail cuts were trimmed to 3.2mm or less of external fat and the average marbling score was 2.26. Differences in distribution and fat measures were observed with chain, location and socio-economic status of clientele indicating potential for a targeted marketing approach in Mexico. PMID:27206052

  17. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role. PMID:26627090

  18. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  19. 76 FR 69239 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... receivables, and, for selected industries, merchandise line sales, and percent of e-commerce sales to..., annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses, accounts receivables, and...

  20. 75 FR 63804 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... percent of e-commerce sales to customers located outside the United States. These data are collected to... classification basis, annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, purchases, total operating expenses,...

  1. Slippery when wet: the effects of local alcohol access laws on highway safety.

    PubMed

    Baughman, R; Conlin, M; Dickert-Conlin, S; Pepper, J

    2001-11-01

    Using detailed panel data on local alcohol policy changes in Texas, this paper tests whether the effect of these changes on alcohol-related accidents depends on whether the policy change involves where the alcohol is consumed and the type of alcohol consumed. After controlling for both county and year fixed effects, we find evidence that: (i) the sale of beer and wine may actually decrease expected accidents; and (ii) the sale of higher alcohol-content liquor may present greater risk to highway safety than the sale of just beer and wine. PMID:11758050

  2. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  3. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  4. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  5. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Better sales networks.

    PubMed

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages. PMID:16846193

  8. College-Level Education in Retailing: A Comparison of Perceptions of Retail Employment Executives and Retail Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Sue Stringer

    The tremendous changes in methods of operation experienced in the retailing field in recent years, have brought about changes in the nature and extent of formal education required of potential retail executives. The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative value of various elements of college retailing programs in the…

  9. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  10. 7 CFR 1206.19 - Retailer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.19 Retailer. Retailer means a person engaged in the business of selling mangos only to consumers....

  11. Retailing: Careers in the Department Store Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gail M.

    1982-01-01

    The retailing industry is overviewed and executive training programs are detailed. Jobs in retailing are described: merchandising, department manager, assistant buyer, buyer, merchandise manager, and store manager. Also discussed are operations, financial control, and personnel management. (CT)

  12. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 27 CFR 45.25 - Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Unlawful purchase, receipt, possession, or sale of tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes, after removal. 45.25 Section 45.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 27 CFR 70.186 - Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property. 70.186 Section 70.186 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  15. Keep Kids Alcohol Free: Strategies for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This guide is a starting point for parents, teachers, health professionals, law enforcement personnel, alcohol retailers, policymakers, and others who are concerned with the well-being of children. It describes three basic prevention strategies and ways they can be applied in the home, the school, and the community, and offers effective,…

  16. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  17. 7 CFR 274.3 - Retailer management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Retailer management. 274.3 Section 274.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... management. (a) Retailer participation. (1) All authorized retailers must be afforded the opportunity...

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  19. Producer-retailer integrated EMQ system with machine breakdown, rework failures, and a discontinuous inventory issuing policy.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Chen, Shin-Wei; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi Peter; Li, Ting-Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study develops two extended economic manufacturing quantity (EMQ)-based models with a discontinuous product issuing policy, random machine breakdown, and rework failures. Various real conditions in production processes, end-product delivery, and intra-supply chains such as a producer-retailer integrated scheme are examined. The first model incorporates a discontinuous multi-delivery policy into a prior work (Chiu et al. in Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng 223:183-194, 2009) in lieu of their continuous policy. Such an enhanced model can address situations in supply chain environments, where finished products are transported to outside retail stores (or customers). The second model further combines retailer's stock holding costs into the first model. This extended EMQ model is applicable in situations in present-day manufacturing firms where finished products are distributed to company's own retail stores (or regional sales offices) and stocked there for sale. Two aforementioned extended EMQ models are investigated, respectively. Mathematical modeling along with iterative algorithms are employed to derive the optimal production run times that minimize the expected total system costs, including the costs incurred in production units, transportation, and retail stores, for these integrated EMQ systems. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the practical application of the research results. PMID:27065179

  20. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. PMID:25060676

  1. DE CHECKERS DELIVER. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES BREAK FOR DE-TRAINED CHECKERS AND SALES PERSONNEL IN SPOKANE AREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JACOBS, LOWELL E.

    THE SPOKANE COMMUNITY COLLEGE PROVIDES TRAINING IN ITS DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FOR RETAIL CHECKERS AND SALES PERSONNEL. THE GROCERY TRAINING IS AS LIFELIKE AS POSSIBLE IN BOTH PHYSICAL LAYOUT AND RANGE OF OPERATIONS. THE COURSE WAS DEVELOPED WITH THE HELP OF AN ADVISORY COMMITTEE INCLUDING MANAGEMENT, LABOR, AND LOCAL DISTRIBUTORS. IT…

  2. 27 CFR 478.102 - Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transfer under 27 CFR part 479; or (3) On application of the licensee, in accordance with the provisions of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998. 478.102 Section 478.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and...

  3. 27 CFR 478.102 - Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... transfer under 27 CFR part 479; or (3) On application of the licensee, in accordance with the provisions of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998. 478.102 Section 478.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and...

  4. 27 CFR 478.102 - Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transfer under 27 CFR part 479; or (3) On application of the licensee, in accordance with the provisions of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998. 478.102 Section 478.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and...

  5. 27 CFR 478.102 - Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... transfer under 27 CFR part 479; or (3) On application of the licensee, in accordance with the provisions of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales or deliveries of firearms on and after November 30, 1998. 478.102 Section 478.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and...

  6. iES - An Intelligent Electronic Sales Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, V L; Korbe III, W; Gao, J G

    2003-10-02

    Current e-commerce systems support online shopping based on electronic product catalogs. The major issues associated with catalog-based commerce systems are: difficulty in distinguishing one retailer from another, complex navigation with confusing links, and a lack of personalized service. This paper reports an intelligent solution to address these issues. Our solution will provide a more personalized sales experience through the use of a transaction-based knowledge model that includes both the rules used for reasoning as well as the corresponding actions. Based on this solution, we have developed an intelligent electronic sales platform that is supported by a framework which provides the desired personalization as well as extensibility and customization capabilities. This paper reports our design and development of this system and application examples.

  7. [Approaches for the prevention of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Watzl, H

    1996-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of alcohol problems have demonstrated a considerable variation between countries and epoches. Two types of primary prevention strategies of alcohol problems are examined. Firstly, efforts to control and reduce the availability of alcohol including increase of price, restriction of alcohol retail outlets or hours during which alcohol can be sold, minimum legal age for purchase or consumption, drinking-driving laws and enforcement programmes, restriction of alcohol advertising. The second type consists of educational prevention programmes aiming at the reduction of risk factors or the increase of protective factors within the general population. This type includes information to change knowledge and attitudes, education of affects and values, life skill training, resistance training, and mass media campaigns. Programmes aiming at high risk groups and the development of standardised secondary prevention programmes might be more effective and cost-efficient. PMID:8963092

  8. 78 FR 64912 - Annual Retail Trade Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... survey, the Census Bureau will collect data covering annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end... annual sales, annual e-commerce sales, year-end inventories held inside and outside the United States... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. Results The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either ‘allowed if products hidden from view’ (29.9%, 25.6%) or ‘not allowed at all’ (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p < .01; pharmacy: 32.8% vs. 62.0%, p < .01). Opinions also varied significantly by demographic characteristics and factors such as presence of a child in the household and urban/rural location of residence. Conclusions Overall, a majority of consumers surveyed either supported banning sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies. PMID:23837647

  10. Effects of Targeted Sales Messages on Subscription Sales and Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst, Glenn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigates the effects of targeted sales messages on newspaper subscription sales and retention by combining two large research projects--a demographic market segmentation scheme, and a readership-lifestyle survey. Proposes that the content of sales messages influences new subscriptions but does not affect retention. (MM)

  11. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  12. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  13. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  14. The Collective Impact Model and Its Potential for Health Promotion: Overview and Case Study of a Healthy Retail Initiative in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Flood, Johnna; Minkler, Meredith; Hennessey Lavery, Susana; Estrada, Jessica; Falbe, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    As resources for health promotion become more constricted, it is increasingly important to collaborate across sectors, including the private sector. Although many excellent models for cross-sector collaboration have shown promise in the health field, collective impact (CI), an emerging model for creating larger scale change, has yet to receive much study. Complementing earlier collaboration approaches, CI has five core tenets: a shared agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and a central infrastructure. In this article, we describe the CI model and its key dimensions and constructs. We briefly compare CI to community coalition action theory and discuss our use of the latter to provide needed detail as we apply CI in a critical case study analysis of the Tenderloin Healthy Corner Store Coalition in San Francisco, California. Using Yin's multimethod approach, we illustrate how CI strategies, augmented by the community coalition action theory, are being used, and with what successes or challenges, to help affect community- and policy-level change to reduce tobacco and alcohol advertising and sales, while improving healthy, affordable, and sustainable food access. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of CI as a framework for health promotion, as well as the benefits, challenges, and initial outcomes of the healthy retail project and its opportunities for scale-up. Implications for health promotion practice and research also are discussed. PMID:25810470

  15. Huntsville Arsenal for Sale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    In the years following World War II, the Army directed that the Huntsville, Alabama Arsenal be advertised for sale. The decision was reversed because the Army found it needed this land for the new missile work that would occur at Redstone Arsenal.

  16. Ariad suspends ponatinib sales.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Because of concerns about serious cardiovascular side effects, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration asked Ariad Pharmaceuticals to temporarily suspend sales and marketing of ponatinib to treat chronic myeloid leukemia in patients resistant to first-line therapy. PMID:24402926

  17. Wildlife for sale.

    PubMed

    Martin, E; Redford, T

    2000-02-01

    Myanmar, famous for the smuggling of opium and gemstones, is losing much of its wildlife to illegal traders. In 1998, a survey of goods for sale in two border towns showed a thriving trade in body parts from some of the world's most endangered species. PMID:11190214

  18. BA Sales Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts-Clay, Jennifer

    1979-01-01

    Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)

  19. Sales Training for Small Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinder, James F.

    1974-01-01

    The author suggests methods a sales manager in a small company can use to train effective salesmen; he defines the sales manager's role, and cites internal and external training resources. The absence of sales training courses in metropolitan Canada is noted. (AJ)

  20. 29 CFR 779.328 - Retail and wholesale distinguished.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Retail and wholesale distinguished. 779.328 Section 779.328... AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments ârecognizedâ As Retail âin the Particular Industryâ § 779.328 Retail and wholesale distinguished. (a)...