Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven
Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…
Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…
Wintemute, Garen J
Alcohol use and firearm ownership are risk factors for violent injury and death. To determine whether firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours, the author conducted a cross-sectional study using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for eight states in the USA from 1996 to 1997 (the most recent data available). Altogether, 15 474 respondents provided information on firearm exposure. After adjustment for demographics and state of residence, firearm owners were more likely than those with no firearms at home to have ≥5 drinks on one occasion (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.50), to drink and drive (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.39) and to have ≥60 drinks per month (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.83). Heavy alcohol use was most common among firearm owners who also engaged in behaviours such as carrying a firearm for protection against other people and keeping a firearm at home that was both loaded and not locked away. The author concludes that firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours.
... now! Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: Risks Archives Treatment risk reduction garments surgery obesity infection blood pressure trauma morbid obesity body weight ...
... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...
Charlet, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas
Based on the knowledge that alcohol misuse causes a multitude of diseases and increased mortality, this systematic review examines whether a reduction of the individual alcohol consumption can contribute to a minimization of health risks within a harm reduction approach. In fact, the reviewed 63 studies indicate that interventions aiming at alcohol reduction (including total abstinence as one possible therapeutic aim) indeed resulted in or were associated with positive effects in harmful, hazardous or alcohol-dependent drinkers. Major benefits were observed for reducing alcohol-associated injuries, recovery of ventricular heart function in alcoholic cardiomyopathy, blood pressure lowering, normalization of biochemical parameter, body weight reduction, histological improvement in pre-cirrhotic alcohol-related liver disease and slowed progression of an already existing alcohol-attributable liver fibrosis. Furthermore, reduced withdrawal symptoms, prevalence of psychiatric episodes and duration of in-patient hospital days, improvement of anxiety and depression symptoms, self-confidence, physical and mental quality of life, fewer alcohol-related adverse consequences as well as lower psychosocial stress levels and better social functioning can result from reduced alcohol intake. The reviewed literature demonstrated remarkable socioeconomic cost benefits in areas such as the medical health-care system or workforce productivity. Individuals with heightened vulnerability further benefit significantly from alcohol reduction (e.g. hypertension, hepatitis C, psychiatric co-morbidities, pregnancy, but also among adolescents and young adults). Concluding, the reviewed studies strongly support and emphasize the importance and benefits of early initial screening for problematic alcohol use followed by brief and other interventions in first contact medical health-care facilities to reduce alcohol intake.
Nyamathi, Adeline; Shoptaw, Steven; Cohen, Allan; Greengold, Barbara; Nyamathi, Kamala; Marfisee, Mary; de Castro, Viviane; Khalilifard, Farinaz; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara
Background Methadone-Maintained (MM) clients who engage in excessive alcohol use are at high risk for HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nurse-led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) may be one strategy to decrease alcohol use in this population. Objective To evaluate the impact of nurse-led HHP, delivered by nurses compared to Motivational Interviewing (MI), delivered by trained therapists in group sessions or one-on-one on reduction of alcohol use. Methods A three-arm randomized, controlled trial, conducted with 256 MM adults attending one of five MM outpatient clinics in the Los Angeles area. Within each site, moderate-to-heavy alcohol-using MM participants were randomized into one of three conditions: 1) nurse-led hepatitis health promotion group sessions (n=87); 2) MI delivered in group sessions (MI-group; n=90), or 3) MI delivered one-on-one sessions (MI-single, n=79). Results Self-reported alcohol use was reduced from a median of 90 drinks/month at baseline to 60 drinks/month at six month follow-up. A Wilcoxon sign-rank test indicated a significant reduction in alcohol use in the total sample (p < .05). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for alcohol consumption at baseline and other covariates, no differences by condition were found. Discussion As compared to two programs delivered by MI specialists, a culturally-sensitive and easy to implement nurse-led HHP program produced similar reductions in alcohol use over six months. Employing nurse-led programs may allow cost savings for treatment programs as well as a greater integration of alcohol reduction counseling along with a more comprehensive focus on general health-related issues than previously conducted. PMID:19836904
Anderson, David S.; Janosik, Steven M.
An instrument to help administrators assess the liability resulting from alcohol-related activities on the college campus is presented. The hazards and associated liability of these events can be reduced by developing an aggressive risk management strategy designed to inform, educate, and coordinate the actions of individuals and groups associated…
Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe
Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.
TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.
Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487
Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas
Guided by the assumptions of the social ecological model and the social marketing approach, this study provides a simultaneous and comprehensive assessment of 4 major alcohol reduction strategies for college campuses: school education programs, social norms campaigns, alcohol counter-marketing, and alcohol control policies. Analysis of nationally representative secondary survey data among 5,472 underage students reveals that alcohol marketing seems to be the most formidable risk factor for underage drinking, followed by perceived drinking norms (injunctive norm) and lax policy enforcement. This analysis suggests that, to make social norms campaigns and alcohol control policies more effective, alcohol reduction strategies should be developed to counter the powerful influence of alcohol marketing and promotions.
Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A
-analysis also indicated that wine was better than beer or spirits, this was based on a relatively small number of studies because most studies did not distinguish among these different types of alcohol. Furthermore, a number of the studies that did make the distinction reported no difference among the effects of these different types of alcohol. Therefore, at present this question remains unanswered. Analysis also showed that the presence of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele eliminated the benefit of moderate drinking. However, this was based on a relatively small number of studies and several other studies have found a beneficial effect of the epsilon e4 allele. Further studies are necessary to settle this question. The benefit of moderate alcohol for cognition was seen in both men and women, although the amount and pattern of drinking is very different between the two sexes. Lastly, the finding of unaffected or significantly reduced cognitive risk in light to moderate drinkers was seen in 14/19 countries for which country-specific ratio data were available, with three of the five remaining countries showing nonsignificant reductions as well. Overall, light to moderate drinking does not appear to impair cognition in younger subjects and actually seems to reduce the risk of dementia and cognitive decline in older subjects. PMID:21857787
McCoy, H Virginia; Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni
There are not many studies exploring the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors among migrant workers. This study analyzed how changes in alcohol use was associated with changes in risky sexual behavior and psychosocial variables. Data for this study was drawn from an HIV risk reduction project. Repeated measures ANOVA and Linear mixed model statistical method was conducted to find changes and association between alcohol use, sexual risk and psychosocial variables over time. The sample (n = 203) was composed of African Americans (33.0 %) and Hispanics (77.0 %) men. Both groups, over time, showed reduction in sexual risk in accordance with reduction in alcohol use. Changes in alcohol use and psychosocial variables showed significant association with sexual risk changes over time. Psychological strategies like building social support should be considered for HIV risk reduction intervention directed towards high alcohol consuming migrant workers.
Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.
Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290
... affected when someone in the home uses alcohol. Violence and conflict in the home is much more ... infections (STIs) Falls, drowning, and other accidents Suicide Violence, sexual assault or rape, and homicide
CREMONTE, MARIANA; CHERPITEL, CHERYL J.
Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context. PMID:25188654
Cremonte, Mariana; Cherpitel, Cheryl J
Injuries constitute a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, with intentional injuries and those related to traffic most important, due to their social impact and high prevalence. Although alcohol consumption has been identified as a risk factor for injuries, few studies have assessed risk separately for intentional injuries and unintentional injuries caused by traffic, and by other causes. The objective of this paper was to estimate the risk of injuries after acute alcohol consumption for intentional injuries and unintentional traffic and non-traffic injuries, using, alternatively, two exposure measures: self-reported drinking prior to the event and blood alcohol concentration. A probability sample was collected of 540 patients from the emergency department of a hospital in Argentina. Logistic regressions were performed, with and without adjusting for gender, age and drinking pattern. Higher risks were found when blood alcohol concentration was used as a measure of consumption, compared to self-report. The highest risk estimates were obtained for intentional injuries, followed by unintentional traffic and, lastly, by unintentional non-traffic injuries. After controlling for confounders, risks for intentional and unintentional traffic injuries appeared similar for those above and below the legal limit. Results point to a significant involvement of alcohol in the regional context.
Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Todd, Richard D.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.
Background Previous research has reported a significant genetic correlation between heaviness of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence (AD), but this association might be driven by the influence of AD on consumption rather than the reverse. We test the genetic overlap between AD symptoms and a heaviness of consumption measure among individuals who do not have AD. A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk. Methods Factor analysis of 5 alcohol use measures was used to create a measure of heaviness of alcohol consumption. Quantitative genetic analyses of interview data from the 1989 Australian Twin Panel (n=6257 individuals; M=29.9 years) assessed the genetic overlap between heaviness of consumption, DSM-IV AD symptoms, DSM-IV AD symptom clustering, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Results Genetic influences accounted for 30–51% of the variance in the alcohol measures and genetic correlations were 0.90 or higher for all measures, with the correlation between consumption and dependence symptoms among non-dependent individuals estimated at 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Heaviness of consumption and AD symptoms have a high degree of genetic overlap even among non-dependent individuals in the general population, implying that genetic influences on dependence risk in the general population are acting to a considerable degree through heaviness of use, and that quantitative measures of consumption will likely have a useful role in the identification of genes contributing to AD. PMID:19576574
Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert M.; Norman, Lisa
College students frequently use alcohol and are very sexually active, but do the two behaviors result in greater HIV risk? We employed the AIDS Risk Reduction Model to assess condom use during vaginal intercourse for sexually active college students using and not using alcohol proximal to sex. Students reported multiple lifetime sex partners and…
Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu
Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.
Rice, Cara E.; Dandreaux, Danielle; Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie
This article reviews the factors that influence the development of substance abuse and other negative outcomes among children of alcoholic parents (COAs). It reviews several pathways that may lead to the development of substance disorders for COAs, then explores protective factors that may decrease their risk for future negative outcomes.
Hensley, Scott; Michel, Thierry; Madsen, Soren; Chapin, Elaine; Rodriguez, Ernesto
A computer program implements a methodology, denoted probabilistic risk reduction, that is intended to aid in planning the development of complex software and/or hardware systems. This methodology integrates two complementary prior methodologies: (1) that of probabilistic risk assessment and (2) a risk-based planning methodology, implemented in a prior computer program known as Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP), in which multiple requirements and the beneficial effects of risk-mitigation actions are taken into account. The present methodology and the software are able to accommodate both process knowledge (notably of the efficacy of development practices) and product knowledge (notably of the logical structure of a system, the development of which one seeks to plan). Estimates of the costs and benefits of a planned development can be derived. Functional and non-functional aspects of software can be taken into account, and trades made among them. It becomes possible to optimize the planning process in the sense that it becomes possible to select the best suite of process steps and design choices to maximize the expectation of success while remaining within budget.
Glassman, Tavis; Dodd, Virginia; Kenzik, Kelly; Miller, E. Maureen; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye
Background: Celebratory drinking among college students on their 21st birthday often involves dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. Purpose: This study utilized an experimental design to assess the efficacy of social norm and risk reduction strategies developed to reduce high-risk drinking and alcohol related consequences among college students…
Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.
Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225
Sigvardsson, S; Hardell, L; Przybeck, T R; Cloninger, R
We evaluated site-specific cancer risks in alcoholic women. We identified 15,508 alcoholic women from the records of the Temperance Boards in Sweden and obtained a comparison group by selecting for each alcoholic woman one female individual matched for region and day of birth. We obtained incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. We found an increased relative risk (RR) for any cancer [RR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.8]; site-specific risks were increased for tongue (RR = 8.5; 95% CI = 2.0-37), mouth (RR = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-92), tonsil (RR = 11; 95% CI = 1.4-85), hypopharynx (RR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.1-71), larynx (RR = 7.0; 95% CI = 0.9-57), liver (RR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.8-12), pancreas (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6-4.6), lung (RR = 5.0; 95% CI = 3.3-7.5), breast (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), cervix uteri (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.8-5.4), and vulva, vagina, and unspecified female genital organs (RR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.3-12). We found a decreased risk for malignant melanoma of the skin (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-1.0). Since this was a register study, the results may be confounded by differences in smoking, dietary habits, and/or other factors in the cohort of alcoholic women and the comparison group.
Richardson, Julian; Port, Daniel; Feather, Martin
Effective risk reduction strategies can be derived mechanically given sufficient characterization of the risks present in the system and the effectiveness of available risk reduction techniques. In this paper, we address an important question: can we reliably expect mechanically derived risk reduction strategies to be better than fixed or hand-selected risk reduction strategies, given that the quantitative assessment of risks and risk reduction techniques upon which mechanical derivation is based is difficult and likely to be inaccurate? We consider this question relative to two methods for deriving effective risk reduction strategies: the strategic method defined by Kazman, Port et al [Port et al, 2005], and the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) tool [Feather & Cornford, 2003]. We performed a number of sensitivity experiments to evaluate how inaccurate knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques affect the performance of the strategies computed by the Strategic Method compared to a variety of alternative strategies. The experimental results indicate that strategies computed by the Strategic Method were significantly more effective than the alternative risk reduction strategies, even when knowledge of risk and risk reduction techniques was very inaccurate. The robustness of the Strategic Method suggests that its use should be considered in a wide range of projects.
EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.
McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark
Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (α=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275
Hussong, A M; Curran, P J; Chassin, L
The current study examined two questions. First, do internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior each mediate the relations between parent psychopathology (alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder, and affective disorder) and growth in adolescent heavy alcohol use? Second, are there gender differences in these mediated pathways? Using latent curve analyses, we examined these questions in a high-risk sample of 439 families (53% children of alcoholic parents; 47% female). Collapsing across gender, adolescent-reported externalizing behavior mediated both the relation between parent alcoholism and growth in heavy alcohol use and the relation between parent antisociality and growth in heavy alcohol use. Parent-reported externalizing behavior only mediated the relation between parent antisociality and growth in heavy alcohol use in males. No support was found for internalizing symptoms as a mediator of these relations. Avenues are suggested for further exploring and integrating information about different mediating processes accounting for children of alcoholics' risk for heavy alcohol use.
Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe
Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535
Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald H H; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C
Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk.
Dager, Alecia D; McKay, D Reese; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Knowles, Emma; Sprooten, Emma; Göring, Harald HH; Dyer, Thomas D; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Lovallo, William R; Duggirala, Ravi; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C
Alcohol abuse and dependence (alcohol use disorders, AUDs) are associated with brain shrinkage. Subcortical structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, ventral striatum, dorsal striatum, and thalamus subserve reward functioning and may be particularly vulnerable to alcohol-related damage. These structures may also show pre-existing deficits impacting the development and maintenance of AUD. It remains unclear whether there are common genetic features underlying both subcortical volumes and AUD. In this study, structural brain images were acquired from 872 Mexican-American individuals from extended pedigrees. Subcortical volumes were obtained using FreeSurfer, and quantitative genetic analyses were performed in SOLAR. We hypothesized the following: (1) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with lifetime AUD relative to unrelated controls; (2) reduced subcortical volumes in individuals with current relative to past AUD; (3) in non-AUD individuals, reduced subcortical volumes in those with a family history of AUD compared to those without; and (4) evidence for common genetic underpinnings (pleiotropy) between AUD risk and subcortical volumes. Results showed that individuals with lifetime AUD showed larger ventricular and smaller amygdala volumes compared to non-AUD individuals. For the amygdala, there were no differences in volume between current vs past AUD, and non-AUD individuals with a family history of AUD demonstrated reductions compared to those with no such family history. Finally, amygdala volume was genetically correlated with the risk for AUD. Together, these results suggest that reduced amygdala volume reflects a pre-existing difference rather than alcohol-induced neurotoxic damage. Our genetic correlation analysis provides evidence for a common genetic factor underlying both reduced amygdala volumes and AUD risk. PMID:25079289
FISHBONE, L.G.; SISKIND, B.
We present in this paper a method for evaluating explicitly the contribution of nuclear material accountability upgrades to risk reduction at nuclear facilities. The method yields the same types of values for conditional risk reduction that physical protection and material control upgrades yield. Thereby, potential material accountability upgrades can be evaluated for implementation in the same way that protection and control upgrades are evaluated.
Ryan, Barbara E.; And Others
This guide suggests methods and exercises for gathering and organizing information about alcohol use and associated adverse consequences on university campuses and in surrounding communities. The guide is intended to assist individuals and groups in identifying and modifying risks that contribute to alcohol-related problems. Alcohol problem…
Voas, Robert B.; Torres, Pedro; Romano, Eduardo; Lacey, John H.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relative risk of being involved in an alcohol-related crash has changed over the decade from 1996 to 2007, a period during which there has been little evidence of a reduction in the percentage of all fatal crashes involving alcohol. Method: We compared blood-alcohol information for the 2006 and 2007 crash cases (N = 6,863, 22.8% of them women) drawn from the U.S. Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) with control blood-alcohol data from participants in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey (N = 6,823). Risk estimates were computed and compared with those previously obtained from the 1996 FARS and roadside survey data. Results: Although the adult relative risk of being involved in a fatal alcohol-related crash apparently did not change from 1996 to 2007, the risk for involvement in an alcohol-related crash for underage women has increased to the point where it has become the same as that for underage men. Further, the risk that sober underage men will become involved in a fatal crash has doubled over the 1996–2007 period. Conclusions: Compared with estimates obtained from a decade earlier, young women in this study are at an increased risk of involvement in alcohol-related crashes. Similarly, underage sober drivers in this study are more at risk of involvement in a crash than they were a decade earlier. PMID:22456239
Weldy, David L
Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.
Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah
Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary.
Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.
Gurbutt, Dawne; Gurbutt, Russell
This article explores the concepts of 'risk' and 'risk reduction' in relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the implications for practice. Risk reduction is a term utilised in public health, which is usually linked to evidence-based outcomes. The Back to Sleep campaign is a high profile initiative which seeks to raise awareness of risk factors relating to SIDS and is largely credited with contributing to a significant reduction in the incidence of SIDS in the UK. Misunderstandings may occur between the terms 'risk reduction' and 'prevention' of health conditions and parents may feel that one equates to the other. There are also tensions which are inherent in defining risk in the context of SIDS. Certain measures may become 'shorthand' for a range of interventions and contributing factors. The practice of offering additional monitoring as support may reinforce a (mis)understanding about risk reduction and SIDS. There are implications for practice regarding how health professionals approach this issue, explain the guidelines and offer support.A clearer understanding of risk reduction would potentially enable bereaved parents to articulate their experiences without becoming too self critical in questioning their own consistent adherence to the accepted guidelines.
Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.
Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210
Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Crabbe, John C
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) was founded 40 years ago to help elucidate the biological underpinnings of alcohol dependence, including the potential contribution of genetic factors. Twin, adoption, and family studies conclusively demonstrated that genetic factors account for 50 to 60 percent of the variance in risk for developing alcoholism. Case-control studies and linkage analyses have helped identify DNA variants that contribute to increased risk, and the NIAAA-sponsored Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has the expressed goal of identifying contributing genes using state-of-the-art genetic technologies. These efforts have ascertained several genes that may contribute to an increased risk of alcoholism, including certain variants encoding alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors. Genome-wide association studies allowing the analysis of millions of genetic markers located throughout the genome will enable discovery of further candidate genes. In addition to these human studies, genetic animal models of alcohol's effects and alcohol use have greatly advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of alcoholism, resulting in the identification of quantitative trait loci and allowing for targeted manipulation of candidate genes. Novel research approaches-for example, into epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation-also are under way and undoubtedly will further clarify the genetic basis of alcoholism.
Murray, David M.; And Others
The paper presents a community model for reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in children and youth. The model addresses the individual, the family, social groups, and the larger social and physical environments. Exemplary programs are described and recommendations are made for additional research and program development. (Author/DB)
Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu
Objective To assess the episodic relationship between alcohol and sexual risk in multiple-client occasions among female sex workers (FSWs). Methods Data on alcohol use and sexual episodes with clients from the past two days were collected among FSWs in Guangxi, China (n=336 for yesterday, and n=299 for the day before yesterday). Logistic regression using generalized estimating equations with robust variance estimation was used to assess the alcohol-sexual risk relationship, controlling for contextual variables salient in the setting of commercial sex. Results: alcohol use among FSWs was associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected sex with clients during both days. This relationship was modified by the number of clients received within a day. Additionally, having a larger number of drinks was associated with higher odds of unprotected sex, but the association was not consistent across the two days. Conclusion Findings from the study support an association between alcohol use and sexual risk among FSWs. The design of alcohol and sexual risk reduction intervention among FSWs in China may take advantage of the interaction between contextual factors and alcohol use on sexual risk. PMID:24045031
Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G
It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.
Fillmore, Mark T.; Weafer, Jessica
Studies of the impairing effects of alcohol on behavior often show greater tolerance in heavy drinkers compared to light drinkers, suggesting a causal link between heavy consumption and tolerance. Tolerance also develops during the time-course of a single drinking episode, and this “acute tolerance” might play an important role in the escalation to heavy drinking. The present study examined the development of acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination and inhibitory control in a group of at-risk, binge drinkers (N = 20) and a group of non-risk, moderate drinkers (N = 20). Participants performed the testing battery in response to placebo and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) twice at comparable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs): once on the ascending limb and once on the descending limb of the blood alcohol curve. Results showed marked acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol on motor coordination in the at-risk drinkers. By contrast, no recovery of motor skill was observed in the non-risk drinkers. Regarding inhibitory control, both groups remained impaired on both the ascending and descending limbs, indicating no acute tolerance in either group. The findings suggest that at-risk, binge drinkers display a faster recovery in their ability to execute versus inhibit action under alcohol. Such an “activational bias” of behavior could account for their continued alcohol consumption and impulsive behaviors while intoxicated, especially as BAC begins to decline. PMID:22023021
Background Observational studies have shown inconsistent results regarding alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver. We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and fatty liver disease (FLD). Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese databases, identifying studies that reported an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of FLD. Results A total of 16 studies with 76,608 participants including 13 cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and one cohort study met the inclusion criteria. For light to moderate alcohol consumption (LMAC), there was a 22.6% reduction in risk of FLD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.774, 95% confidence interval CI [0.695–0.862], P <0.001), and subgroup analysis showed that a greater reduction in risk of FLD was found in the female drinkers (30.2%) and the drinkers with BMI ≥25 kg/m2(31.3%) compared with the male drinkers (22.6%) and the drinkers with BMI <25 kg/m2(21.3%), respectively. For heavy alcohol consumption, there was no significant influence on risk of FLD (OR = 0.869, 95% CI [0.553–1.364], P = 0.541) in Japanese women, but there was a 33.7% reduction in risk of FLD (OR = 0.663, 95% CI [0.574–0.765], P < 0.001) in Japanese men and a significant increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.785, 95% CI [1.064–2.996], P = 0.028) in Germans. Conclusion LMAC is associated with a significant protective effect on FLD in the studied population, especially in the women and obese population. However, the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on FLD remains unclear due to limited studies and small sample sizes. PMID:27812428
Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie
Much research has found that alcohol use is associated with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration among male college students. To increase understanding of this association, the present study examined whether other established risk factors for SA perpetration in this population were associated differentially with incidents that were preceded by alcohol use and incidents that were not preceded by alcohol use. The sample included 638 male college students who completed self-report measures of seven risk factors and SA perpetration during their first and second years of enrollment at a large, public university in the southeastern United States. A multivariate, multinomial logistic regression model revealed none of the seven factors increased risk for both alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved SA perpetration. The model did identify binge drinking as a risk factor for alcohol-involved SA perpetration and impulsivity, rape myth attitudes, and hostility toward women as risk factors for alcohol-uninvolved perpetration. If these results can be replicated, then they would suggest that different risk factors should be targeted to optimize the effect of preventive interventions on the occurrence of the two types of SA perpetration.
Coughlin, Eileen V.
Summarizes recent research on the pattern of college student alcohol and other drug use. Gives a brief historical perspective as it pertains to recent legislative changes that have affected the prevention of substance abuse. Offers a review of students at particular risk of alcohol and other drug abuse. (Includes an index.) (RJM)
Geisner, Irene Markman; Rhew, Isaac C; Ramirez, Jason J; Lewis, Melissa E; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M
Alcohol expectancies are a central construct in understanding college student typical alcohol use. However, to our knowledge, there is no research addressing how alcohol expectancies for specific events (i.e. 21st birthday) are different from expectancies regarding typical drinking. We examine the extent to which 21st birthday alcohol expectancies differ from general alcohol expectancies and how 21st birthday expectancies are associated with actual alcohol use and consequences experienced on 21st birthdays, above and beyond expectancies for typical drinking. Participants were college students (N=585; 54% women) who were turning 21 within a week, and intended to drink 4/5 (female/male) drinks on their birthday. All negative expectancies (impairment, risk and aggression, negative self-perception) and positive expectancies (social, liquid courage, sex) except tension reduction were significantly greater for 21st birthday drinking than for typical drinking. While 21st birthday expectancies were not uniquely related to actual birthday drinking, several positive and negative 21st birthday expectancy subscales were associated with 21st birthday drinking-related consequences, even when controlling for typical drinking expectancies. Expectancy challenge interventions aimed specifically at these subscales may be effective at attenuating alcohol-related consequences that result from 21st birthday drinking.
Dupree, Larry W.; Schonfeld, Lawrence
The Gerontology Alcohol Project, a treatment/research program investigating the characteristics of the late-life onset elderly alcohol abuser, was used as a model for a new program which emphasized teaching the elderly abusers how to break down their personal drinking behavior chain and deal with the antecedents of drinking behavior, to use…
Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.
Borges, G; Cherpitel, C J; Mondragón, L; Poznyak, V; Peden, M; Gutierrez, I
Usual and acute alcohol consumption are important risk factors for injury. Although alcohol-dependent people are thought to be at increased risk of injury, there are few reports suggesting that their risk is greater than that of nondependent alcohol users in a given episode of alcohol use. The authors conducted a case-crossover analysis of data on 705 injury patients from a hospital emergency department in Mexico City, Mexico, collected in 2002. The majority of the sample was male (60%) and over 30 years old (51%). With use of a multiple matching approach that took into account three control time periods (the day prior to the injury, the same day in the previous week, and the same day in the previous month), the estimated relative risk of injury for patients who reported having consumed alcohol within 6 hours prior to injury (17% of the sample) was 3.97 (95% confidence interval: 2.88, 5.48). This increase in the relative risk was concentrated within the first 2 hours after drinking; there was a positive association of increasing risk with increasing number of drinks consumed. These data suggested that relative risk estimates were the same for patients with and without alcohol use disorders.
Chowdhury, Sarwat; Standaert, Robert F.
Primary alcohols can be deoxygenated cleanly and in high yield by reduction of derived diphenyl phosphate esters with lithium triethylborohydride in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature. Selective deoxygenation of a primary alcohol in the presence of a secondary alcohol was demonstrated. The two-step process can be performed in one pot, making it both simple and convenient.
Moore, Sarah; Sikora, Patricia; Grunberg, Leon; Greenberg, Edward
In an effort to identify groups who may be more vulnerable to tension-reduction drinking (Frone, 2003), we examine whether drinking alcohol in response to work stress varies as a function of whether workers were raised in homes where (a) both parents abstained from alcohol, (b) at least one parent drank nonproblematically, (c) at least one parent drank problematically, or (d) both parents drank problematically. Employees participating in a large, longitudinal study who reported using alcohol in the previous year (N=895) completed various measures of work stressors, alcohol use, and alcohol problems. We found few mean group differences for either the work stressor or alcohol measures, but we did find a greater number of significant and moderate correlations between work stressors and alcohol for those reporting that both parents drank alcohol problematically. Interestingly, a number of significant correlations were found for those reporting that both parents abstained from alcohol; few were found for the two groups reporting that at least one parent drank with or without alcohol problems. Results are interpreted in light of where and how alcohol expectancies and other coping methods are learned. PMID:17658697
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review.
Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Kolls, Jay K.; de Wit, Marjolein
Physicians have recognized for more than a century that alcohol use is associated with infections and that alcoholics are especially at risk for pneumonia. Clear evidence now indicates that alcohol has a systemic effect on every organ. This review first presents a clinical case to describe a patient with immunity issues complicated by alcohol use—a setting familiar to many clinicians. This is followed by a description of the molecular mechanisms that explain the secondary immune deficiency produced by alcohol in the host, focusing mostly on the gut and lower respiratory mucosal immunity. The goal of this review is to increase awareness of the new mechanisms being investigated to understand how alcohol affects the human immune system and the development of new strategies to attenuate adverse outcomes in the affected population. PMID:26695743
Ma, Ke; Baloch, Zulqarnain; He, Ting-Ting; Xia, Xueshan
Background We sought to determine by meta-analysis the relationship between drinking alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. Material/Methods A systematic Medline search was performed to identify all published reports of drinking alcohol and the associated risk of gastric cancer. Initially we retrieved 2,494 studies, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis showed that alcohol consumption elevated the risk of gastric cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 (95% CI 1.20–1.61). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that only a nested case-control report from Sweden did not support this observation. Subgroup analysis of moderate drinking and heavy drinking also confirmed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of gastric cancer. Publication bias analysis (Begg’s and Egger’s tests) showed p values were more than 0.05, suggesting that the 10 articles included in our analysis did not have a publication bias. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of gastric cancer; suggesting that effective moderation of alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:28087989
Becker, Ulrik; Grønbaek, Morten; Johansen, Ditte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
Although there is a well-known relationship between total alcohol intake and future risk for cirrhosis, other factors such as the type of alcohol consumed are sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of wine compared with other types of alcoholic beverages on risk for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In 3 prospective studies, 30,630 participants from the Copenhagen area were followed-up for a total observation time of 417,325 person-years. Information on weekly intake of beer, wine, and spirits, and sex, age, body mass index, smoking habits, and education was obtained from questionnaires. The primary outcome measures were first admission or death, with alcohol-induced cirrhosis obtained from death certificates and from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Data were analyzed by means of multiplicative Poisson regression models. We confirmed the increasing risk for cirrhosis with increasing alcohol intake. Individuals who drank more than 5 drinks per day had a relative risk of 14 to 20 for developing cirrhosis compared with non- or light drinkers. However, compared with individuals who drank no wine (relative risk set at 1.0), individuals drinking 16% to 30% wine of their total intake had a relative risk of 0.4 (95% confidence limits, 0.3-0.6) and those drinking 51% or more of wine had a relative risk of 0.3 (95% confidence limits, 0.2-0.5) for developing cirrhosis. In conclusion, the results suggest that a high intake of all 3 types of alcohol conveys an increased risk for cirrhosis, but wine drinkers are at a lower risk than beer and spirits drinkers.
Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay
It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…
... Risk Reduction Program Plan (RRPP), which must include a Technology Implementation Plan and a Fatigue...: Public Hearings. The public hearing in Chicago will be held at the W Chicago City Center Hotel located at... the Doubletree Hotel located at 1515 Rhode Island Avenue, NW., in the Terrace Ballroom....
Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.
Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students' intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method: Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online.…
Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.
This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…
Eagles, C J; Martin, U
Smoking cessation (SC) is probably the single most important risk factor modification for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to stop smoking are highly cost effective. SC produces reductions in mortality and morbidity that generally outweigh any increase in risk due to weight gain, unless the gain is so great that it is accompanied by adverse changes in blood pressure, lipid profile or glucose tolerance. There is clear evidence that SC improves the lipid profile, decreases thrombotic tendency, reduces vascular endothelial damage and improves insulin sensitivity. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) with moderate alcohol consumption (showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day), but an increased risk at higher alcohol consumption levels. Potential mediators of these cardioprotective effects include an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased clotting propensity, enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and a possible lowering of blood pressure at low consumption levels in women. Alcohol consumption may not, however, compensate for the large increase in risk produced by smoking. Whereas moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduces the risk of death between the ages of 35 and 69 years, cigarette smoking approximately doubles the risk.
Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.
Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches
Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)
The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.
Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S
Many college women are at risk for pregnancy, and binge drinking college women are often at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Brief interventions with sustainable outcomes are needed, particularly for college women who are binge drinking, at risk for pregnancy, and at increased risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Two-hundred-twenty-eight women at a Mid-Atlantic urban university at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy enrolled in the randomized clinical trial, and 207 completed the 4 month follow-up. The BALANCE intervention used Motivational Interviewing plus feedback to target drinking and contraception behaviors. Main outcome measures included (1) the rate of risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, (2) the rate of risk drinking, and (3) the rate of pregnancy risk. At 4-month follow-up, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk was significantly lower in the intervention (20.2%) than the control condition (34.9%), (P < .02). Assignment to the intervention condition halved the odds of women remaining at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, while not receiving the intervention doubled the odds of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.16-4.09). A baseline history of blackouts, continued high blood alcohol drinking days at 1 month, and continued risk for pregnancy at 1 month independently contributed to a multivariate model of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk at 4 month follow-up. BALANCE reduced alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk, with similar outcomes to longer interventions. Because early response predicted sustained alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk reduction, those who fail to achieve initial change could be identified for further intervention. The BALANCE intervention could be adopted into existing student health or university alcohol programs. The risks of unintended pregnancy and alcohol-exposed pregnancy among binge drinking women in college merit greater prevention efforts.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.
Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549
Montag, Annika C
Fetal alcohol-spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disabilities caused by prenatal exposure to alcohol. To prevent or mitigate the costly effects of FASD, we must identify mothers at risk for having a child with FASD, so that we may reach them with interventions. Identifying mothers at risk is beneficial at all time points, whether prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, or following the birth of the child. In this review, three approaches to identifying mothers at risk are explored: using characteristics of the mother and her pregnancy, using laboratory biomarkers, and using self-report assessment of alcohol-consumption risk. At present, all approaches have serious limitations. Research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers and screening instruments, and to link them to outcomes as opposed to exposure. Universal self-report screening of all women of childbearing potential should ideally be incorporated into routine obstetric and gynecologic care, followed by brief interventions, including education and personalized feedback for all who consume alcohol, and referral to treatment as indicated. Effective biomarkers or combinations of biomarkers may be used during pregnancy and at birth to determine maternal and fetal alcohol exposure. The combination of self-report and biomarker screening may help identify a greater proportion of women at risk for having a child with FASD, allowing them to access information and treatment, and empowering them to make decisions that benefit their children. PMID:27499649
Rosett, H. L.; Weiner, L.
Heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy has been associated with retardation of fetal growth and abnormal fetal development. Pregnant women whose offspring are at risk because of alcohol abuse can be identified and counselled by health professional providing prenatal care. Offspring born to women who had been drinking heavily and subsequently abstained from or reduced their intake of alcohol before the third trimester demonstrated improvements in growth and in regulation of sleep-awake states. The existing health care delivery system can be modified in a cost-effective manner to treat pregnant women who are problem drinkers. Physicians' attitudes and behaviour are critical for the success of this strategy. PMID:7272865
Aguilar, Robert B. (Inventor); Huang, Zhaofeng (Inventor)
A process includes determining a probability of a failure mode of a system being analyzed reaching a failure limit as a function of time to failure limit, determining a probability of a mitigation of the failure mode as a function of a time to failure limit, and quantifying a risk reduction based on the probability of the failure mode reaching the failure limit and the probability of the mitigation.
Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.
The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.
Motto, Jerome A.
A current focus in evaluating suicide risk is the "clinical model" approach, which determines those factors associated with high risk for suicide. The sociological factors identified as estimators of suicide risk included impaired health, job instability, multiple unit residence, no change in living setting, and modest financial resources. (JAC)
Beasley, Jeannette M.; Coronado, Gloria D.; Livaudais, Jennifer; Angeles-Llerenas, Angélica; Ortega-Olvera, Carolina; Romieu, Isabelle; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela
BACKGROUND Little is known about the relationship between alcohol intake and breast cancer risk among Mexican women. This association may be modified by folate and Vitamin B12. METHODS A population-based case control study conducted in Mexico recruited 1000 incident breast cancer cases aged 35–69 and 1074 controls matched on age, region, and health care system. In-person interviews were conducted to assess breast cancer risk factors and recent diet using a food frequency questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression models estimated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS Over one-half (57%) of cases and less than one-half of controls (45%) reported any lifetime alcohol consumption. Compared with never drinkers, women reporting ever drinking (Adjusted OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.99–1.58) had a greater odds of breast cancer. There was evidence for interaction in the association between ever consuming any alcohol and breast cancer by folate (p for interaction=0.04) suggesting women with lower folate intake had a higher odds of breast cancer (Adjusted OR=1.99, 95% CI= 1.26–3.16) compared to women with higher folate intake (OR=1.12, 95% CI = 0.69–1.83). CONCLUSIONS Our findings support emerging evidence that any alcohol intake increases risk of breast cancer. Insufficient intake of folate may further elevate risk for developing breast cancer among women who consume alcohol. PMID:20155314
Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )
Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.
McCarty, Catherine A; Reding, Douglas J; Commins, John; Williams, Craig; Yeager, Meredith; Burmester, James K; Schairer, Catherine; Ziegler, Regina G
We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Subjects were women aged 55-74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers, and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3, and CYP2E1. The study included 1,041 incident breast cancer cases and 1,070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR > 1.34 and all lower CI > 1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction.
McCarty, Catherine A.; Reding, Douglas J.; Commins, John; Williams, Craig; Yeager, Meredith; Burmester, James K.; Schairer, Catherine; Ziegler, Regina G.
Background We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Methods Subjects were women aged 55–74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and CYP2E1. Results The study included 1041 incident breast cancer cases and 1070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake, (OR=2.01, 95% CL=1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR>1.34 and all lower CL >1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Conclusion Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Impact This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:22331481
Streissguth, Ann P; Bookstein, Fred L; Barr, Helen M; Sampson, Paul D; O'Malley, Kieran; Young, Julia Kogan
Clinical descriptions of patients with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) suggest major problems with adaptive behavior. Five operationally defined adverse outcomes and 18 associated risk/protective factors were examined using a Life History Interview with knowledgeable informants of 415 patients with FAS or FAE (median age 14 years, range 6-51; median IQ 86, range 29-126). Eighty percent of these patients were not raised by their biological mothers. For adolescents and adults, the life span prevalence was 61% for Disrupted School Experiences, 60% for Trouble with the Law, 50% for Confinement (in detention, jail, prison, or a psychiatric or alcohol/drug inpatient setting), 49% for Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors on repeated occasions, and 35% for Alcohol/Drug Problems. The odds of escaping these adverse life outcomes are increased 2- to 4-fold by receiving the diagnosis of FAS or FAE at an earlier age and by being reared in good stable environments.
As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the ISS requirements and initial design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to reduce risk -- given the determination and commitment to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS. While decades of work went into developing the ISS requirements, there are many things in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: (1) Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) (2) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Level 4 materials, emergency hardware and procedures) (3) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of nearly a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery.
Musa, Musa M; Ziegelmann-Fjeld, Karla I; Vieille, Claire; Zeikus, J Gregory; Phillips, Robert S
An enantioselective asymmetric reduction of phenyl ring-containing prochiral ketones to yield the corresponding optically active secondary alcohols was achieved with W110A secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (W110A TESADH) in Tris buffer using 2-propanol (30%, v/v) as cosolvent and cosubstrate. This concentration of 2-propanol was crucial not only to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic phenyl ring-containing substrates in the aqueous reaction medium, but also to shift the equilibrium in the reduction direction. The resulting alcohols have S-configuration, in agreement with Prelog's rule, in which the nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) cofactor transfers its pro-R hydride to the re face of the ketone. A series of phenyl ring-containing ketones, such as 4-phenyl-2-butanone (1a) and 1-phenyl-1,3-butadione (2a), were reduced with good to excellent yields and high enantioselectivities. On the other hand, 1-phenyl-2-propanone (7a) was reduced with lower ee than 2-butanone derivatives. (R)-Alcohols, the anti-Prelog products, were obtained by enantiospecific oxidation of (S)-alcohols through oxidative kinetic resolution of the rac-alcohols using W110A TESADH in Tris buffer/acetone (90:10, v/v).
Lee, Soo Joo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Kim, Jae Guk; Ko, Youngchai; Hong, Keun-Sik; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Han, Moon-Ku; Gorelick, Philip B.
Objective: We undertook a population-based, case-control study to examine a dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans who had different alcoholic beverage type preferences than Western populations and to examine the effect modifications by sex and ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: Cases (n = 1,848) were recruited from patients aged 20 years or older with first-ever ischemic stroke. Stroke-free controls (n = 3,589) were from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and were matched to the cases by age (±3 years), sex, and education level. All participants completed an interview using a structured questionnaire about alcohol intake. Results: Light to moderate alcohol intake, 3 or 4 drinks (1 drink = 10 g ethanol) per day, was significantly associated with a lower odds of ischemic stroke after adjusting for potential confounders (no drinks: reference; <1 drink: odds ratio 0.38, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.45; 1–2 drinks: 0.45, 0.36–0.57; and 3–4 drinks: 0.54, 0.39–0.74). The threshold of alcohol effect in women was slightly lower than that in men (up to 1–2 drinks in women vs up to 3–4 drinks in men), but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no statistical interaction between alcohol intake and the subtypes of ischemic stroke (p = 0.50). The most frequently used alcoholic beverage was one native to Korea, soju (78% of the cases), a distilled beverage with 20% ethanol by volume. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that light to moderate distilled alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in Koreans. PMID:26519539
Mumford, Elizabeth L; Kihm, Ulrich
Animal health is the crucial first part of the food chain and must be considered when developing the controls or preventative measures for an endemic or emerging zoonotic food-borne diseases. Increasing the number of complementary control measures at various points along the food processing chain results in overall risk reduction and improved safety of products for the domestic markets and trade. In addition, a risk assessment must be made and surveillance implemented. Measures require sufficient infrastructure within veterinary services, and must be controlled and re-evaluated periodically. The system must be communicated to stakeholders in order to improve compliance as well as confidence from domestic consumers, trading partners, and the international community. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and avian influenza (AI) can be used as examples for implementation of these control concepts.
Oliveira, Thiago Acosta; Koakoski, Gessi; Kreutz, Luiz Carlos; Ferreira, Daiane; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; de Abreu, Murilo Sander; Giacomini, Ana Cristina Vendrametto; Oliveira, Ricardo Pimentel; Fagundes, Michele; Piato, Angelo Luis; Barreto, Rodrigo Egydio; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil
The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.
Levey, D F; Le-Niculescu, H; Frank, J; Ayalew, M; Jain, N; Kirlin, B; Learman, R; Winiger, E; Rodd, Z; Shekhar, A; Schork, N; Kiefer, F; Kiefe, F; Wodarz, N; Müller-Myhsok, B; Dahmen, N; Nöthen, M; Sherva, R; Farrer, L; Smith, A H; Kranzler, H R; Rietschel, M; Gelernter, J; Niculescu, A B
We have used a translational Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG) approach to discover genes involved in alcoholism, by gene-level integration of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from a German alcohol dependence cohort with other genetic and gene expression data, from human and animal model studies, similar to our previous work in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value SNPs in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) was used to generate a genetic risk prediction score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0.053) in separating alcohol dependent individuals from controls in an independent German test cohort. We then validated and prioritized our top findings from this discovery work, and subsequently tested them in three independent cohorts, from two continents. A panel of all the nominally significant P-value single-nucleotide length polymorphisms (SNPs) in the top candidate genes discovered by CFG (n=135 genes, 713 SNPs) were used to generate a Genetic Risk Prediction Score (GRPS), which showed a trend towards significance (P=0.053) in separating alcohol-dependent individuals from controls in an independent German test cohort. In order to validate and prioritize the key genes that drive behavior without some of the pleiotropic environmental confounds present in humans, we used a stress-reactive animal model of alcoholism developed by our group, the D-box binding protein (DBP) knockout mouse, consistent with the surfeit of stress theory of addiction proposed by Koob and colleagues. A much smaller panel (n=11 genes, 66 SNPs) of the top CFG-discovered genes for alcoholism, cross-validated and prioritized by this stress-reactive animal model showed better predictive ability in the independent German test cohort (P=0.041). The top CFG scoring gene for alcoholism from the initial discovery step, synuclein alpha (SNCA) remained the top gene after the stress
Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei
The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to have earlier sexual initiation, younger age of involvement in the sex trade and were more vulnerable to sex under the influence of alcohol. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of problem drinking with both unprotected sex and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use in commercial sex shall be considered as an occupational hazard that requires immediate intervention. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the association between alcohol use and sexual risks among this most-at-risk population. PMID:23311906
Ghandour, Lilian; Chalak, Ali; El-Aily, Aida; Yassin, Nasser; Nakkash, Rima; Tauk, Mitra; El Salibi, Noura; Heffron, Meghan; Afifi, Rima
Alcohol is a recognized global risk factor for many diseases and injury types and a major contributor to disability and death. While cost-effective interventions do exist, many countries lack a comprehensive national alcohol harm reduction policy. The Arab world includes 22 diverse countries stretching from North Africa to Western Asia having varying dispositions with regards to alcohol sale and consumption. Epidemiological data is scattered and the picture on alcohol consumption remains blurry. This paper presents the findings of an extensive review conducted on all 22 Arab countries, specifically describing: (1) the density and methodology of alcohol-related peer-reviewed publications over the last two decades (1993-2013); (2) the epidemiology of alcohol consumption given all available data; and (3) the current status of policies in the region. Our search revealed a strikingly low number of alcohol-related peer-reviewed published studies - a total of 81 publications across 22 countries and two decades. Most studies are based on clinical or student samples. Where data is available, age of onset is low and drinking is frequent, in the absence of any available or enforced harm reduction policies. We submit that countries in the Arab region can be divided into four categories by alcohol ban and published data. One category includes countries where alcohol is not banned but data is absent, suggesting an ostrich-like response to a controversial behavior, or reflecting a weak research infrastructure and/or policy landscape. Evidence-informed recommendations and future directions for policy and research are discussed and tailored to countries' current stance on alcohol legislation and consumption. Given the particular vulnerability of youth to uptake of alcohol as well as the resulting short and long term consequences, the paper concludes by focusing on the implications of the findings for youth alcohol harm reduction.
Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F
We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.
Taffe, Michael A; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Crean, Rebecca D; Crawford, Elena F; Edwards, Scott; Mandyam, Chitra D
Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics.
Onishi, Yasuharu; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Hori, Tomohide; Kishi, Shinichi; Kamei, Hideya; Kurata, Nobuhiko; Tsuboi, Chisato; Yamaguchi, Naoko; Takahashi, Mayu; Sunada, Saki; Hirano, Mitsuaki; Fujishiro, Hiroshige; Okada, Takashi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Goto, Hidemi; Ozaki, Norio; Ogura, Yasuhiro
AIM To investigate factors, including psychosocial factors, associated with alcoholic use relapse after liver transplantation (LT) for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS The clinical records of 102 patients with ALD who were referred to Nagoya University Hospital for LT between May 2003 and March 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. History of alcohol intake was obtained from their clinical records and scored according to the High-Risk Alcoholism Relapse scale, which includes duration of heavy drinking, types and amount of alcohol usually consumed, and previous inpatient treatment history for alcoholism. All patients were assessed for eligibility for LT according to comprehensive criteria, including Child-Pugh score, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and psychosocial criteria. RESULTS Of the 102 patients with ALD referred for LT, seven (6.9%) underwent LT. One (14.3%) of these seven patients returned to heavy drinking, but that patient was able to successfully quit drinking following an immediate intervention, consisting of psychotherapeutic education and supportive psychotherapy, by a psychiatrist. A comparison between the transplantation/registration (T/R) group, consisting of the seven patients who underwent LT and 10 patients listed for deceased donor LT, and 50 patients who did not undergo LT and were not listed for deceased donor LT (non-T/R group), showed statistically significant differences in duration of abstinence period (P < 0.01), duration of heavy drinking (P < 0.05), adherence to medical treatment (P < 0.01), and declaration of abstinence (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Patients with ALD referred for LT require comprehensive evaluation, including evaluation of psychosocial criteria, to prevent alcoholic recidivism. PMID:28223731
Schlager, S; Neugebauer, H; Haberbauer, M; Hinterberger, G; Sariciftci, N S
Modified electrodes using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase enzymes for the efficient electroreduction of butyraldehyde to butanol are presented as an important step for the utilization of CO2-reduction products. Alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized, embedded in an alginate–silicate hybrid gel, on a carbon felt (CF) electrode. The application of this enzyme to the reduction of an aldehyde to an alcohol with the aid of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), in analogy to the final step in the natural reduction cascade of CO2 to alcohol, has been already reported. However, the use of such enzymatic reductions is limited because of the necessity of providing expensive NADH as a sacrificial electron and proton donor. Immobilization of such dehydrogenase enzymes on electrodes and direct pumping of electrons into the biocatalysts offers an easy and efficient way for the biochemical recycling of CO2 to valuable chemicals or alternative synthetic fuels. We report the direct electrochemical addressing of immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase for the reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol without consumption of NADH. The selective reduction of butyraldehyde to butanol occurs at room temperature, ambient pressure and neutral pH. Production of butanol was detected by using liquid-injection gas chromatography and was estimated to occur with Faradaic efficiencies of around 40 %. PMID:26113881
This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.
Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sunfu; Song, Yanlin; Ma, Guangzhi; Meng, Yu; Ye, Zengpanpan; Ma, Xuelei; Liu, Ming
Abstract Background: The association between facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between facial flushing and cancer risk. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature. The patients’ baseline characteristics and estimated risks were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the risk of facial flushing in cancer, and subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Ten studies with 89,376 participants from East Asia were included. The pooled OR of facial flushing in all cancers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08–1.91), with the pooled ORs of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.33–2.83) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80–1.12) in men and women, respectively. The pooled ORs were also estimated in different cancer types. Conclusion: Our results showed that facial flushing response to alcohol was associated with higher cancer risk in men in East Asia, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, yet facial flushing was not significantly associated with cancer risk among women. PMID:28353603
Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen
The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…
Harisharan; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Dangal, Nidhu Ram; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Joshi, Ashish
Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most critical medical emergency and contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of coronary heart disease and leading cause of premature death. Past century has seen substantial advancement in the field of medical sciences but still mortality trends due to myocardial infarction is increasing in developing countries including India. We have conducted this study to compare the Sociodemographic characteristics of alcoholic and non alcoholic MI patients admitted in coronary care unit of Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Methods: An exploratory cross sectional study was performed by enrolling a convenient sample of 100 Myocardial Infarction patients. Information about Sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history, alcohol and tobacco intake, physical activity, psychological stress and biochemical measurements was gathered. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 46 (SD=6) years and majority of them were male i.e. 82%. 100% married and 89% literate, there were 24% past and 22% present alcoholics. Consumption of alcohol on a monthly, weekly and daily basis was 8%, 11% and 5% respectively. Preference to brandy was 67%, rum was 21% and that the beer was 12%. Current smoker were 20% and former were 11%. 93% and 52% respondents were under medication of beta blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors respectively. Conclusion: Worldwide, MI is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity and hence early diagnosis and management is most essential. Results from our study revealed that, participants had sedentary lifestyles where risk factors of MI such as alcohol consumption, and smoking does existed. PMID:26234988
Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de
The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life.
Kawagoe, Julia Y; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle; Siqueira, Itacy; Correa, Luci
The antibacterial efficacy of three alcohol-based products (liquid and gel) were tested on the hands with blood and contaminated with Serratia marcescens (ATCC 14756), using EN 1500 procedures in 14 healthy volunteers. The alcohol-based products tested, either gel or liquid-based, reached bacterial reduction levels higher than 99.9% in the presence of blood and did not differ significantly (ANOVA test; P = 0.614).
Probst, Charlotte; Simbayi, Leickness C; Parry, Charles D H; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen
The present study investigated the associations among alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in the South African context. It was hypothesized that SES (predictor; measured as median split asset score) and alcohol use in the past 12 months (predictor) would interact such that current drinkers of low SES would be at an increased risk of testing HIV-positive (outcome). Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from 2005 (N = 16,110), 2008 (N = 13,055), and 2012 (N = 25,979) were analyzed using multinomial regression models. Current drinkers of low SES had an elevated risk of HIV infection in all survey years, ranging from a relative risk ratio (RRR) of 1.94 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.00, t = 2.93, p = 0.002) in 2012 to RRR of 3.51 (95% CI 2.02-6.08, t = 4.47, p < 0.001) in 2008. Targeting preventive strategies to alcohol users of low SES could help reduce HIV burden and associated socioeconomic differences.
Bonar, Erin E.; Hoffmann, Erica; Rosenberg, Harold; Kryszak, Elizabeth; Young, Kathleen M.; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Kraus, Shane W.; Bannon, Erin E.
Objective To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new self-report questionnaire designed to assess college students’ intentions to employ 31 specific alcohol-reduction strategies. Method Students attending a large public university were recruited to complete alcohol-reduction, drinking history, and personality questionnaires online. Results Based on item-total correlations and principal components analysis, we eliminated three items and calculated average intention ratings across the remaining 28 items. The resulting scale had appropriate unidimensionality and excellent internal consistency. Correlations of intention questionnaire scores with measures of drinking history, alcohol outcome expectancies, sensation seeking, and impression management provided some support for criterion and discriminant validity of the questionnaire. Conclusion This questionnaire could be employed as an outcome measure to evaluate prevention programs and as a clinical tool to identify clients who have little intention to employ drinking reduction strategies in heavy drinking situations. PMID:22686362
Dyer, Scott D; Sanderson, Hans; Waite, Scott W; Van Compernolle, Remi; Price, Bradford; Nielsen, Allen M; Evans, Alex; Decarvalho, Alvaro J; Hooton, Dennis J; Sherren, Andrew J
A feasible and relatively readily available analytical method was adapted for the assessment of alcohol ethoxylates (AE) and fatty alcohols (FA) in sediments. This study illustrates the simultaneous measurement of 38 of 114 possible alcohol ethoxylate ethoxymers (AE) and fatty alcohols (FA) found in commercially important AE products. We predicted toxicity for all identified fractions, as well as the total mixture toxicity, relative to three exposure scenarios via sewage treatment plants (STP) for these widely used chemicals in consumer products and hence generate a preliminary environmental risk screening for AE and FA in sediments. The method is based on derivatization of solvent or solid-phase extracts with 2-fluoro-N-methylpyridinium p-toluenesulfonate (Pyr+). The derivatized extracts were analyzed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) operating in the positive ion electrospray mode. The extraction efficiency of AE and FA in three different sediments of varying composition was evaluated with spike-recovery studies, ranging from 64% to 80%. The detection limits for individual ethoxymers typically ranged from 1 to 5 ngg(-1)on a dry weight basis. The mean limit of detection (LOD) was 6 ngg(-1)and the median LOD was 3 ngg(-1). AE and FA in sediments were found to be stable for two weeks if preserved with 3% (v/v) formalin and stored at 4-6( composite function)C. Based on equilibrium partitioning, background concentrations of AE and FA were predicted to be below concentrations known to elicit chronically toxic effects. Total worst case mixture toxicities for all AE ethoxymers combined with FA were predicted to result in a risk quotient less than 0.6. Activated sludge treatment (STP) significantly reduced the release of total AE and FA by four-fold, suggesting that the total mixture risk quotient would be < 0.15 for sediment dependent organisms.
Leedy, Melissa J.; Leffingwell, Thad R.
The purpose of this study was to develop a new measure of incidental behaviors that put college students at increased risk of legal consequences while using alcohol, the Legal Risk Behaviors while using Alcohol (LRBA) scale. Two hundred and twenty one college students who used alcohol were recruited to complete an online study about their use of…
Panadero, Sonia; Vázquez, José Juan; Martín, Rosa María
The work analyzes different aspects related to alcohol consumption among homeless people and people at risk of social exclusion. The data was gathered from a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 188) and a sample of people at risk of social exclusion (n = 164) matched in sex, age, and origin (Spaniards vs. foreigners). The results showed that homeless people present a greater consumption of alcohol and have experienced more problems derived from its consumption than people at risk of social exclusion. Most of the homeless people who had alcohol-related problems had had them prior to their homelessness, and they stated they had poorer health and had experienced a greater number of homelessness episodes. Despite the relevance of problems related to alcohol among our sample, only a small percentage of the sample had participated in treatment programs for alcohol consumption.
Grant, Sean; Watkins, Katherine E.; Bogart, Andy; Paddock, Susan M.; Hepner, Kimberly A.
Background This study assessed patient-reported alcohol treatment offers by healthcare providers following routine annual screening for alcohol use in primary care. Methods A telephone interview within 30 days of the annual screen assessed demographics, alcohol and other drug use, mental health symptoms, and offers of formal treatment for alcohol by a VA healthcare provider. We included male patients (n = 349) at high-risk for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) who had not received alcohol treatment in the past three months. We assessed self-reported receipt of any offers of formal treatment for alcohol, and associations of offer of formal treatment for alcohol with demographic and clinical variables. Results 145 (41.5%) patients reported an offer of at least one type of formal treatment for alcohol. More severe alcohol misuse (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.11) and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99) were associated with reporting an offer of formal treatment. Discussion Most primary care patients at high-risk for an AUD were not offered treatment following an annual screening. Our results highlight the importance of training primary care providers in what constitutes appropriate medical treatment for this population and the most effective ways of making a treatment offer. PMID:28076250
Chamlin, Mitchell B.; Andreev, Evgeny
Objectives. We took advantage of a natural experiment to assess the impact on suicide mortality of a suite of Russian alcohol policies. Methods. We obtained suicide counts from anonymous death records collected by the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) interrupted time series techniques to model the effect of the alcohol policy (implemented in January 2006) on monthly male and female suicide counts between January 2000 and December 2010. Results. Monthly male and female suicide counts decreased during the period under study. Although the ARIMA analysis showed no impact of the policy on female suicide mortality, the results revealed an immediate and permanent reduction of about 9% in male suicides (Ln ω0 = −0.096; P = .01). Conclusions. Despite a recent decrease in mortality, rates of alcohol consumption and suicide in Russia remain among the highest in the world. Our analysis revealed that the 2006 alcohol policy in Russia led to a 9% reduction in male suicide mortality, meaning the policy was responsible for saving 4000 male lives annually that would otherwise have been lost to suicide. Together with recent similar findings elsewhere, our results suggest an important role for public health and other population level interventions, including alcohol policy, in reducing alcohol-related harm. PMID:24028249
Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.
A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…
Nargiso, Jessica E.; Friend, Karen; Florin, Paul
This study examines the relationship between peer, family, and community context risk factors and alcohol use; gender is examined as a potential moderator of these relationships. Hierarchical logistic regressions conducted in a sample of 781 seventh grade students found that normative beliefs about peers' alcohol use emerged as the most consistent…
Plag, H.; Jules-Plag, S.
Mega disasters associated with extreme natural hazards have the potential to escalate the global sustainability crisis and put us close to the boundaries of the safe operating space for humanity. Floods and droughts are major threats that potentially could reach planetary extent, particularly through secondary economic and social impacts. Earthquakes and tsunamis frequently cause disasters that eventually could exceed the immediate coping capacity of the global economy, particularly since we have built mega cities in hazardous areas that are now ready to be harvested by natural hazards. Unfortunately, the more we learn to cope with the relatively frequent hazards (50 to 100 years events), the less we are worried about the low-probability, high-impact events (a few hundred and more years events). As a consequence, threats from the 500 years flood, drought, volcano eruption are not appropriately accounted for in disaster risk reduction (DRR) discussions. Extreme geohazards have occurred regularly throughout the past, but mostly did not cause major disasters because exposure of human assets to hazards was much lower in the past. The most extreme events that occurred during the last 2,000 years would today cause unparalleled damage on a global scale and could worsen the sustainability crisis. Simulation of these extreme hazards under present conditions can help to assess the disaster risk. Recent extreme earthquakes have illustrated the destruction they can inflict, both directly and indirectly through tsunamis. Large volcano eruptions have the potential to impact climate, anthropogenic infrastructure and resource supplies on global scale. During the last 2,000 years several large volcano eruptions occurred, which under today's conditions are associated with extreme disaster risk. The comparison of earthquakes and volcano eruptions indicates that large volcano eruptions are the low-probability geohazards with potentially the highest impact on our civilization
Lozano, Brian E; Stephens, Robert S
The effects of setting goals on goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and goal achievement in the context of an alcohol use intervention were examined using an experimental design in which participants were randomized to participatively set goals, assigned goals, and no goal conditions. One hundred and twenty-six heavy-drinking college students received a single cognitive-behavioral assessment/intervention session and completed measures of goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and alcohol use. Results were consistent with, and expanded upon, previous research by demonstrating that having a goal for limiting alcohol consumption was predictive of lower quantity and frequency of alcohol use relative to not having a goal. Participation in goal setting yielded greater goal commitment and self-efficacy for goal achievement than assigned goals, but did not result in significantly greater reductions in alcohol use relative to assigned goals. Goal commitment and self-efficacy explained unique variance in the prediction of alcohol use at follow-up. Findings support the importance of goal setting in alcohol interventions and suggest areas for further research.
Li, Le; Herzon, Seth B
The regioselective reductive hydration of terminal alkynes using two complementary dual catalytic systems is described. Branched or linear alcohols are obtained in 75-96% yield with ≥25:1 regioselectivity from the same starting materials. The method is compatible with terminal, di-, and trisubstituted alkenes. This reductive hydration constitutes a strategic surrogate to alkene oxyfunctionalization and may be of utility in multistep settings.
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
Auguet, Teresa; Vidal, Francesc; Broch, Montserrat; Olona, Montserrat; Aguilar, Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; López-Dupla, Miguel; Quer, Joan-Carles; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Richart, Cristóbal
Controversy surrounds the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter on the risk for alcoholic liver disease. Our aim was to determine whether the SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter are associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and for alcoholic liver disease in male Spaniards. The -627 C>A SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter was assessed in a cohort of 344 Caucasian Spanish men, 168 alcoholics, and 176 nonalcoholics. The alcoholic group comprised 79 individuals without liver histopathologic abnormalities and 89 patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The nonalcoholic group was made of 62 healthy controls and 114 patients with chronic nonalcoholic liver disease. Genotyping was performed using PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by using the chi(2) test. Overall, no differences in either genotype and allele distribution was observed when comparing the four patient categories defined (P=0.62 and P=0.33, respectively). Subset analyses showed no differences in the genotype and allele distributions between all alcoholic and all nonalcoholic subjects (P=0.55 and P=0.29, respectively). This study failed to detect significant associations of the IL-10 -627C>A SNP and alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease in a cohort of Caucasian male Spaniards.
JOHNSON, MARK B.; VOAS, ROBERT B.; KELLEY-BAKER, TARA; FURR-HOLDEN, C. DEBRA M.
Objective We examined the effect of providing drinkers with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) information on subjective assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk. Method We sampled 959 drinking participants from a natural drinking environment and asked them to self-administer a personal saliva-based alcohol test. Participants then were asked to rate their alcohol impairment and to indicate whether they could drive legally under one of four BAC feedback conditions (assigned at random): (1) control condition (no BAC feedback provided before the ratings); (2) categorical BAC information (low, high, and highest risk) from the saliva test; (3) categorical BAC information corroborated by a calibrated police breath alcohol analyzer; and (4) precise (three-digit) BAC information from the breath alcohol analyzer. Results Both control participants and participants who received precise BAC feedback gave subjective impairment ratings that correlated with actual BACs. For participants who received categorical BAC information from the saliva test, subjective impairment did not correlate with the actual BAC. Providing drinkers with BAC information, however, did help them predict more accurately if their BAC was higher than the legal BAC driving limit. Conclusions Although BAC information can influence drinkers’ assessments of alcohol impairment and drunk-driving risk, there is no strong evidence that personal saliva-based alcohol tests are particularly useful. PMID:18612570
Harrison, Donald C.; Winston, Mary
Continued and expanded efforts to educate people as to what factors contribute to coronary heart disease will help to decrease its occurrence. Risk factors include: cholesterol, smoking, hypertension, obesity, heredity, psychological influences, and the taking of oral contraceptives or alcohol. (CJ)
Leslie, Maryann; St. Pierre, Richard W.
Examines risk factors for osteoporosis that are especially relevant to the college health setting, focusing on bone development, inadequate calcium and vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking and alcohol use, steroid use and high protein diets, and physical inactivity and excessive exercise. Also presents intervention strategies for college health…
McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B
The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions.
Teens with disabilities need information about risk topics such as addiction, abuse, sex, and delinquency to make healthy choices as they participate in mainstream society. This article presents questionnaire-based information provided by special educators in secondary schools about their efforts, limitations, and needs in providing risk reduction…
McAdoo, B. G.; Bryner, V.
Disaster risk is acutely high in many emerging economies due to a combination of geophysical hazards and social and ecological vulnerabilities. The risk associated with natural hazards can be a critical component of a nation's wealth, hence knowledge of these hazards will affect foreign investment in these emergent economies. On the hazard side of the risk profile, geophysicists research the frequency and magnitude of the extant hazards. These geophysicists, both local and foreign, have a responsibility to communicate these risks in the public sphere - whether they are through the mass media, or in personal conversations. Because of this implicit responsibility, it is incumbent upon geophysicists to understand the overall risk, not just the hazards. When it comes to communicating these risks, local scientists are often more effective because they speak the language, understand the social context, and are often connected to various modes of communication unavailable to foreign researchers. Investment in multidisciplinary undergraduate education is critical, as is training of established local scientists in understanding the complexities of risk assessment as well as communicating these risks effectively to broad audiences. Onagawa, Japan. 2011.
Wray, Tyler B.; Celio, Mark A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Operario, Don; Monti, Peter M.
Background Global association and experimental studies suggest that alcohol use may increase sexual behavior that poses risk for exposure to sexually-transmitted infections (STI) among heterosexual men and women. However, results from longitudinal and daily recall studies exploring the co-occurrence of alcohol use with various sexual risk outcomes in more naturalistic contexts have been mixed, and the bulk of this research has focused on college students. Methods The current study enrolled heavy-drinking emergency department (ED) patients and used a cross-sectional, 30-day Timeline Followback (TLFB) method to examine the daily co-occurrence between alcohol use and three sexual behavior outcomes: Any sex, unprotected intercourse (UI), and UI with casual partners (vs. protected intercourse [PI] with casual partners, or UI/PI with steady partners). Results Results indicated that increasing levels of alcohol use on a given day increased the odds of engaging in any sexual activity and that heavy drinking (but not very heavy drinking) on a given day was associated with an increased odds of engaging in UI with either steady or casual partners. However, day-level alcohol use was not associated with an increased odds of UI with casual partners. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol may play an important role in increasing risk for HIV/STIs among heterosexuals, and support the continued need to target heavy drinking in sex risk reduction interventions. However, our results also suggest that alcohol may not universally result in unprotected sex with casual partners, a behavior posing perhaps the highest risk for HIV/STI transmission. PMID:25962789
Pietras, Cynthia J.; Cherek, Don R.; Lane, Scott D.; Tcheremissine, Oleg
Two experiments investigated choice in adult humans on a simulated cooperation task to evaluate a risk-reduction account of sharing based on the energy-budget rule. The energy-budget rule is an optimal foraging model that predicts risk-averse choices when net energy gains exceed energy requirements (positive energy budget) and risk-prone choices…
Svensson, Thomas; Yamaji, Taiki; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro
The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary secondary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two pathways related to alcohol intake. 375 cases of CRC were identified among 38 373 Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) participants who had returned a baseline questionnaire, reported no diagnosis of any cancer and provided blood samples. For each case, two controls were selected on matching variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine matched Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways (e.g. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133) and CRC risk. Compared to never/occasional alcohol intake, moderate to heavy alcohol intake was associated with CRC (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.34–3.36). When compared to the CC genotype, the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with CRC (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54–0.97). Never/occasional consumers of alcohol with the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype were also at a reduced risk of CRC compared to never/occasional drinkers with the CC genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47–0.98) (P for interaction = 0.27). The results indicate that the folate pathway is likely to be involved in alcohol-related CRC development. PMID:27827401
Risk management has received considerable attention in the X-33 and Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) program due to aggressive schedules, limited funding. and planned private investment to develop the commercial VentureStar vehicle. As an X-33 and RLV team member and main propulsion supplier, Boeing Rocketdyn Propulsion and Power has addressed risk through a methodical application of systems engineering in identifying, assessing, and mitigating risks. The methods employed involve rigorous risk mitigation planning early in development, continuous risk monitoring and assessment during the course of development, and the systematic verification of compliance with technical requirements prior to delivery. In addition, an engine system reliability analysis was conducted to reduce risk. In July 1996, NASA selected Lockheed Martin's "Skunk Works" (LMSW) as the lead contractor for the X-33 and RLV program. The X-33 vehicle is a half-scale pathfinder for the full-scale RLV. The LMSW RLV design is a lifting body shaped vehicle employing linear aerospike engine provided propulsion. The initial X-33 flight is planned for the summer of 2000, and the initial VentureStar flight is planned for between 2005 and 2007.
Reich, T; Edenberg, H J; Goate, A; Williams, J T; Rice, J P; Van Eerdewegh, P; Foroud, T; Hesselbrock, V; Schuckit, M A; Bucholz, K; Porjesz, B; Li, T K; Conneally, P M; Nurnberger, J I; Tischfield, J A; Crowe, R R; Cloninger, C R; Wu, W; Shears, S; Carr, K; Crose, C; Willig, C; Begleiter, H
Alcohol dependence is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. Several lines of evidence suggest a substantial genetic component to the risk for alcoholism: sibs of alcoholic probands have a 3-8 fold increased risk of also developing alcoholism, and twin heritability estimates of 50-60% are reported by contemporary studies of twins. We report on the results of a six-center collaborative study to identify susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence. A genome-wide screen examined 291 markers in 987 individuals from 105 families. Two-point and multipoint nonparametric linkage analyses were performed to detect susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence. Multipoint methods provided the strongest suggestions of linkage with susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence on chromosomes 1 and 7, and more modest evidence for a locus on chromosome 2. In addition, there was suggestive evidence for a protective locus on chromosome 4 near the alcohol dehydrogenase genes, for which protective effects have been reported in Asian populations.
Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Mittleman, Murray
This paper reports a case-crossover analysis in a sample of 961 patients who consulted the emergency department (ED) due to an injury in Santa Clara, California, and in Pachuca, Mexico. In the analysis in which usual alcohol consumption during the last 12 months served as the control value, the estimated relative risk of injury in the hour after alcohol consumption, as compared with no alcohol consumption during that time, was 4.33 (CI, 3.55-5.27). After controlling for alcohol use in the 1-h period before injury, the relative risks for consecutive 1-h periods (2-6 h) before the injury were not significantly greater than one, indicating that the induction time was less than 1 h. The relative risk varied greatly depending on race-ethnicity and acculturation among the Hispanics in Santa Clara, with Mexicans in Pachuca showing the highest risk and the high acculturation group in Santa Clara showing the lowest risk. Violence-related injuries were associated with higher relative risk. Relative risk also varied depending on the presence of alcohol dependence and usual frequency of drunkenness: patients with alcohol dependence and patients with high frequency of usual drunkenness had lower risks than patients without alcohol dependence and with lower self-reported episodes of drunkenness in the last year. When blood alcohol content at ED admission was used instead of self-reported alcohol consumption, similar results were obtained. These findings have important public health consequences. Each episode of alcohol consumption results in an increase in the short-term risk for an injury, especially for a violence-related injury. Patients with the lowest usual involvement with alcohol are subject to a higher elevation in their risk for an injury immediately after alcohol consumption compared to patients who drink more heavily.
Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S
Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects.
NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated
Luethge, Denise J.
The study abroad program (SAP) meets the criteria of a risky purchase, namely of being non-tangible, possessing hidden qualities, being expensive and cannot being able to be tested prior to purchase. In fact, SAPs may score highly on a number of risk components, especially financial risk (expensive), psychological risk (anxiety), physical risk…
Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Li, Ying; Zhou, Honggeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Cao, Xiongfei; Kataev, Mikhail Yu; Li, Ling
The advances in mobile technologies enable us to consume or even provide services through powerful mobile devices anytime and anywhere. Services running on mobile devices within limited range can be composed to coordinate together through wireless communication technologies and perform complex tasks. However, the mobility of users and devices in mobile environment imposes high risk on the execution of the tasks. This paper targets reducing this risk by constructing a dependable service composition after considering the mobility of both service requesters and providers. It first proposes a risk model and clarifies the risk of mobile service composition; and then proposes a service composition approach by modifying the simulated annealing algorithm. Our objective is to form a service composition by selecting mobile services under the mobility model and to ensure the service composition have the best quality of service and the lowest risk. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can yield near-optimal solutions and has a nearly linear complexity with respect to a problem size.
Balashov, R. B.; Kryanev, A. V.; Sliva, D. E.
The paper presents a mathematical model of efficient portfolio formation in the reinsurance markets. The presented approach provides the optimal ratio between the expected value of return and the risk of yield values below a certain level. The uncertainty in the return values is conditioned by use of expert evaluations and preliminary calculations, which result in expected return values and the corresponding risk levels. The proposed method allows for implementation of computationally simple schemes and algorithms for numerical calculation of the numerical structure of the efficient portfolios of reinsurance contracts of a given insurance company.
Grady, Anthony; Gersonius, Berry; Makarigakis, Alexandros
The Sendai Framework, which outlines the global course on disaster risk reduction until 2030, places strong importance on the role of local government in disaster risk reduction. An aim of decentralization is to increase the influence and authority of local government in decision making. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence of the extent, character and effects of decentralization in current disaster risk reduction implementation, and of the barriers that are most critical to this. This paper evaluates decentralization in relation to disaster risk reduction in Indonesia, chosen for its recent actions to decentralize governance of DRR coupled with a high level of disaster risk. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the various dimensions of decentralized disaster risk reduction, which necessitated the use of a desk study, semi-structured interviews and a gap analysis. Key barriers to implementation in Indonesia included: capacity gaps at lower institutional levels, low compliance with legislation, disconnected policies, issues in communication and coordination and inadequate resourcing. However, any of these barriers are not unique to disaster risk reduction, and similar barriers have been observed for decentralization in other developing countries in other public sectors.
The third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction ended with an agreement lacking ambition. The conference showed that better communication between the scientific community and decision-makers is needed to develop informed frameworks.
Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; McKee, Sherry A.
Background Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Method Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves I (2001–2002) and II (2004–2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Results Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among non-smokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Conclusions Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette
... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Cain, Demetria; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Kalichman, Seth C.
Background Shebeens in South Africa are settings in which alcohol use and sexual behavior often co-occur. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and the association between AUD, situations and settings, and sexual risk behavior, in shebeens remains unknown. Methods Men (n = 763; mean age = 30; 98% Black African) were recruited from townships in Cape Town, South Africa and completed a self-administered survey that assessed alcohol use, sexual risk behaviors, and situations and settings of alcohol use. The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSV-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV) was used to identify the likelihood of AUD. Bivariate regression analyses assessed whether screening for AUD predicted sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate regression analyses examined whether AUD and/or situations/settings predicted risk behaviors. Results Nearly two-thirds of men (62%) endorsed sufficient criteria for AUD; 25%, 17%, and 20% were classified as having a mild, moderate, or severe AUD, respectively. AUD was associated with HIV risk such that men with AUD reported more unprotected sex than men without AUD. Analyses indicated that (a) individual (i.e., AUD) and (b) settings (i.e., frequency of having sex with a partner in a shebeen, tavern, or bottle store) interacted to predict unprotected sex. Conclusions The prevalence of AUD among shebeen patrons was high and was associated with unprotected sex. Findings suggest the need to integrate both individual and situational/setting factors to prevent HIV among patrons of shebeens. PMID:24854966
Objective and Methods: This review examines epidemiological evidence relating to cancers in the primary aluminum industry where most of what is known relates to Söderberg operations or to mixed Söderberg/prebake operations. Results and Conclusions: Increased lung and bladder cancer risks have been reported in Söderberg workers from several countries, but not in all. After adjustment for smoking, these cancer risks still increase with cumulative exposure to benzo(a)pyrene, used as an index of coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. Limited evidence has been gathered in several cohorts for an increased risk of tumors at other sites, including stomach, pancreas, rectum/rectosigmoid junction, larynx, buccal cavity/pharynx, kidney, brain/nervous system, prostate, and lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues (in particular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin disease, and leukemia). Nevertheless, for most of these tumor sites, the relationship with specific exposures has not been demonstrated clearly and further follow-up of workers is warranted. PMID:24806725
Airbursts are events in which small (meters to tens-of-meters in diameter) asteroids deposit most of their energy in the atmosphere with a total energy greater than small nuclear explosions (>0.1 kilotons of TNT). The airburst risk is higher than previous assessments for two reasons. First, they are more frequent than previously thought. The Tunguska-class (~40 meters) population estimate has doubled, and Chelyabinsk-class (~20 meters) has increased by a factor of 2.6. Second, asteroid airbursts are significantly more damaging than previously assumed. In most cases, they more efficiently couple energy to the surface than nuclear explosions of the same yield. Past Near-Earth Object (NEO) risk assessments concluded that the largest asteroids (> 1 km) dominated the hazard. Large NEOs represent only a tiny fraction of the population but the potential for global catastrophe means that the contribution from low-probability, high-consequence events is large. Nearly 90% of these objects, none of which is on a collision course, have been catalogued. This has reduced their assessed near-term statistical risk by more than an order of magnitude because completion is highest for the largest and most dangerous. The relative risk from small objects would therefore be increasing even if their absolute assessed risk were not. Uncertainty in the number of small NEOs remains large and can only be reduced by expanded surveys. One strategy would be to count small NEOs making close passes in statistically significant numbers. For example, there are about 25 times as many objects of a given size that pass within the distance of geosynchronous orbit than collide with the earth, and 2000 times as many pass within a lunar distance (accounting for gravitational focusing). An asteroid the size of the Chelyabinsk impactor (~20 m) could potentially be observed within geosynchronous orbit every two years and within lunar orbit nearly once a week. A Tunguska-sized asteroid (~40 m) passes within a
Loiselle, Marci; Fuqua, Wayne R.
Researchers have established that alcohol is a risk factor for date rape for both victims and perpetrators. Objective: The authors tried to experimentally address the link between alcohol consumption and women's risk detection abilities in a risky sexual vignette. Participants: The authors recruited 42 women from undergraduate classrooms at a…
Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis
High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…
Ren, Lin-Lin; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Fang, Jing-Yuan
Several studies have been proposed to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature to clarify the relationship between them. In our study, twenty eligible cohort studies involving 42925 participants were identified. Combined relative risk (RR) ratios for the highest versus lowest alcohol consumption levels were calculated. The alcohol dose-response analysis was performed to investigate the association between the increment consumption of 10 g/d alcohol and the risk of developing BE. Subgroup analyses were used to examine heterogeneity across the studies. A combined RR of 0.98 (0.62–1.34) was found when comparing highest vs. lowest alcohol consumption levels for BE. An inverse association between alcohol and incidence of BE (RR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.055–0.96) was demonstrated in women. Moreover, Asian drinkers had a relative higher risk of BE (RR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11–1.56) compared with Western drinkers. In conclusion, our results showed that overall alcohol consumption was not associated with increased BE incidence. The limited data available on alcohol consumption supports a tentative inversion of alcohol consumption with BE risk in women, while Asian drinkers tend to have a higher risk of BE. PMID:26542211
Ingersoll, Karen S; Ceperich, Sherry D; Hettema, Jennifer E; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Penberthy, J Kim
Alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a leading cause of preventable birth defects. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that multi-session motivational interviewing-based interventions reduce AEP risk, a one-session intervention could facilitate broader implementation. The purposes of this study were to: (1) test a one-session motivational AEP prevention intervention for community women and (2) compare outcomes to previous RCTs. Participants at risk for AEP (N=217) were randomized to motivational interviewing+assessment feedback (EARLY), informational video, or informational brochure conditions. Outcomes were drinks per drinking day (DDD), ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk at 3 and 6 months. All interventions were associated with decreased DDD, ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk. Participants who received EARLY had larger absolute risk reductions in ineffective contraception and AEP risk, but not DDD. Effect sizes were compared to previous RCTs. The one-session EARLY intervention had less powerful effects than multi-session AEP prevention interventions among community women, but may provide a new option in a continuum of preventive care.
A small but growing number of studies have aimed to understand, assess and reduce existential risks, or risks that threaten the continued existence of mankind. However, most attention has been focused on known and tangible risks. This paper proposes a heuristic for reducing the risk of black swan extinction events. These events are, as the name suggests, stochastic and unforeseen when they happen. Decision theory based on a fixed model of possible outcomes cannot properly deal with this kind of event. Neither can probabilistic risk analysis. This paper will argue that the approach that is referred to as engineering safety could be applied to reducing the risk from black swan extinction events. It will also propose a conceptual sketch of how such a strategy may be implemented: isolated, self-sufficient, and continuously manned underground refuges. Some characteristics of such refuges are also described, in particular the psychosocial aspects. Furthermore, it is argued that this implementation of the engineering safety strategy safety barriers would be effective and plausible and could reduce the risk of an extinction event in a wide range of possible (known and unknown) scenarios. Considering the staggering opportunity cost of an existential catastrophe, such strategies ought to be explored more vigorously.
Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette
Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…
The Stanford Engineering Risk Research Group has developed a method for assessing the risks associated with asteroid impacts with the Earth. The model is intended to inform policy and decision makers who are charged with allocating limited resources to planetary defense missions. Our model and method have been used to perform baseline assessments of risk and compare options for mitigation. We extend that analysis to examine the risk reductions associated with observation missions that have been active over the last decade. We present the basic model, summarize our past work, describe our current results and findings, and examine the role of observations in reducing risks.
Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Weiland, Barbara J; Samudra, Preeti G; Zucker, Robert A; Heitzeg, Mary M
Children of alcoholics (COAs) are at elevated risk to develop alcohol and other substance use disorders. The neurobiological underpinnings of this heightened vulnerability are presently not well understood. This study investigated whether, in humans, COAs have different functioning of the mesolimbic reward circuitry beyond previous substance use confounds and examined potential group differences in neural response in relation to alcohol use and behavioral risk. We studied 20 18- to 22-year-old COAs and 20 controls, developmentally well characterized for substance use and selected to match on sex, age, IQ, lifetime substance use and associated problems, and precursive (ages 12-14 years) externalizing behavioral risk. None met criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnosis. Neural responses to anticipation of reward and loss were assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a monetary incentive delay task. Overall, COAs showed reduced ventral striatum activation during anticipation of monetary reward and loss compared with controls. However, additional analysis revealed that blunted nucleus accumbens (NAcc) response was only observed in COAs who have not demonstrated any problem drinking behavior. In addition, uniquely in COAs, NAcc activation was positively correlated with precursive externalizing risk, as well as current and lifetime alcohol consumption. These findings suggest a multilevel developmental process whereby lower precursive behavioral risk appears protective of later problem alcohol use in COAs, which is further associated with a blunted NAcc response to incentive anticipation, potentially reflecting a resilience mechanism. Moreover, the results suggest that a close association between motivational responses, alcohol consumption, and behavioral risk may underlie addiction vulnerability in COAs.
Leeman, Robert F; McKee, Sherry A; Toll, Benjamin A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L; Makuch, Robert W; O'Malley, Stephanie S
Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of two types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to three levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate, or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol usexAUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and, to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking.
Leeman, Robert F.; McKee, Sherry A.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cooney, Judith L.; Makuch, Robert W.; O’Malley, Stephanie
Little is known about the impact of alcohol involvement on smoking cessation relapse or possible mechanisms for these associations. We addressed these issues using data from a randomized clinical trial of 2 types of framed messages (gain vs. loss) in conjunction with open label sustained-release (SR) bupropion (Toll et al., 2007) (N = 249). Participants were categorized according to whether or not they were diagnosed with a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; i.e., current or past alcohol abuse or past alcohol dependence) and according to 3 levels of alcohol use: abstinence, moderate or hazardous use. Alcohol use categories were established for drinking at baseline, during the 6-week treatment period and through 12 weeks post-quit. There were few significant differences by baseline alcohol use level or AUD history for a series of predictors of smoking cessation failure (e.g., depressive symptoms). During treatment and follow-up, the probability of any smoking on heavy drinking days was significantly higher than the probability of smoking on moderate drinking or abstinent days. AUD history did not predict smoking cessation relapse in any analysis, nor were any alcohol use × AUD history interactions significant. Moderate alcohol users and to a lesser extent, abstainers from alcohol at baseline were less likely than hazardous drinkers to have relapsed at 12 weeks post-quit. Based on these findings, it appears that risk of any smoking and of relapse was associated primarily with heavy drinking days and a hazardous pattern of use respectively, rather than with moderate drinking. PMID:19023831
... Emanuele MA, Emanuele NV. Alcoholâ€™s effects on male reproduction . Alcohol Research and Health 1998; 22(3):195â€“201. Abbey A. Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college students . J ...
... it takes more alcohol to produce the same effects. Increasing alcohol use to stay ahead of tolerance can lead ... is important to learn about possible adverse health effects. Ask your health care provider if any alcohol use is safe for you. References: USDA/DHHS. ...
... a national sample of college women . Journal of Studies on Alcohol 2004;65(1):37â€“45. Abbey A. Alcohol-related sexual assault: A common problem among college students . J Stud Alcohol Suppl 2002;14:118â€“128. ...
Paiano, Viviana; Bianchi, Giancarlo; Davoli, Enrico; Negri, Eva; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena
Acetaldehyde is a naturally-occurring carcinogenic compound, present in different food items, especially in alcoholic beverages. The aims of this study were to measure acetaldehyde concentration in different beverages consumed in Italy and to estimate the potential cancer risk. The analytical procedure was based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the isotopic dilution method. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was used for risk characterisation. The highest concentrations (median, min-max) were detected in grappa samples (499, 23.4-1850mg/l), followed by fruit-based liqueurs and spirits (62.0, 5.23-483mg/l) and wine (68.0, 18.1-477mg/l); the lowest were detected in gin (0.91, 0.78-1.90mg/l). The lowest MOE was estimated for high wine consumers (69). These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages.
Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.
This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-focused spouse involvement and behavioral couples therapy (BCT) in group drinking reduction treatment for male problem drinkers. Sixty-four male clients and their female partners were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: treatment for problem drinkers only (PDO), couples alcohol-focused treatment, or…
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...
Velasquez, Mary M; von Sternberg, Kirk; Parrish, Danielle E
CHOICES is an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. The intervention uses motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and targets adoption of effective contraception and reduction of alcohol use. The CHOICES intervention includes four manual-guided counseling sessions delivered by behavioral health counselors and one contraceptive session with a family planning clinician. CHOICES's efficacy has been established through a series of randomized controlled trials in settings including primary care, university hospital-based obstetrical/gynecology practices, urban jails, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large cities. This article describes the CHOICES line of research including the epidemiology, feasibility, and efficacy studies. It also details the CHOICES intervention and the components of each session. In addition, the authors describe current studies testing modifications of the CHOICES intervention, the dissemination efforts to date, and implications for social work practice.
This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.
Longo, Rocco; Blackman, John W; Torley, Peter J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Schmidtke, Leigh M
A desirable sensory profile is a major consumer driver for wine acceptability and should be considered during the production of reduced alcohol wines. Although various viticultural practices and microbiological approaches show promising results, separation technologies such as membrane filtration, in particular reverse osmosis, evaporative perstraction, and vacuum distillation represent the most common commercial methods used to produce reduced alcohol wine. However, ethanol removal from wine can result in a significant loss of volatile compounds such as esters (ethyl octanoate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate) that contribute positively to the overall perceived aroma. These losses can potentially reduce the acceptability of the wine to consumers and decrease their willingness to purchase wines that have had their alcohol level reduced. The change in aroma as a result of the ethanol removal processes is influenced by a number of factors: the type of alcohol reduction process; the chemical-physical properties (volatility, hydrophobicity, steric hindrance) of the aroma compounds; the retention properties of the wine non-volatile matrix; and the ethanol level. This review identifies and summarises possible deleterious influences of the dealcoholisation process and describes best practice strategies to maintain the original wine composition.
Sutak, Robert; Hrdy, Ivan; Dolezal, Pavel; Cabala, Radomir; Sedinová, Miroslava; Lewin, Joern; Harant, Karel; Müller, Miklos; Tachezy, Jan
Secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol are readily produced by various anaerobic bacteria that possess secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH), although production of 2-propanol is rare in eukaryotes. Specific bacterial-type S-ADH has been identified in a few unicellular eukaryotes, but its function is not known and the production of secondary alcohols has not been studied. We purified and characterized S-ADH from the human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. The kinetic properties and thermostability of T. vaginalis S-ADH were comparable with bacterial orthologues. The substantial activity of S-ADH in the parasite's cytosol was surprising, because only low amounts of ethanol and trace amounts of secondary alcohols were detected as metabolic end products. However, S-ADH provided the parasite with a high capacity to scavenge and reduce external acetone to 2-propanol. To maintain redox balance, the demand for reducing power to metabolize external acetone was compensated for by decreased cytosolic reduction of pyruvate to lactate and by hydrogenosomal metabolism of pyruvate. We speculate that hydrogen might be utilized to maintain cytosolic reducing power. The high activity of Tv-S-ADH together with the ability of T. vaginalis to modulate the metabolic fluxes indicate efficacious metabolic responsiveness that could be advantageous for rapid adaptation of the parasite to changes in the host environment.
Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Roberts, Sarah; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Block, Gladys; Li, De-Kun
This study addresses the relationship between alcohol use during pregnancy and miscarriage. A cohort study of pregnant women (n=1061) recruited from 1996 –1998 in the San Francisco area. 3% (n=32) drank 4 or more drinks per week, 38% (n=403) consumed <4 drinks per week and 59% (n= 626) reported no alcohol intake. Women were also categorized by the type of alcohol consumed. An increased risk of miscarriage was found for 1) women who drank four or more drinks a week and 2) women who drank spirits. Future research assessing miscarriage risk should consider the volume and type of alcohol consumed. PMID:24810392
Bleich, S; Bandelow, B; Javaheripour, K; Müller, A; Degner, D; Wilhelm, J; Havemann-Reinecke, U; Sperling, W; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J
Chronic alcohol consumption can induce brain atrophy, whereby the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. There is evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neuronal cells to excitotoxic and oxidative injury in vitro and in vivo. The present volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study included 52 chronic alcoholics and 30 non-drinking healthy controls. Patients were active drinkers and had an established diagnosis of alcohol dependence. We investigated the influence of different variables on the hippocampal volume of patients suffering from chronic alcoholism. We observed that pathological raised levels of plasma homocysteine showed the most significant correlation to hippocampal volume reduction (P<0.001, multiple regression analysis). Raised plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with hippocampal (brain) atrophy in alcoholism.
Howard, Elizabeth; And Others
This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…
Patel, Jay M; Musa, Musa M; Rodriguez, Luis; Sutton, Dewey A; Popik, Vladimir V; Phillips, Robert S
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) are enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction of carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols. We have been studying a thermostable, nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP(+))-dependent, secondary ADH from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus (TeSADH). In the current work, we expanded our library of TeSADH and adopted the site-saturation mutagenesis approach in creating a comprehensive mutant library at W110. We used phenylacetone as a model substrate to study the effectiveness of our library because this substrate showed low enantioselectivity in our previous work when reduced using W110A TeSADH. Five of the newly designed W110 mutants reduced phenylacetone at >99.9% ee, and two of these mutants exhibit an enantiomeric ratio (E-value) of over 100. These five mutants also reduced 1-phenyl-2-butanone and 4-phenyl-2-butanone to their corresponding (S)-configured alcohols in >99.9% ee. These new mutants of TeSADH will likely have synthetic utility for reduction of aromatic ketones in the future.
Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam
This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the
Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.
Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244
Palacios, N.; Gao, X.; O’Reilly, E.; Schwarzschild, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Mayo, T.; Gapstur, S.M.; Ascherio, A.
Background Addictive behaviors such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson disease. Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with risk is less certain. Methods We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of Parkinson Disease (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking and other risk factors. Results Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with Parkinson Disease risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the Relative Risk comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) to non-drinker men was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.86, p-trend: 0.40) and the Relative Risk comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to non-drinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45, p-trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine or liquor was also not associated with Parkinson Disease risk. Conclusions The results of this large prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of Parkinson disease. PMID:22714720
Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D
Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.
Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M
Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders.
Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya
Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention program for teens on probation. Participants (N=54) were 13–17 year-old arrested males and females remanded to a detention alternative setting. Youth participated in a uniquely tailored HIV prevention intervention and completed a baseline and 3-month follow up assessment of their HIV and substance use knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. At 3-month follow up, teens reported less alcohol use, more positive attitudes toward peers with HIV, greater ability to resist temptation to use substances, and for males, improved HIV prevention self-efficacy and peer norms supporting prevention. Teens were also more likely to seek HIV counseling and males were more likely to get tested for HIV. Effect sizes revealed moderate change in sexual behavior. Findings support PHAT Life as a promising intervention to reduce HIV-risk among youth in juvenile justice. PMID:26097376
Hsu, Tai-Yi; He, Guan-Yi; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Chen, Chih-Yu; Wang, Shih-Hao; Chen, Wei-Kung; Kao, Chia-Hung
Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is considered a possible risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, previous studies investigating the association between AUD and IBS have yielded inconsistent results. The study investigated whether AUD increases the risk of IBS by using a population-based database in Taiwan. This retrospective matched-cohort study included the health insurance claims data of 56,355 AUD inpatients and 225,420 randomly selected controls by frequency-matched for sex, age, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to measure the risk of IBS among AUD patients compared with non-AUD patients. During the follow-up period, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of IBS had 12.3-fold (95% CI: 11.9–12.7) in the AUD patients than non-AUD patients and the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for IBS in the AUD patients was 5.51 (95% CI: 4.36–6.96). For several comorbidities, the risk of IBS was significantly higher in the AUD patients than in non-AUD patients, with aHRs of 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19–3.84), 2.05 (95% CI: 1.06–3.96), and 2.91 (95% CI: 1.26–6.72) for sleep disorders, acute pancreatitis, and hepatitis B, respectively. When we stratified the severity of AUD according to the length of hospital stay, the aHRs exhibited a significant correlation (P < 0.001) with severity, yielding aHRs of 3.24 (95% CI: 2.49–4.22), 11.9 (95% CI: 8.96–15.9), and 26.1 (95% CI: 19.4–35.2) for mild, moderate, and severe AUD, respectively. The risk of IBS was higher among AUD patients, and increased with the length of hospital stay. PMID:26705226
Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen
Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.
Li, Pei-Chiun; Ma, Hwong-wen
The total quantity of chemical emissions does not take into account their chemical toxicity, and fails to be an accurate indicator of the potential impact on human health. The sources of released contaminants, and therefore, the potential risk, also differ based on geography. Because of the complexity of the risk, there is no integrated method to evaluate the effectiveness of risk reduction. Therefore, this study developed a method to incorporate the spatial variability of emissions into human health risk assessment to evaluate how to effectively reduce risk using risk elasticity analysis. Risk elasticity analysis, the percentage change in risk in response to the percentage change in emissions, was adopted in this study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of risk reduction. The results show that the main industry sectors are different in each area, and that high emission in an area does not correspond to high risk. Decreasing the high emissions of certain sectors in an area does not result in efficient risk reduction in this area. This method can provide more holistic information for risk management, prevent the development of increased risk, and prioritize the risk reduction strategies.
Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L
The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.
Tsai, Sen-Tien; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Ou, Chun-Yen; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Lo, Hung-I; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Yang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Forn-Chia; Chang, Jang-Yang; Chang, Kwang-Yu; Wu, Shang-Yin; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chang, Jeffrey S
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for head and neck cancer (HNC). The major carcinogen from alcohol is acetaldehyde, which may be produced by humans or by oral microorganisms through the metabolism of ethanol. To account for the different sources of acetaldehyde production, the current study examined the interplay between alcohol consumption, oral hygiene (as a proxy measure for the growth of oral microorganisms), and alcohol-metabolizing genes (ADH1B and ALDH2) in the risk of HNC. We found that both the fast (*2/*2) and the slow (*1/*1+ *1/*2) ADH1B genotypes increased the risk of HNC due to alcohol consumption, and this association differed according to the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes (*1/*2+ *2/*2) or poor oral hygiene. In persons with the fast ADH1B genotype, the HNC risk associated with alcohol drinking was increased for those with the slow/non-functional ALDH2 genotypes. For those with the slow ADH1B genotypes, oral hygiene appeared to play an important role; the highest magnitude of an increased HNC risk in alcohol drinkers occurred among those with the worst oral hygiene. This is the first study to show that the association between alcohol drinking and HNC risk may be modified by the interplay between genetic polymorphisms of ADH1B and ALDH2 and oral hygiene. Although it is important to promote abstinence from or reduction of alcohol drinking to decrease the occurrence of HNC, improving oral hygiene practices may provide additional benefit.
... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...
Strauss, Shiela M.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Tiburcio, Nelson J.; Gwadz, Marya
HIV-infected patients have considerable need for alcohol reduction support, and HIV care providers are strategically placed to implement a “prevention for positives” alcohol reduction approach through alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs). To facilitate this approach, we provided alcohol SBI education and training to HIV care providers in four hospital-based, New York City HIV Care Centers in 2007. Interviews with the medical directors and 14 of the HIV care providers who attended the training identified barriers to implementing alcohol SBIs. These included limited time for alcohol screening, patients’ incomplete disclosure of alcohol use, providers’ perceptions that alcohol use is not a major problem for their patients, and provider specialization that assigns patients with problematic alcohol use to specifically designated providers. Identified facilitators for alcohol SBI implementation included adequate time to conduct the SBI; availability of information, tools, and key points to emphasize with HIV-infected patients; and use of a brief alcohol screening tool. PMID:21570321
Gonçalves, Priscila Dib; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; Malbergier, André; do Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; Yang, Jasmine J; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra
Although there are a large number of studies focused on binge drinking and traffic risk behaviors (TRB), little is known regarding low levels of alcohol consumption and its association to TRB. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association of low to moderate alcohol intake pattern and TRB in college students in Brazil. 7037 students from a National representative sample were selected under rigorous inclusion criteria. All study participants voluntarily fulfilled a structured, anonymous, and self-questionnaire regarding alcohol and drug use, social-demographic data, and TRB. Alcohol was assessed according to the average number of alcoholic units consumed on standard occasions over the past 12 months. The associations between alcohol intake and TRB were summarized with odds ratio and their confidence interval obtained from logistic regression. Compared with abstainers students who consumed only one alcohol unit had the risk of being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver increased by almost four times, students who reported using five or more units were increased by almost five times the risk of being involved in a car crash. Compared with students who consumed one alcohol unit, the risk of driving under the influence of alcohol increased four times in students using three alcohol units. Age group, use of illicit drugs, employment status, gender, and marital status significantly influenced occurrence of TRB among college students. Our study highlights the potential detrimental effects of low and moderate pattern of alcohol consumption and its relation to riding with an intoxicated driver and other TRB. These data suggest that targeted interventions should be implemented in order to prevent negative consequences due to alcohol use in this population.
Anstey, Kaarin J.; Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Hosking, Diane E.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Dixon, Roger A.
Dementia risk reduction is a global health and fiscal priority given the current lack of effective treatments and the projected increased number of dementia cases due to population ageing. There are often gaps among academic research, clinical practice, and public policy. We present information on the evidence for dementia risk reduction and evaluate the progress required to formulate this evidence into clinical practice guidelines. This narrative review provides capsule summaries of current evidence for 25 risk and protective factors associated with AD and dementia according to domains including biomarkers, demographic, lifestyle, medical, and environment. We identify the factors for which evidence is strong and thereby especially useful for risk assessment with the goal of personalising recommendations for risk reduction. We also note gaps in knowledge, and discuss how the field may progress towards clinical practice guidelines for dementia risk reduction. PMID:26380232
Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.
Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975
... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...
Smolka, A. J.
Advanced, reliable and transparent tools and data to assess earthquake risk are inaccessible to most, especially in less developed regions of the world while few, if any, globally accepted standards currently allow a meaningful comparison of risk between places. The Global Earthquake Model (GEM) is a collaborative effort that aims to provide models, datasets and state-of-the-art tools for transparent assessment of earthquake hazard and risk. As part of this goal, GEM and its global network of collaborators have developed the OpenQuake engine (an open-source software for hazard and risk calculations), the OpenQuake platform (a web-based portal making GEM's resources and datasets freely available to all potential users), and a suite of tools to support modelers and other experts in the development of hazard, exposure and vulnerability models. These resources are being used extensively across the world in hazard and risk assessment, from individual practitioners to local and national institutions, and in regional projects to inform disaster risk reduction. Practical examples for how GEM is bridging the gap between science and disaster risk reduction are: - Several countries including Switzerland, Turkey, Italy, Ecuador, Papua-New Guinea and Taiwan (with more to follow) are computing national seismic hazard using the OpenQuake-engine. In some cases these results are used for the definition of actions in building codes. - Technical support, tools and data for the development of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk models for regional projects in South America and Sub-Saharan Africa. - Going beyond physical risk, GEM's scorecard approach evaluates local resilience by bringing together neighborhood/community leaders and the risk reduction community as a basis for designing risk reduction programs at various levels of geography. Actual case studies are Lalitpur in the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal and Quito/Ecuador. In agreement with GEM's collaborative approach, all
Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, <26 years old, and travelling alone or with friends. Travellers who admitted inebriation and fell ill while in Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.
Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Ruttle, Paula L.; Burk, Linnea R.; Costanzo, Philip R.; Strauman, Timothy J.; Essex, Marilyn J.
Objective: Past research has associated childhood characteristics and experiences with alcohol use at single time points in adolescence. Other work has focused on drinking trajectories across adolescence but with risk factors typically no earlier than middle or high school. Similarly, although the connection between underage drinking and affiliation with deviant friends is well established, early risk factors for their covariation across adolescence are uncertain. The present study examines the influence of early individual and contextual factors on (a) trajectories across high school of per-occasion alcohol use and (b) the covariation of alcohol use and deviant friends over time. Method: In a longitudinal community sample (n = 374; 51% female), temperamental disinhibition, authoritarian and authoritative parenting, and parental alcohol use were assessed during childhood, and adolescents reported on alcohol use and affiliation with deviant friends in the spring of Grades 9, 10, 11, and 12. Results: Early parental alcohol use predicted the intercept of adolescent drinking. Subsequent patterns of adolescent alcohol use were predicted by sex and interactions of sex and childhood disinhibition with early authoritarian parenting. Additionally, childhood disinhibition interacted with parental alcohol use to moderate the covariation of drinking and deviant friends. Conclusions: These findings highlight early individual and contextual risk factors for alcohol use across high school, extending previous work and underscoring the importance of developmental approaches and longitudinal techniques for understanding patterns of growth in underage drinking. PMID:23948534
Miley, W M
This study was done to assess whether classes containing topics derived from two college courses, Abnormal Psychology and Health Psychology, could be used in a class room format to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse among at-risk college students. Topics covered included stress and stress management, alcohol and other drug use and abuse, chronic illnesses and psychological disorders that develop from an unhealthy lifestyle, and factors that play a role in good health and well-being. Students were enrolled in a semester-long course for college credit as an alternative to punitive sanctions for on-campus alcohol violations and other drug violations. The Midwest Institute on Drug Use Survey and the CORE Alcohol and Drug Survey were administered on the first and last days of class. Analysis indicated a significant self-reported reduction in drug use and associated negative symptoms and behavioral effects. Women were more likely to report reductions in drug use than men.
Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.
Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466
Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; O'Reilly, Eilis; Schwarzschild, Michael; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mayo, Tinisha; Gapstur, Susan M; Ascherio, Alberto A
Addictive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with PD risk is less certain. We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and other risk factors. Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with PD risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the RR comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol per day (highest category) to nondrinker men was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 1.86; P trend: 0.40), and the RR comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to nondrinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45; P trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine, or liquor was also not associated with PD risk. The results of this large, prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of PD.
Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai
It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p nonlinearity < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.
Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.
This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…
Lönnroth, Knut; Williams, Brian G; Stadlin, Stephanie; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Dye, Christopher
Background It has long been evident that there is an association between alcohol use and risk of tuberculosis. It has not been established to what extent this association is confounded by social and other factors related to alcohol use. Nor has the strength of the association been established. The objective of this study was to systematically review the available evidence on the association between alcohol use and the risk of tuberculosis. Methods Based on a systematic literature review, we identified 3 cohort and 18 case control studies. These were further categorized according to definition of exposure, type of tuberculosis used as study outcome, and confounders controlled for. Pooled effect sizes were obtained for each sub-category of studies. Results The pooled relative risk across all studies that used an exposure cut-off level set at 40 g alcohol per day or above, or defined exposure as a clinical diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder, was 3.50 (95% CI: 2.01–5.93). After exclusion of small studies, because of suspected publication bias, the pooled relative risk was 2.94 (95% CI: 1.89–4.59). Subgroup analyses of studies that had controlled for various sets of confounders did not give significantly different results and did not explain the significant heterogeneity that was found across the studies. Conclusion The risk of active tuberculosis is substantially elevated in people who drink more than 40 g alcohol per day, and/or have an alcohol use disorder. This may be due to both increased risk of infection related to specific social mixing patterns associated with alcohol use, as well as influence on the immune system of alcohol itself and of alcohol related conditions. PMID:18702821
Leitz, Jenny; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.
Background Phthalates are synthetic compounds with a widespread field of applications. For example, they are used as plasticizers in PVC plastics and food packaging, or are added to personal care products. Diethyl phthalate (DEP) may be used to denature alcohol, e.g., for cosmetic purposes. Public health concerns of phthalates include carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic and endocrine effects. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for determining phthalates in alcohol samples and to provide a risk assessment for consumers of such products. Methodology/Principal Findings A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was optimized by varying the following parameters: type of extraction solvent (cyclohexane, n-hexane, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane), the ratio extraction solvent/sample volume (1∶1 to 50∶1) and the number of extraction repetitions (1–10). The best extraction yield (99.9%) was achieved with the solvent 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, an extraction solvent volume/sample volume ratio of 10∶1 and a double extraction. For quantification, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with deuterated internal standards was used. The investigated samples were alcoholic beverages and unrecorded alcohol products from different countries (n = 257). Two unrecorded alcohol samples from Lithuania contained diethyl phthalate in concentrations of 608 mg/L and 210 mg/L. Conclusions/Significance The consumption of the phthalate-positive unrecorded alcohols would exceed tolerable daily intakes as derived from animal experiments. Both positive samples were labelled as cosmetic alcohol, but had clearly been offered for human consumption. DEP seems to be unsuitable as a denaturing agent as it has no effect on the organoleptic properties of ethanol. In light of our results that DEP might be consumed by humans in unrecorded alcohols, the prohibition of its use as a denaturing agent should be considered. PMID:19956573
Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…
Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen S.; Sobell, Mark B.; Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Linda Carter; von Sternberg, Kirk
Project CHOICES developed an integrated behavioral intervention for prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure in women at high risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancies. Settings included primary care, university-hospital based obstetrical/gynecology practices, an urban jail, substance abuse treatment settings, and a media-recruited sample in three large…
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Jaccard, James; Lushin, Viktor; Martinez, Roberto; Gonzalez, Bernardo; McCarthy, Katharine
Existing literature related to HIV in the Dominican Republic has tended to neglect the unique role of tourism areas as distinct ecologies facilitative of sexual risk behavior, particularly HIV vulnerability and transmission. Furthermore, limited attention has focused on Dominican adolescents living in close proximity to tourism areas who have become increasingly exposed to alcohol due to the expanding tourism industry in the Dominican Republic. While most previous analyses of the effects of alcohol on adolescent sexual risk behavior have focused on the transient effects of alcohol on judgment and decision making, the effects of chronic alcohol use on sexual behavior has been a neglected area of research. Our study explores the relationship between chronic alcohol use, the parent-adolescent relationship, affective factors such as self-esteem, and intentions to engage in sex. We examine the above factors within the context of tourism areas which represent a unique ecology of alcohol availability and consumption and HIV risk. We discuss implications for developing applied family-based programs to target Dominican adolescent alcohol use and sexual risk behavior in tourism areas of high alcohol exposure.
Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.
Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…
Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alexander
Alcohol use and risk-taking behavior among 345 male adolescents from three Israeli secular (n = 168) and three religious (n = 177) high schools were studied from 2009 to 2013. Findings show the positive impact religious education and religiosity have on minimizing alcohol use, binge drinking, school underachievement, violence, weapons possession,…
Taft, Casey T.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Doron-Lamarca, Susan; Panuzio, Jillian; Suvak, Michael K.; Gagnon, David R.; Murphy, Christopher M.
Objective: This study examined static and time-varying risk factors for perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) among men in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Method: Participants were 178 men diagnosed with alcohol abuse or dependence and their partners. Most (85%) of the men were European American; their average age was 41.0 years.…
Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…
“Such behaviors are not in my home village, I got them here”: A qualitative study of the influence of contextual factors on alcohol and HIV risk behaviors in a fishing community on Lake Victoria, Uganda
Sileo, KM; Kintu, M; Chanes-Mora, P; Kiene, SM
In Uganda, elevated HIV prevalence in fishing communities along Lake Victoria have been attributed in part to heavy alcohol use, but qualitative research is needed to understand the contextual factors influencing alcohol and sexual risk. Eight focus group discussions were conducted (N=50; 23 male, 27 female) in Gerenge, Uganda with five occupational groups: fishermen, fishmongers, alcohol-sellers, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and restaurant owners. Data was analyzed using content analysis. Alcohol use was prevalent, and said to influence risky sex. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and occupational factors influenced individuals to drink during sex and structural factors related to the built environment, economy, and policy were identified as key contributors to both alcohol use and sexual risk in general. The findings highlight alcohol reduction as an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and suggest structural interventions should be prioritized in this context. PMID:25921303
Renders, Tom; Van den Bosch, Sander; Vangeel, Thijs; Ennaert, Thijs; Koelewijn, Steven-Friso; Van den Bossche, Gil; Courtin, Christophe M.; Schutyser, Wouter; Sels, Bert F.
One of the foremost challenges in lignocellulose conversion encompasses the integration of effective lignin valorization in current carbohydrate-oriented biorefinery schemes. Catalytic reductive fractionation (CRF) of lignocellulose offers a technology to simultaneously produce lignin-derived platform chemicals and a carbohydrate-enriched pulp via the combined action of lignin solvolysis and metal-catalyzed hydrogenolysis. Herein, the solvent (composition) plays a crucial role. In this contribution, we study the influence of alcohol/water mixtures by processing poplar sawdust in varying MeOH/water and EtOH/water blends. The results show particular effects that strongly depend on the applied water concentration. Low water concentrations enhance the removal of lignin from the biomass, while the majority of the carbohydrates are left untouched (scenario A). Contrarily, high water concentrations favor the solubilization of both hemicellulose and lignin, resulting in a more pure cellulosic residue (scenario B). For both scenarios, an evaluation was made to determine the most optimal solvent composition, based on two earlier introduced empirical efficiency descriptors (denoted LFDE and LFFE). According to these measures, 30 (A) and 70 vol % water (B) showed to be the optimal balance for both MeOH/water and EtOH/water mixtures. This successful implementation of alcohol/water mixtures allows operation under milder processing conditions in comparison to pure alcohol solvents, which is advantageous from an industrial point of view.
Phelps, LeAdelle; Grabowski, Jo-Anne
Discusses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), accepted as leading known cause of mental retardation. Relates chronicity, timing, and severity of alcohol exposure to age-specific developmental and behavioral consequences. Delineates specific interventions with infants, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. Advocates for accurate diagnosis…
Bingham, C. Raymond; Shope, Jean T.; Parow, Julie E.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.
Objective: Teens drink/drive less often than adults but are more likely to crash when they do drink/drive. This study identified alcohol-related crash types for which teen drivers were at greater risk compared with adults. Method: Michigan State Police crash records for drivers ages 16-19 (teens) and 45-65 years (adults) who experienced at least one crash from 1989 to 1996 were used to create alcohol crash types consisting of alcohol-related crashes that included specific combinations of other crash characteristics, such as drinking and driving at night (i.e., alcohol/nighttime). These data were combined with data from the 1990 and 1995 National Personal Travel Surveys and the 2001 National Household Travel Survey to estimate rates and rate ratios of alcohol-related crash types based on person-miles driven. Results: Teens were relatively less likely than adults to be involved in alcohol-related crashes but were significantly more likely to be in alcohol-related crashes that included other crash characteristics. Teen males' crash risk was highest when drinking and driving with a passenger, at night, at night with a passenger, and at night on the weekend, and casualties were more likely to result from alcohol-related nighttime crashes. All the highest risk alcohol-related crash types for teen female drinking drivers involved casualties and were most likely to include speeding, passenger presence, and nighttime driving. Conclusions: The frequency with which passengers, nighttime or weekend driving, and speeding occurred in the highest risk alcohol-related crash types for teens suggests that these characteristics should be targeted by policies, programs, and enforcement to reduce teen alcohol-related crash rates. PMID:19515292
Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi
The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150
Brownson, Ross C.; Mayer, Jeffrey P.; Dusseault, Patricia; Dabney, Sue; Wright, Kathleen; Jackson-Thompson, Jeannette; Malone, Bernard; Goodman, Robert
Describes the development and baseline evaluation data from the Ozark Heart Health Project, a community-based cardiovascular disease risk reduction program in rural Missouri that targeted smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet. Several Ozark counties participated in either intervention or control groups, and researchers conducted surveillance…
Ritz, Ludivine; Coulbault, Laurent; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Segobin, Shailendra; Eustache, Francis; Vabret, François; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène
The effects of alcoholism on cognitive and motor functioning are heterogeneous. While the role of some factors (patterns of alcohol consumption, eating habits or associated liver disease) has been hypothesized, the origins of this heterogeneity remain difficult to establish. The goals of the present study were thus to identify the clinical and biological risk factors for alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments and to determine the threshold beyond which these risk factors can be considered significant. Thirty alcoholic patients and 15 healthy controls had a blood test and underwent a neuropsychological examination. Alcohol severity measures, and liver, thiamine and malnutrition variables, were included in logistic regression models to determine the risk factors for cognitive and motor impairments (executive functions, visuospatial abilities, verbal episodic memory, ataxia), as well as those related to the severity of patients’ overall neuropsychological profile (moderate or severe impairments). Liver fibrosis was found to be a risk factor for executive impairments and also for ataxia, when it was associated with long-term alcohol misuse and symptoms of withdrawal. Altered thiamine metabolism was solely predictive of verbal episodic memory impairments. This combination of biological abnormalities was associated with a profile of moderate neuropsychological impairments. Malnutrition was associated with a profile of more severe impairments. Malnutrition, altered liver function and thiamine metabolism explain, at least partially, the heterogeneity of alcohol-related neuropsychological impairments. Our findings could allow clinicians to identify patients at particular risk of severe neuropsychological impairments before the onset of irreversible and debilitating neurological complications. PMID:27617840
PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG
Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096
Britton, Annie; O’Neill, Darragh; Bell, Steven
Aims Increases in glass sizes and wine strength over the last 25 years in the UK are likely to have led to an underestimation of alcohol intake in population studies. We explore whether this probable misclassification affects the association between average alcohol intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Methods Self-reported alcohol consumption in 1997–1999 among 7010 men and women in the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants was linked to the risk of mortality until mid-2015. A conversion factor of 8 g of alcohol per wine glass (1 unit) was compared with a conversion of 16 g per wine glass (2 units). Results When applying a higher alcohol content conversion for wine consumption, the proportion of heavy/very heavy drinkers increased from 28% to 41% for men and 15% to 28% for women. There was a significantly increased risk of very heavy drinking compared with moderate drinking for deaths from all causes and cancer before and after change in wine conversion; however, the hazard ratios were reduced when a higher wine conversion was used. Conclusions In this population-based study, assuming higher alcohol content in wine glasses changed the estimates of mortality risk. We propose that investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. Prospectively, researchers need to collect more detailed information on alcohol including serving sizes and strength. Short summary The alcohol content in a wine glass is likely to be underestimated in population surveys as wine strength and serving size have increased in recent years. We demonstrate that in a large cohort study, this underestimation affects estimates of mortality risk. Investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. PMID:27261472
Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L; Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K
Objective: The current study examines the relation between peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement and alcohol-dependence symptomatology and whether this relation differs as a function of sexual self-concept ambiguity (SSA). This study also examines the associations among peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and lifetime HIV risk-taking behavior and how these relations are influenced by SSA. Method: Women between ages 18 and 30 years (N = 351; M = 20.96, SD = 2.92) completed an online survey assessing sexual self-concept, peer descriptive norms, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses of interest. Results: There was a significant latent variable interaction between SSA and descriptive norms for peer alcohol use. There was a stronger positive relationship between peer descriptive norms for alcohol and alcohol-dependence symptomatology when SSA was higher compared with when SSA was lower. Both latent variables exhibited positive simple associations with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement directly and indirectly influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors, and the indirect influence was conditional based on SSA. Conclusions: The current findings illustrate complex, nuanced associations between perceived norms, identity-related self-concepts, and risky health behaviors from various domains. Future intervention efforts may be warranted to address both problem alcohol use and HIV-risk engagement among individuals with greater sexual self-concept ambiguity. PMID:25343661
Haber, Jon Randolph; Grant, Julia D.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Koenig, Laura B.; Heath, Andrew; Jacob, Theodore
The contention that Religion/Spirituality (R/S) influences the development of alcohol dependence (AD) is increasingly supported, but risk factors have not been adequately examined together with protective R/S factors so as to determine the nature and relative strength of these domains at different stages in the development of alcoholism. Secondary data analysis of a sample of 4,002 young adult female twins used conditional Cox proportional hazards survival models to examine three distinct stages in the development of alcoholism: years to initiation of drinking, years from first drink to at-risk drinking, and years from at-risk drinking to AD. Risk and protective factors from models of alcoholism etiology and studies of R/S dimensionality were modeled simultaneously as predictors of each discrete stage and compared. Findings demonstrated that both risk factors and R/S variables influenced initiation of alcohol use; only R/S variables influenced subsequent progression to at-risk drinking; and risk factors primarily influenced further progression to AD. Protective factors (R/S variables being an exemplar) appeared to be critical determinants of intermediate-stage progression, thus suggesting that R/S factors and other psychosocial interventions might be particularly effective in delaying progression toward AD at this stage. In contrast, after the onset of at-risk drinking, the influence of (genetically based) risk factors appeared to accelerate AD regardless of most other influences. Thus, the timing of psychosocial interventions appears critical to their potency and impact. PMID:23528196
Haber, Jon Randolph; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Koenig, Laura B; Heath, Andrew; Jacob, Theodore
The contention that Religion/Spirituality (R/S) influences the development of alcohol dependence (AD) is increasingly supported, but risk factors have not been adequately examined together with protective R/S factors so as to determine the nature and relative strength of these domains at different stages in the development of alcoholism. Secondary data analysis of a sample of 4,002 young adult female twins used conditional Cox proportional hazards survival models to examine three distinct stages in the development of alcoholism: years to initiation of drinking, years from first drink to at-risk drinking, and years from at-risk drinking to AD. Risk and protective factors from models of alcoholism etiology and studies of R/S dimensionality were modeled simultaneously as predictors of each discrete stage and compared. Findings demonstrated that both risk factors and R/S variables influenced initiation of alcohol use; only R/S variables influenced subsequent progression to at-risk drinking; and risk factors primarily influenced further progression to AD. Protective factors (R/S variables being an exemplar) appeared to be critical determinants of intermediate-stage progression, thus suggesting that R/S factors and other psychosocial interventions might be particularly effective in delaying progression toward AD at this stage. In contrast, after the onset of at-risk drinking, the influence of (genetically based) risk factors appeared to accelerate AD regardless of most other influences. Thus, the timing of psychosocial interventions appears critical to their potency and impact.
Li, Zhihao; Ma, Xiangyang; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping; Coles, Claire D; Lynch, Mary Ellen
Visual attention problems have been reported in association with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). With related behavioral data documented in literature, further investigation of this PAE effect would benefit from integrating functional and anatomical imaging data to ascertain its neurobiological basis. The current study investigated the possible functional and anatomical bases for the PAE-related visual sustained attention deficit. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected while the subjects performed a sustained visual attention task. High resolution, three dimensional anatomical images were also collected for morphometric evaluation. In the alcohol-affected subjects, we observed a significant white and gray matter volume reduction in the occipital-temporal area. Meanwhile, their fMRI activations in the same region resided more superiorly than that of the controls resulting in reduced activation in the ventral occipital-temporal area. The location of this PAE functional abnormality approximately matches that of the significant structural reduction. In addition to the well documented corpus callosum abnormalities observed in PAE subjects, the present results reveal a teratogenic effect on the occipital-temporal area. Furthermore, as the occipital-temporal area plays an important role in visual attention, the current observation suggests a neurobiological underpinning for the PAE related deficit in sustained visual attention.
Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro
Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed.
Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K; Molnar, Danielle S; Eiden, Rina D; Edwards, Ellen P; Leonard, Kenneth E
This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n = 89) and non-alcoholic (n = 94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers' alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.
Bartone, Paul T; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle; Brevik, John I
Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in the military, and a costly one. The present study evaluates the potential role of psychological hardiness, an individual resilience resource, to stress-related problem drinking in a military population. We assess the association of psychological hardiness and avoidance coping style with alcohol use patterns in a large national sample of Norwegian military defense personnel. Results show that low hardiness and high avoidance coping are significant predictors of alcohol abuse. Also, the challenge facet of hardiness predicts risk of alcohol abuse among respondents with recent deployment experience, and this effect is greater for those with harsh deployment experiences. Older defense workers are also at higher risk, suggesting cumulative occupational stress may take a toll. This research indicates that hardiness and avoidance coping measures may serve as useful adjunct screening tools for alcohol abuse in the military.
Heinz, Adrienne J.; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C.; Kassel, Jon D.
Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N=146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about 4 standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants’ habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to
Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J.; Ray, Anne E.; Lu, Shou-En
Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation and alcohol use was measured with 5 assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled “Anti-Drinking”, “Unfavorable”, “Mixed”, and “Risky”. Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750
Heinz, Adrienne J; de Wit, Harriet; Lilje, Todd C; Kassel, Jon D
Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N = 146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088 g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about four standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions: 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants' habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (RT) (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to
Mimiaga, M J; Thomas, B; Mayer, K H; Reisner, S L; Menon, S; Swaminathan, S; Periyasamy, M; Johnson, C V; Safren, S A
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are a core risk group for HIV. Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased sexual risk-taking behaviours in many cultures, in particular among MSM. However, no studies to date have explored alcohol use and HIV risk among MSM in India. MSM in Chennai, India (n = 210) completed an interviewer-administered behavioural and psychosocial assessment. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression procedures examined behavioural and demographic associations with weekly alcohol consumption. Twenty-eight percent of the sample (n = 58) reported using alcohol at least weekly to the point of being buzzed/intoxicated, which was associated with older age, being married to a woman, being panthi (masculine appearing, predominantly insertive partners) versus kothi (feminine acting/appearing and predominantly receptive partners), weekly tobacco use, unprotected anal sex and unprotected vaginal sex in the three months prior to study enrollment (all P < 0.05). In a multivariable model, unprotected vaginal sex in the previous three months and being married to a women were unique variables associated with weekly alcohol use (all P < 0.01). Further investigation of alcohol use within the context of sexual risk taking is warranted among Indian MSM. Panthis and MSM who are married to women may be particularly likely to benefit from interventions to decrease alcohol intake and concurrent unsafe sex.
Hussong, Andrea M; Flora, David B; Curran, Patrick J; Chassin, Laurie A; Zucker, Robert A
Adopting a developmental epidemiology perspective, the current study examines sources of risk heterogeneity for internalizing symptomatology among children of alcoholic parents (COAs). Parent-based factors, including comorbid diagnoses and the number of alcoholic parents in the family, as well as child-based factors, namely child gender, formed the indicators of heterogeneity. Following a novel approach to cross-study methods, we present a three-stage analysis involving measurement development using item response theory, examination of study effects on latent trajectories over time using latent curve modeling, and prediction of these latent trajectories testing our theoretically derived hypotheses in two longitudinal investigations across both mother- and self-reported symptomatology. Specifically, we replicated previous findings that parent alcoholism has a unique effect on child internalizing symptoms, above and beyond those of both parent depression and antisocial personality disorder. However, we also found important subgroup differences, explaining heterogeneity within COAs' risk profile in terms of the number of alcoholic parents in the family, comorbid diagnoses for the alcoholic parent and, for self-reported symptoms, child gender. Such factors serve to refine the definition of risk among COAs, suggesting a more severely impaired target group for preventive interventions, identifying the significance of familial alcoholism in individual differences underlying internalizing symptoms over time, and further specifying the distal risk matrix for an internalizing pathway to alcohol involvement.
Genkinger, J M; Hunter, D J; Spiegelman, D; Anderson, K E; Buring, J E; Freudenheim, J L; Goldbohm, R A; Harnack, L; Hankinson, S E; Larsson, S C; Leitzmann, M; McCullough, M L; Marshall, J; Miller, A B; Rodriguez, C; Rohan, T E; Schatzkin, A; Schouten, L J; Wolk, A; Zhang, S M; Smith-Warner, S A
Alcohol has been hypothesized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by its potential to increase circulating levels of estrogen and other hormones; through its oxidation byproduct, acetaldehyde, which may act as a cocarcinogen; and by depletion of folate and other nutrients. Case-control and cohort studies have reported conflicting results relating alcohol intake to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of the primary data from ten prospective cohort studies. The analysis included 529 638 women among whom 2001 incident epithelial ovarian cases were documented. After study-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by Cox proportional hazards models, and then were pooled using a random effects model; no associations were observed for intakes of total alcohol (pooled multivariate RR=1.12, 95% CI 0.86-1.44 comparing > or =30 to 0 g day(-1) of alcohol) or alcohol from wine, beer or spirits and ovarian cancer risk. The association with alcohol consumption was not modified by oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, parity, menopausal status, folate intake, body mass index, or smoking. Associations for endometrioid, mucinous, and serous ovarian cancer were similar to the overall findings. This pooled analysis does not support an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk.
Forroci, Michael P.; Gafka, George K.; Lutomski, Michael G.; Maher, Jacilyn S.
As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity hazard level-4 materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards). Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years to come.
... abuse or alcoholism: Al–Anon Family Group Headquarters Internet address: www.al–anon.alateen.org Makes referrals ... Anonymous (AA) World Services Phone: (212) 870–3400 Internet address: www.aa.org Makes referrals to local ...
Jayakody, Lahiru N; Lane, Stephan; Kim, Heejin; Jin, Yong-Su
Epidemiological studies have established a positive relationship between the occurrence of cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Metabolic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce potential carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverage is technically feasible as well as economically promising. This review presents the mechanisms of formation of potentially carcinogenic components in alcoholic beverages, such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethyl carbamate, acrylamide, and heavy metals, and introduces effective genetic perturbations to minimize the concentrations of these harmful components. As precise and effective genome editing tools for polyploid yeast are now available, we envision that yeast metabolic engineering might open up new research directions for improving brewing yeast in order to ensure product safety as well as to increase overall quality of alcoholic beverages.
Raatz, Susan K.; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J.
Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction. PMID:23538940
Smith, Andrew H.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Hall, Lynsey S.; Fernandez‐Pujals, Ana M.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Smith, Blair H.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.
Abstract Alcohol dependence is frequently co‐morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale‐Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population‐based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = −0.027; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.001, β = −0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = −0.036; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.00005, β = −0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10−7, β = −0.054; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.000012, β = −0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. PMID:25865819
Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María- José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia
Background: Results from several cohort and case–control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Compared with participants consuming 0.1–4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1–1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60–0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes. Conclusions: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:26313664
Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde
Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.
Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.
Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123
Parcesepe, Angela M.; L'Engle, Kelly L.; Martin, Sandra L.; Green, Sherri; Sinkele, William; Suchindran, Chirayath; Speizer, Ilene S.; Mwarogo, Peter; Kingola, Nzioki
Aims To evaluate whether an alcohol harm reduction intervention was associated with reduced interpersonal violence or engagement in sex work among female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting HIV prevention drop-in centers in Mombasa, Kenya. Participants 818 women 18 or older in Mombasa who visited HIV prevention drop-in centers, were moderate-risk drinkers and engaged in transactional sex in past six months (410 and 408 in intervention and control arms, respectively). Intervention 6 session alcohol harm reduction intervention. Comparator 6 session non-alcohol related nutrition intervention. Measurements In-person interviews were conducted at enrollment, immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. General linear mixed models examined associations between intervention assignment and recent violence (physical violence, verbal abuse, and being robbed in the past 30 days) from paying and non-paying sex partners and engagement in sex work in the past 30 days. Findings The alcohol intervention was associated with statistically significant decreases in physical violence from paying partners at 6 months post-intervention and verbal abuse from paying partners immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Those assigned to the alcohol intervention had significantly reduced odds of engaging in sex work immediately post-intervention and 6-months post-intervention. Conclusions The alcohol intervention was associated with reductions in some forms of violence and with reductions in engagement in sex work among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. PMID:26872880
Weiss, William W.; Broadhead, Ron; Mundorf, William R.
A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, was developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs.
The physiological changes of adolescence may promote risk-taking behaviors, including binge drinking. Approximately 40% of alcoholics were already drinking heavily in late adolescence. Most cases of alcoholism are established by the age of 30 years with the peak prevalence at 18-23 years of age. Therefore the key time frame for the development, and prevention, of alcoholism lies in adolescence and young adulthood. Severe childhood stressors have been associated with increased vulnerability to addiction, however, not all stress-exposed children go on to develop alcoholism. Origins of resilience can be both genetic (variation in alcohol-metabolizing genes, increased susceptibility to alcohol's sedative effects) and environmental (lack of alcohol availability, positive peer and parental support). Genetic vulnerability is likely to be conferred by multiple genes of small to modest effects, possibly only apparent in gene-environment interactions. For example, it has been shown that childhood maltreatment interacts with a monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene variant to predict antisocial behavior that is often associated with alcoholism, and an interaction between early life stress and a serotonin transporter promoter variant predicts alcohol abuse in nonhuman primates and depression in humans. In addition, a common Met158 variant in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene can confer both risk and resilience to alcoholism in different drinking environments. It is likely that a complex mix of gene(s)-environment(s) interactions underlie addiction vulnerability and development. Risk-resilience factors can best be determined in longitudinal studies, preferably starting during pregnancy. This kind of research is important for planning future measures to prevent harmful drinking in adolescence.
Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.
Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567
Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536
Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling
Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.
Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha
Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.
Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria
The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.
Sandesara, Pratik B; Lambert, Cameron T; Gordon, Neil F; Fletcher, Gerald F; Franklin, Barry A; Wenger, Nanette K; Sperling, Laurence
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) continues to increase annually in the United States along with its associated enormous costs. A multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and risk reduction program is an essential component of ASCVD prevention and management. Despite the strong evidence for CR in the secondary prevention of ASCVD, it remains vastly underutilized due to significant barriers. The current model of CR delivery is unsustainable and needs significant improvement to provide cost-effective, patient-centered, comprehensive secondary ASCVD prevention.
Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality
Matos, Tomás D; Robles, Rafaela R; Sahai, Hardeo; Colón, Hector M; Reyes, Juan C; Marrero, C Amalia; Calderón, José M; Shepard, Elizabeth W
This paper reports results of an analysis of the association between alcohol intoxication and injection and sexual HIV risk behaviors among 557 Hispanic heroin and cocaine injectors, not in treatment, who were recruited in poor communities in Puerto Rico. Subjects were part of a longitudinal prevention-intervention study aimed at reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors. Participants reported a high prevalence of co-occurring conditions, particularly symptoms of severe depression (52%) and severe anxiety (37%), measured by Beck's Depression Index and Beck's Anxiety Index, respectively. Alcohol intoxication during the last 30 days was reported by 18% of participants. Associations were found between alcohol intoxication and both injection and sexual risk behaviors. In the bivariate analysis, subjects reporting alcohol intoxication were more likely to inject three or more times per day, pool money to buy drugs, share needles, and share cotton. They were also significantly more likely to have a casual or paying sex partner and to have unprotected sex with these partners. After adjustment, sharing needles and cotton, having sex with a paying partner or casual partner, and exchanging sex for money or drugs were significantly related to alcohol intoxication. HIV prevention programs, to be effective, must address alcohol intoxication and its relation to injection and sexual risk behaviors as a central issue in HIV prevention among drug injectors.
Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June Price; Mashek, Debra; Forkner, Peter; Dearing, Ronda
This article examines the relationship of shame, guilt, and symptoms of alcohol dependence to pre-incarceration HIV risk behaviors in an ongoing study in a metropolitan jail. Between 2002 and 2004 an ethnically diverse sample of 368 male inmates (mean age = 31, SD = 9.7), were interviewed on a variety of constructs including shame- and guilt-proneness (TOSCA-SD; Hanson and Tangney, 1996), alcohol dependence (TCU-CRTF; Simpson and Knight, 1998), and HIV risk behavior (TCU-ARA; Simpson, 1997). Symptoms of alcohol dependence were associated with elevated levels of HIV risk behavior (risky needle use and unprotected sex) prior to incarceration. Guilt-proneness was negatively related to risky sexual behavior. In addition, there was an interaction between shame and symptoms of alcohol dependence. Specifically, among those who were low on alcohol dependence, shame-proneness was negatively related to risky sexual behavior. The study's limitations are noted and findings are discussed in the context of the importance of considering moral emotions and alcohol dependence when designing programs to reduce HIV risk.
Ao, Trong Thanh-Hoang; Sam, Noel; Kiwelu, Ireen; Mahal, Ajay; Subramanian, S V; Wyshak, Grace; Kapiga, Saidi
There is limited information on alcohol problem drinking, which has been associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, among female bar/hotel workers in Africa. This paper aimed to identify the individual- and facility-level determinants of alcohol problem drinking in this setting. Problem drinking was defined based on the CAGE alcohol screening scale. Multi-level logistic regression was used to identify individual- and facility-level factors associated with problem drinking. About 37.3% of women (N = 1629) were classified as having probable or definite problem drinking. In multi-level analysis, main characteristics associated with problem drinking included: having 3-4 partners in the past 5 years compared to having 1-2, used a condom in the last sex comparing to non-use, history of transactional sex, having more pregnancies, and facilities whose employees do not live on the premises. Interventions which combine alcohol and sexual risk reduction counseling are urgently needed in this population.
Morojele, Neo K.; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T.; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D.H.
Abstract Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. PMID:24750106
Brower, M.C.; Bell, K.; Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M.; Spinney P.
This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen A
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) contains 10% of the world's population and 60% of all people living with AIDS. Consequently, research investigating risk factors associated with HIV acquisition is a public health priority and one such risk factor is alcohol consumption. This article is a review of empirical studies on the association of alcohol and high-risk sexual behavior in SSA, with a focus on measurable outcomes generated from quantitative data. A critique of the literature is provided, with attention to methodological concerns. Empirically based theoretical orientations were used to interpret the reviewed research and to stimulate discussion about how to improve the state of the current literature. Based on this discussion, a model of alcohol and high-risk sexual behavior in an African context is proposed in order to integrate the existing literature and highlight areas in need of continued research.
Sullivan, Kristen; Cosden, Merith
Students often drink alcohol at their highest levels in college. It is suggested that students with the most severe drinking problems begin drinking by or in high school, but studies on high school drinking tend to focus on students who have academic problems and are not college-bound. The purpose of this study was to examine high school drinking…
Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Ou, Chun-Yen; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Lin, Forn-Chia; Yang, Ming-Wei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chen, Yu-Shan; Chang, Jeffrey S
This analysis evaluated the association between serum retinol levels and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) and whether the association is modulated by the use of alcohol, betel quid, or cigarette. In addition, we also examined the association between HNC risk and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms, TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272, that have been associated with serum retinol levels. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk among 160 HNC cases and 198 controls. The associations between TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272 and serum retinol levels or HNC risk were evaluated by linear regression and unconditional logistic regression, respectively, for 418 HNC cases and 497 controls. The results showed that HNC cases had a lower mean serum retinol level compared with controls (845.3 μg/L vs 914.8 μg/L, P = 0.03). An inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk occurred among never/occasional alcohol drinkers but not among regular drinkers. TTR rs1667255 was associated with serum retinol levels; however, neither TTR rs1667255 nor RBP4 rs10882272 was associated with HNC risk. In summary, this study showed an inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk, specifically among never/occasional alcohol drinkers. More studies are needed to establish the underlying biologic mechanisms for the inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk and the modulation of this relationship by alcohol drinking.
Objectives This paper looks into the socioeconomic determinants of risk of harmful alcohol drinking and of the transitions between risk categories over time among the population aged 50 or over in England. Setting Community-dwellers across England. Participants Respondents to the English Longitudinal Survey of Ageing, waves 4 and 5. Results (Confidence level at 95% or higher, except when stated): ▸ Higher risk drinking falls with age and there is a non-linear association between age and risk for men, peaking in their mid-60s. ▸ Retirement and income are positively associated with a higher risk for women but not for men. ▸ Education and smoking are positively associated for both sexes. ▸ Loneliness and depression are not associated. ▸ Caring responsibilities reduce risk among women. ▸ Single, separated or divorced men show a greater risk of harmful drinking (at 10% confidence level). ▸ For women, being younger and having a higher income at baseline increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. ▸ For men, not eating healthily, being younger and having a higher income increase the probability of becoming a higher risk alcohol drinker. Furthermore, the presence of children living in the household, being lonely, being older and having a lower income are associated with ceasing to be a higher risk alcohol drinker over time. Conclusions Several socioeconomic factors found to be associated with high-risk alcohol consumption behaviour among older people would align with those promoted by the ‘successful ageing’ policy framework. PMID:26204909
Elliott, Jennifer C.; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Goodwin, Renee D.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah
Background and aims Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Design Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over three years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. Setting National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n=1,172) and nicotine dependence (n=4,017). Measurements Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g., parental divorce). Findings Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical neglect, predicted three-year persistence of alcohol dependence (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]: 1.50–2.99, 95% CIs 1.04–4.68) and nicotine dependence (AORs: 1.37–1.74, 95% CIs 1.13–2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AORs: 1.53–3.02, 95% CIs 1.07–4.71) and nicotine persistence (AORs: 1.35–1.72, 95% CIs 1.11–2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AORs: 1.19–1.36, 95% CIs 1.11–1.56). Conclusions A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of
Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.
Ordinary convection oven with capacity of 1 ft.(sup3) modified for use in drying objects washed in isopropyl alcohol. Nitrogen-purge equipment and safety interlocks added to prevent explosive ignition of flammable solvent evaporating from object to be dried.
... excess and will avoid any justification for excessive drinking because people think it will be good for their heart. These data pretty clearly prove the opposite," he added. He suggested the new research may be more reliable ... on self-reports of alcohol abuse," Marcus said. "That can be an unreliable ...
Chen, Yixin; Yang, Z. Janet
We conducted an experiment to examine whether risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer influence college students' binge-drinking intention and to explore how message formats (text, table, and graph) and numeracy influence risk perceptions of alcohol-attributable cancer. We found that a majority of participants (87%) perceive some risks of…
Untied, Amy S.; Orchowski, Lindsay M.; Lazar, Vanessa
The present study examines alcohol use, expectancies (i.e., beliefs about the outcomes of alcohol consumption), and college men’s (n = 127) and women’s (n = 191) respective perceptions of risk to perpetrate/experience sexual violence. Interactions between alcohol consumption and expectancies were examined. Alcohol expectancies regarding assertiveness increased women’s perceived risk for sexual intercourse via alcohol/drugs. Among women reporting high alcohol use, global expectancies were positively associated with perceived risk for sexual intercourse via alcohol/drugs. Furthermore, among women reporting low alcohol use, expectancies regarding assertiveness were positively associated with perceived risk for coerced sexual contact. Implications are discussed. PMID:23955932
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)
Gunn, Rachel L.; Smith, Gregory T.
Little is known about the correlates and potential causes of very early drinking. The authors proposed this risk theory: (a) pubertal onset is associated with increased levels of positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly when experiencing intensely positive mood), negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed), and sensation seeking; (b) those traits predict increased endorsement of high-risk alcohol expectancies; (c) the expectancies predict drinker status among 5th graders; and (d) the apparent influence of positive urgency, negative urgency, and sensation seeking on drinker status is mediated by alcohol expectancies. The authors conducted a concurrent test of whether the relationships among these variables were consistent with the theory in a sample of 1,843 5th grade students. In a well-fitting structural model, their hypotheses were supported. Drinker status among 5th graders is not just a function of context and factors external to children: it is predictable from a combination of pubertal status, personality characteristics, and learned alcohol expectancies. PMID:20822192
Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna
Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.
Barker, Jacqueline M; Torregrossa, Mary M; Taylor, Jane R
The factors underlying vulnerability to alcoholism are largely unknown. We identified in rodents an innate endophenotype predicting individual risk for alcohol-related behaviors that was associated with decreased expression of the neuroplasticity-related polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM). Depletion of PSA-NCAM in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was sufficient to render mice unable to extinguish alcohol seeking, indicating a causal role of naturally occurring variation. These data suggest a mechanism of aberrant prefrontal neuroplasticity that underlies enhanced propensity for inflexible addiction-related behavior.
Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Tang, Yongqiang; Ranganathan, Mohini; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Jones, Kevin A; Chorlian, David B; Kamarajan, Chella; Stimus, Arthur; Kuperman, Samuel; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J; Bauer, Lance O; Schuckit, Marc A; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice
This study investigates early evoked gamma band activity in male adolescent subjects at high risk for alcoholism (HR; n=68) and normal controls (LR; n=27) during a visual oddball task. A time-frequency representation method was applied to EEG data in order to obtain stimulus related early evoked (phase-locked) gamma band activity (29-45 Hz) and was analyzed within a 0-150 ms time window range. Significant reduction of the early evoked gamma band response in the frontal and parietal regions during target stimulus processing was observed in HR subjects compared to LR subjects. Additionally, the HR group showed less differentiation between target and non-target stimuli in both frontal and parietal regions compared to the LR group, indicating difficulty in early stimulus processing, probably due to a dysfunctional frontoparietal attentional network. The results indicate that the deficient early evoked gamma band response may precede the development of alcoholism and could be a potential endophenotypic marker of alcoholism risk.
Wang, Xiaofei; Cheng, Wenli; Li, Jingdong; Zhu, Jingqiang
Background It is still inconclusive whether alcohol consumption affects the risk of thyroid cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of available epidemiological data to address this issue. Results Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidential intervals (CIs) of thyroid cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) for any drinkers, 0.81 (95% CI 0.70-0.93) for light and 0.71 (95% CI 0.63-0.79) for moderate drinkers. The dose–response analysis suggested that there is no evidence of a dose-risk relationship between alcohol intaking and thyroid cancer risk (P = 0.112). Methods Eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMbase databases. A total of 24 studies, included 9,990 cases with thyroid cancer, were included in this meta-analysis. We defined light alcohol intake as ≤ one drink/day and moderate as >one drink/day. The summary risk estimates were calculated by the random effects model. A dose-response analysis was also conducted for modeling the dose-risk relation. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirmed an inverse association between alcohol consumption and thyroid cancer risk. Further studies are needed to better understand the potential mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:27385005
Ku, Young; Lin, Chia-Nan; Hou, Wei-Ming
TiO₂ nanoparticles were prepared with various linear alkyl chains of alcohols under a sol-gel process. The structure characterization and the photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium of the TiO₂ nanoparticles were investigated. The phase transformation temperature, crystal aggregation and surface area of prepared TiO₂ samples were found to be strongly influenced by alcohol used. The phase transformation from anatase to rutile was retarded and the surface area was reduced for TiO₂ prepared with alcohols of longer alkyl chain. TiO₂ nanoparticles prepared with methanol or ethanol exhibited higher photocatalytic reduction activity of hexavalent chromium possibly due to greater and more positively charged surface area.
Laude, Jennifer R.; Fillmore, Mark T.
Background Those who place their vehicles closer to others on the roadway are said to have high risk acceptance, and this contributes to motor vehicle crashes. However, the effect of alcohol on this risky driving behavior is understudied. Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to risky driving are also not well understood. Further, whether increased risk-taking behavior in a driver co-occurs with pronounced impairment in the driver’s skill is unknown. Methods The study examined the effect of alcohol on risk and skill-relevant driving and whether riskier drivers were also those who showed high skill impairment. The relationship between driving behavior and inhibitory control was also tested. Participants completed two driving simulations. In the first drive test, risky driving was encouraged and in the second test, skill-relevant driving was emphasized. The cued go/no-go task provided a measure inhibitory control. Tests were completed under a 0.65 g/kg alcohol and 0.0 g/kg (placebo) dose of alcohol. Results Alcohol impaired a measure of driving skill and increased driver risk taking. It was also found that riskier drivers were not necessarily those who showed the greatest impairments in skill. Poorer inhibitory control was associated with greater driver risk in the sober state. Conclusions Alcohol-induced risk-taking behaviors can be dissociable from impairing effects on driver skill and poor inhibitory control is selectively related to risky driving. As such, a distinction between skill and risk-related driving needs to be made in the investigation of problems concerning DUI-related accidents and fatalities in future research. PMID:26231663
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk.
Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje
We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund.
Zlatić, Vinko; Gabbi, Giampaolo; Abraham, Hrvoje
We analyze the possibility of reduction of systemic risk in financial markets through Pigouvian taxation of financial institutions, which is used to support the rescue fund. We introduce the concept of the cascade risk with a clear operational definition as a subclass and a network related measure of the systemic risk. Using financial networks constructed from real Italian money market data and using realistic parameters, we show that the cascade risk can be substantially reduced by a small rate of taxation and by means of a simple strategy of the money transfer from the rescue fund to interbanking market subjects. Furthermore, we show that while negative effects on the return on investment (ROI) are direct and certain, an overall positive effect on risk adjusted return on investments (ROIRA) is visible. Please note that the taxation is introduced as a monetary/regulatory, not as a _scal measure, as the term could suggest. The rescue fund is implemented in a form of a common reserve fund. PMID:26177351
Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Heitmann, Berit L.; Grønbæk, Morten; O’Reilly, Eilis; Bälter, Katarina; Goldbourt, Uri; Hallmans, Göran; Knekt, Paul; Liu, Simin; Pereira, Mark; Pietinen, Pirjo; Spiegelman, Donna; Stevens, June; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Ascherio, Alberto
Background Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). This protective effect of alcohol, however, may be confined to middle-aged or older individuals. CHD Incidence is low in men younger than 40 and in women younger than 50 years and for this reason, study cohorts rarely have the power to investigate effects of alcohol on CHD risk in younger adults. This study examined whether the beneficial effect of alcohol on CHD depends on age. Methods and results A pooled analysis of eight prospective studies from North America and Europe including 192,067 women and 74,919 men free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers at baseline. Average daily alcohol intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency or diet history questionnaire. An inverse association between alcohol and risk of coronary heart disease was observed in all age groups: hazard ratios among moderately drinking men (5.0–29.9 g/day) aged 39–50, 50–59, and 60+ years were 0.58 (95% C.I. 0.36 to 0.93), 0.72 (95% C.I. 0.60–0.86), and 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.75 to 0.97) compared with abstainers. However, the analyses indicated a smaller incidence rate difference (IRD) between abstainers and moderate consumers in younger adults (IRD=45 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 8 to 84), than in middle-aged (IRD=64 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 24 to 102) and older adults (IRD=89 per 100,000; 90% C.I. 44 to 140). Similar results were observed in women. Conclusions Alcohol is also associated with a decreased risk of CHD in younger adults; however, the absolute risk was small compared with middle-aged and older adults. PMID:20351238
Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier
Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198
Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth L.
The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for nontoxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of nontoxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of nontoxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of nontoxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that nontoxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.
Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Fisher, Kenneth
The Propulsion and Cryogenics Advanced Development (PCAD) Project s primary objective is to develop propulsion system technologies for non-toxic or "green" propellants. The PCAD project focuses on the development of non-toxic propulsion technologies needed to provide necessary data and relevant experience to support informed decisions on implementation of non-toxic propellants for space missions. Implementation of non-toxic propellants in high performance propulsion systems offers NASA an opportunity to consider other options than current hypergolic propellants. The PCAD Project is emphasizing technology efforts in reaction control system (RCS) thruster designs, ascent main engines (AME), and descent main engines (DME). PCAD has a series of tasks and contracts to conduct risk reduction and/or retirement activities to demonstrate that non-toxic cryogenic propellants can be a feasible option for space missions. Work has focused on 1) reducing the risk of liquid oxygen/liquid methane ignition, demonstrating the key enabling technologies, and validating performance levels for reaction control engines for use on descent and ascent stages; 2) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for liquid oxygen/liquid methane ascent engines; and 3) demonstrating the key enabling technologies and validating performance levels for deep throttling liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen descent engines. The progress of these risk reduction and/or retirement activities will be presented.
Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Jagers, Robert J.; Wilson, Karen D.; Owens, Kristal
African-American adolescents have lower rates of alcohol consumption than White youth. However, African-American youth suffer disproportionately more adverse social, mental, and physical health outcomes related to alcohol use. Affiliating with negative peers is a risk factor for alcohol initiation and consumption. Cultural variables have shown…
Kadono, Mayuko; Hasegawa, Goji; Shigeta, Masako; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Ueda, Miho; Fukui, Michiaki; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Naoto
Study Objectives: Sleep duration and alcohol use influence metabolic function. However, limited information exists regarding a combined effect of alcohol and sleep duration on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the potential interaction effect of alcohol and inappropriate sleep duration on dysglycemia epidemiologically. Design: Cross-sectional and observational retrospective study Setting: A medical health checkup program in a general hospital Participants: 2933 apparently healthy Japanese individuals, aged 46 to 60 years Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: We examined the relationships between usual sleep duration and dysglycemia, and furthermore assessed the combined effects of alcohol consumption and sleep time on glucose dysmetabolism. A U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and the prevalence of hyperglycemia (fasting plasma glucose level ≥110 mg/dL) was observed when sleep duration was treated as a continuous variables and centered at 7.0 h (quadratic term P = 0.024). In a multivariate quadratic regression model, there was a significant interaction effect between sleep duration and alcohol consumption category (nondrinkers, light-moderate drinkers [ethanol comsumption ≤210 g/wk], and heavy drinkers [ethanol consumption of >210 g/wk]) on fasting plasma glucose levels, with shorter or longer sleep duration being more diabetogenic in individuals who consumed more alcohol (P interaction = 0.018). Furthermore, we found a similar interaction effect of sleep duration and alcohol consumption on the incidence of hyperglycemia during the past 5 years (P interaction = 0.039). Conclusion: Alcohol interacts with reduced sleep duration to increase the risk of dysglycemia. Citation:: Kadono M; Hasegawa G; Shigeta M; Nakazawa A; Ueda M; Fukui M; Yoshikawa T; Nakamura N. Joint effect of alcohol and usual sleep duration on the risk of dysglycemia. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1341-1347. PMID:17969468
Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Valent, Francesca; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Marchetti, Riccardo; Barbone, Fabio
Background The case-crossover (CC) design has proved effective to investigate the association between alcohol use and injuries in general, but has never been applied to study alcohol use and road traffic crashes (RTCs) specifically. This study aims at investigating the association between alcohol and meal consumption and the risk of RTCs using intrapersonal comparisons of subjects while driving. Methods Drivers admitted to an Italian emergency room (ER) after RTCs in 2007 were interviewed about personal, vehicle, and crash characteristics as well as hourly patterns of driving, and alcohol and food intake in the 24 hours before the crash. The odds ratio (OR) of a RTC was estimated through a CC, matched pair interval approach. Alcohol and meal consumption 6 and 2 hours before the RTC (case exposure window) were compared with exposures in earlier control windows of analogous length. Results Of 574 patients enrolled, 326 (56.8%) reported previous driving from 6 to 18 hours before the RTC and were eligible for analysis. The ORs (mutually adjusted) were 2.25 (95%CI 1.11-4.57) for alcohol and 0.94 (0.47-1.88) for meals. OR for alcohol was already increased at low (1-2 units) doses - 2.17 (1.03-4.57) and the trend of increase for each unit was significant - 1.64 (95%CI 1.05-2.57). In drivers at fault the OR for alcohol was 21.22 (2.31-194.79). The OR estimate for meal consumption seemed to increase in case of previous sleep deprivation, 2.06 (0.25-17.00). Conclusion Each single unit of acute alcohol consumption increases the risk of RTCs, in contrast with the 'legal' threshold allowed in some countries. Meal consumption is not associated with RTCs, but its combined effects with sleepiness need further elucidation. PMID:19723319
Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich
Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520
Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922
Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.
Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne
The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.
Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V
The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.
Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.
The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476
Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noël, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.
In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.
Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.
In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.
Coastal cities are among the world's most vulnerable communities and as their populations grow and the sea level rise, their vulnerability is increasing. Recent examples include the Japanese earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the typhoons in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Taiwan and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper will discuss the exposure, vulnerability and hazards affecting large coastal cities and the role of a changing climate in their modification. A key question is what lessons have been learned and where future research should lay its emphasis. Through START and the new Canadian-funded project for Bangkok, Manila, Lagos and Vancouver, Coastal Cities at Risk research is advancing and an integrated assessment approach is being proposed to analyse options for risk reduction and will be described in this paper.
Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care.
Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William
Objective: National population data on racial/ethnic disparities and risk of alcohol-related injury are scarce. Alcohol-related injury and drinking patterns are examined in a sample of respondents from four (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010) U.S. National Alcohol Surveys using risk function analysis. Method: Self-reported consumption of 15,476 current drinkers was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed monthly and, separately, the frequency of consuming five or more drinks in a day (5+ days) in the last year. Alcohol-related injury was defined as drinking within 6 hours before the event. Risk curves were defined, separately for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics, using fractional polynomial regression. Results: Risk was greatest for Hispanics to 110 drinks per month (3–4 drinks per day) and above 240 drinks per month, whereas risk was greatest for Whites between these levels. Blacks were at lower risk at all monthly volume levels when demographic and socioeconomic status characteristics were controlled for. Whites had the highest risk of an alcohol-related injury based on 5+ drinking days at all levels up to nearly daily 5+ drinking, whereas Blacks had the lowest risk at all levels of 5+ drinking. Conclusions: A disparity in alcohol-related injury was found for Hispanics compared with Whites at the same average monthly volume of consumption at lower and higher volume levels, but not at the same number of 5+ drinking days, and a lower risk of alcohol-related injury was found for Blacks for both consumption measures when demographic and socioeconomic status characteristics were taken into account. Although exposure to hazards other than alcohol, which could account for some of the racial/ethnic disparity observed, was not taken into account, these mixed findings suggest this is an important area deserving future research attention. PMID:26751355
Ashenhurst, James R; Jentsch, J David; Ray, Lara A
The relationship between risk-taking behavior and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms is poorly understood. This study employed a modified version of a behavioral measure of risk-taking, the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), to examine its relationship to alcohol use and related symptoms in a community sample of individuals with or at risk for AUD. A total of 158 (71.9% male) participants completed a testing battery that included the BART, a structured diagnostic interview for AUD, and measures of alcohol use and related problems. Estimates of IQ and working memory were assessed as covariates. Results indicated that the relationship between risk-taking propensity, as assessed by the BART, and alcohol problems was significant and negative. Individuals with higher symptom count made fewer pumps per trial on the BART, indicating less risk-taking. It is important to note that this relationship was attenuated when controlling for estimated IQ and working memory span. Further examination demonstrated that IQ and age mediated the relationship between risk-taking propensity and symptom count. The main negative relationship observed between risk-taking on the BART and alcohol use and AUD symptomatology in this sample stands in contrast to the positive relationships observed in adolescent and nonclinical samples. Together, these findings highlight the need to consider development and the course of addiction to fully elucidate the effects of risky-decision making on AUD liability. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the importance of inclusion of neurocognitive covariates (IQ), as well as demographic variables (age) when using this task.
Uehara, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko; Kinuhata, Shigeki; Shibata, Mikiko; Oue, Keiko; Kambe, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Kunihiko
Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with a decreased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Whether drinking pattern is associated with the risk of proteinuria is unknown. Methods Study subjects were 9154 non-diabetic Japanese men aged 40–55 years, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, no proteinuria, and no use of antihypertensive medications at entry. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained by questionnaire. We defined “consecutive proteinuria” as proteinuria detected twice consecutively as 1+ or higher on urine dipstick at annual examinations. Results During the 81 147 person-years follow-up period, 385 subjects developed consecutive proteinuria. For subjects who reported drinking 4–7 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (hazard ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36–0.80) compared with non-drinkers. However, alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was significantly associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.01–3.14). For subjects who reported drinking 1–3 days per week, alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with a decreased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.51–1.12), and alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day was associated with an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria (HR 1.58; 95% CI, 0.72–3.46), but these associations did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Men with frequent alcohol consumption of 0.1–23.0 g ethanol/drinking day had the lowest risk of consecutive proteinuria, while those with frequent alcohol consumption of ≥69.1 g ethanol/drinking day had an increased risk of consecutive proteinuria. PMID:26902169
Some 60,000 people worldwide die annually in natural disasters, mostly due to the collapse of buildings in earthquakes, and primarily in the developing world. This is despite the fact that engineering solutions exist that can eliminate almost completely the risk of such deaths. Why is this? The solutions are expensive and technically demanding, so their cost-benefit ratio often is unfavourable as compared to other interventions. Nonetheless, there are various public disaster risk reduction interventions that are highly cost-effective. That such interventions frequently remain unimplemented or ineffectively executed points to a role for issues of political economy. Building regulations in developing countries appear to have limited impact in many cases, perhaps because of inadequate capacity and corruption. Public construction often is of low quality, perhaps for similar reasons. This suggests the need for approaches that emphasise simple and limited disaster risk regulation covering only the most at-risk structures-and that, preferably, non-experts can monitor-as well as numerous transparency and oversight mechanisms for public construction projects.
Calderon, Kristine S; Smallwood, Charles; Tipton, David A
This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values) are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03); diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002); total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001) as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04). Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05); and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001). These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information at the worksite to high risk CVD participants may impact CVD risk factors. PMID:18561517
Maes, Jan; Kervyn, Matthieu; Vranken, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Vanmaercke, Matthias; Mertens, Kewan; Jacobs, Liesbet; Poesen, Jean
Landslides constitute a serious problem globally. Moreover, landslide impact remains underestimated especially in the Global South. It is precisely there where the largest impact is experienced. An overview of measures taken to reduce risk of landslides in the Global South is however still lacking. Because in many countries of the Global South disaster risk reduction (DRR) is at an emerging stage, it is crucial to monitor the ongoing efforts (e.g. discussions on the Post-2015 Framework for DRR). The first objective of this study is to make an inventory of techniques and strategies that are applied to reduce risk from landslides in tropical countries. The second objective is to investigate what are the main bottlenecks for implementation of DRR strategies. In order to achieve these objectives, a review of both scientific and grey literature was conducted, supplemented with expert knowledge. The compilation of recommended and implemented DRR measures from landslide-prone tropical countries is based on an adapted classification proposed by the SafeLand project. According to Vaciago (2013), landslide risk can be reduced by either reducing the hazard, the vulnerability, the number or value of elements at risk or by sharing the residual risk. In addition, these measures can be combined with education and/or awareness raising and are influenced by governance structures and cultural beliefs. Global landslide datasets have been used to identify landslide-prone countries, augmented with region-specific datasets. Countries located in the tropics were selected in order to include landslide-prone countries with a different Human Development Index (HDI) but with a similar climate. Preliminary results support the statement made by Anderson (2013) that although the importance of shifting from post-disaster emergency actions to pre-disaster mitigation is acknowledged, in practice this paradigm shift seems rather limited. It is expected that this is especially the case in countries
Alexander, D. E.
This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of General Systems Theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the ''state of the system''. The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm. Sagitta in lapidem numquam figitur, interdum resiliens percutit dirigentem. ("An arrow never lodges in a stone: often it recoils upon its sender.") St. John Chrysostom (c. 347-407), Archbishop of Constantinople.
Alexander, D. E.
This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of general systems theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the "state of the system". The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm.
Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Reamer, David; Agage, Daniel; Preston, Kenzie L
We sought to develop and deploy a video-based smartphone-delivered mobile HIV Risk Reduction (mHIVRR) intervention to individuals in an addiction treatment clinic. We developed 3 video modules that consisted of a 10-minute HIVRR video, 11 acceptability questions, and 3 knowledge questions and deployed them as a secondary study within a larger study of ecological momentary and geographical momentary assessments. All 24 individuals who remained in the main study long enough completed the mHIVRR secondary study. All 3 videos met our a priori criteria for acceptability "as is" in the population: they achieved median scores of ≤2.5 on a 5-point Likert scale; ≤20% of the individuals gave them the most negative rating on the scale; a majority of the individuals stated that they would not prefer other formats over video-based smartphone-delivered one (all P < 0.05). Additionally, all of our video modules met our a priori criteria for feasibility: ≤20% of data were missing due to participant noncompliance and ≤20% were missing due to technical failure. We concluded that video-based mHIVRR education delivered via smartphone is acceptable, feasible and may increase HIV/STD risk reduction knowledge. Future studies, with pre-intervention assessments of knowledge and random assignment, are needed to confirm these findings.
Barnow, S; Lucht, M; Freyberger, H J
In earlier studies, children of alcoholics (COAs) reported more alcohol and drug problems and higher levels of maladaptive behaviour and psychiatric distress than non-COAs. However, increased exposure to drugs and alcohol among COAs does not fully explain this phenomenon. In our family-based study design, we were able to investigate specific risk factors for alcohol problems in adolescence. In a first step, we compared a variety of psychosocial risk factors in 90 adolescents (12-18 years of age) from families with at least one alcohol-abusing parent with those of 90 adolescents of parents without alcohol disorders. In a second step, we investigated the meaning of all included risk factors for alcohol problems of the adolescents. Our results give some support to the existence of a lower extent of emotional warmth and support by parents of children in the COA sample. Moreover, males of the COA group reported more parental rejection and higher values on measures of attention problems and anxiety/depression than controls, whereas there were no such differences between females of the COA group and their control counterparts. Additionally, logistic regression analysis revealed that only the membership in a substance-using peer group and higher age are important risk factors for alcohol problems during adolescence. Considering our results, it is of great importance (a) to identify families at risk at the earliest possible stage and (b) to develop intervention and prevention programs further for parents and children to increase social competence and protect children at risk from later alcohol abuse.
Platek, Mary E.; Shields, Peter G.; Marian, Catalin; McCann, Susan E.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Nie, Jing; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Millen, Amy E.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Quick, Sylvia K.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.
It has been hypothesized that effects of alcohol consumption on one-carbon metabolism may explain, in part, the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferease (MTR) genes express key enzymes in this pathway. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) and MTR (rs1805087) with breast cancer risk and their interaction with alcohol consumption in a case-control study, the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. Cases (n=1063) were women with primary, incident breast cancer and controls (n= 1890) were frequency matched to cases on age and race. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found no association of MTHFR or MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer. In the original case control study, there was a nonsignificant increased odds of breast cancer among women with higher lifetime drinking. In the current study, there was no evidence of an interaction of genotype and alcohol in premenopausal women. However, among postmenopausal women there was an increase in breast cancer risk for women who were homozygote TT for MTHFR C677T and had high lifetime alcohol intake (≥1161.84 ounces) (OR=1.92, CI=1.13–3.28) and for those who had a high number of drinks per drinking day (> 1.91 drinks/day) (OR=1.80, CI=1.03–3.28) compared to nondrinkers who were homozygote CC. Our findings indicate that among postmenopausal women, increased breast cancer risk with alcohol consumption may be as a result of effects on one-carbon metabolism. PMID:19706843
Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason
Background Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n=905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. PMID:25456331
Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Sartori, N; Salvia, R; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Di Francesco, V; Frulloni, L; Bovo, P; Vaona, B; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Cavallini, G; Pederzoli, P
The aim of this study was to compare alcohol and smoking as risk factors in the development of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. We considered only male subjects: (1) 630 patients with chronic pancreatitis who developed 12 pancreatic and 47 extrapancreatic cancers; (2) 69 patients with histologically well documented pancreatic cancer and no clinical history of chronic pancreatitis; and (3) 700 random controls taken from the Verona polling list and submitted to a complete medical check-up. Chronic pancreatitis subjects drink more than control subjects and more than subjects with pancreatic cancer without chronic pancreatitis (P<0.001). The percentage of smokers in the group with chronic pancreatitis is significantly higher than that in the control group [odds ratio (OR) 17.3; 95% CI 12.6-23.8; P<0.001] and in the group with pancreatic carcinomas but with no history of chronic pancreatitis (OR 5.3; 95% CI 3.0-9.4; P<0.001). In conclusion, our study shows that: (1) the risk of chronic pancreatitis correlates both with alcohol intake and with cigarette smoking with a trend indicating that the risk increases with increased alcohol intake and cigarette consumption; (2) alcohol and smoking are statistically independent risk factors for chronic pancreatitis; and (3) the risk of pancreatic cancer correlates positively with cigarette smoking but not with drinking.
Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon
Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with evidence-based information and advice on the management of at-risk drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD). Sources of information We conducted a nonsystematic literature review using search terms that included primary care; screening, interventions, management, and treatment; and at-risk drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol dependence, and alcohol abuse; as well as specific medical and counseling interventions of relevance to primary care. Main message For their patients with at-risk drinking and AUD, physicians should counsel and, when indicated (ie, in patients with moderate or severe AUD), prescribe and connect. Counsel: Offer all patients with at-risk drinking a brief counseling session and follow-up. Offer all patients with AUD counseling sessions and ongoing (frequent and regular) follow-up. Prescribe: Offer medications (disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to all patients with moderate or severe AUD. Connect: Encourage patients with AUD to attend counseling, day or residential treatment programs, and support groups. If indicated, refer patients to an addiction medicine physician, concurrent mental health and addiction services, or specialized trauma therapy. Conclusion Family physicians can effectively manage patients with at-risk drinking and AUD. PMID:26071155
This is the final report and addresses all of the work performed on this program. Specifically, it covers vehicle architecture background, definition of six baseline engine cycles, reliability baseline (space shuttle main engine QRAS), and component level reliability/performance/cost for the six baseline cycles, and selection of 3 cycles for further study. This report further addresses technology improvement selection and component level reliability/performance/cost for the three cycles selected for further study, as well as risk reduction plans, and recommendation for future studies.
Miller, Ann C; Nelson, A Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S; Shin, Sonya S
Russian Federation's (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed.
Choi, Namkee G.; Marti, C. Nate Nathan; DiNitto, Diana M.; Choi, Bryan Y.
Introduction Late middle-aged and older adults’ share of emergency department (ED) visits is increasing more than other age groups. ED visits by individuals with substance-related problems are also increasing. This paper was intended to identify subgroups of individuals aged 50+ by their risk for ED visits by examining their health/mental health status and alcohol use patterns. Methods Data came from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey’s Sample Adult file (n=15,713). Following descriptive analysis of sample characteristics by alcohol use patterns, latent class analysis (LCA) modeling was fit using alcohol use pattern (lifetime abstainers, ex-drinkers, current infrequent/light/moderate drinkers, and current heavy drinkers), chronic health and mental health status, and past-year ED visits as indicators. Results LCA identified a four-class model. All members of Class 1 (35% of the sample; lowest-risk group) were infrequent/light/moderate drinkers and exhibited the lowest probabilities of chronic health/mental health problems; Class 2 (21%; low-risk group) consisted entirely of lifetime abstainers and, despite being the oldest group, exhibited low probabilities of health/mental health problems; Class 3 (37%; moderate-risk group) was evenly divided between ex-drinkers and heavy drinkers; and Class 4 (7%; high-risk group) included all four groups of drinkers but more ex-drinkers. In addition, Class 4 had the highest probabilities of chronic health/mental problems, unhealthy behaviors, and repeat ED visits, with the highest proportion of Blacks and the lowest proportions of college graduates and employed persons, indicating significant roles of these risk factors. Conclusion Alcohol nonuse/use (and quantity of use) and chronic health conditions are significant contributors to varying levels of ED visit risk. Clinicians need to help heavy-drinking older adults reduce unhealthy alcohol consumption and help both heavy drinkers and ex-drinkers improve chronic
Miller, Ann C.; Nelson, A. Katrina; Livchits, Viktoria; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Yanova, Galina; Yanov, Sergei; Connery, Hilary S.; Atwood, Sidney; Lastimoso, Charmaine S.; Shin, Sonya S.
Russian Federation’s (RF) HIV epidemic is the fastest growing of any country. This study explores factors associated with high HIV risk behavior in tuberculosis (TB) patients with alcohol use disorders in Tomsk, RF. This analysis was nested within the Integrated Management of Physician-delivered Alcohol Care for TB Patients (IMPACT, trial number NCT00675961) randomized controlled study of integrating alcohol treatment into TB treatment in Tomsk. Demographics, HIV risk behavior (defined as participant report of high-risk intravenous drug use and/or multiple sexual partners with inconsistent condom use in the last six months), clinical data, alcohol use, depression and psychosocial factors were collected from 196 participants (161 male and 35 female) at baseline. Forty-six participants (23.5%) endorsed HIV risk behavior at baseline. Incarceration history(Odds Ratio (OR)3.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95, 7.95), age under 41 (OR:2.97, CI:1.46, 6.04), drug addiction(OR: 3.60 CI:1.10, 11.77), history of a sexually transmitted disease(STD)(OR 2.00 CI:1.02, 3.90), low social capital (OR:2.81 CI:0.99, 8.03) and heavier alcohol use (OR:2.56 CI: 1.02, 6.46) were significantly more likely to be associated with HIV risk behavior at baseline. In adjusted analysis, age under 41(OR: 4.93, CI: 2.10, 11.58), incarceration history(OR: 3.56 CI:1.55, 8.17) and STD history (OR: 3.48, CI: 1.5, 8.10) continued to be significantly associated with HIV risk behavior. Understanding HIV transmission dynamics in Russia remains an urgent priority to inform strategies to address the epidemic. Larger studies addressing sex differences in risks and barriers to protective behavior are needed. PMID:26871943
Weitzman, E.; Chen, Y.; Subramanian, S
Study objective: To test whether college youth smoking risks are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability and control. Design: Hierarchical multilevel multivariable modelling of cross sectional survey data. Outcomes included self reported current (past 30 day) cigarette smoking and heavy episodic (binge) drinking. Setting: 120 nationally representative US colleges. Participants: 10 924 randomly selected students. Main results: Individual risks for smoking and binge drinking are independently associated with community patterns of alcohol availability, policy enforcement and control over and above individual perceptions about these factors, student and college characteristics, and school binge drinking rates. Youth exposed to high levels of alcohol availability are at higher risk of smoking (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.75, 7.44) and binge drinking (OR 4.22, 95% CI 2.25, 7.93) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to strongly enforced alcohol policy environments are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.16, 0.57) and binge drinking (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10, 0.31) than youth not so exposed; youth exposed to communities with strong parental controls are at lower risk for smoking (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01, 0.23) and binge drinking (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01, 0.21) than youth not so exposed. Individual risks related to environmental exposures differ for youth with varying perceptions about alcohol availability and policy control. Conclusions: Drinking environments in US college communities comprise strong independent risks for smoking. Smoking prevention models should be tested that include environmental drinking prevention strategies tailored to underlying perceptions and experiences of college youth. PMID:16286496
Irwin, Christopher; Goodwin, Alison; Leveritt, Michael; Davey, Andrew K; Desbrow, Ben
This study investigated the influence of exercise-induced dehydration on alcohol pharmacokinetics, subjective ratings of impairment, and risk-taking behaviours. Twelve male volunteers participated in 3 experimental trials completed in a randomised cross over design separated by at least 7 days. In one trial, participants exercised to cause dehydration of ~2.5% body weight loss. For the other trials, participants were required to be in a rested and euhydrated state. A set volume of alcohol was then consumed in each trial and participants were monitored over a 4h period. Blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol samples were collected throughout and analysed to calculate pharmacokinetic variables associated with the blood alcohol curve. Total urine production, estimates of BrAC, and subjective ratings of intoxication and impairment were also recorded throughout each trial. No difference was found in the pharmacokinetics of alcohol between any of the trial conditions. BrACs were higher than BACs for 2h following alcohol consumption, but lower at measures taken 3 and 4 h post ingestion. Participants' ratings of confusion and intoxication were significantly lower, and they were more willing to drive in the dehydration trial compared with one of the euhydration trials. These findings suggest that dehydration or other physiological changes associated with exercise may have an ability to influence the subjective effects of alcohol and increase the likelihood of risk-taking behaviours such as drink-driving. However, further research is required to examine the effects of alcohol under conditions of exercise-induced fluid loss in order to clarify these findings.
Hotton, Anna L; French, Audrey L; Hosek, Sybil G; Kendrick, Sabrina R; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L; Mehta, Supriya D
Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October-December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18-29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions.
Ray, L A; Sehl, M; Bujarski, S; Hutchison, K; Blaine, S; Enoch, M-A
The corticotropin-releasing hormone type I receptor (CRHR1) gene has been implicated in the liability for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly under conditions of stress. On the basis of the hypothesized effects of CRHR1 variation on stress reactivity, measures of adulthood traumatic stress exposure were analyzed for their interaction with CRHR1 haplotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting the risk for alcoholism. Phenotypic data on 2533 non-related Caucasian individuals (1167 alcoholics and 1366 controls) were culled from the publically available Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment genome-wide association study. Genotypes were available for 19 tag SNPs. Logistic regression models examined the interaction between CRHR1 haplotypes/SNPs and adulthood traumatic stress exposure in predicting alcoholism risk. Two haplotype blocks spanned CRHR1. Haplotype analyses identified one haplotype in the proximal block 1 (P = 0.029) and two haplotypes in the distal block 2 (P = 0.026, 0.042) that showed nominally significant (corrected P < 0.025) genotype × traumatic stress interactive effects on the likelihood of developing alcoholism. The block 1 haplotype effect was driven by SNPs rs110402 (P = 0.019) and rs242924 (P = 0.019). In block 2, rs17689966 (P = 0.018) showed significant and rs173365 (P = 0.026) showed nominally significant, gene × environment (G × E) effects on alcoholism status. This study extends the literature on the interplay between CRHR1 variation and alcoholism, in the context of exposure to traumatic stress. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of the extra hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor system dysregulation in the initiation and maintenance of alcoholism. Molecular and experimental studies are needed to more fully understand the mechanisms of risk and protection conferred by genetic variation at the identified loci.
Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M
The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death in China. Despite government efforts, the majority of hypertensive and diabetic patients in China do not receive proper treatment. Reducing CVD events requires long-term care that is proactive, patient-centred, community-based, and sustainable. We have designed a package of interventions for patients at high risk of CVD to be implemented by family doctors based in township hospitals (providers of primary care) in rural Zhejiang, China. This trial aims to determine whether the systematic CVD risk reduction package results in reduced CVD events among patients at risk of CVD compared with usual care, and whether the package is cost-effective and suitable for routine implementation and scale-up. Methods/Design This is a prospective, open-label, cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) with blinded data analysis. The trial will randomize 67 township hospitals with 31,708 participants in three counties in Zhejiang Province. Participants will be identified from existing health records and will comprise adults aged 50 to 74 years, with a calculated 10-year CVD risk of 20% or higher, or diabetes. In the intervention arm, participants will receive a package of interventions including: 1) healthy lifestyle counseling (smoking cessation, and salt, oil, and alcohol reduction); 2) prescription of a combination of drugs (antihypertensives, aspirin, and statin); and 3) adherence support for drug compliance and healthy lifestyle change. In the control arm, participants will receive usual care for hypertension and diabetes management at individual clinicians’ discretion. The primary outcome is the incidence of severe CVD events over 24 months of follow-up. All CVD events will be defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease (MONICA) definitions, diagnosed at the county hospital or higher level, and reported by the Zhejiang surveillance
Simpkin, Andrew J.; Haycock, Philip C.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zuccolo, Luisa
Background Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol. Methods Repeated measures of alcohol consumption from mothers and their offspring were collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We tested the association between 89 SNPs (identified from either published GWAS data or from functional literature) and repeated measures of alcohol consumption, separately in mothers (from ages 28–48) and offspring (from ages 15–21) who had ever reported drinking. We modelled log units of alcohol using a linear mixed model and calculated beta coefficients for each SNP separately. Cross-validation was used to determine an allelic score for alcohol consumption, and the AVENGEME algorithm employed to estimate variance of the trait explained. Results Following correction for multiple testing, one SNP (rs1229984) showed evidence for association with alcohol consumption (β = -0.177, SE = 0.042, p = <0.0001) in the mothers. No SNPs showed evidence for association in the offspring after correcting for multiple testing. The optimal allelic score was generated using p-value cut offs of 0.5 and 0.05 for the mothers and offspring respectively. These scores explained 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance. Conclusion Our PGRS explains a modest amount of the variance in alcohol consumption and larger sample sizes would be required to use our PGRS in an MR framework. PMID:27902751
Alia, Shaun M; Duong, Kathlynne; Liu, Toby; Jensen, Kurt; Yan, Yushan
Palladium (PdNTs) and gold nanotubes (AuNTs) were synthesized by the galvanic displacement of silver nanowires. PdNTs and AuNTs have wall thicknesses of 6 nm, outer diameters of 60 nm, and lengths of 5-10 and 5-20 μm, respectively. Rotating disk electrode experiments showed that the PdNTs and AuNTs have higher area normalized activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) than conventional nanoparticle catalysts. The PdNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 3.4, 2.2, and 3.7 times greater than that on carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles (Pd/C), bulk polycrystalline palladium, and carbon-supported platinum nanoparticles (Pt/C), respectively. The AuNTs produced an ORR area activity that was 2.3, 9.0, and 2.0 times greater than that on carbon-supported gold nanoparticles (Au/C), bulk polycrystalline gold, and Pt/C, respectively. The PdNTs also had lower onset potentials than Pd/C and Pt/C for the oxidation of methanol (0.236 V), ethanol (0.215 V), and ethylene glycol (0.251 V). In comparison to Pt/C, the PdNTs and AuNTs further demonstrated improved alcohol tolerance during the ORR.
In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes—and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters—tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which “vulnerability drivers” emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability. PMID:22919564
In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes-and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters-tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which "vulnerability drivers" emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability.
Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; Hesselbrock, Victor M
This longitudinal study followed 200 adolescents into early adulthood to explore the potential mediating roles that hostility, sadness, conduct problems, and risk-taking play in the relationship between paternal alcoholism and substance abuse. Results indicated that paternal alcoholism predicted hostility; in turn, hostility predicted risk taking, which predicted substance abuse.
Jirikowic, Tracy; Chen, Maida; Nash, Jennifer; Gendler, Beth; Olson, Heather Carmichael
Introduction: This article examines regulatory behaviors and physiological stress reactivity among 6-15 month-old infants with moderate to heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), a group at very high risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and self-regulation impairments, compared to low risk infants with no/low exposure. Participants: Eighteen…
Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T.P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (i.e., drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants Participants (N=516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Method Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences prior to and during the referral event. The dependent variable was whether participants received medical attention at an emergency department during the sanction event. Results Results indicated that older students, females who pregame, students with higher alcohol use screening scores, lighter drinkers, and higher numbers of drinks before the referral event all increased the odds of receiving medical attention. Pregaming alone was not significantly related to receiving medical attention in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Female students who pregame appear to be at risk for requiring hospitalization after drinking when controlling for the number of drinks consumed. PMID:24635415
Puttler, Leon I; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Heitzeg, Mary M; Zucker, Robert A
Alcohol-use disorders are a major public health issue worldwide. Although drinking and problematic alcohol use usually begins during adolescence, developmental origins of the disorder can be traced back to infancy and early childhood. Identification of early risk factors is essential to understanding developmental origins. Using data from the Michigan Longitudinal Study, an ongoing, prospective, high-risk family study, this article summarizes findings of family context and functioning of both children and parents. We draw attention to the development of the self, an understudied aspect of very young children being reared in alcoholic families that exacerbates exposure to high childhood adverse experiences. We also provide evidence demonstrating that young boys are embedded in a dynamic system of genes, epigenetic processes, brain organization, family dynamics, peers, community, and culture that strengthens risky developmental pathways if nothing is done to intervene during infancy and early childhood.
Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead
Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.
William W. Weiss
Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.
McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D
Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.
Lehmann, A G; Busnel, R G
The effects of noise, alcohol, and the combination of the two were studied on muscular fatigue in several mouse strains to investigate a possible interaction between the two stresses. Muscular fatigue was measured by latency to submersion during a forced-swimming test. Animals were exposed to acoustic stimuli of fixed frequency and intensity for 2h preceding the test. Ethanol was administered orally from 30 min to 3h 30 min prior to testing. Alcohol doses and sound intensities were subliminal when administered separately. While no significant interaction occurred between alcohol and audible sound, the interaction between alcohol and infrasound was highly significant indicating that their joint effects are more than merely additive. Blood alcohol measurements indicate that these interactive effects are prolonged for more than 2h after elimination of alcohol from the blood. Effects are similar in genetically deaf and hearing mice, implicating involvement of nonauditory pathways.
MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kahler, Christopher W; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M; Barnett, Nancy P; Monti, Peter M
The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior.
Slattery, M L; West, D W; Robison, L M; French, T K; Ford, M H; Schuman, K L; Sorenson, A W
We used data from a population-based case-control study to examine how use of tobacco products and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and caffeine relate to colon cancer in Utah. We hypothesized that low use of these substances is one factor contributing to the low colon cancer incidence in Utah and could help explain the low risk associated for colon cancer with being a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. In females, we observed little or no increase in risk of colon cancer from smoking cigarettes or from consumption of alcohol, caffeine, or coffee. Males who used pipes, however, experienced an increased risk for colon cancer (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.3-12.3). Risk for colon cancer associated with alcohol use was greatly attenuated after adjusting for caffeine and pipe use in males; males who consumed higher levels of caffeine during the two to three years prior to the interview were at higher risk than males who consumed low levels of caffeine (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.0-4.2); similar associations were observed for coffee consumption. Nonuse of these substances could explain the low colon cancer incidence rates observed in members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Utah males.
Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Ruttorf, Michaela; Winkelmann, Tobias; Witt, Stephanie H; Nieratschker, Vanessa; Rietschel, Marcella; Flor, Herta
People at high risk for alcoholism show deficits in aversive learning, as indicated by impaired electrodermal responses during fear conditioning, a basic form of associative learning that depends on the amygdala. A positive family history of alcohol dependence has also been related to decreased amygdala responses during emotional processing. In the present study we report reduced amygdala activity during the acquisition of conditioned fear in healthy carriers of a risk variant for alcoholism (rs2072450) in the NR2A subunit-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-receptor. These results indicate that rs2072450 might confer risk for alcohol dependence through deficient fear acquisition indexed by a diminished amygdala response during aversive learning, and provide a neural basis for a weak behavioral inhibition previously documented in individuals at high risk for alcohol dependence. Carriers of the risk variant additionally exhibit dampened insula activation, a finding that further strengthens our data, given the importance of this brain region in fear conditioning.
Gidycz, Christine A.; Loh, Catherine; Lobo, Traci; Rich, Cindy; Lynn, Steven Jay; Pashdag, Joanna
Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to assess longitudinally the relationships among alcohol use, risk perception, and sexual victimization. Participants: Three hundred and seventy-two women from 2 midsized universities made up the sample. Methods: Participants filled out questionnaires regarding history of sexual victimization,…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
In this commentary, the author reflects on her article entitled, "Alcohol and Dating Risk Factors for Sexual Assault Among College Women" (Abbey, Ross, McDuffie, & McAuslan, 1996) and her work in personal, intellectual, and disciplinary context. The original article can be found at http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/20/1/147. This personal reflection…
Walker, R. Dale; And Others
A 10-year study identified risk factors and measured prevalence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and psychopathology in 523 urban American Indian adolescents and 276 urban Indian women. Describes study aims, research design, methods, sample characteristics, assessment instruments, substance use prevalence, and methodological issues related to…
Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.
The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…
Gage, Anastasia J.; Suzuki, Chiho
This study examined risk factors associated with alcohol use in the past 3 months among young men aged 15-24 in Haiti using data from the 2000 Enquete Mortalite, Morbidite et Utilization des Services. Findings indicate that life-time smoking, multiple sexual partnerships, witnessing inter-parental conflict in childhood, disruption of parental…
Yarnold, B M
This analysis examines the use of alcohol by 535 adolescents in Dade County Public Schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of alcohol use by adolescents include: the fact that their friends drink, their awareness of the risks associated with the use of alcohol, and their ease in obtaining alcohol. Hence, the typical adolescent who uses alcohol seems to be a risk-taker, who may enjoy the dangers involved with alcohol use; friends are also users of alcohol. Not significantly related to alcohol use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone; and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking did not serve as a gateway to later alcohol use. Religion, gender, race, academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, school clubs, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of alcohol by adolescents. Although the typical adolescent who consumed alcohol was older (in grades 9 through 12), this was not a significant variable.
Chen, Ken-Chung; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Ou, Chun-Yen; Huang, Cheng-Chih; Lee, Wei-Ting; Fang, Sheen-Yie; Tsai, Sen-Tien; Huang, Jehn-Shyun; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Wu, Jiunn-Liang; Yen, Chia-Jui; Wu, Yuan-Hua; Lin, Forn-Chia; Yang, Ming-Wei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Liao, Hsiao-Chen; Wu, Shang-Yin; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Lin, Chen-Lin; Wang, Yi-Hui; Weng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Han-Chien; Chen, Yu-Shan; Chang, Jeffrey S.
Abstract This analysis evaluated the association between serum retinol levels and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) and whether the association is modulated by the use of alcohol, betel quid, or cigarette. In addition, we also examined the association between HNC risk and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms, TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272, that have been associated with serum retinol levels. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk among 160 HNC cases and 198 controls. The associations between TTR rs1667255 and RBP4 rs10882272 and serum retinol levels or HNC risk were evaluated by linear regression and unconditional logistic regression, respectively, for 418 HNC cases and 497 controls. The results showed that HNC cases had a lower mean serum retinol level compared with controls (845.3 μg/L vs 914.8 μg/L, P = 0.03). An inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk occurred among never/occasional alcohol drinkers but not among regular drinkers. TTR rs1667255 was associated with serum retinol levels; however, neither TTR rs1667255 nor RBP4 rs10882272 was associated with HNC risk. In summary, this study showed an inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk, specifically among never/occasional alcohol drinkers. More studies are needed to establish the underlying biologic mechanisms for the inverse association between serum retinol levels and HNC risk and the modulation of this relationship by alcohol drinking. PMID:26131827
Eder, Anne F; Benjamin, Richard J
Transfusion-related lung injury (TRALI) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 transfusions and may cause considerably more morbidity and mortality that is not recognized in clinical practice. Based on the current understanding of the etiology of TRALI, blood centers have implemented or are evaluating various donor and component management strategies in an effort to mitigate the risk of TRALI. Many cases of TRALI are likely caused by antibodies to leukocyte antigens (HLA or HNA) in blood components. Approximately 10 to 20% of female blood donors with a history of pregnancy and 1 to 5% of male blood donors harbor these antibodies. Alternatively, TRALI may be mediated by other bioactive lipids or substances that accumulate during storage and cause a reaction when transfused to susceptible patients. The complex interplay among various donor-, component-, and patient-related factors underlying TRALI guarantees that effective prevention will not be a single or simple intervention but rather will require a multifaceted approach. Perhaps, the most important risk reduction strategy is the effort to ensure appropriate use of blood products and eliminate unnecessary transfusions. Blood collection agencies, however, have more proximate control over donor selection and component management than transfusion practice. AABB has provided some guidance on deferring donors implicated in TRALI and minimizing the preparation of high plasma volume components from donors who have anti-leukocyte antibodies or are at increased risk of leukocyte alloimmunization. Blood centers have taken various approaches to mitigate the risk of TRALI, and the possible benefit and the inherent limitations of the current strategies will be reviewed.
Parks, Kathleen A.; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Dearing, Ronda L.; Hequembourg, Amy; Testa, Maria
Objective Using an iterative process, a series of three video scenarios were developed for use as a standardized measure for assessing women’s perception of risks for alcohol-related sexual assault (SA). The videos included ambiguous and clear behavioral and environmental risk cues. Method Focus group discussions with young, female heavy drinkers (N = 42) were used to develop three videos at different risk levels (low, moderate, and high) in Study 1. Realism, reliability, and validity of the videos were assessed using multiple methods in Studies 2 and 3. One hundred-four women were used to compare differences in risk perception across the video risk level in Study 2. In Study 3 (N = 60), we assessed women’s perceptions of the low and high risk videos under conditions of no alcohol and alcohol. Results The realism and reliability of the videos were good. Women who viewed the low risk video compared to women who viewed the moderate and high risk videos perceived less risk for SA. We found an interaction between alcohol and risk perception such that, women in the alcohol condition were less likely to perceive risk when watching the high risk video. Conclusions As the video risk level increased, women’s perception of risk increased. These findings provide convergent evidence for the validity of the video measure. Given the limited number of standardized scenarios for assessing risk perception for sexual assault, our findings suggest that these videos may provide a needed standardized measure. PMID:27747131
Pesaresi, M.; Ehrlich, D.; Ferri, S.; Florczyk, A.; Freire, S.; Haag, F.; Halkia, M.; Julea, A. M.; Kemper, T.; Soille, P.
The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is supported by the European Commission, Joint Research Center (JRC) in the frame of his institutional research activities. Scope of GHSL is developing, testing and applying the technologies and analysis methods integrated in the JRC Global Human Settlement analysis platform for applications in support to global disaster risk reduction initiatives (DRR) and regional analysis in the frame of the European Cohesion policy. GHSL analysis platform uses geo-spatial data, primarily remotely sensed and population. GHSL also cooperates with the Group on Earth Observation on SB-04-Global Urban Observation and Information, and various international partners andWorld Bank and United Nations agencies. Some preliminary results integrating global human settlement information extracted from Landsat data records of the last 40 years and population data are presented.
Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M.; Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G.; Duemmer, C.L.
The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.
Miura, Kyoko; Zens, Michael S; Peart, Tessa; Holly, Elizabeth A; Berwick, Marianne; Gallagher, Richard P; Mack, Thomas M; Elwood, J Mark; Karagas, Margaret R; Green, Adèle C
While alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of several types of cancer, evidence regarding the association between alcohol and melanoma is inconclusive. This pooled analysis was conducted to examine total alcohol consumption (grams per day), and type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine, beer and wine combined, and liquor) in relation to melanoma among women using original data from eight completed case-control studies (1886 cases and 2113 controls), with adjustment for the potential confounding effects of sun exposure-related factors. We found a positive association with ever consuming alcohol [adjusted pooled odds ratio (pOR) 1.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.5]. Specifically the pORs were 1.4 (95 % CI 1.1-1.8) for wine, 1.1 (95 % CI 0.9-1.5) for beer and 1.2 (95 % CI 1.0-1.4) for liquor. However, the pOR for the highest fourth of consumption compared with never consumption was 1.0 (95 % CI 0.7-1.3) without evidence of a trend with increasing amount of total alcohol, or separately with amount of beer, wine or liquor consumed. Stratifying by anatomic site of lesion, number of nevi, age group, or histologic subtype did not alter these results. Although the results showed a weak positive association between ever consuming alcohol and melanoma occurrence, our findings do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of melanoma in women.
Pastori, Daniele; Baratta, Francesco; Carnevale, Roberto; Cangemi, Roberto; Del Ben, Maria; Bucci, Tommaso; Polimeni, Licia; Labbadia, Giancarlo; Nocella, Cristina; Scardella, Laura; Pani, Arianna; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco; Angelico, Francesco
Objectives: Reduced vitamin E levels have been reported in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but no conclusive data on patients with simple steatosis (SS) are available. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between serum vitamin E levels and SS. Methods: A cohort of 312 patients with cardio-metabolic risk factors was screened for liver steatosis by ultrasonography (US). We reasonably classified as SS patients with US-fatty liver, normal liver function tests (LFTs) and with Cytokeratin 18 <246 mIU/ml. Liver biopsy was performed in 41 patients with US-fatty liver and persistent elevation of LFTs (>6 months). Serum cholesterol-adjusted vitamin E (Vit E/chol) levels were measured. Results: Mean age was 53.9±12.5 years and 38.4% were women. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was detected at US in 244 patients; of those 39 had biopsy-proven NASH and 2 borderline NASH. Vit E/chol was reduced in both SS (3.4±2.0, P<0.001), and NASH (3.5±2.1, P=0.006) compared with non-NAFLD patients (4.8±2.0 μmol/mmol chol). No difference was found between SS and NASH (P=0.785). After excluding patients with NASH, a multivariable logistic regression analysis found that Vit E/chol (odds ratio (OR): 0.716, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.602–0.851, P<0.001), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, OR: 1.093, 95% CI 1.029–1.161, P=0.004), body mass index (OR: 1.162, 95% CI 1.055–1.279, P=0.002) and metabolic syndrome (OR: 5.725, 95% CI 2.247–14.591, P<0.001) were factors independently associated with the presence of SS. Conclusions: Reduced vitamin E serum levels are associated with SS, with a similar reduction between patients with SS and NASH, compared with non-NAFLD patients. Our findings suggest that the potential benefit of vitamin E supplementation should be investigated also in patients with SS. PMID:26426796
Li, Bingjuan; Li, Yuxia; Bai, Dongmei; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Huiying; Wang, Jie; Liu, Gang; Yue, Juejie; Ling, Yan; Zhou, Dongsheng; Chen, Huipeng
Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase (Lb-ADH) catalyzes reduction of prochiral carbonyl compounds to chiral alcohol and meanwhile consumes its cofactor NADH into NAD(+), while the cofactor regeneration can be catalyzed by Candida boidinii formate dehydrogenase (Cb-FDH). This work presents three different Escherichia coli whole-cell biocatalyst systems expressing recombinant ADH/FDH, FDH-LIN1-ADH and FDH-LIN2-ADH, respectively, all of which display very high efficacies of prochiral carbonyl conversion with respect to conversion rates and enantiomeric excess values. ADH/FDH represents co-expression of Lb-ADH and Cb-FDH under different promoters in a single vector. Fusion of Lb-ADH and Cb-FDH by a linker peptide LIN1 (GGGGS)₂ or LIN2 (EAAAK)₂ generates the two bifunctional enzymes FDH-LIN1-ADH and FDH-LIN2-ADH, which enable efficient asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones in whole-cell biotransformation.
Wang, Yanyan; He, Wanhong; Wang, Liren; Yang, Junjiao; Xiang, Xu; Zhang, Bing; Li, Feng
The hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to allylic alcohols or saturated aldehydes provides a typical example to study the catalytic effect on structure-sensitive reactions. In this work, supported platinum nanocatalysts over hydrotalcite were synthesized by an alcohol reduction method. The Pt catalyst prepared by the reduction with a polyol (ethylene glycol) outperforms those prepared with ethanol and methanol in the hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde. The selectivity towards the C=O bond is the highest over the former, although its mean size of Pt particles is the smallest. The hydroxyl groups on hydrotalcite could act as an internally accessible promoter to enhance the selectivity towards the C=O bond. The optimal Pt catalyst showed a high activity with an initial turnover frequency (TOF) of 2.314 s(-1). This work unveils the synergic effect of metal valence and in situ promoter on the chemoselective hydrogenation, which could open up a new direction in designing hydrogenation catalysts.
Foster, Katherine T.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt
Background Gender differences in the prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have motivated the separate study of its risk factors and consequences in men and women. However, leveraging gender as a third variable to help account for the association between risk factors and consequences for AUD could elucidate etiological mechanisms and clinical outcomes. Method Using data from a large, community sample followed longitudinally from ages 17 to 29, we tested for gender differences in psychosocial risk factors and consequences in adolescence and adulthood after controlling for gender differences in the base rates of AUD and the psychosocial factor. Psychosocial factors included alcohol use, other drug use, externalizing and internalizing symptoms, deviant peer affiliation, family adversity, academic problems, attitudes and use of substances by a romantic partner, and adult socio-economic status. Results At both ages 17 and 29, mean-levels of psychosocial risks and consequences were higher in men and those with AUD. However, the amount of risk exposure in adolescence was more predictive of AUD in women than men. By adulthood, AUD consequences were larger in women than men and internalizing risk had a stronger relationship with AUD in women at both ages. Conclusion Despite higher mean-levels of risk exposure in men overall, AUD appears to be a more severe disorder in women characterized by higher levels of adolescent risk factors and a greater magnitude of the AUD consequences among women than men. Furthermore, internalizing symptoms appear to be a gender specific risk factor for AUD in women. PMID:26118496
Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Jones, Kevin A.; Porjesz, Bernice; Chorlian, David B.; Padmanabhapillai, Ajayan; Kamarajan, Chella; Kuperman, Samuel; Rohrbaugh, John; O’Connor, Sean J.; Bauer, Lance O.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Begleiter., Henri
Background Visual P300 is consistently lower in alcohol dependent individuals, their offspring and subjects at risk. Delta and theta event related oscillations (ERO) are the major contributors to the P300 signal. The total and evoked power in delta and theta bands in the 300 to 700 millisecond post-stimulus window (corresponding to the zone of P3 maxima) was compared between adolescent offspring of alcoholics (high-risk) and age-matched normal controls (low-risk), to assess the utility of the risk markers. Methods EEG was recorded during the performance of visual oddball task. The S-Transform algorithm decomposed the EEG signals into different frequency bands and the group differences in total and evoked power in the oscillatory responses during the P300 time window (300 to 700 ms) were analyzed using a multivariate design. Similar analysis was performed on P300 peak amplitudes for the target. Results The high-risk group showed significantly lower parietal post-stimulus evoked and total power in the delta band for targets. A decrease in total power was seen centrally and parietally in theta band. The P300 peak amplitude in the parietal electrodes was also significantly lower in the high-risk group. Conclusions The decreased total theta power and total and evoked delta power for visual targets in high risk individuals may serve as an endophenotypic marker in the development of alcoholism and other disinhibitory disorders. The differences seen between the offspring of alcoholics and controls may have a cholinergic basis. The ERO measures appear to be more robust than the P300 amplitude in differentiating the groups. PMID:17129626
Beck, Kenneth H.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.
Background: Alcohol-impaired driving is a major public health problem. National studies indicate that about 25% of college students have driven while intoxicated in the past month and an even greater percentage drive after drinking any alcohol and/or ride with an intoxicated driver. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the change in these various alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors as students progressed through their college experience. Methods: A cohort of 1,253 first-time first-year students attending a large, mid-Atlantic university were interviewed annually for four years. Repeated measures analyses were performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to evaluate age-related changes in prevalence and frequency of each behavior (i.e., ages 19 to 22). Results: At age 19, 17% wt of students drove while intoxicated, 42%wt drove after drinking any alcohol, and 38%wt rode with an intoxicated driver. For all three driving behaviors, prevalence and frequency increased significantly at age 21. Males were more likely to engage in these behaviors than females. To understand the possible relationship of these behaviors to changes in drinking patterns, a post-hoc analysis was conducted and revealed that while drinking frequency increased every year, frequency of drunkenness was stable for females, but increased for males. Conclusions: Alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors are quite common among college students, and take a significant upturn when students reach the age of 21. Prevention strategies targeted to the college population are needed to prevent serious consequences of these alcohol-related traffic risk behaviors. PMID:20528819
Cai, Shaofang; Li, Yingjun; Ding, Ye; Chen, Kun; Jin, Mingjuan
A causal link between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) was established only recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, the quantitative association between alcohol drinking and CRC mortality is still an open question. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis on epidemiological studies to quantify the risk for CRC mortality at different levels of alcohol consumption. A literature search was carried out in PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant studies published from January 1966 to June 2013. The pooled relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by categorical meta-analysis. A dose-risk relation was also analyzed. Nine cohort studies exploring the association between CRC mortality and alcohol drinking were identified. Compared with non/occasional drinkers, the pooled RR was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) for any, 0.97 (95% CI, 0.86-1.10) for light (≤12.5 g/day of ethanol), 1.04 (95% CI, 0.94-1.16) for moderate (12.6-49.9 g/day of ethanol), and 1.21 (1.01-1.46) for heavy drinkers (≥50 g/day of ethanol). For heavy drinkers, the pooled estimate was apparently higher for men (RR=1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.46) than for women (RR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.40-1.54; P(heterogeneity)=0.007). The dose-response analysis showed a J-shaped relationship between alcohol consumption and CRC mortality. The present meta-analysis provides the evidence for an association between heavy alcohol drinking (≥50 g/day of ethanol) and CRC mortality.
McGeehan, Kathleen M; Baker, Charlene K
The role of religious factors in the disaster experience has been under-investigated. This is despite evidence of their influence throughout the disaster cycle, including: the way in which the event is interpreted; how the community recovers; and the strategies implemented to reduce future risk. This qualitative study examined the role of faith in the disaster experience of four faith communities in the Hawaiian Islands of the United States. Twenty-six individuals from the Bahá'í, Buddhist, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), and United Methodist Church communities participated, including 10 faith leaders and 16 laypersons. The results suggest that religious narratives provide a framework for interpretation of, preparedness for, and responses to disasters. Preparedness varied widely across faith communities, with the LDS community reporting greater levels of preparedness than other communities. Recommendations include the development of collaborative efforts between disaster managers and faith leaders to increase preparedness within faith communities, which may facilitate community-wide disaster risk reduction.
Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.
NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is working to increase the likelihoods of human health and performance success during long-duration missions, and subsequent crew long-term health. To achieve these goals, there is a need to develop an integrated understanding of how the complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. This understanding will allow HRP to provide cross-disciplinary spaceflight countermeasures while minimizing resources such as mass, power, and volume. This understanding will also allow development of tools to assess the state of and enhance the resilience of individual crewmembers, teams, and the integrated mission system. We will discuss a set of risk-reduction questions that has been identified to guide the systems approach necessary to meet these needs. In addition, a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space, called the Contributing Factor Map (CFM), is being applied as the backbone for incorporating information addressing these questions from sources throughout HRP. Using the common language of the CFM, information from sources such as the Human System Risk Board summaries, Integrated Research Plan, and HRP-funded publications has been combined and visualized in ways that allow insight into cross-disciplinary interconnections in a systematic, standardized fashion. We will show examples of these visualizations. We will also discuss applications of the resulting analysis capability that can inform science portfolio decisions, such as areas in which cross-disciplinary solicitations or countermeasure development will potentially be fruitful.
Goullioud, Renaud; Dekens, Frank; Nemati, Bijan; An, Xin; Hovland, Larry
The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory is a mission concept for a space-borne instrument to perform micro-arcsecond narrow-angle astrometry to search 60 to 100 nearby stars for Earth-like planets, and to perform global astrometry for a broad astrophysics program. The main enabling technology development for the mission was completed during phases A & B. While the project is waiting for the results of the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey to proceed into flight implementation, the instrument team is currently converting the developed technology onto flight-ready engineering models. These key engineering tasks will significantly reduce the implementation risks during the flight phases C & D of the mission. The main optical interferometer components, including the astrometric beam combiner (ABC), the fine steering mechanism (FSM), the path-length control and modulation optical mechanisms (POM & MOM), focal plane camera electronics (ATC & FTC), camera cooling cryo-heat pipe, and the siderostat mechanism are currently under development. Main assemblies are built to meet flight requirements and have been or will be subjected to flight qualification level environmental testing (random vibration and thermal cycling) and performance testing. The Spectral Calibration Development Unit (SCDU), a white light interferometer testbed has recently demonstrated how to perform the spectral calibration of the instrument. The Guide 2 Telescope testbed (G2T) has demonstrated the 50 micro-arcsecond angle monitoring capability required by SIM Lite to perform astrometry. This paper summarizes recent progress in engineering risk reduction activities.
Wintemute, Garen J; Wright, Mona A; Castillo-Carniglia, Alvaro; Shev, Aaron; Cerdá, Magdalena
Firearm violence frequently involves alcohol, but there are no studies of misuse of alcohol and risk for future violence among firearm owners. We examined the association between prior convictions for alcohol-related crimes, chiefly driving under the influence (DUI), and risk of subsequent arrest among 4066 individuals who purchased handguns in California in 1977. During follow-up through 1991, 32.8% of those with prior alcohol-related convictions and 5.7% of those with no prior criminal history were arrested for a violent or firearm-related crime; 15.9% and 2.7%, respectively, were arrested for murder, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Prior alcohol-related convictions were associated with a fourfold to fivefold increase in risk of incident arrest for a violent or firearm-related crime, a relative increase greater than that seen for age, sex or prior violence. Prior convictions for alcohol-related crime may be an important predictor of risk for future criminal activity among purchasers of firearms.
Baptista, M. A.; Yalciner, A. C.; Canals, M.
enhancement of the Tsunami Warning System in the NEAM region in terms of monitoring, early warning and forecast, governance and resilience. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe. Grant 603839, 7th FP (ENV.2013.6.4-3 ENV.2013.6.4-3)
Warren, Kenneth R; Li, Ting-Kai
Clinical reports on monozygotic and dizygotic twins provided the initial evidence for the involvement of genetic factors in risk vulnerability for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Research with selectively bred and inbred rodents, genetic crosses of these lines and strains, and embryo culture studies have further clarified the role of both maternal and fetal genetics in the development of FASD. Research to identify specific polymorphisms contributing to FASD is still at an early stage. To date, polymorphisms of only one of the genes for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme family, the ADH1B, have been demonstrated to contribute to FASD vulnerability. In comparison with ADH1B*1, both maternal and fetal ADH1B*2 have been shown to reduce risk for FAS in a mixed ancestry South African population. ADH1B*3 appears to afford protection for FASD outcomes in African-American populations. Other candidate genes should be examined with respect to FASD risk, including those for the enzymes of serotonin metabolism, in particular the serotonin transporter. By its very nature, alcohol teratogenesis is the expression of the interaction of genes with environment. The study of genetic factors in FASD falls within the new field of ecogenetics. Understanding of the array of genetic factors in FASD will be enhanced by future genetic investigations, including case-control, family association, and linkage studies.
Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.
Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.
Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.
May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip
Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother's body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD.
Edmonds, Sarah L; McCormack, Robert R; Zhou, Sifang Steve; Macinga, David R; Fricker, Christopher M
Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities.
van Haandel, A C
In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas.
Nakamura, Yushi; Ohta, Tetsuo; Oe, Yohei
A formal anti-Markovnikov hydroamination of allylic alcohols using a Ru catalyst via tandem oxidation/1,4-conjugate addition/1,2-reduction was developed. Thus, the reaction of allylic alcohols with amines was performed in the presence of the catalyst generated from RuClH(CO)(PPh3)3 and 2,6-bis(n-butyliminomethyl)pyridine in situ to afford the corresponding γ-amino alcohols efficiently.
Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.
Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G
The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling.
Purification of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenases from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E and characterization of the secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) as a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase--acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase.
Burdette, D; Zeikus, J G
The purification and characterization of three enzymes involved in ethanol formation from acetyl-CoA in Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus 39E (formerly Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum 39E) is described. The secondary-alcohol dehydrogenase (2 degrees Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 40 kDa subunits (SDS/PAGE) with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. The 2 degrees Adh had a lower catalytic efficiency for the oxidation of 1 degree alcohols, including ethanol, than for the oxidation of secondary (2 degrees) alcohols or the reduction of ketones or aldehydes. This enzyme possesses a significant acetyl-CoA reductive thioesterase activity as determined by NADPH oxidation, thiol formation and ethanol production. The primary-alcohol dehydrogenase (1 degree Adh) was determined to be a homotetramer of 41.5 kDa (SDS/PAGE) subunits with a molecular mass of 170 kDa. The 1 degree Adh used both NAD(H) and NADP(H) and displayed higher catalytic efficiencies for NADP(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation and NADH-dependent acetaldehyde (identical to ethanal) reduction than for NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reduction or NAD(+)-dependent ethanol oxidation. The NAD(H)-linked acetaldehyde dehydrogenase was a homotetramer (360 kDa) of identical subunits (100 kDa) that readily catalysed thioester cleavage and condensation. The 1 degree Adh was expressed at 5-20% of the level of the 2 degrees Adh throughout the growth cycle on glucose. The results suggest that the 2 degrees Adh primarily functions in ethanol production from acetyl-CoA and acetaldehyde, whereas the 1 degree Adh functions in ethanol consumption for nicotinamide-cofactor recycling. Images Figure 1 PMID:8068002
Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Ludford, Kaysia T.; Gonzales, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.
Objective To provide an account of published literature on the association between alcohol use and sexual risk-taking, focusing on Latin America. Methods A search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane databases identified 561 unique articles. After excluding those that were not directly relevant, 30 studies were retained for review. Results Twenty-seven studies showed direct or indirect associations between alcohol abuse and unprotected/risky sex. Three studies, however, showed no association between these variables, suggesting that the public health message of safer sex may have been effective. Conclusions Further research is needed to identify factors and behaviors that could be modified to reduce the association between alcohol use disorders and risky sexual behavior. PMID:24301738
Bertholomey, Megan L.; Henderson, Angela N.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.; Stewart, Robert B.
Administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) reduces anxiety-like behavior and alcohol intake in alcohol-preferring rats. The present experiment examined whether the effects of NPY on alcohol drinking are modulated by stress exposure during continuous access or following ethanol deprivation. Female P rats underwent 6 weeks of continuous access to 15% v/v ethanol and water prior to intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula implantation. Deprived rats underwent two cycles of 5 days of ethanol exposure followed by 2 days of ethanol deprivation, while non-deprived rats had uninterrupted access to ethanol. Stressed rats in both ethanol access groups were exposed to restraint stress for 1 hour 4-6 hours after ethanol was removed from the deprived group in both cycles. ICV infusions of 5.0 μg NPY or aCSF were administered 48 hours following the deprivation/stress procedure, after which ethanol was returned. Rats showed increased ethanol intake following ethanol deprivation compared to non-deprived controls. Food and water intake were increased, while ethanol intake was decreased, in rats infused with NPY. Stress did not increase ethanol intake or alter the response to NPY. Although no stress effects were found, the present experiment replicates previous findings regarding the effectiveness of NPY in reducing ethanol consumption. Future studies aimed at determining the extent to which stress may affect relapse to ethanol drinking and response to NPY would benefit from implementing different stress paradigms and varying the pattern of ethanol access. PMID:20937300
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Ungaro, Rocio; Barrett, Kimberly; Gulledge, Laura; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Wareham, Jennifer
Truant youths represent a challenging, yet very promising group of at-risk youth to study. In addition to problems in school, they frequently experience troubled family situations, emotional/ psychological problems, involvement in substance use, and delinquency. Given the problems often experienced by truant youth, it is likely they are engaging in alcohol use and sexual risk behavior at a higher rate, than the general youth population. Identification of these youths’ problems and early placement into effective intervention services would benefit them, their families, and society. The current study presents interim findings from an ongoing, NIDA-funded experimental, Brief Intervention (BI) study involving truant youths and their parent/guardians. Baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow up data were analyzed to determine whether alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors were longitudinally related, examine the effects of the intervention on longitudinal alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, identify latent subgroups of youths in the data for alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, and determine whether the intervention influenced these subgroups. Results indicated alcohol use and sexual risk were longitudinally related. Subgroups of youth were also identified based on alcohol use and sexual risk behavior levels and trends. Further, limited treatment effects were observed for alcohol use. Implications of the results for future research and service delivery are considered. PMID:25242878
Bellis, Mark A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Hughes, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Cook, Penny A; Morleo, Michela; Hannon, Kerin; Smallthwaite, Linda; Jones, Lisa
Background There is a lack of empirical analyses examining how alcohol consumption patterns in children relate to harms. Such intelligence is required to inform parents, children and policy relating to the provision and use of alcohol during childhood. Here, we examine drinking habits and associated harms in 15-16 year olds and explore how this can inform public health advice on child drinking. Methods An opportunistic survey of 15-16 year olds (n = 9,833) in North West England was undertaken to determine alcohol consumption patterns, drink types consumed, drinking locations, methods of access and harms encountered. Cost per unit of alcohol was estimated based on a second survey of 29 retail outlets. Associations between demographics, drinking behaviours, alcohol pricing and negative outcomes (public drinking, forgetting things after drinking, violence when drunk and alcohol-related regretted sex) were examined. Results Proportions of drinkers having experienced violence when drunk (28.8%), alcohol-related regretted sex (12.5%) and forgetting things (45.3%), or reporting drinking in public places (35.8%), increased with drinking frequency, binge frequency and units consumed per week. At similar levels of consumption, experiencing any negative alcohol-related outcome was lower in those whose parents provided alcohol. Drunken violence was disproportionately associated with being male and greater deprivation while regretted sex and forgetting things after drinking were associated with being female. Independent of drinking behaviours, consuming cheaper alcohol was related to experiencing violence when drunk, forgetting things after drinking and drinking in public places. Conclusion There is no safe level of alcohol consumption for 15-16 year olds. However, while abstinence removes risk of harms from personal alcohol consumption, its promotion may also push children into accessing drink outside family environments and contribute to higher risks of harm. Strategies to
Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.
Background: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U.S. sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the non-institutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30-days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers, (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared to never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers (95% CI: 3.1-6.6). Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3). Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to alcohol use disorders among smokers, compared to non-smokers who drink equivalent quantities. PMID:17117970
Stebbins, Robin; Ziemer, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Ira Thorpe, James; Merkowitz, Stephen
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA project to design, build and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector based on a laser interferometer. LISA relies on several technologies that are either new to spaceflight or must perform at levels not previously demonstrated in a spaceflight environment. The ESA-led LISA Pathfinder mission is the main effort to demonstrate LISA technology. NASA also supports complementary ground-based technology development and risk reduction activities. This presentation will report the status of NASA work on micronewton thrusters, the telescope, the optical pointing subsystem and mission formulation. More details on some of these topics will be given in posters. Other talks and posters will describe NASA-supported work on the laser subsystem, the phasemeter, and aspects of the interferometry. Two flight-qualified clusters of four colloid micronewton thrusters, each capable of thrust levels between 5 and 30 µN with a resolution ¡0.1 µN and a thrust noise ¡0.1 µN/sqrtHz (0.001 to 4 Hz), have been integrated onto the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The complementary ground-based development focuses on lifetime demonstration. Laboratory verification of failure models and accelerated life tests are just getting started. LISA needs a 40 cm diameter, afocal telescope for beam expansion/reduction that maintains an optical pathlength stability of 1 pm/sqrtHz in an extremely stable thermal environment. A mechanical prototype of a silicon carbide primary-secondary structure has been fabricated for stability testing. Two optical assemblies must point at different distant spacecraft with nanoradian accuracy over 1° annual variation in the angle between the distant spacecraft. A candidate piezo-inchworm actuator is being tested in a suitable testbed. In addition to technology development, NASA has carried out several studies in support of the mission formulation. The results of systems engineering work on flight
Osberg, Timothy M; Boyer, Amber
This study explored the relative impact of college alcohol beliefs (CABs; i.e., the extent to which the student views alcohol as part of the fabric of college life), descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies, and sensation seeking on college students' (N = 415) risk for engaging in regretted sexual encounters (RSE). Overall, 12% of our sample reported having experienced RSE within the past 30 days. When pitted against the other traditional predictors of college student drinking and its consequences, such as positive alcohol expectancies, descriptive and injunctive norms, and sensation seeking, CABs emerged as the strongest correlate of RSE other than drinking itself, and explained significant additional variance in RSE beyond these other predictors. Mediation analyses revealed that CABs had a significant indirect effect on RSE through typical weekly drinking. This pattern of findings indicates that college alcohol beliefs are, from a public health perspective, dangerous beliefs, that warrant serious consideration in the development of new approaches to college student drinking and its consequences.
Tickle, Jennifer J; Beach, Michael L; Dalton, Madeline A
To evaluate the usefulness of Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N = 900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. MPAA ratings, however, did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable with 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable with 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children's exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies.
Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio
Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439
Arch, Joanna J
In a national US sample of pregnant women (n=311), we investigated the question of who becomes highly anxious about pregnancy by examining putative sociodemographic, pregnancy- and mental health-related predictors of pregnancy anxiety. We also assessed the contribution of pregnancy anxiety to the risk of significant alcohol consumption during pregnancy. English-speaking pregnant women aged 18+years were recruited online. Results indicated that sociodemographic factors (younger age, white, unmarried, lower education, lower household income, no previous children), feelings about current pregnancy (unwanted), and general anxiety (higher general and state anxiety) predicted higher pregnancy-related anxiety, whereas age, religiosity, number of weeks pregnant, unplanned pregnancy, and maternal depressive symptoms did not. Pregnancy anxiety was the single strongest predictor of alcohol drinking risk during pregnancy (p<.001, ∆R(2)=.10) a relationship that held after controlling for other significant predictors. Pregnancy anxiety also represented the strongest predictor of screening positively for drinking risk during pregnancy at the total T-ACE (an alcohol risk screener for pregnancy) level of 3+ (odds ratio 95% CI=1.61-4.14, p<.001), though not at the level of 2+ (odds ratio 95% CI=0.98-1.68, p=.07). We discuss implications for the link between maternal mental health and birth/ child outcomes.
Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel; Bierkens, Marc; Bouwman, Arno; van Beek, Rens; Ligtvoet, Willem; Ward, Philip
Flooding of river systems is the most costly natural hazard affecting societies around the world, with an average of 55 billion in direct losses and 4,500 fatalities each year between 1990 and 2012. The accurate and consistent assessment of flood risk on a global scale is essential for international development organizations and the reinsurance industry, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. This need is especially felt in developing countries, where local data and models are largely unavailable, and where flood risk is increasing rapidly under strong population growth and economic development. Here we present ongoing applications of high-resolution flood risk modelling at a global scale. The work is based on GLOFRIS, a modelling chain that produces flood risk maps at a 1km spatial resolution for the entire globe, under a range of climate and socioeconomic scenarios and various past and future time periods. This modelling chain combines a hydrological inundation model with socioeconomic datasets to assess past, current and future population exposure; economic damages; and agricultural risk. These tools are currently applied scientifically to gain insights in geographical patterns in current risk, and to assess the effects of possible future scenarios under climate change and climate variability. In this presentation we show recent applications from global scale to national scales. The global scale applications include global risk profiling for the reinsurance industry; and novel estimation of global flood mortality risk. In addition it will be demonstrated how the global flood modelling approach was successfully applied to assess disaster risk reduction priorities on a national scale in Africa. Finally, we indicate how these global modelling tools can be used to quantify the costs and benefits of adaptation, and explore pathways for development under a changing environment.
Zuccaro, G.; Palmieri, M.; Maggiò, F.; Cicalese, S.; Grassi, V.; Rauci, M.
The Campania Region has set and performed a peculiar procedure in the field of seismic risk reduction. Great attention has been paid to public strategic buildings such as town halls, civil protection buildings and schools. The Ordinance 3274 promulgate in the 2004 by the Italian central authority obliged the owners of strategic buildings to perform seismic analyses within 2008 in order to check the safety of the structures and the adequacy to the use. In the procedure the Campania region, instead of the local authorities, ensure the complete drafting of seismic checks through financial resources of the Italian Government. A regional scientific technical committee has been constituted, composed of scientific experts, academics in seismic engineering. The committee has drawn up guidelines for the processing of seismic analyses. At the same time, the Region has issued a public competition to select technical seismic engineering experts to appoint seismic analysis in accordance with guidelines. The scientific committee has the option of requiring additional documents and studies in order to approve the safety checks elaborated. The Committee is supported by a technical and administrative secretariat composed of a group of expert in seismic engineering. At the moment several seismic safety checks have been completed. The results will be presented in this paper. Moreover, the policy to mitigate the seismic risk, set by Campania region, was to spend the most of the financial resources available on structural strengthening of public strategic buildings rather than in safety checks. A first set of buildings of which the response under seismic action was already known by data and studies of vulnerability previously realised, were selected for immediate retrofitting designs. Secondly, an other set of buildings were identified for structural strengthening. These were selected by using the criteria specified in the Guide Line prepared by the Scientific Committee and based on
Wu, Lipeng; Fleischer, Ivana; Jackstell, Ralf; Profir, Irina; Franke, Robert; Beller, Matthias
In the presence of 2-phosphino-substituted imidazole ligands and Ru3(CO)12 or Ru(methylallyl)2(COD) direct hydroformylation and hydrogenation of alkenes to alcohols takes place. In addition to terminal alkenes, also more challenging internal olefins are converted preferentially to industrially important linear alcohols in high yield (up to 88%) and regioselectivity (n:iso up to 99:1).
Brose, Dominic A; James, Bruce R
Chromite ore processing residue (COPR), the solid waste product from the high-temperature alkaline processing of ferrochromite (FeO·CrO), contains Cr(VI) in soluble and insoluble compounds formed in the roasting process. This research investigated tartaric acid in combination with Mn and isopropyl alcohol (IPOH ) as co-reductants for reagent- and COPR-derived Cr(VI). The reduction of Cr(VI) by tartaric acid alone at pH 5.0 or greater was negligible; however, in the presence of Mn or IPOH, reduction occurred in hours. Isopropyl alcohol enhanced Cr(VI) reduction, probably via formation of a termolecular complex with the alcohol, tartaric acid, and Cr(VI). In aqueous solutions of reagent-derived Cr(VI) at pH 4, 12 mmol L tartaric acid with 1.0 mmol L Mn or 1.0 mmol L Mn and 0.29 mol L (2% v/v) IPOH reduced 1.0 mmol L Cr(VI) in 48 h. The same treatments at pH 5.5 reduced 0.60 and 0.58 mmol L Cr(VI) (60%) in 96 h, respectively. A minimum half-life of 10.2 h was calculated from first-order rate constants obtained from Mn and IPOH-Mn co-reductant treatments with tartaric acid at pH 4. The most COPR-derived Cr(VI) reduced in suspension was by IPOH and Mn at high acidity (pH 5.8), which reduced 0.52 mmol L (52%) of the COPR-derived soluble Cr(VI) at 96 h. The enhanced reduction of soluble Cr(VI) by tartaric acid by the addition of Mn proceeds within a complex formed by an esterification reaction between tartaric acid and Cr(VI) with Mn bound to tartaric acid. The combined treatment of tartaric acid, IPOH, Mn, and a strong acid to lower the pH of COPR-enriched soils would be effective in field applications of this chemistry. By creating a slurry of the field soil with these amendments, mass transfer limitations would be overcome, and Cr(VI) would be reduced to Cr(III) in days.
May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip; White-Country, Mary; Goodhart, Karen; Decoteau, Sara; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Viljoen, Denis L; Hoyme, H Eugene
Data were obtained from three samples of women of childbearing age. One sample of women is from prenatal clinics serving Plains Indian women. The second sample is of women from the Plains whose children were referred to special diagnostic developmental clinics, as their children were believed to have developmental issues consistent with prenatal alcohol consumption. The third sample is of women from South Africa, each of whom has given birth to a child diagnosed with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Data across samples conform to expected trends on many variables. For example, the maternal age at time of pregnancy, a major risk factor for FAS, ranged from a mean of 23.5 years for the prenatal clinic sample, to 23.8 years for the developmental clinic sample, to 27.6 for the sample of women who have delivered children with FAS. Other variables of maternal risk for FAS expected from the extant literature, such as high gravidity and parity, binge drinking, heavy intergenerational drinking in the mother's extended family and immediate social network, and length of drinking career, were compared across the three samples with variable results. However, normative measures of drinking problems are unreliable when reported across cultures. An unexpected finding from this three-sample comparison was the differential risk found when comparing U.S. women to South African women. Women in the U.S. Plains Indian samples report a high consumption of alcohol in a binge pattern of drinking, yet there is less detectable damage to the fetus than among the South African women. Body mass index (BMI) and lifelong and current nutrition may have a substantial impact, along with the above factors, in relative risk for an FAS birth. The level of risk for producing a child with FAS is influenced by environmental and behavioral conditions that vary between populations and among individual women. Also, because many syndromes are genetically based, there is a need for full behavioral and
Foster, Katherine T.; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matthew
Women are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of both acute and protracted alcohol use than men, but women's lower levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have resulted in a paucity of investigations on the development of alcohol problems in women. In particular, it is not clear to what extent the cascading effects of key etiological factors that contribute to an especially severe course of AUD in men also underlie the development of AUD in women. To fill this gap, we examined the adolescent risk factors and adult consequences associated with an adolescent onset and persistent course of AUD in a community sample of women (n=636) from ages 17 to 29. Women with AUD exhibited greater psychopathology and psychosocial impairment than those without, with an adolescent onset and persistent course indicative of the greatest severity. Notably, high levels of impairment across all women with AUD reduced the utility of onset and course to differentiate profiles of risk and impairment. In contrast to previous work in men, even women whose AUD symptoms desisted continued to exhibit impairment, suggesting that an adolescent onset of AUD is associated with enduring consequences for women's health and functioning, even after ostensible “recovery.” PMID:24955662
Foster, Katherine T; Hicks, Brian M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matthew
Women are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of both acute and protracted alcohol use than men, but women's lower levels of alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder (AUD) have resulted in a paucity of investigations on the development of alcohol problems in women. In particular, it is not clear to what extent the cascading effects of key etiological factors that contribute to an especially severe course of AUD in men also underlie the development of AUD in women. To fill this gap, we examined the adolescent risk factors and adult consequences associated with an adolescent onset and persistent course of AUD in a community sample of women (n = 636) from ages 17 to 29. Women with AUD exhibited greater psychopathology and psychosocial impairment than those without, with an adolescent onset and persistent course indicative of the greatest severity. Notably, high levels of impairment across all women with AUD reduced the utility of onset and course to differentiate profiles of risk and impairment. In contrast to previous work in men, even women whose AUD symptoms desisted continued to exhibit impairment, suggesting that an adolescent onset of AUD is associated with enduring consequences for women's health and functioning, even after ostensible "recovery."
Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Cleveland, Michael J; Greenberg, Mark T
To test the assumption embedded in state-of-the-art, community assessment and decision-making regarding prevention of underage drinking: that there is minimal variation in the way that risk and protective factors (RPF) are associated with underage drinking across communities. Three large datasets provided the same measures of adolescent alcohol use and RPFs. Multilevel ordered-logistic regression models were carried out separately for each dataset and separately for males and females in 8th and 10th grades, testing random slopes for each RPF index. Predicted school-level coefficients were derived from these models, representing the association between RPFs and alcohol use. The variation in associations between RPFs and alcohol use across schools was greatest for antisocial peer risk and community protection; the lowest variation across schools was found for family cohesion and individual antisocial behavior. Ranges in predicted coefficients indicate large differences across schools for many RPFs. Bivariate correlations indicated that school-level associations vary across RPFs in expected directions. Policy makers should recognize that the magnitude of associations between RPFs and adolescent alcohol use vary considerably across communities, and that such variability is greater for certain RPFs than others. These findings have implications for policies regarding how prevention resources are targeted within and across communities.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.
Arcury, Thomas A.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Laurienti, Paul J.; Quandt, Sara A.
Aims To describe alcohol consumption behavior of male Latino migrant farmworkers, compare their alcohol consumption behavior with that of other male Latino immigrants, and determine factors associated with risk for alcohol dependence among Latino immigrant workers. Methods Cross-sectional data were drawn from baseline interviews conducted as part of a larger community-based participatory research project examining the cognitive and neurological outcomes of pesticide exposure. A total of 235 farmworkers and 212 non-farmworkers completed interviews between May and August, 2012. Results Although 17.5% of the North Carolina Latino farmworkers report never having drunk alcohol, and a total of 34.5% report not having drunk alcohol in the previous three months, 48.5% engaged in heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the previous 3 months, and 23.8% frequently engaged in HED during this period. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers did not differ significantly in alcohol consumption behavior. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers did differ significantly in each component of the CAGE scale, with 37.9% of farmworkers and 16.0% of non-farmworkers being at risk for alcohol dependence (p<0.0001). Significant factors for being at risk for alcohol dependence were stress (Odds Ratio 1.06, 95% Confidence Interval 1.03, 1.09) and being a farmworker (Odds Ratio 3.58, 95% Confidence Interval 2.12, 6.06). Being married reduced the risk of alcohol dependence (Odds Ratio 0.45, 95% Confidence Interval 0.39, 0.87). Conclusions Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers consume relatively large amounts of alcohol and engage in heavy episodic drinking at relatively high rates. Latino farmworkers have very high rates of risk for alcohol dependence. Policy changes and public health interventions are needed to address these concerns for a population that is vital to the agricultural economy. PMID:26842256
Silveri, Marisa M
Alcohol use typically is initiated during adolescence, a period that coincides with critical structural and functional maturation of the brain. Brain maturation and associated improvements in decision making continue into the third decade of life, reaching a plateau within the period referred to as emerging adulthood (18-24 years). This particular period covers that of traditionally aged college students, and includes the age (21 years) when alcohol consumption becomes legal in the United States. This review highlights neurobiological evidence indicating the vulnerabilities of the emerging-adult brain to the effects of alcohol. Factors increasing the risks associated with underage alcohol use include the age group's reduced sensitivity to alcohol sedation and increased sensitivity to alcohol-related disruptions in memory. On the individual level, factors increasing those risks are a positive family history of alcoholism, which has a demonstrated effect on brain structure and function, and emerging comorbid psychiatric conditions. These vulnerabilities-of the age group, in general, as well as of particular individuals-likely contribute to excessive and unsupervised drinking in college students. Discouraging alcohol consumption until neurobiological adulthood is reached is important for minimizing alcohol-related disruptions in brain development and decision-making capacity, and for reducing the negative behavioral consequences associated with underage alcohol use.
Ross, Stephanie; Jones, Lucile
The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey (CGS), the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.
Kelley, Michelle L; Bravo, Adrian J; Braitman, Abby L; Lawless, Adrienne K; Lawrence, Hannah R
Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after behavioral couples treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention through the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers' and fathers' risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD.
Kelley, Michelle L.; Bravo, Adrian J.; Braitman, Abby L.; Lawless, Adrienne K.; Lawrence, Hannah R.
Risk for child abuse was examined prior to and after Behavioral Couples Treatment (BCT) among 61 couples in which one or both parents were diagnosed with substance use disorder (SUD). All couples were residing with one or more school-age children. Mothers and fathers completed pretreatment, post-intervention, and 6-month post-intervention follow-up assessments. Results of piecewise latent growth models tested whether the number of BCT sessions attended and number of days abstinent from drugs and alcohol influenced relationship satisfaction and its growth over time, and in turn if relationship satisfaction and change in relationship satisfaction influenced risk for child abuse. For both mothers and fathers, attending more BCT sessions lead to a direct increase in relationship satisfaction, which in turn led to stronger reductions in risk for child abuse. This effect was maintained from the post-intervention though the 6-month post-intervention follow-up. For fathers, number of days abstinent significantly influenced reduction in child abuse potential at post-intervention via relationship satisfaction. This indirect effect was not present for mothers. The overall benefits of BCT on mothers’ and fathers’ risk for child abuse suggest that BCT may have promise in reducing risk for child abuse among couples in which one or both parents have SUD. PMID:26742725
Background Gaps exist in knowledge about the production and use of traditional alcohols, particularly in Asia. This study adds new information about the nature, production and sale of traditional distilled spirit alcohol in Vietnam. Method This was an ethnographic study of traditional distilled spirit alcohol production in rural areas of three provinces in Vietnam. Researchers interviewed more than 300 individuals and recorded responses to general open-ended questions about local alcohol production. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and studied to discern what information about traditional alcohol was important to the speakers. Results Methods of production followed long-held traditions. Participants listed both personal and community benefits (economic, health, and social) from traditional alcohol making. Older people favoured traditional alcohol, while younger people favoured brand-name beer. Typically people consumed 2-4 drinks daily, mainly at meal times. People consumed more alcohol at special events and festivals. Distribution patterns ranged from low-risk distribution to family and neighbours to high-risk distribution by an agent who might combine alcohol from several producers, which increases the opportunity for dilution and adulteration. The most commonly listed health risks associated with locally-made alcohol were local air pollution and water pollution; participants also mentioned traffic crashes and bad public behaviour. Depending on the location, community leaders reported that production may be relatively stable or it may be declining. Conclusions Traditional alcohol manufacture, sale, and use in Vietnam is a long-standing practice and low- to moderate-risk to health. There do not appear to be instances of accidental or intentional contamination. Urbanization seems to be affecting the market share of traditional alcohol as urbanized youth turn to branded products, mainly beer, making traditional alcohol making and consumption an activity mainly
Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin
Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in
Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…
Gutiérrez, Tony; Buszko, Marian L; Ingram, Lonnie O; Preston, James F
The ethanologenic bacteria Escherichia coli strains KO11 and LYO1, and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, were investigated for their ability to metabolize furfural. Using high performance liquid chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, furfural was found to be completely biotransformed into furfuryl alcohol by each of the three strains with tryptone and yeast extract as sole carbon sources. This reduction appears to be constitutive with NAD(P)H acting as electron donor. Glucose was shown to be an effective source of reducing power. Succinate inhibited furfural reduction, indicating that flavins are unlikely participants in this process. Furfural at concentrations >10 mM decreased the rate of ethanol formation but did not affect the final yield. Insight into the biochemical nature of this furfural reduction process may help efforts to mitigate furfural toxicity during ethanol production by ethanologenic bacteria.
Develop and submit protocol, informed consent documents, and other supporting materials, including questionnaires and other study forms, to IRB. DONE...7. Questionnaires . Based on a review of the literature, we compiled a battery of questionnaires that assess characteristics related to behavioral...control and implicated in risk for alcohol and drug abuse. We will administer these questionnaires on the web (the MPQ) and at the health- screening
Mizock, Barry A
Upper digestive feeding intolerance, as evidenced by high gastric residual volume and vomiting, is the most common complication among hospitalized patients receiving enteral nutrition. These patients are at high risk of developing aspiration pneumonia, which in turn is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased mortality. Most episodes of aspiration are small in volume and do not lead to pneumonia. The likelihood of pneumonia increases with multiple aspirations. Pneumonia is also more common in critically ill patients who have bacterial colonization of the oropharynx. Gastric residual volume is commonly used as a means to assess aspiration risk during tube feeding. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this measurement has limited sensitivity. The approach to minimizing the frequency of aspiration during tube feeding involves assessment of the patient's degree of risk and initiation of appropriate measures directed at risk reduction.
Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar
Background Parental alcoholism substantially raises risk for offspring alcoholism, an effect thought to be mediated by a dysregulation in impulse control. Adult alcoholics have alterations in the frontostriatal system involved in regulating impulsive responses. However, it remains controversial whether these alterations reflect pre-existing traits predisposing to problem alcohol use, or are secondary to alcohol involvement. Methods Sixty-one 16 to 22 year olds were tested using a go/no-go task during functional MRI. Forty-one had at least one parent with a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder (AUD; FH+) and 20 had no parent with AUD (FH−). Two FH+ subgroups were created to disentangle alcohol involvement from preexisting risk: the FH+ control (n=20) group had low alcohol problems, differing from the FH− group only by family history. The FH+ problem group (n=21) had high alcohol problems. Results The ventral caudate deactivated during successful inhibition in the FH− but not the FH+ groups, regardless of problem alcohol involvement. Regression analyses showed that ventral caudate deactivation was related to fewer externalizing problems as well as family history. Orbital and left medial prefrontal regions were deactivated in both the FH− and FH+ control groups but not the FH+ problem group. Activation in these regions was associated with alcohol and other drug use. Conclusions These findings suggest a preexisting abnormality in ventral striatal function in youth at risk for AUD, which may lead to inappropriate motivational responding; and suggest that with alcohol use, the prefrontal “control” mechanism loses efficiency, further dysregulating the frontostriatal motivational circuitry. PMID:20416863
Slattery, M L; West, D W
Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors.
Castilla, J; Barrio, G; Belza, M J; de la Fuente, L
To study the association of the consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive drugs with sexual risk behaviour for HIV infection, data from a representative sample of the Spanish population aged 18-39 years were analysed. A national household survey was carried out in 1996 using a combination of face-to-face interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The survey included 5253 subjects aged 18-39 years who provided information on alcohol and drug consumption, number of sexual partners and condom use with the steady partner and with casual partners in the 12 months before the survey. Of those surveyed, 27.4% had been drunk at least once and 20.5% had consumed drugs. Both behaviours were associated with male sex, younger age, higher educational level, being single and having had more than one sexual partner. In the logistic regression analysis adjusting for the sociodemographic variables, the greater frequency of drunkenness and cannabis use were associated with having more than one sexual partner. Regular condom use was significantly less frequent among cocaine users and more frequent among opiate users, but was not associated with the use of other drugs. Sexual risk behaviour (i.e. more than one partner and failure to use a condom regularly) was more frequent among persons who had been drunk or used cannabis or cocaine. Excessive consumption of alcohol, and cannabis and cocaine use are independently associated with sexual behaviour involving greater risk of HIV infection or transmission.
Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Smolenski, Derek; Brady, Sonya S.; Wilkerson, Michael; Rosser, Simon
We sought to 1) describe the settings or groups of settings where men who have sex with men (MSM) consume alcohol in 16 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSA); and 2) investigate whether certain drinking settings or groups of settings are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption, problem drinking, and sexual risk behavior. Latent class analysis was used to develop our measure of drinking settings. The final latent class model consisted of four distinct classes which captured the typical settings where MSM consumed alcohol: “home” “social,” “bar/social,” and “general” drinkers (i.e., drinks in all settings). Regression models showed that “general” drinkers were more likely than “social” drinkers to engage in frequent heavy drinking. Compared to `social' drinkers, general drinkers were also more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAIMP) and UAIMP with men met in bars and other venues (e.g., private parties, bath houses) while intoxicated. Assessment of drinking settings may be a means of identifying MSM who are at greater risk for frequent, heavy drinking and related sexual risk behavior. PMID:23261495
Zhu, Kun-Ju; Zhu, Cheng-Yao; Fan, Yi-Ming
Psoriasis is one of the most common dermatological disorders. The association between alcohol consumption and psoriasis has been inconsistent among studies. To examine the magnitude of the risk of developing psoriasis for drinking populations compared to those with non-drinking, and to determine causes of the variation in odds ratios (OR) between various case-control studies, we performed a comprehensive published work search and a meta-analysis of case-control studies considering prevalence. We did electronic searches on Medline, and searched reports to identify case-control studies of prevalent of psoriasis. We did meta-analyses of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of psoriasis associated with drinking. The magnitude of the OR was analyzed by combining 15 case-control studies that matched defined criteria. The variance in OR between studies was explored. The overall OR of psoriasis for drinking persons compared to those with non-drinking was 1.531 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.164-2.014, P = 0.002) and the association remains statistically significant across a number of stratified analyses in European descent subgroup (OR = 1.432, 95% CI = 1.085-1.889, P = 0.011) and also persists in sensitivity analyses performed to assess the potential effect of varying psoriasis outcome definitions. Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of psoriasis. These epidemiological observations should inform the exploration of biological mechanisms that link alcohol consumption with psoriasis.
Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.
Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974
Stebbins, Robin T.
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint ESA-NASA project to design, build and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector based on a laser interferometer. LISA relies on several technologies that are either new to spaceflight or must perform at levels not previously demonstrated in a spaceflight environment. The ESA-led LISA Pathfinder mission is the main effort to demonstrate LISA technology. NASA also supports complementary ground-based technology development and risk reduction activities. This presentation will report the status of NASA work on micronewton thrusters, the telescope, the optical pointing subsystem and mission formulation. More details on some of these topics will be given in posters. Other talks and posters will describe NASA-supported work on the laser subsystem, the phasemeter, and aspects of the interferometry. Two flight-qualified clusters of four colloid micronewton thrusters, each capable of thrust Levels between 5 and 30 microNewton with a resolution less than 0.l microNewton and a thrust noise less than 0.1 microNewton/vHz (0.001 to 4 Hz), have been integrated onto the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft. The complementary ground-based development focuses on lifetime demonstration. Laboratory verification of failure models and accelerated life tests are just getting started. LISA needs a 40 cm diameter, afocal telescope for beam expansion/reduction that maintains an optical pathlength stability of approximately 1 pm/vHz in an extremely stable thermal environment. A mechanical prototype of a silicon carbide primary-secondary structure has been fabricated for stability testing. Two optical assemblies must point at different distant spacecraft with nanoradian accuracy over approximately 1 degree annual variation in the angle between the distant spacecraft. A candidate piezo-inchworm actuator is being tested in a suitable testbed. In addition to technology development, NASA has carried out several studies in support of the
Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan
Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.
Ye, Xiao-Hua; Huai, Jia-Ping; Ding, Jin; Chen, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Cheng
AIM: To assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) through a meta-analysis of clinical observational studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE databases from inception to 31 May 2013 without language limitations, and by manually searching the references of retrieved articles. Case-control and cohort studies that investigated the association between smoking or alcohol consumption and ECC were included. The quality of these studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Summary relative risks and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using a random-effects model. Publication bias was assessed by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. RESULTS: A total of 12 eligible articles (11 case-control studies and one cohort study) were included in this meta-analysis. Eleven studies reported the association between smoking and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that smokers had an increased risk of ECC development as compared with non-smokers (summary RR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.50). This correlation was present in population-based studies (n = 5; summary RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05) but not in hospital-based studies (n = 6; summary RR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.88-1.37) and in non-Asian regions (n = 7; summary RR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.03-1.87) but not in Asia (n = 4; summary RR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38). Seven studies reported an association between consuming alcohol and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that alcohol drinkers had a similar risk of ECC development as did individuals who did not drink alcohol (summary RR = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.87-1.37). There was moderate heterogeneity among the studies and no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ECC, but alcohol consumption is not. Further population-based studies, particularly cohort studies, are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24379600
Tompkins, F. G.
Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.
Crumbly, Christopher M.; Craig, Kellie D.
The intent of the Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) effort is to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Key Concepts (1) Offerors must propose an Advanced Booster concept that meets SLS Program requirements (2) Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction must relate to the Offeror s Advanced Booster concept (3) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) will not be prescriptive in defining Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction
Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A
Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction.
McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.
We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data
Sundström, B; Johansson, I; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S
The aim of this study was to investigate whether alcohol and diet, assessed as both macronutrients and dietary patterns, increased the risk of development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a nested case-control design in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) cohort. Individuals in the VIP who had developed RA after the dietary survey were identified from medical records at the department of rheumatology at the University Hospital, Umeå (n = 386), and matched to 1,886 controls from the same database. Diet was assessed as food groups, as macronutrients and as scores of dietary patterns, namely the carbohydrate-restricted diet score, the Mediterranean diet score and the healthy diet indicator score. When analysing the dietary patterns, consumption of food groups and different macronutrients, a significant association was found in the highest tertile of carbohydrate-restricted diet among the cases with a subsequent anti-CCP-positive disease 1.40 (1.02-1.92), as well as in the highest tertile of protein consumption among smokers (OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.09-2.95). However, after additional adjustment for sodium intake, these associations were no longer statistically significant. No association was observed between alcohol consumption and the risk of RA. To summarize, there were no significant associations between diet, or alcohol consumption, and the risk of development of RA within this cohort. The lack of any significant associations of alcohol consumption may be explained by a low consumption in the studied population overall or alternatively by methodological issues raised recently.
Crum, Rosa M.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas; Anthony, James C.
Objective Using prospective data, we tested the hypothesis that early depressed mood was associated with an increased risk for initiation of alcohol use. In addition, we examined whether these associations varied according to the youths' report that alcohol consumption occurred with or without parental permission. Methods The participants for these analyses were students, ages 9 to 13 years old, participating in a longitudinal study in an urban sample of public schools (n=2311). As part of the prospective annual assessments of the students, in 1990 through 1994, data on depressive mood and alcohol use were gathered. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the level of baseline depressed mood in 1990 and initiation of alcohol use between 1991 through 1994 in the sample of youth at risk for new onset drinking (n=1526). Other characteristics assessed in the analyses included age, sex, race-ethnicity, alcohol use by peers, neighborhood environment, and receipt of subsidized lunch. Results Higher level of early depressed mood was associated with an earlier and increased estimated risk of initiating alcohol use without parental permission for boys but not for girls. Depressed mood was not associated with alcohol use initiation that occurred with parental sanctions. Conclusions Findings from the current study support the hypothesis that among urban youth, early depressed mood influences the initiation of alcohol consumption without parental permission for boys. PMID:17587505
LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Grant, Sean; Lac, Andrew
The current quasi-experimental design evaluated whether a brief, live, interactive, normative group (BLING) intervention produced immediate reductions in group-specific normative perceptions and whether the magnitude of these misperceptions differed among three at risk undergraduate populations: first-year students (N=767), Greek-affiliated students (N=555), and student-athletes (N=524). In a live group setting, participants used wireless keypads to enter in normative perceptions of their group's drinking levels, followed by their own actual drinking behaviors. Feedback data illustrating the discrepancies between perceived and actual norms were then presented graphically on a large screen. Across all groups at pre-intervention, respondents reported significantly higher perceived group-specific norms than actual alcohol use, with magnitude of initial misperceptions varying by group. The BLING intervention was equally effective in immediately correcting normative misperceptions among all three groups regardless of gender or the magnitude of initial misperception. These data further validate the ability of live normative group-specific data-collection and feedback to overcome saliency and credibility issues exhibited by many existing social norms interventions.
van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E
The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.
Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R
Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction.
Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo
Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.
Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M
The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.
Tanaka, Aoi; Cui, Renzhe; Kitamura, Akihiko; Liu, Keyang; Imano, Hironori; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo
Aim: Previous studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease, but heavy alcohol consumption increases its risk. Endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, few population-based studies have examined a potential effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function. Methods: This study included 404 men aged 30–79 years who were recruited from residents in 2 communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study in 2013 and 2014. We asked the individuals about the frequency and volume of alcohol beverages and converted the data into grams of ethanol per day. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements during reactive hyperemia. We performed cross-sectional analysis of alcohol consumption and %FMD by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, baseline brachial artery diameter, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, smoking, antihypertensive medication use, and community. Results: Individuals who drank ≥ 46 g/day ethanol had a lower age-adjusted mean %FMD than non-drinkers (p<0.01). Compared with non-drinkers, the age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of low %FMD (<5.3%) for former, light (<23.0 g/day ethanol), moderate (23.0–45.9 g/day ethanol), and heavy (≥ 46.0 g/day ethanol) drinkers were 1.61 (0.67–3.89), 0.84 (0.43–1.66), 1.09 (0.52–2.25), and 2.99 (1.56–5.70), respectively. The corresponding multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.76 (0.69–4.50), 0.86 (0.42–1.76), 0.98 (0.45–2.12), and 2.39 (1.15–4.95), respectively. Conclusions: Heavy alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in Japanese men. PMID:27025680
Sabinicz, Anna; Maciejewska, Dominika; Kaczorowska, Małgorzata; Ryterska, Karina; Jamioł-Milc, Dominika; Wyszomirska-Raszeja, Joanna; Gutowska, Izabela
Introduction Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects a large part of the human population. One of the major environmental factors associated with the risk of NAFLD is the lack of physical activity. Aim To compare the level of physical activity and the insulin resistance in NAFLD patients. Material and methods Thirty patients with NAFLD underwent a six-month dietary intervention based on the principles of classical dietetics. Data about diet and physical activity was based on 72-hour nutrition diaries and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Standard blood biochemical analyses were carried out before and after diet at the University Hospital Laboratory. Results The study showed that total physical activity and physical activity in leisure time are negatively correlated with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.05). Insulin (p < 0.05), body weight (p < 0.05), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) (p < 0.05) were also negatively correlated with physical activity in free time. In addition, we noticed a positive correlation between sitting time and the risk of insulin resistance, in the case of HOMA-IR and insulin concentration (p < 0.05). Conclusions Dietary intervention and a physical activity plan are important factors in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Taking regular exercise increases insulin sensitivity and prevents further development of the disease. It seems that diet and physical activity are not the only one risk factors of NAFLD. Our study reveals that the reduction of sitting time has a positive effect on the level of insulin and it reduces insulin resistance in patients with NAFLD. PMID:28053680
Contreras, A.; Hidalgo, C.; Henschke, P. A.; Chambers, P. J.; Curtin, C.
Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the perceived complexity of flavors and aromas. In addition, for health and economic reasons, the wine sector is actively seeking technologies to facilitate the production of wines with lower ethanol content. Nonconventional yeast species, in particular, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeast species, which are largely associated with grapes preharvest, are present in the early stages of fermentation but, in general, are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 50 different non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 24 different genera for their capacity to produce wine with a lower ethanol concentration when used in sequential inoculation regimes with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. A sequential inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 followed by an S. cerevisiae wine strain was best able to produce wine with an ethanol concentration lower than that achieved with the single-inoculum, wine yeast control. Sequential fermentations utilizing AWRI1149 produced wines with 0.9% (vol/vol) and 1.6% (vol/vol) (corresponding to 7.1 g/liter and 12.6 g/liter, respectively) lower ethanol concentrations in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines, respectively. In Chardonnay wine, the total concentration of esters and higher alcohols was higher for wines generated from sequential inoculations, whereas the total concentration of volatile acids was significantly lower. In sequentially inoculated Shiraz wines, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher and the total concentration of volatile acids was reduced compared with those in
Contreras, A; Hidalgo, C; Henschke, P A; Chambers, P J; Curtin, C; Varela, C
Over recent decades, the average ethanol concentration of wine has increased, largely due to consumer preference for wine styles associated with increased grape maturity; sugar content increases with grape maturity, and this translates into increased alcohol content in wine. However, high ethanol content impacts wine sensory properties, reducing the perceived complexity of flavors and aromas. In addition, for health and economic reasons, the wine sector is actively seeking technologies to facilitate the production of wines with lower ethanol content. Nonconventional yeast species, in particular, non-Saccharomyces yeasts, have shown potential for producing wines with lower alcohol content. These yeast species, which are largely associated with grapes preharvest, are present in the early stages of fermentation but, in general, are not capable of completing alcoholic fermentation. We have evaluated 50 different non-Saccharomyces isolates belonging to 24 different genera for their capacity to produce wine with a lower ethanol concentration when used in sequential inoculation regimes with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strain. A sequential inoculation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima AWRI1149 followed by an S. cerevisiae wine strain was best able to produce wine with an ethanol concentration lower than that achieved with the single-inoculum, wine yeast control. Sequential fermentations utilizing AWRI1149 produced wines with 0.9% (vol/vol) and 1.6% (vol/vol) (corresponding to 7.1 g/liter and 12.6 g/liter, respectively) lower ethanol concentrations in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines, respectively. In Chardonnay wine, the total concentration of esters and higher alcohols was higher for wines generated from sequential inoculations, whereas the total concentration of volatile acids was significantly lower. In sequentially inoculated Shiraz wines, the total concentration of higher alcohols was higher and the total concentration of volatile acids was reduced compared with those in
LaBrie, Joseph W.; Rodrigues, Andrea; Schiffman, Jason; Tawalbeh, Summer
This study investigated the influence of age of alcohol initiation on current alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a diverse college student sample. Participants (N = 214) completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral habits regarding alcohol and other drugs. Early alcohol initiation (alcohol use before age 15) was…
Turner, James C.; And Others
Researchers studied college students' sexual behavior and the association of a comprehensive health education program with subsequent sexual risk behavior modifications. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated the intervention created short-term reduction in sexual risk behaviors, but the reduction varied according to gender. (SM)
Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John J., Jr.; Larose-Pierre, Margareth; Emanuel, Frank; Adams, Angela Denise; Dagne, Getachew A.; Pressey, Shannon Alexis; Odedina, Oladapo
Objective: To explore the personal factors related to modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction and detection behaviors among black men. Methods: Three thousand four hundred thirty (3430) black men were surveyed and structural equation modeling employed to test study hypotheses. Results: Modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction behavior was found…
The term dementia refers to a clinical syndrome of acquired intellectual disturbances produced by brain dysfunction. Dementia may result from a wide variety of disorders, including degenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease, AD), vascular (e.g. multi-infarct dementia), and traumatic (e.g. head injury). Long-term abuse of alcohol is related to the development of the Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome or alcohol dementia. However, light to moderate alcohol intake might also reduce the risk of dementia and AD. In Bordeaux (France), a population-based prospective study found that subjects drinking 3 to 4 standard glasses of wine per day (> 250 and up to 500 ml), categorized as moderate drinkers, the crude odds ratio (OR) was 0.18 for incident dementia (p < 0.01) and 0.25 for Alzheimer's disease (p < 0.03), as compared to the non-drinkers. After adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, baseline cognitive performances and other possible confounders, the ORs were respectively 0.19 (p < 0.01) and 0.28 (p < 0.05). In the 922 mild drinkers (< 1 to 2 glasses per day) there was a negative association only with AD. after adjustment (OR = 0.55; p < 0.05). The inverse relationship between moderate wine drinking and incident dementia was explained neither by known predictors of dementia nor by medical, psychological or socio-familial factors. These results were confirmed from data of the Rotterdam study. Light-to-moderate drinking (one to three drinks per day) was significantly associated with a lower risk of any dementia (hazard ratio 0.58 [95% CI 0.38-0.90]) and vascular dementia (hazard ratio 0.29 [0.09-0.93]). No evidence that the relation between alcohol and dementia varied by type of alcoholic beverage was found. Stroke constitutes one of the most common causes of serious functional impairment in developed countries. Ischaemic strokes represent about 80% of all strokes. Several studies have been published and the overall conclusion is that heavy drinking is a risk factor for
Åhström, Mårten; Larsson, Nils; Lindberg, Lene
Aim To test the possibility of identifying community readiness changes over time. Method Key responders in seven municipalities in Stockholm County were interviewed about the availability of alcohol and parental support. The results were analyzed with paired t tests. Changes in community readiness were assessed. Ninety-three key responders from the participating communities were interviewed three times each, resulting in a total of 315 interviews. Data were collected on three occasions separated by ten months from semistructured telephone interviews based on the community readiness model. Findings Significant readiness changes were found for both issues from baseline to the first follow-up. In terms of the six dimensions of community readiness, significant differences were evident from baseline to the first follow-up for parental support and the reduction of alcohol availability. Apart from knowledge of reduced alcohol availability, there were no significant changes in overall readiness or in the dimensions from the first follow-up to the second. The findings of this study are discussed in relation to earlier studies. Conclusion In communities with an initial vague awareness of issues, a change in readiness level occurs in less than a year.
Greenfield, Thomas K; Nayak, Madhabika B; Bond, Jason; Patel, Vikram; Trocki, Karen; Pillai, Aravind
Assessment of heavy drinking patterns is vital for HIV/AIDs studies in India and developing countries. A population survey in northern Goa included urban and rural male drinkers (n = 743) who completed a new Fractional Graduated Frequencies (F-GF) alcohol patterns measure assessing seven beverage types and drink sizes for the largest daily amount, then drinking frequencies at fractional amounts. The new measure was compared to a simpler quantity-frequency (QF) summary and, in a validity subsample of hazardous drinkers (n = 56), 28-day diaries of drinking events. Approximately 56% of total volume came from peak drinking (averaging 60 g ethanol/day). For AUDIT-based Hazardous Drinkers, QF and F-GF volumes (drinks/day) were not significantly different from diary volume (correlations 0.65 and 0.57, respectively). F-GF well captured the profile of daily amounts in drinking event data. In addition, the F-GF showed evidence of better predicting any sexual risk behavior or partner violence perpetration than the QF measure. Summary drinking pattern measures, especially the new F-GF, are more cost efficient than intensive event records, and appear valid when carefully assessing quantities with local beverage types and drink ethanol content.
Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V
Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level.
Yamashita, Ayako; Yoshioka, Shin-ichi
Background The aim of this study was to clarify the self-disclosure and risks of relapse associated with promoting resilience of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and participating in self-help groups. Methods An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to 48 patients with AUD and participating in self-help groups; this questionnaire consisted of basic attributes, a bidimensional resilience scale to assess both innate and acquired resilience factors, a scale to assess depth of self-disclosure, and a scale assessing relapse risks. We conducted an evaluation by dividing the respondents into a high group and low group based on their median values for both innate and acquired resilience. Results Innate/acquired resilience had a mutually reinforcing relationship, and, compared with the low resilience group, the high resilience group had significantly reduced risks for relapses and resulted in deeper self-disclosure. Conclusion Patients with high resilience had lower risk of alcohol relapse and deeper self-disclosure. The results suggest that one way of supporting patients with AUD in recovery is assisting them in building personal relationships with others and in deepening self-disclosure in a setting where they can relax, thus promoting their natural ability to recover. PMID:28070165
MacKillop, James; Celio, Mark A.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Operario, Don; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.
The discipline of behavioral economics integrates principles from psychology and economics to systematically characterize decision-making preferences. Two forms of behavioral economic decision making are of relevance to HIV risk behavior: delay discounting, reflecting preferences for immediate small rewards relative to larger delayed rewards (i.e., immediate gratification), and probability discounting, reflecting preferences for larger probabilistic rewards relative to smaller guaranteed rewards (i.e., risk sensitivity). This study examined questionnaire-based indices of both types of discounting in relation to sexual risk taking in an emergency department sample of hazardous drinkers who engage in risky sexual behavior. More impulsive delay discounting was significantly associated with increased sexual risk-taking during a drinking episode, but not general sexual risk-taking. Probability discounting was not associated with either form of sexual risk-taking. These findings implicate impulsive delay discounting with sexual risk taking during alcohol intoxication and provide further support for applying this approach to HIV risk behavior. PMID:25267115
Kim, J; Celentano, D D; Crum, R M
In Asia, where men frequently have sex with prostitutes, there is a direct and statistically significant dose-response relationship between frequency of sex with prostitutes and HIV-1 seroprevalence. Young Korean men are reported to routinely have sex with prostitutes. Findings are reported from an examination of alcohol consumption and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behavior as related to prostitute visits and sex partner mix among 1095 representative male Korean university students aged 17-32 years, of mean age 22.1 years, during 1993-94. The men were drawn from 4 universities in Seoul. 25.8% of surveyed university students had visited prostitutes, 17.6% at least 2 times, and 12.9% had sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends. Heavier alcohol consumption was significantly related to multiple visits to prostitutes and to sexual experiences with both prostitutes and girlfriends.
Kovács, A.; Wojnárovits, L.; Pálfi, T.; Emi-Reynolds, G.; Fletcher, J.
The radiolytic reduction of colourless tetrazolium salts to coloured formazans in liquid and solid state is suggested for dosimetry purposes. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, a pulse radiolysis study was conducted in aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic solutions under oxidative and reductive conditions. Under reducing conditions, fast formation of the electron adduct tetrazolinyl radical was observed: coloured formazan final product formed during the decay of electron adduct. Both the decay of the tetrazolinyl radical and the formation of the formazan were found to be second order. The spectra of the formazan were similar in neutral and alkaline solutions, but with higher absorbance in the latter solutions due to the higher molar absorption coefficient. Under oxidative conditions formazan did not form; hydroxylated products through OH-adducts were observed in the pH range studied.
Roustan, Jean-Louis; Sablayrolles, Jean-Marie
We assessed the feasibility of measuring the extracellular reduction of ferricyanide in the presence of an intermediate carrier (menadione) as a means of estimating the activity of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation. A spectrophotometric and a potentiometric approach were used. Comparison of specific reductase activity and gas production rate during the stationary phase indicated that measuring the menadione-catalyzed reduction of ferricyanide provides a good estimate of the total activity of the yeast cells in a fermenting must. The response observed following the addition of an electron acceptor (acetaldehyde) confirmed that the reductase activity of menadione is dependent on the availability of NADH. The stability of menadione in the fermentation medium, as assessed by the potentiometric method, suggested that electrochemical reoxidation of the ferrocyanide can act as a substitute for the addition of an electron acceptor when studying the redox regulation of fermenting yeasts.
Yakiwchuk, Erin M.; Jorgenson, Derek; Mansell, Kerry; Laubscher, Tessa; LeBras, Marlys
Background: Previous pharmacist interventions to reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk have been limited by low patient enrolment. The primary aim of this study was to implement a collaborative pharmacist intervention that used a systematic case-finding procedure to identify and manage patients with uncontrolled CV risk factors. Methods: This was an uncontrolled, program implementation study. We implemented a collaborative pharmacist intervention in a primary care clinic. All adults presenting for an appointment with a participating physician were systematically screened and assessed for CV risk factor control by the pharmacist. Recommendations for risk factor management were communicated on a standardized form, and the level of pharmacist follow-up was determined on a case-by-case basis. We recorded the proportion of adults exhibiting a moderate to high Framingham risk score and at least 1 uncontrolled risk factor. In addition, we assessed before-after changes in CV risk factors. Results: Of the 566 patients who were screened prior to visiting a participating physician, 186 (32.9%) exhibited moderate or high CV risk along with at least 1 uncontrolled risk factor. Physicians requested pharmacist follow-up for 60.8% (113/186) of these patients. Of the patients receiving the pharmacist intervention, 65.5% (74/113) were at least 50% closer to 1 or more of their risk factor targets by the end of the study period. Significant risk factor improvements from baseline were also observed. Discussion: Through implementation of a systematic case-finding approach that was carried out by the pharmacist on behalf of the clinic team, a large number of patients with uncontrolled risk factors were identified, assessed and managed with a collaborative intervention. Conclusion: Systematic case finding appears to be an important part of a successful intervention to identify and manage individuals exhibiting uncontrolled CV risk factors in a primary care setting. PMID:24093040
Jia, Falong; Yu, Xinxing; Zhang, Lizhi
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 in an aqueous 0.5 M KHCO3 solution is studied by use of novel nanostructured Cu-Au alloys, which are prepared through electrochemical deposition with a nanoporous Cu film (NCF) as template. Linear voltammetry results show that the as-synthesized Cu-Au alloys exhibit obvious catalysis towards electrochemical reduction of CO2. Further analysis of products reveals that faradic efficiencies of alcohols (methanol and ethanol) are greatly dependent on the nanostructures and compositions of Cu-Au alloys. It is expected that this work could provide new insight into the development of powerful electrocatalysts for reduction of CO2 to alcohols.
Zavras, A I; Douglass, C W; Joshipura, K; Wu, T; Laskaris, G; Petridou, E; Dokianakis, G; Segas, J; Lefantzis, D; Nomikos, P; Wang, Y F; Diehl, S R
Oral and pharyngeal cancer (OC) mortality is very low in Greece, especially among men, compared to other European countries. We conducted a case-control study of OC in Athens, and obtained information on tobacco, alcohol use and other potential risk factors and confounding variables for 110 incident cases and 115 hospital-based controls. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Tobacco smoking (pack years, P(trend)=0.01) and alcohol use (drinks/week, P(trend)=0.07) were independent risk factors, with a multiplicative effect for combined exposures (OR, 8.3; 95% CI, 2.4-29.1, for >28 alcohol drinks/week and >50 pack years of cigarette smoking). The type of alcoholic beverage also seemed important: drinking ouzo and tsipouro (liquors of high ethanol concentration) was associated with greater increased OC risk than drinking comparable amounts of wine, beer or dark spirits. While alcohol drinking is more common for male cases versus controls, few men reported regularly consuming large quantities of ethanol associated with highest risk of OC in other studies. This may partially explain the low rates of male OC mortality in Greece. Among the 38% of our cases who were women, however, neither smoking nor alcohol drinking frequencies were significantly elevated compared to controls, and so the etiology of OC risk in females requires further investigation.
Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Myers, April V.; Bonnel, Galadriel
The study purpose was to test the effect of a school- and home-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention program on reducing environmental, parent, and child risk factors for ATOD use. The design was a three-group pretest-posttest with interviews at baseline and 1 and 6 months post-intervention. The sample was 126 parents and their…
Gudin, Jeffrey A.; Mogali, Shanthi; Jones, Jermaine D.; Comer, Sandra D.
The concurrent use of opioids, benzodiazepines (BZDs), and/or alcohol poses a formidable challenge for clinicians who manage chronic pain. While the escalating use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of chronic pain and the concomitant rise in opioid-related abuse and misuse are widely recognized trends, the contribution of combination use of BZDs, alcohol, and/or other sedative agents to opioid-related morbidity and mortality is underappreciated, even when these agents are used appropriately. Patients with chronic pain who use opioid analgesics along with BZDs and/or alcohol are at higher risk for fatal/nonfatal overdose and have more aberrant behaviors. Few practice guidelines for BZD treatment are readily available, especially when they are combined clinically with opioid analgesics and other central nervous system–depressant agents. However, coadministration of these agents produces a defined increase in rates of adverse events, overdose, and death, warranting close monitoring and consideration when treating patients with pain. To improve patient outcomes, ongoing screening for aberrant behavior, monitoring of treatment compliance, documentation of medical necessity, and the adjustment of treatment to clinical changes are essential. In this article, we review the prevalence and pharmacologic consequences of BZDs and/or alcohol use among patients with pain on chronic opioid therapy, as well as the importance of urine drug testing, an indispensable tool for therapeutic drug monitoring, which helps to ensure the continued safety of patients. Regardless of risk or known aberrant drug-related behaviors, patients on chronic opioid therapy should periodically undergo urine drug testing to confirm adherence to the treatment plan. PMID:23933900
Strate, Lisa L.; Singh, Prashant; Boylan, Matthew R.; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Cao, Yin; Chan, Andrew T.
Background and Aims Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) are sparse and conflicting. We assessed the risk of major GIB associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in a large, prospective cohort. Methods We prospectively studied 48,000 men in the Health Professional follow-up Study (HPFS) who were aged 40–75 years at baseline in 1986. We identified men with major GIB requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion via biennial questionnaires and chart review. Results We documented 305 episodes of major GIB during 26 years of follow-up. Men who consumed >30 g/day of alcohol had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–2.35; P for trend 0.006) for major GIB when compared with nondrinkers. Alcohol consumption appeared to be primarily related to upper GIB (multivariable RR for >30 g/day vs. nondrinkers was 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66–2.77; P for trend 0.02). Men who consumed ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. < 1 drink/month of liquor had a multivariable RR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.26–2.35, P for trend <0.001). Wine and beer were not significantly associated with major GIB. The risk of GIB associated with NSAIDs/aspirin use increased with greater alcohol consumption (multivariable RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.85–2.19 for 1-14g/day of alcohol, RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.88 for ≥ 15g/day compared to nondrinkers). Smoking was not significantly associated with GIB. Conclusions Alcohol consumption, but not smoking, was associated with an increased risk of major GIB. Associations were most notable for upper GIB associated with liquor intake. Alcohol appeared to potentiate the risk of NSAID-associated GIB. PMID:27824864
Nash, Scott D.; Katamba, Achilles; Mafigiri, David Kaawa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M.; Sethi, Ajay K
Alcohol consumption, a risk factor for HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, is considered high in Uganda. The study was conducted to determine whether sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol help explain the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors in a population-based sample of adults in Kampala. A two-stage sampling procedure was used to identify residents in one division of Kampala for a cross-sectional study. Associations between alcohol use (current and higher-risk drinking) and high-risk sexual behaviors (multiple regular partners and casual sex) were tested. Final models included a sex-related alcohol outcome expectancy (AOE) summary score. In age-sex-adjusted models, having multiple regular partners was associated with current drinking (Odds Ratio (OR)=2.76, 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)=1.15, 6.63) and higher-risk drinking (OR=3.35, 95%CI=1.28,8.71). Associations were similar but not statistically significant for having a causal sex partner. Sex-related AOE were associated with both alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior and attenuated relationships between multiple regular partners and both current drinking (OR=1.94, 95%CI=0.57,6.73) and higher-risk drinking (OR=2.44, 95%CI=0.68,8.80). In this setting sexual behaviors related with alcohol consumption were explained, in part, by sex-related expectations about the effects of alcohol. These expectations could be an important component to target in HIV education campaigns. PMID:26315308
French, Audrey L.; Hosek, Sybil G.; Kendrick, Sabrina R.; Lemos, Diana; Brothers, Jennifer; Kincaid, Stacey L.; Mehta, Supriya D.
Abstract Few studies have examined risk-reduction alternatives to consistent condom use for HIV prevention among heterosexual young adults. We used qualitative methodology to explore risk reduction strategies and contextual factors influencing attempts to reduce risk in an urban, high morbidity sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Focus groups were conducted October–December 2014 with heterosexually identified men (n = 13) and women (n = 20) aged 18–29 seeking STI screening at an urban clinic. Groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed for thematic content using Atlas.ti software. Quantitative information included sociodemographics, HIV/STI testing history, and 6-month sexual behaviors. Among 33 predominantly African-American participants with a median age of 22, risk-reduction strategies included monogamy agreements, selective condom use with casual and high-risk partners, and frequent HIV/STI testing, though testing was commonly used as a post-hoc reassurance after risk exposure. Many men and women used implicit risk assessment strategies due to mistrust or difficulty communicating. Concurrency was common but rarely discussed within partnerships. Despite attempts to reduce risk, monogamy agreements were often poorly adhered to and not openly discussed. Alcohol and substance use frequently interfered with safer sexual decisions. Participants were aware of HIV/STI risk and commonly practiced risk-reduction strategies, but acknowledged faulty assumptions and poor adherence. This work provides insights into risk-reduction approaches that are already used and may be strengthened as part of effective HIV/STI prevention interventions. PMID:26588197
Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.
The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a β hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an α hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.
Mandal, Chanchal; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hyung Tae; Seo, Hyemyung; Chung, Il Yup; Choi, Ihn Geun; Jung, Kyoung Hwa; Chai, Young Gyu
The objective of the present study was to investigate the changes in gene expression in the fetal brain (forebrain and hippocampus) caused by maternal binge alcohol consumption. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with distilled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or ethanol (2.9 g/kg) from embryonic day (ED) 8-12. Microarray analysis revealed that a significant number of genes were altered at ED 18 in the developing brain. Specifically, in hippocampus, nuclear factor one alpha (Nfia) and three N-methyl-D-aspartate (Nmda) receptors (Nmdar1, Nmdar2b, and Nmdar2d) were down-regulated. The transcription factor Nfia controls gliogenesis, cell proliferation and Nmda-induced neuronal survival by regulating the expression of target genes. Some of the Nfia-target gene (Aldh1a, Folh1, Gjb6, Fgf1, Neurod1, Sept4, and Ntsr2) expressions were also altered as expected. These results suggest that the altered expression of Nfia and Nmda receptors may be associated with the etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The data presented in this report will contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of alcohol in FASD individuals.
Kenna, George A; Lewis, David C
Background Given the increasingly stressful environment due to manpower shortages in the healthcare system in general, substance induced impairment among some healthcare professions is anticipated to grow. Though recent studies suggest that the prevalence of substance abuse is no higher in healthcare professionals (HPs) than the general population, given the responsibility to the public, any impairment could place the public at increased risk for errors. Few studies have ever reported predictors or risk factors for alcohol and other drug use (AOD) across a sample of HPs. Methods The study used a cross-sectional, descriptive self-report survey in a small northeastern state. A 7-page survey was mailed to a stratified random sample of 697 dentists, nurses, pharmacists and physicians registered in a northeastern state. The main outcome measures were demographic characteristics, lifetime, past year and past month prevalence of AOD use, the frequency of use, drug related dysfunctions, drug misuse and abuse potential. Six contacts during the summer of 2002 resulted in a 68.7% response rate (479/697). Results Risk factors contributing to any reported past year AOD use, as well as significant (defined as the amount of AOD use by the top 25% of respondents) past year AOD use by HPs were examined using logistic regression. Risk factors of any self-reported past year AOD use included moderate or more frequency of alcohol use, being in situations when offered AODs, feeling immune to the addictive effects of drugs (pharmaceutical invincibility) and socializing with substance abusers. Risk factors of significant past year AOD use were HPs with younger licensees, a moderate pattern of alcohol use and not socializing with substance abusers. Conclusion National and state organizations need to develop policies that focus on prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation of alcohol and other drug-using healthcare professionals. The results of this study may help to delineate the
William W. Weiss
Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external programs such as Web applications. A new concept was developed and tested in well log
Tuck, Andrew; Robinson, Margaret; Agic, Branka; Ialomiteanu, Anca R; Mann, Robert E
This research examines (1) the association between risk drinking and religious affiliation and (2) differences between religions for risk drinking among adults living in Ontario, Canada, for Christians, Buddhists, Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus, Jews, other religious groups and the non-religious. Data are based on telephone interviews with 16,596 respondents and are derived from multiple cycles (2005-2011) of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's (CAMH) Monitor survey, an ongoing cross-sectional survey of adults in Ontario, Canada, aged 18 years and older. Data were analysed using bivariate cross-tabulations, Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test and logistic regression. Alcohol use and risk drinking occur among members of all religious groups; however, the rate of drinking ranges widely. Risk drinking is significantly associated with religion. When compared to the No religion/Atheist group, several religious groups (Baptist, Christian, Hindu, Jehovah's Witness, Jewish, Muslim/Islam, Non-denominational, Pentecostal, Sikh and Other religion) in our sample have significantly lower odds of risk drinking. Risk drinkers also attended significantly fewer services among several religions. Results suggest that there are differences in the risk drinking rates among Canadian adults, living in Ontario, by religion. It appears that religious traditions of prohibition and abstention do hold sway among Canadian adults for some religious groups.
We examined the effects of a multicomponent, school-based program, addressing risk factors for diabetes among children whose race, or ethnic group and socioeconomic status placed them at high risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a cluster design, we randomly assigned 42 schools to either a mu...
Batson, Robert G.
This brief report summarizes research and planning conducted during Summer 1993 for MSFC on the subjects of risk identification, assessment, and management. Research findings are presented, citing useful references. The major output of this work, the AXAF-S Project Risk Management Plan is outlined.
Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.
Background It is well known that using false identification (ID) is a common method by which underage youth in the US obtain alcohol. While false ID use is associated with high-risk drinking patterns, its association with alcohol use disorder (AUD), independent of other risk factors, has not been firmly established. Methods Participants were 1,015 college students recruited from one university and assessed annually during their first four years of college. Latent variable growth curve modeling was used to identify significant predictors of false ID use and test the hypothesis that false ID use increased the risk for AUD, by increasing the frequency and/or quantity of alcohol use. Several other hypothesized risk factors for AUD were accounted for, including demographics (sex, race, living situation, religiosity, socioeconomic status), individual characteristics (childhood conduct problems, sensation-seeking, age at first drink), high school behaviors (high school drinking frequency, drug use), family factors (parental monitoring, parental alcohol problems), perception of peer drinking norms, and other factors related to false ID use. Results False IDs were used by almost two-thirds (66.1%) of the sample. False ID use frequency was positively associated with baseline quantity and frequency of alcohol use, independent of all other factors tested. False ID use was not directly related to AUD risk, but indirectly predicted increases in AUD risk over time through its association with greater increases in alcohol use frequency over time. Several predictors of false ID use frequency were also identified. Conclusions False ID use may contribute to AUD risk by facilitating more frequent drinking. If replicated, these findings highlight the potential public health significance of policies that enforce sanctions against false ID use. Students who use false IDs represent an important target population for alcohol prevention activities. PMID:24134075
Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Merlin, Jessica S.; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Pain has been associated with increased risk for mortality in some studies. We analyzed data from a cohort study [HIV-longitudinal interrelationships of viruses and ethanol (HIV-LIVE)] of HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders enrolled 2001–2003 to explore whether reporting moderate or greater pain interference was associated with mortality. The main independent variable was pain that at least moderately interfered with work based on a single question from the SF-12. Primary analyses dichotomized at “moderately” or above. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between pain interference and death adjusting for demographics, substance use, CD4 count, HIV viral load and co-morbidities. Although significant in unadjusted models (HR = 1.58 (95 % CI 1.03–2.41; p value = 0.04)), after adjusting for confounders, ≥moderate pain interference was not associated with an increased risk of death [aHR = 1.30 (95 % CI 0.81–2.11, p value = 0.28)]. Among HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders, we did not detect a statistically significant independent association between pain interference and risk of death after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:26438486
Westerdahl, J.; Olsson, H.; Måsbäck, A.; Ingvar, C.; Jonsson, N.
In a population-based, matched case-control study from southern Sweden of 400 patients with a first diagnosis of malignant melanoma and 640 healthy control subjects aged 15-75 years, the association between commonly prescribed drugs, alcohol, smoking and malignant melanoma was evaluated. In addition, the relation between reproductive and hormonal factors and melanoma in women was studied. It was found that certain specific types of prescribed drugs, i.e. beta-blockers, hydralazines and benzodiazepines, may increase the risk of melanoma development. However, these associations were diminished, at least for benzodiazepines, after controlling for host factors. As these findings are unconfirmed, and may be due to chance or confounding, further studies are warranted. The risk of malignant melanoma was not influenced by alcohol consumption or smoking habits. Our results do not suggest an association between oral contraceptives and melanoma. Furthermore, reproductive factors were not independent risk factors for melanoma. However, increasing number of live births seemed to be protective (P for trend = 0.01). There is a need for further research to be able to draw firm conclusions on the relation between number of live births and melanoma. The results based on histopathological re-examinations and those based on tumour registry data were essentially the same. PMID:8624275
van Iersel MF; Brouwer-Post; Rombouts; Abee
Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence of immobilization of yeast to DEAE-cellulose on sugar fermentation and aldehyde reduction was monitored. Immobilized cells showed higher activities of hexokinase and pyruvate decarboxylase compared to cells grown in batch culture. In addition, a higher glucose flux was observed, with enhanced excretion of main fermentation products, indicating a reduction in the flux of sugar used for biomass production. ADH activity was higher in immobilized cells compared to that in suspended cells. However, during prolonged production a decrease was observed in NAD-specific ADH activity, whereas NADP-specific activity increased in the immobilized cells. The shifts in enzyme activities and glucose flux correlate with a higher in vivo reduction capacity of the immobilized cells.
Hall, Irin P.
Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition
Tanaka, Yoshie; Taniguchi, Nobukazu; Kimura, Takayuki; Uemura, Motokazu
Samarium iodide-mediated cross-coupling of N-tosyl ferrocenylideneamine with planar chiral ferrocenecarboxaldehydes or benzaldehyde chromium complexes gave diastereoselectively the corresponding anti-beta-amino alcohol derivatives in good yields, while N-tosyl benzylideneamine produced syn-beta-amino alcohols by coupling with planar chiral arylaldehydes. Dynamic kinetic resolution of a configurationally equilibrated reactive species generated from achiral N-tosyl ferrocenilideneamine and benzylideneamine by reduction with samarium iodide was observed in the cross-coupling with planar chiral arylaldehydes giving both antipodes of beta-amino alcohols depending on the planar chirality. The obtained anti-beta-amino alcohol with the ferrocene ring was utilized as a chiral ligand for catalytic asymmetric reduction of acetophenone.
Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.
More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.
Jayasekara, Harindra; MacInnis, Robert J; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Hodge, Allison M; Clendenning, Mark; Rosty, Christophe; Walters, Rhiannon; Room, Robin; Southey, Melissa C; Jenkins, Mark A; Milne, Roger L; Hopper, John L; Giles, Graham G; Buchanan, Daniel D; English, Dallas R
Ethanol in alcoholic beverages is a causative agent for colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease, and molecular subtypes defined by the presence of somatic mutations in BRAF and KRAS are known to exist. We examined associations between lifetime alcohol intake and molecular and anatomic subtypes of colorectal cancer. We calculated usual alcohol intake for 10-year periods from age 20 using recalled frequency and quantity of beverage-specific consumption for 38,149 participants aged 40-69 years from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Cox regression was performed to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between lifetime alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk. Heterogeneity in the HRs across subtypes of colorectal cancer was assessed. A positive dose-dependent association between lifetime alcohol intake and overall colorectal cancer risk (mean follow-up = 14.6 years; n = 596 colon and n = 326 rectal cancer) was observed (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12 per 10 g/day increment). The risk was greater for rectal than colon cancer (phomogeneity = 0.02). Alcohol intake was associated with increased risks of KRAS+ (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00-1.15) and BRAF-/KRAS- (HR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) but not BRAF+ tumors (HR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.01; phomogeneity = 0.01). Alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of KRAS+ and BRAF-/KRAS- tumors originating via specific molecular pathways including the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway but not with BRAF+ tumors originating via the serrated pathway. Therefore, limiting alcohol intake from a young age might reduce colorectal cancer originating via the traditional adenoma-carcinoma pathway.
Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E
Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.
Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Patrick, Megan E.
Background Studies looking at the association between perceived risk and simultaneous use of alcohol and marijuana are scarce. The present study has three purposes: (1) To examine the association between alcohol and marijuana use at the daily level; (2) To document how this association varies by the perceived risk of using alcohol and marijuana simultaneously; (3) To test whether the association varies by college attendance. Methods 89 young adults (Mean Age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.5) participated between October 2012 and May 2013. Participants completed a 30-minute survey followed by 14 brief daily surveys in each of three waves. Results Alcohol use on a given day was associated with increased odds of marijuana use that day, especially among young adults with lower perceived risk. For college students, the association between alcohol and marijuana was weaker than for non-students. Conclusions Alcohol and marijuana use were associated at a daily level, especially among young adults with lower perceived risk and those who were not attending college. PMID:26086039
support this statement. Partner-Specific HIV Risk As shown in Table 2, 14.2 % of participants reported having sex with a female sex worker ( FSW ) in the...past 3 months and 23.8 % reported an occasional sex partner (who was not an FSW ). Condom use at last sex was highest (76 %) among participants who...reported sex with an FSW . Alcohol use by both partners, 2 h before sex, was more commonly reported by participants who had sex with an FSW (28.1 %) and
Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others
Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…
Meberg, A; Halvorsen, B; Holter, B; Ek, I J; Askeland, A; Gaaserud, W; Steinsvåg, J
Consumption of alcohol was investigated in two groups of pregnant women: an intervention group (n = 58) (two structured interviews during pregnancy including counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption and potential benefits to the fetus, and interview after delivery), and a control group (n = 74) (interview after delivery). Prepregnancy 80% of the women were light or moderate alcohol consumers, and 20% teetotalers. Pregnancy considerably reduced alcohol consumption in both groups. 66% abstained from alcohol during pregnancy, and use of liquor nearly ceased. The changes in alcohol consumption occurred independently to the intervention program. Strategy for reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy should include a structured alcohol anamnesis at the first ante-natal visit, accompanied by counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption. More extensive intervention programs may be reserved for pregnancies at higher risk (high-consumers, abusers).
Auther, A. M.; Cadenhead, K. S.; Carrión, R. E.; Addington, J.; Bearden, C. E.; Cannon, T. D.; McGlashan, T. H.; Perkins, D. O.; Seidman, L.; Tsuang, M.; Walker, E. F.; Woods, S. W.; Cornblatt, B. A.
Objective Cannabis use has been examined as a predictor of psychosis in clinical high-risk (CHR) samples, but little is known about the impact of other substances on this relationship. Method Substance use was assessed in a large sample of CHR participants (N = 370, mean age = 18.3) enrolled in the multisite North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study Phase 1 project. Three hundred and forty-one participants with cannabis use data were divided into groups: No Use (NU, N = 211); Cannabis Use without impairment (CU, N = 63); Cannabis Abuse/Dependence (CA/CD, N = 67). Participants (N = 283) were followed for ≥2 years to determine psychosis conversion. Results Alcohol (45.3%) and cannabis (38.1%) were the most common substances. Cannabis use groups did not differ on baseline attenuated positive symptoms. Seventy-nine of 283 participants with cannabis and follow-up data converted to psychosis. Survival analysis revealed significant differences between conversion rates in the CA/CD group compared with the No Use (P = 0.031) and CU group (P = 0.027). CA/CD also significantly predicted psychosis in a regression analysis, but adjusting for alcohol use weakened this relationship. Conclusion The cannabis misuse and psychosis association was confounded by alcohol use. Non-impairing cannabis use was not related to psychosis. Results highlight the need to control for other substance use, so as to not overstate the cannabis/psychosis connection. PMID:25572323
Goldman, Mark S
Psychological investigations of alcohol expectancies over the last 20 years, using primarily verbal techniques, have strongly supported expectancies as an important mediator of biological and environmental antecedent variables that influence risk for alcohol use and abuse. At the same time, rapid developments in neuroscience, cognitive science, affective science, computer science, and genetics proved to be compatible with the concept of expectancy and, in some cases, used this concept directly. By using four principles that bear on the integration of knowledge in the biological and behavioral sciences-consilience, conservation, contingency, and emergence-these developments are merged into an integrated explanation of alcoholism and other addictions. In this framework, expectancy is seen as a functional approach to adaptation and survival that has been manifested in multiple biological systems with different structures and processes. Understood in this context, addiction is not a unique behavioral problem or special pathology distinct from the neurobehavioral substrate that governs all behavior, but is rather a natural (albeit unfortunate) consequence of these same processes. The ultimate intent is to weave a working heuristic that ties together findings from molecular and molar levels of inquiry and thereby might help direct future research. Such integration is critical in the multifaceted study of addictions.
Haberecht, Katja; Baumann, Sophie; Gaertner, Beate; John, Ulrich; Freyer-Adam, Jennis
This article investigates the influence of socioeconomic factors on heavy drinking over the course of the week. As part of a randomized controlled trial, 1,282 job seekers with at-risk alcohol use were systematically recruited at 3 job agencies and reported number of drinks consumed on each day in the past week. Latent growth curve models were calculated to represent variations of alcohol use. School education and duration of lifetime unemployment were tested as predictors; sociodemographic variables were integrated as covariates. A weekly pattern was confirmed in the total sample: constant low alcohol use on working days, escalation on Friday, and a further increase on weekends. Significant associations between longer duration of lifetime unemployment and higher initial alcohol use on Sundays (p < .001) and less increase on Fridays (p = .001) disappeared after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Longer duration of lifetime unemployment does not appear to affect alcohol use trajectories over the course of the week.
Erb, Benjamin; Risto, Eugen; Wendling, Timo; Gooßen, Lukas J
In the presence of a catalyst system consisting of a ruthenium/triphos complex and the Brønsted acid trifluoromethanesulfonimide, mixtures of fatty acids and aliphatic alcohols are converted into the corresponding ethers at 70 bar H2 . The protocol allows the sustainable one-step synthesis of valuable long-chain ether fragrances, lubricants, and surfactants from renewable sources. The reaction protocol is extended to various fatty acids and esters both in pure form and as mixtures, for example, tall oil acids or rapeseed methyl ester (RME). Even the mixed triglyceride rapeseed oil was converted in one step.
Rezvani, A H; Overstreet, D H; Janowsky, D S
The ethanol intake of Fawn-Hooded rats, a serotonin deficient strain, was examined under a two bottle choice between ethanol (10%) and tap water. The Fawn-Hooded rats drank as much ethanol as the alcohol preferring strain of rats (approximately 6 times that of the control Wistar rats), but drank more fluid and ate more. In general, direct and indirect serotonin agonists, reduced ethanol intake to a smaller degree in the Fawn-Hooded rats compared to the P rats. In contrast the centrally acting antimuscarinic scopolamine reduced ethanol intake to a similar degree in the two strains.
Dey, G. R.
Reduction of Cu 2+ ions with and without I - as a ligand was studied in N 2-purged alcoholic solutions by pulse radiolysis. In the absence of iodide ion, the initial rate constant for e -sol reaction with Cu 2+ was determined following the decay of solvated electrons in different alcohols; kbimol values are in the range of 0.8-1.1×10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. In the presence of 10 -3 mol dm -3 KI, the respective kbimol remained almost same. Generally, on reduction, Cu(II) ion changes to Cu(I) ion initially and later it produces metallic copper (Cu°), and the stability of these intermediates depends on the conditions of the matrix. In the presence of I -, Copper ions such as Cu(II) or Cu(I) ions get reduced to metallic copper (Cu°) having initial absorption around 740 and below 400 nm. Later, at 100 μs time after the electron pulse, it gets transformed into a nanoparticle with an absorption band at 580 nm. Such formation of copper nanoparticle was observed only in 2-propanolic medium in the presence of iodide ions. During γ-radiolysis of N 2-purged 1.5×10 -4 CuSO 4 solutions in 2-propanol, reddish pink colored copper nanoparticles were formed, which are quite similar to those reported earlier in aqueous solution. But, in the presence of I - (2-propanolic solutions), such phenomenon was not noticed on γ-radiolysis. Interestingly, the formation of copper nanoparticle was observed also in the reactions of copper (II) ions with alcohol radicals formed during γ-radiolysis in N 2O-purged system, where e -sol were scavenged by N 2O. The nanoparticles generated both in N 2 and N 2O-purged alcoholic systems, viz. methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol, were found to be oxygen sensitive. The contradictory results from pulse and γ-radiolysis studies in the presence and absence of iodide ions are explained to account for the nanoparticle generation.
Berg, Melanie; Poivey, Christian; Friendlich, Mark; Petrick, Dave; LaBel, Kenneth; Stansberry, Scott
We present guidel!nes to reduce risk to an acceptable level when using complex devices in space applications. Application to Virtex 4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on Express Logistic Carrier (ELC) project is presented.
Tann, Sheila S.; Yabiku, Scott T.; Okamoto, Scott K.; Yanow, Jessica
This study examined the risk for alcoholism, diabetes, and depression (triADD) in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in the U.S. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a series of descriptive statistics and regression models were used to examine the interrelationships among these disorders in AI/AN populations.…
Durkin, Keith F.; Blackston, Amber; Dowd, Sabrina; Franz, Shalleigh; Eagle, Trevor
The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative influences of various protective and risk factors on the alcohol-related problems of a sample of university students. The conceptualization of these protective and risk factors in the current undertaking was informed by problem behavior theory, and draws heavily on two sociological theories…
Zahnd, Elaine; Klein, Dorie
A survey of 171 American Indian women in California who were pregnant or parenting and were considered at risk for problem substance abuse covered demographic information; personal and family history; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; HIV risk; and a needs assessment regarding health care, economic needs, and parenting and children's needs. (LP)
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057
Hutton, Heidi E.; Chander, Geetanjali; Green, Patricia P.; Hutsell, Catherine A.; Weingarten, Kimberly
Alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a significant public health problem in the United States. Sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics serve female clients with a high prevalence of heavy alcohol consumption coupled with ineffective contraceptive use. Project CHOICES (Changing High-Risk AlcOhol Use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness) is an evidence-based, brief intervention to lower risk of AEP by targeting alcohol and contraceptive behaviors through motivational interviewing and individualized feedback. We describe our experience integrating and implementing CHOICES in STD clinics. This endeavor aligns with CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention's program collaboration and service integration strategic priority to strengthen collaborative work across disease areas and integrate services provided by related programs at the client level. PMID:24385650
Islami, Farhad; Tramacere, Irene; Rota, Matteo; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Fedirko, Veronika; Scotti, Lorenza; Garavello, Werner; Jenab, Mazda; Corrao, Giovanni; Straif, Kurt; Negri, Eva; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo
Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for laryngeal cancer. However, little information is available on the risk associated with light alcohol drinking. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis using two methods: (i) random-effects models with reconstruction of alcohol consumption categories and calculation of risk estimates associated with predefined consumption levels using Hamling method and (ii) random-effects meta-regression models. The PubMed database was searched for all case-control or cohort studies published in the English language on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer. Forty studies (38 case-control, 2 cohort) reporting on at least three levels of consumption were included. Overall, alcohol drinking versus non-drinking was associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of laryngeal cancer (RR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.59-2.28). While light alcohol drinking (≥1 drink/day) did not show any significant association with risk of laryngeal cancer (12 studies. RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.71-1.08), moderate drinking (>1 to <4drinks/day) was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in risk (35 studies. RR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.25-1.72) and heavy drinking (⩾4drinks/day) was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk (33 studies. RR=2.62; 95% CI: 2.13-3.23). Subgroup analyses for studies that adjusted for main potential confounding factors (age, sex, and tobacco use) and several further subgroup analyses showed similar results, which suggest the robustness of the results.
Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N
In this research we demonstrated a new method to produce alcohols. It was experimentally feasible to produce ethanol, propanol and butanol from solely volatile fatty acids (VFAs) with hydrogen as electron donor. In batch tests, VFAs such as acetic, propionic and butyric acids were reduced by mixed microbial cultures with a headspace of 1.5 bar of hydrogen. Observed alcohol concentrations were 3.69+/-0.25 mM of ethanol, 8.08+/-0.85 mM of propanol and 3.66+/-0.05 mM of n-butanol. The conversion efficiency based on the electron balance was 55.1+/-5.6% with acetate as substrate, 50.3+/-4.7% with propionate and 46.7+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. Methane was the most predominant by-product in each batch experiment, 33.6+/-9.6% of VFA and hydrogen was converted to methane with acetate as substrate; which was 27.1+/-7.1% with propionate and 36.6+/-2.2% with n-butyrate. This VFAs reducing renewable fuel production process does not require carbohydrates like fermentable sugars, but uses biomass with high water content or low sugar content that is unsuitable as feedstock for current fermentation processes. This so-called low-grade biomass is abundantly present in many agricultural areas and is economically very attractive feedstock for the production of biofuels.
Lee, Ellie; Sutton, Robbie M.; Hartley, Bonny L.
In this article, we follow the approach taken by Riesch and Spiegalhalter in “Careless pork costs lives’: Risk stories from science to press release to media’ published in this journal, and offer an assessment of one example of a ‘risk story’. Using content and thematic qualitative analysis, we consider how the findings of an article ‘Fetal Alcohol Exposure and IQ at Age 8: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study’ were framed in the article itself, the associated press release, and the subsequent extensive media coverage. We contextualise this consideration of a risk story by discussing a body of work that critically engages with the development and global proliferation of efforts to advocate for alcohol abstinence to pregnant (and pre-pregnant) women. This work considers the ‘democratisation’ of risk, a term used to draw attention to the expansion of the definition of the problem of drinking in pregnancy to include any drinking and all women. We show here how this risk story contributed a new dimension to the democratisation of risk through claims that were made about uncertainty and certainty. A central argument we make concerns the contribution of the researchers themselves (not just lobby groups or journalists) to this outcome. We conclude that the democratisation of risk was advanced in this case not simply through journalists exaggerating and misrepresenting research findings, but that communication to the press and the initial interpretation of findings played their part. We suggest that this risk story raises concerns about the accuracy of reporting of research findings, and about the communication of unwarrantedly worrying messages to pregnant women about drinking alcohol. PMID:28367068
Lee, Ellie; Sutton, Robbie M; Hartley, Bonny L
In this article, we follow the approach taken by Riesch and Spiegalhalter in "Careless pork costs lives': Risk stories from science to press release to media' published in this journal, and offer an assessment of one example of a 'risk story'. Using content and thematic qualitative analysis, we consider how the findings of an article 'Fetal Alcohol Exposure and IQ at Age 8: Evidence from a Population-Based Birth-Cohort Study' were framed in the article itself, the associated press release, and the subsequent extensive media coverage. We contextualise this consideration of a risk story by discussing a body of work that critically engages with the development and global proliferation of efforts to advocate for alcohol abstinence to pregnant (and pre-pregnant) women. This work considers the 'democratisation' of risk, a term used to draw attention to the expansion of the definition of the problem of drinking in pregnancy to include any drinking and all women. We show here how this risk story contributed a new dimension to the democratisation of risk through claims that were made about uncertainty and certainty. A central argument we make concerns the contribution of the researchers themselves (not just lobby groups or journalists) to this outcome. We conclude that the democratisation of risk was advanced in this case not simply through journalists exaggerating and misrepresenting research findings, but that communication to the press and the initial interpretation of findings played their part. We suggest that this risk story raises concerns about the accuracy of reporting of research findings, and about the communication of unwarrantedly worrying messages to pregnant women about drinking alcohol.
Wu, Shaowei; Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A; Cho, Eunyoung
Background: Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased prevalence of sunburn, which is an established skin cancer risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether alcohol consumption is associated with risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Design: We conducted a prospective analysis on alcohol consumption and risk of BCC on the basis of data from 167,765 women in the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study) (1984–2010) and NHS II (1991–2011) and 43,697 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010). Alcohol intake was repeatedly assessed every 2–4 y over the follow-up period. HRs and 95% CIs for BCC in association with alcohol intake were computed with the use of Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for sun exposure and other skin cancer risk factors. Results: A total of 28,951 incident BCC cases were documented over 3.74 million person-years of follow-up. Increased alcohol intake was associated with increased BCC risk in both women and men (both P-trend < 0.0001). Pooled multivariable-adjusted HRs over increasing cumulative averaged alcohol intake categories were 1.00 (reference) for nondrinkers, 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.20) for 0.1–9.9 g/d, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.35) for 10.0–19.9 g/d, 1.27 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.35) for 20.0–29.9 g/d, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30) for ≥30.0 g/d (P-trend < 0.0001, P-heterogeneity by study = 0.10 ). The association remained consistent when we used alcohol intakes over different latency periods (0–4, 4–8, 8–12, and 12–16 y) as exposures and over categories of sun exposure–related factors. In the individual alcoholic beverages, white wine and liquor were positively associated with BCC risk. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cutaneous BCC in both women and men. PMID:26423390
Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Hernandez, Lynn; Maynard, Brandy R.; Saltzman, Leia Y.; Vaughn, Michael G
Few studies have examined the behavioral and protective correlates of alcohol use among young Hispanics. Using a national sample (N = 7,606), logistic regression and latent profile analysis (LPA) are employed to examine the relationships between alcohol use, psychosocial factors, and externalizing behavior among Hispanics during early adolescence. Early drinkers are more likely to report truancy, fighting, smoking, and drug use. LPA results revealed a three class solution. Classes identified included: psychosocial risk (41.11%), moderate protection (39.44%), and highly religious (19.44%). Alcohol use is clearly associated with externalizing behavior; however, an important degree of psychosocial and behavioral heterogeneity nevertheless exists. PMID:24491151
High risk drinking is linked with high rates of physical harm. The reported incidence of alcohol - related trauma among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Northern Territory is the highest in the world. Facial fractures are common among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. They are often linked with misuse of alcohol in the Northern Territory and are frequently secondary to assault. This review focuses on alcohol-related trauma in the Territory and draws attention to an urgent need for preventative health approach to address this critical issue. PMID:22862897
Choi, Sung Eun; Brandeau, Margaret L.; Basu, Sanjay
Background The National Salt Reduction Initiative, in which food producers agree to lower sodium to levels deemed feasible for different foods, is expected to significantly reduce sodium intake if expanded to a large sector of food manufacturers. Objective Given recent data on the relationship between sodium intake, hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease at a population level, we sought to examine risks and benefits of the program. Design To estimate the impact of further expanding the Initiative on hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke incidence, and related mortality, given food consumption patterns across the US, we developed and validated a stochastic microsimulation model of hypertension, MI and stroke morbidity and mortality, using data from food producers on sodium reduction among foods, linked to 24-hour dietary recalls, blood pressure, and cardiovascular histories from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results Expansion of the Initiative to ensure all restaurants and manufacturers reach agreed-upon sodium targets would be expected to avert between 0.9-3.0 MI's (a 1.6-5.4% reduction) and 0.5-2.8 strokes (a 1.1-6.2% reduction) per 10,000 Americans per year over the next decade, after incorporating consumption patterns and variations in the effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure among different demographic groups. Even high levels of consumer addition of table salt or substitution among food categories would be unlikely to neutralize this benefit. However, if recent epidemiological associations between very low sodium and increased mortality are causal, then older women may be at risk of increased mortality from excessively low sodium intake. Conclusions An expanded National Salt Reduction Initiative is likely to significantly reduce hypertension and hypertension-related cardiovascular morbidity, but may be accompanied by potential risks to older women. PMID:25926284
Padilla, Mark B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona
The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals. PMID:21859907
Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona
The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavio