Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol safety action

  1. Bicycle Safety in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Safety Education, Washington, DC.

    This material was designed to assist schools in teaching bicycle safety. As the population grows and competition for road space increases, it is more imperative than ever that we concentrate attention on the need for caution among pupil cyclists. The pamphlet: (1) discusses the role of bicycle safety in classroom instruction and in student…

  2. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action.

  3. Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action.

    PubMed

    Casswell, Sally; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon

    2009-06-27

    Despite clear evidence of the major contribution alcohol makes to the global burden of disease and to substantial economic costs, focus on alcohol control is inadequate internationally and in most countries. Expansion of industrial production and marketing of alcohol is driving alcohol use to rise, both in emerging markets and in young people in mature alcohol markets. Cost-effective and affordable interventions to restrict harm exist, and are in urgent need of scaling up. Most countries do not have adequate policies in place. Factors impeding progress include a failure of political will, unhelpful participation of the alcohol industry in the policy process, and increasing difficulty in free-trade environments to respond adequately at a national level. An effective national and international response will need not only governments, but also non-governmental organisations to support and hold government agencies to account. International health policy, in the form of a Framework Convention on Alcohol Control, is needed to counterbalance the global conditions promoting alcohol-related harm and to support and encourage national action. PMID:19560606

  4. Antimicrobial action of esters of polyhydric alcohols.

    PubMed

    Conley, A J; Kabara, J J

    1973-11-01

    A broth dilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of a series of fatty acid esters of polyhydric alcohols against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. Gram-negative organisms were not affected. Gram-positive organisms were inhibited as follows. Of the monoglycerol esters, monoglycerol laurate was the most active. Esters of polyglycerols (tri-, hexa-, and decaglycerol esters) were generally active when the fatty acid had chain lengths of 8 to 12 carbon atoms. Sucrose esters, when active, except for laurate, are more active than the free fatty acid. The spectrum of antimicrobial action of esters of polyhydric alcohols is narrower when compared with the free acids. PMID:4791484

  5. Action: A Community-University Partnership for Training Alcoholism Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuja, Andris; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Alcoholism Counseling Training Institute of Nebraska, Inc. (ACTION) was established to provide statewide training for alcoholism counselors to prepare them to meet state certification standards. ACTION is a joint effort by alcoholism service providers and the University of Nebraska psychology department. Issues faced by the program are…

  6. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  7. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Woud, Marcella L; Field, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic alcohol action tendencies are related to alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. These action tendencies are measured with reaction time tasks in which the latency to make an approach response to alcohol pictures is compared with the latency to make an avoidance response. In the literature, 4 different tasks have been used, and these tasks differ on whether alcohol is a relevant (R) or irrelevant (IR) feature for categorization and on whether participants must make a symbolic approach response (stimulus-response compatibility [SRC] tasks) or an overt behavioral response (approach avoidance tasks [AAT]) to the pictures. Previous studies have shown positive correlations between measures of action tendencies and hazardous drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. However, results have been inconsistent and the different measures have not been directly compared with each other. Therefore, it is unclear which task is the best predictor of hazardous drinking and alcohol consumption. In the present study, 80 participants completed all 4 measures of action tendencies (i.e., R-SRC, IR-SRC, R-AAT, and IR-AAT) and measures of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Stepwise regressions showed that the R-SRC and R-AAT were the only significant predictors of hazardous drinking, whereas the R-AAT was the only reliable predictor of alcohol consumption. Our results confirm that drinking behavior is positively correlated with automatic alcohol approach tendencies, but only if alcohol-relatedness is the relevant feature for categorization. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134039

  8. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Woud, Marcella L; Field, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic alcohol action tendencies are related to alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. These action tendencies are measured with reaction time tasks in which the latency to make an approach response to alcohol pictures is compared with the latency to make an avoidance response. In the literature, 4 different tasks have been used, and these tasks differ on whether alcohol is a relevant (R) or irrelevant (IR) feature for categorization and on whether participants must make a symbolic approach response (stimulus-response compatibility [SRC] tasks) or an overt behavioral response (approach avoidance tasks [AAT]) to the pictures. Previous studies have shown positive correlations between measures of action tendencies and hazardous drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. However, results have been inconsistent and the different measures have not been directly compared with each other. Therefore, it is unclear which task is the best predictor of hazardous drinking and alcohol consumption. In the present study, 80 participants completed all 4 measures of action tendencies (i.e., R-SRC, IR-SRC, R-AAT, and IR-AAT) and measures of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Stepwise regressions showed that the R-SRC and R-AAT were the only significant predictors of hazardous drinking, whereas the R-AAT was the only reliable predictor of alcohol consumption. Our results confirm that drinking behavior is positively correlated with automatic alcohol approach tendencies, but only if alcohol-relatedness is the relevant feature for categorization. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Alcohol taxation policy in Australia: public health imperatives for action.

    PubMed

    Skov, Steven J

    2009-04-20

    The Australian Government's "alcopops" tax legislation will soon be voted on by the Senate. This is the first time in memory that an alcohol taxation measure has been informed principally by public health concerns. Much debate surrounds the utility of alcohol taxation as a measure to reduce alcohol-related harm. However, the harms resulting from alcohol misuse in Australia are at unacceptable levels and action to reduce them is overdue. There is good evidence from Australia and internationally that taxation and price measures are among the most effective and cost-effective in reducing alcohol consumption and related harms. Recent alcohol sales data give an early indication that the alcopops tax is being effective in reducing consumption. Current alcohol tax policy is unwieldy and not well directed towards improving public health. A proportion of tax revenues dedicated to alcohol programs would assist public acceptance of the measures. A broad review of alcohol taxation policy is needed as part of a comprehensive approach to alcohol problems in Australia. PMID:19374617

  10. Take action: a culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Norma J

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurses can influence safety outcomes in all areas of nephrology care, including but not limited to dialysis access events, dialysis machine events, medication events, patient injury events, and staff injury events. Nephrology nurses are instrumental in recognizing and mitigating hazards. The Nephrology Nursing Scope and Standards of Practice (Gomez, 2011) states that the nephrology registered nurse practices in an environmentally safe and healthy manner. One of the competencies for the nephrology nurse is: Promotes and monitors the practice environment for appropriate infection control practices including consumer safety, environmental, and equipment concerns, which impact the healthcare consumer. Do you feel safe? Do your patients feel safe? Take action - ensure that your organization has a culture of safety; volunteer to be a member of the safety committee; review policies and procedures; identify potential hazards. PMID:24689260

  11. Keep Kids Alcohol Free: Strategies for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This guide is a starting point for parents, teachers, health professionals, law enforcement personnel, alcohol retailers, policymakers, and others who are concerned with the well-being of children. It describes three basic prevention strategies and ways they can be applied in the home, the school, and the community, and offers effective,…

  12. [The efficacy and mechanisms of action of lerivon in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Ivanets, N N; Anokhina, I P; Kogan, B M; Chirko, V V; Nebarakova, T P; Rusinov, A V

    1996-01-01

    Clinico-biological examination of 50 alcoholic patients was carried out. 30 patients were treated with lerivon (L) during 1 month. 15 control patients received amitriptylin for 1 month and 15 patients received relanium for 7 days. It was determined that L was quite effective in treatment of depression in alcoholic patients. The main L effects were anxiolytic, antidepressive and hypnotic. The drug also decreased alcohol addiction, had vegetostabilising and sedative effects. The conclusion was made on pathogenetic action of L in alcoholism: It influences upon dopaminergic mediation in catecholamine system. Administration of L permitted to normalize neurochemical processes underlying alcohol addiction and depression. L was well tolerated. Side effects complications, drug addiction were not registered.

  13. DNA microarray and proteomic strategies for understanding alcohol action.

    PubMed

    Sikela, James M; Maclaren, Erik J; Kim, Young; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Cai, Wei-Wen; Pollack, Jonathan; Hitzemann, Robert; Belknap, John; McWeeney, Shannon; Kerns, Robnet T; Downing, Chris; Johnson, Thomas E; Grant, Kathleen J; Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula; Wu, Christine C; Miles, Michael F

    2006-04-01

    This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the 2005 annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism in Santa Barbara, California. The organizer was James M. Sikela, and he and Michael F. Miles were chairs. The presentations were (1) Genomewide Surveys of Gene Copy Number Variation in Human and Mouse: Implications for the Genetics of Alcohol Action, by James M. Sikela; (2) Regional Differences in the Regulation of Brain Gene Expression: Relevance to the Detection of Genes Associated with Alcohol-Related Traits, by Robert Hitzemann; (3) Identification of Ethanol Quantitative Trait Loci Candidate Genes by Expression Profiling in Inbred Long Sleep/Inbred Short Sleep Congenic Mice, by Robnet T. Kerns; and (4) Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of AC7-Modified Mice, by Kathleen J. Grant.

  14. 14 CFR 414.37 - Hearings in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearings in safety approval actions. 414.37 Section 414.37 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.37 Hearings in safety approval actions. (a) The FAA will give...

  15. 14 CFR 414.37 - Hearings in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hearings in safety approval actions. 414.37 Section 414.37 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.37 Hearings in safety approval actions. (a) The FAA will give...

  16. 14 CFR 414.37 - Hearings in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hearings in safety approval actions. 414.37 Section 414.37 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.37 Hearings in safety approval actions. (a) The FAA will give...

  17. 14 CFR 414.37 - Hearings in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hearings in safety approval actions. 414.37 Section 414.37 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.37 Hearings in safety approval actions. (a) The FAA will give...

  18. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year.

  19. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year. PMID:11367402

  20. 14 CFR 414.37 - Hearings in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hearings in safety approval actions. 414.37 Section 414.37 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.37 Hearings in...

  1. YouthAccess to Alcohol: early findings from a community action project to reduce the supply of alcohol to teens.

    PubMed

    Clark, Sam

    2007-01-01

    The Youth Access to Alcohol (YATA) project was implemented in 2002 by the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand (ALAC) in thirty communities in New Zealand, with the aim of reducing the harm experienced by young people as a result of alcohol misuse in New Zealand through reducing the supply of alcohol by adults to young people. The communities include a mix of rural and urban from both Islands in New Zealand. The project uses a community action approach, which has included setting up collaborative partnerships of key agencies, the delivery of key strategies, and multimedia awareness raising campaigns. The communities are encouraged to identify unique issues in their community regarding alcohol abuse and young people and to develop action plans incorporating a range of strategies that include tested strategies as well as innovative ideas. Communities are trained to implement several tools to monitor changes in their community over time. The study's limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested. PMID:18075928

  2. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety. Volume II of II. A Curriculum Manual for Elementary Level. A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual for the elementary school level is the first in a series on alcohol and alcohol safety and is designed as a teacher's activities guide. Each activity provided is a self-contained learning experience which requires varying numbers of class period and focuses on one or more objectives. Activities are numbered consecutively and…

  3. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action. PMID:10874398

  4. The global expansion of alcohol marketing: illustrative case studies and recommendations for action.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H

    1999-01-01

    As evidence emerges showing alcohol's significant share of the global burden of disease, alcohol sales have flattened in the developed countries, but sales are rising in developing and post-communist countries. A three-year study sought to assess the growing impact of global alcohol transnationals in the developing and post-communist countries. Case studies in three countries--Malaysia, Zimbabwe, and Estonia--provide concrete examples of current global alcohol marketing policies and procedures. Recommendations stress the need for national and local governments, international bodies, non-governmental organizations, and the global alcohol companies to adopt specific measures designed to achieve improved monitoring of alcohol problems, greater public awareness of alcohol's impact, stronger and more effective regulation of the alcohol trade, and greater restraint on the part of the companies. Alcohol problems are too serious and too preventable for the world to be left thirsting for action.

  5. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... and Alcohol Testing AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... operators and operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol... incident, operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either...

  6. Development of a Junior High School Module in Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.

    Five 45-minute teaching units for junior high school students on alcohol education and traffic safety are presented. Lesson I examines alcohol as a drug. Activities include a question-answer survey, a film, and a game. Assignments are a "find the word" game and an evaluation of an advertisement for an alcoholic beverage. Lesson II considers…

  7. Converging actions of alcohol on liver and brain immune signaling.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Gyongyi; Lippai, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration and impaired regeneration. Alcohol-induced cell injury in the brain results in release of damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box 1, that trigger inflammatory changes through activation of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability and results in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular pattern such as endotoxin in the systemic circulation that triggers PRRs and inflammation. The Toll-like receptor-4 pathway that activates nuclear factor-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1-beta, and chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been suggested to contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Alcohol-induced IL-1β secretion also requires Nod-like receptor-mediated inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and, consistent with this, disruption of IL-1/IL-1-receptor signaling prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Delicate regulators of inflammatory gene expressions are micro-RNAs (miRs) that have recently been identified in alcohol-related neuroinflammation. Alcohol induces miR155, a regulator of inflammation in the brain, and deficiency in mi

  8. Use of the theory of reasoned action to predict drug and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Laflin, M T; Moore-Hirschl, S; Weis, D L; Hayes, B E

    1994-05-01

    The present study examines the role of self-esteem (SE) in the prediction of drug and alcohol use. Consistent with research on the theory of reasoned action, we suggest that alcohol and drug attitudes and subjective norms are more useful in the prediction of self-reported drug and alcohol consumption than SE. In the present study, measures of SE, drug attitudes, subjective norms, and drug use behaviors were collected from 2,074 high school and college students. Results indicate that drug attitudes and subjective norms do predict drug and alcohol use, but that SE does not add significantly to the prediction of the drug and alcohol behaviors.

  9. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    SciTech Connect

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  10. Save Lives! Recommendations To Reduce Underage Access to Alcohol & Action Steps for Your Community. Update 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Each year thousands of young people are killed and injured in alcohol-related crashes. In 1992, Join Together, convened a national policy panel on underage drinking in direct response to communities' demands for action. This document is a product of the panel's findings. Section 1, Recommendations to Reduce Underage Access to Alcohol, made five…

  11. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.

  12. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus “alcohol culture.” Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one’s community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  13. Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Crowell, Kristen T.; Lang, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol has profound effects on tissue and whole-body fuel metabolism which contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with alcohol use disorder. This review focuses on the glucose metabolic effects of alcohol, primarily in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue, under basal postabsorptive conditions and in response to insulin stimulation. While there is a relatively extensive literature in this area, results are often discordant and extrapolating between models and tissues is fraught with uncertainty. Comparisons between data generated in experimental cell and animals systems will be contrasted with that obtained from human subjects as often times results differ. Further, the nutritional status is also an important component of the sometimes divergent findings pertaining to the effects of alcohol on the regulation of insulin and glucose metabolism. This work is relevant as the contribution of alcohol intake to the development or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes remains ill-defined and a multi-systems approach is likely needed as both alcohol and diabetes affect multiple targets within the body. PMID:26426068

  14. Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Crowell, Kristen T; Lang, Charles H

    2015-09-29

    Alcohol has profound effects on tissue and whole-body fuel metabolism which contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with alcohol use disorder. This review focuses on the glucose metabolic effects of alcohol, primarily in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue, under basal postabsorptive conditions and in response to insulin stimulation. While there is a relatively extensive literature in this area, results are often discordant and extrapolating between models and tissues is fraught with uncertainty. Comparisons between data generated in experimental cell and animals systems will be contrasted with that obtained from human subjects as often times results differ. Further, the nutritional status is also an important component of the sometimes divergent findings pertaining to the effects of alcohol on the regulation of insulin and glucose metabolism. This work is relevant as the contribution of alcohol intake to the development or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes remains ill-defined and a multi-systems approach is likely needed as both alcohol and diabetes affect multiple targets within the body.

  15. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  16. A Winning Combination: An Alcohol, Other Drug, and Traffic Safety Handbook for College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David, Ed.

    This manual addresses the social and legal issues facing college administrators today in dealing with alcohol and other drug problems. It is a guide for colleges and universities to develop individualized alcohol, drug, and traffic safety programs. The first part, entitled "Insights," presents background articles by professionals in higher…

  17. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  18. A safety assessment of branched chain saturated alcohols when used as fragrance ingredients.

    PubMed

    Belsito, D; Bickers, D; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Greim, H; Hanifin, J M; Rogers, A E; Saurat, J H; Sipes, I G; Tagami, H

    2010-07-01

    The Branched Chain Saturated Alcohol (BCSA) group of fragrance ingredients was evaluated for safety. In humans, no evidence of skin irritation was found at concentrations of 2-10%. Undiluted, 11 materials evaluated caused moderate to severe eye irritation. As current end product use levels are between 0.001% and 1.7%, eye irritation is not a concern. The materials have no or low sensitizing potential. For individuals who are already sensitized, an elicitation reaction is possible. Due to lack of UVA/UVB light-absorbing structures, and review of phototoxic/photoallergy data, the BCSA are not expected to elicit phototoxicity or photoallergy. The 15 materials tested have a low order of acute toxicity. Following repeated application, seven BCSA tested were of low systemic toxicity. Studies performed on eight BCSA and three metabolites show no in vivo or in vitro genotoxicity. A valid carcinogenicity study showed that 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is a weak inducer of liver tumors in female mice, however, the relevance of this effect and mode of action to humans is still a matter of debate. The Panel is of the opinion that there are no safety concerns regarding BCSA under the present levels of use and exposure.

  19. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-06-19

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p < .01). The study confirms that alcohol use and driving under the influence of alcohol are highly prevalent in Spanish young people, and some gender differences exist in these behaviors (p < .01). Furthermore, the study confirms the validity of theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.

  20. Predicting Alcohol-Impaired Driving among Spanish Youth with the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    PubMed

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p < .01). The study confirms that alcohol use and driving under the influence of alcohol are highly prevalent in Spanish young people, and some gender differences exist in these behaviors (p < .01). Furthermore, the study confirms the validity of theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs. PMID:26087814

  1. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    produced minimal effects. A spray formula containing 12% SD Alcohol 40-B was found to be nonirritating when evaluated for vaginal mucosal irritation in New Zealand white rabbits. Cosmetic formulations containing SD Alcohol 40-B (denatured with Denatonium Benzoate) were not sensitizers in repeated insult patch tests. A gel formula containing 29% SD Alcohol 40-B and a spray liquid containing 12% SD Alcohol 40-B did not induce photoallergy, dermal sensitization, or phototoxic response in human subjects. Although the absorption of ethanol (aka Alcohol for purposes of cosmetic ingredient labeling) occurs through skin, ethanol does not appear to affect the integrity of the skin barrier nor reach a very high systemic concentration following dermal exposure. Ethanol may be found in the bloodstream as a result of inhalation exposure and ingestion. Topically applied, ethanol can act as a penetration enhancer. Most of the systemic toxicity of ethanol appears to be associated with chronic abuse of alcohol. Although ethanol is denatured to make it unfit for consumption, there have been reports of intentional and unintentional consumption of products containing denatured alcohol. Ethanol is a reproductive and developmental toxicant. Ethanol is genotoxic in some test systems and it has been proposed that the genotoxic effects of ethanol are mediated via its metabolite, acetaldehyde. A brief summary is provided of the effects of chronic ingestion of alcohol including intoxication, liver damage, brain damage, and possible carcinogenicity. The CIR Expert Panel recognizes that certain ingredients in this group are reportedly used in a given product category, but the concentration of use is not available. Because dermal application or inhalation of cosmetic products containing these ingredients will not produce significant systemic exposure to ethanol, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that safety of the ingredients should be predicated on the safety of the denaturants used. The Panel considered

  2. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  3. Opium, tobacco and alcohol: the evolving legitimacy of international action.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There is a broad consensus that international trade in goods is beneficial, providing of course that it is fair. Yet not all things that are traded are goods. Some can more appropriately be considered as 'bads'. The way things are viewed can change over time. Over a century ago the U.K. fought a war with China for the right to trade in narcotics yet now interdicts such shipments on the high seas. More recently, the international community has agreed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, showing that tobacco is moving from a good to a bad. However, there are other things that are legitimately traded where restrictions may be needed, such as alcohol. Global trade is simply a means to an end. The ultimate goal must include better health for all.

  4. Molecular and behavioral aspects of the actions of alcohol on the adult and developing brain.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Loeches, Silvia; Guerri, Consuelo

    2011-01-01

    The brain is one of the major target organs of alcohol actions. Alcohol abuse can lead to alterations in brain structure and functions and, in some cases, to neurodegeneration. Cognitive deficits and alcohol dependence are highly damaging consequences of alcohol abuse. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to alcohol, and that drinking during gestation can lead to a range of physical, learning and behavioral defects (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders), with the most dramatic presentation corresponding to fetal alcohol syndrome. Recent findings also indicate that adolescence is a stage of brain maturation and that heavy drinking at this stage can have a negative impact on brain structure and functions causing important short- and long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences. The effects of alcohol on the brain are not uniform; some brain areas or cell populations are more vulnerable than others. The prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, the cerebellum, the white matter and glial cells are particularly susceptible to the effects of ethanol. The molecular actions of alcohol on the brain are complex and involve numerous mechanisms and signaling pathways. Some of the mechanisms involved are common for the adult brain and for the developing brain, while others depend on the developmental stage. During brain ontogeny, alcohol causes irreversible alterations to the brain structure. It also impairs several molecular, neurochemical and cellular events taking place during normal brain development, including alterations in both gene expression regulation and the molecules involved in cell-cell interactions, interference with the mitogenic and growth factor response, enhancement of free radical formation and derangements of glial cell functions. However, in both adult and adolescent brains, alcohol damages specific brain areas through mechanisms involving excitotoxicity, free radical formation and

  5. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  6. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  7. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  8. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  9. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  11. Pharmacogenomically actionable medications in a safety net health care system

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Janet S; Rosenman, Marc B; Knisely, Mitchell R; Decker, Brian S; Levy, Kenneth D; Flockhart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Prior to implementing a trial to evaluate the economic costs and clinical outcomes of pharmacogenetic testing in a large safety net health care system, we determined the number of patients taking targeted medications and their clinical care encounter sites. Methods: Using 1-year electronic medical record data, we evaluated the number of patients who had started one or more of 30 known pharmacogenomically actionable medications and the number of care encounter sites the patients had visited. Results: Results showed 7039 unique patients who started one or more of the target medications within a 12-month period with visits to 73 care sites within the system. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the type of large-scale, multi-drug, multi-gene approach to pharmacogenetic testing we are planning is widely relevant, and successful implementation will require wide-scale education of prescribers and other personnel involved in medication dispensing and handling. PMID:26835014

  12. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  13. An Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety Program for Institutionalized Juvenile Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Glenn E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a preventive, educational program on alcohol and traffic safety conducted with institutionalized delinquents (N=66) identified as a high risk group for drinking and driving. Results supported the success of the program and confirmed that institutionalized delinquents were in fact an extremely high risk group. (LLL)

  14. Alcohol-responsive Action Myoclonus of the Leg in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Paraneoplastic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic movement disorders in prostate cancer are rare, and to our knowledge paraneoplastic myoclonus has not previously been reported. Case Report We report two men with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who developed isolated alcohol-responsive action myoclonus of one leg. Myoclonus was absent at rest but triggered by movement, standing, or walking. Evaluations excluded malignant invasion of the nervous system, and testing for commercial paraneoplastic antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were unrevealing. Both patients experienced significant improvement with alcohol, and sodium oxybate was used in one patient with good initial benefit. Discussion Alcohol-responsive leg myoclonus might be a novel paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. The nature of the syndrome and the source of the myoclonus are currently unknown. PMID:26759739

  15. Irritative action of alcoholic beverages in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages such as white wine, Japanese sake and whisky was examined in rat stomachs in vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. The concentration of ethanol in these alcoholic beverages was 15%. Mucosal application of ethanol (15%) and whisky in the chambered stomach caused a decrease in gastric potential difference (PD), while that of Japanese sake and white wine caused a slight increase but not decrease in PD. Likewise, both ethanol and whisky markedly reduced the cell viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min incubation, whereas neither Japanese sake nor white wine had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose, one of the non-alcoholic ingredients of white wine and Japanese sake, antagonized a reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less than that of ethanol or whisky and that these properties may be, at least partly, due to the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  16. Ethanol-derived acetaldehyde: pleasure and pain of alcohol mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Muggironi, Giulia; Fois, Giulia R.; Diana, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), has been implicated in several actions of alcohol, including its reinforcing effects. Previously considered an aversive compound, ACD was useful in alcoholic’s pharmacological treatment aimed at discouraging alcohol drinking. However, it has recently been shown that EtOH-derived ACD is necessary for EtOH-induced place preference and self-administration, thereby suggesting a possible involvement of ACD in EtOH motivational properties. In addition, EtOH-stimulating properties on DA neurons are prevented by pharmacological blockade of local catalase H2O2 system, the main metabolic step for biotransformation of EtOH into ACD within the central nervous system. It was further shown that pretreatment with thiol compounds, like L-Cysteine or D-Penicillamine, reduced EtOH and ACD-induced motivational effects, in fact preventing self-administration of both EtOH and ACD, thus suggesting a possible role for ACD as a biomarker useful in evaluating potential innovative treatments of alcohol abuse. These findings suggest a key role of ACD in the EtOH reinforcing effects. In the present paper we review the role of EtOH-derived ACD in the reinforcing effects of EtOH and the possibility that ACD may serve as a therapeutically targetable biomarker in the search for novel treatments in alcohol abuse and alcoholism. PMID:23882197

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. School Safety, Severe Disciplinary Actions, and School Characteristics: A Secondary Analysis of the School Survey on Crime and Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Seunghee; Akiba, Motoko

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of a secondary analysis of survey data collected from 1,872 secondary school principals in the 2005-2006 School Survey on Crime and Safety, we examined the frequency of and reasons for severe disciplinary actions and the relationship between school characteristics and severe disciplinary actions. We found that severe disciplinary…

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  1. Determinants of disulfiram acceptance among alcohol patients: a test of the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, R G; Prue, D M; Rychtarik, R G

    1987-01-01

    The utility of disulfiram in the treatment of alcohol abuse has been limited by the high frequency with which clients refuse the regimen. The present study identified variables influencing disulfiram acceptance/rejection within the framework of the theory of reasoned action. Eighty male inpatients on an alcohol treatment unit completed a questionnaire operationalizing the components of the model. The theoretical components were then used to predict requests for the drug. Multiple regression analyses revealed significant correlations among components of the model consistent with the assumptions of the theory. In addition, significant differences were found between disulfiram requestors and rejectors in terms of behavioral and normative beliefs about the consequences of being placed on the drug. Implications of these results for the design of effective interventions are discussed.

  2. The relationship of alcohol safety laws to drinking drivers in fatal crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B; Tippetts, A S; Fell, J

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between the passage of key alcohol safety laws and the number of drinking drivers in fatal crashes. The study evaluated three major alcohol safety laws--administrative license revocation laws, 0.10 illegal per se, and 0.08 illegal per se laws--on the proportion of drinking drivers in fatal crashes. Drivers aged 21 and older in fatal crashes at two BAC levels--0.01-0.09 and 0.10 or greater--were considered separately. Drivers under age 21 were not included because they are affected by the Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) law. This study used data on drinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) covering 16 years (1982-1997) for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Also included in the study were such variables as per capita alcohol consumption and annual vehicle miles traveled (VMT), which could affect the number of alcohol-related crashes. The results indicate that each of the three laws had a significant relationship to the downward trend in alcohol-related fatal crashes in the United States over that period. This paper points out that this long-term trend is not the product of a single law. Instead, it is the result of the growing impact of several laws over time plus the affect of some factors not included in the model tested (such as the increasing use of sobriety checkpoints and the media's attention to the drinking-and-driving problem).

  3. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Nair, B

    2001-01-01

    , characterized by the appearance of wheals, erythema, and pruritus. In one study, 5% Benzyl Alcohol elicited a reaction, and in another study, 2% Benzoic Acid did likewise. Benzyl Alcohol, however, was not a sensitizer at 10%, nor was Benzoic Acid a sensitizer at 2%. Recognizing that the nonimmunologic reactions are strictly cutaneous, likely involving a cholinergic mechanism, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely at concentrations up to 5%, but that manufacturers should consider the nonimmunologic phenomena when using these ingredients in cosmetic formulations designed for infants and children. Additionally, Benzyl Alcohol was considered safe up to 10% for use in hair dyes. The limited body exposure, the duration of use, and the frequency of use were considered in concluding that the nonimmunologic reactions would not be a concern. Because of the wide variety of product types in which these ingredients may be used, it is likely that inhalation may be a route of exposure. The available safety tests are not considered sufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in formulations where inhalation is a route of exposure. Inhalation toxicity data are needed to complete the safety assessment of these ingredients where inhalation can occur. PMID:11766131

  5. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  6. 14 CFR 414.39 - Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions. 414.39 Section 414.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.39 Submissions; oral presentations...

  7. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  8. 14 CFR 414.39 - Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions. 414.39 Section 414.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.39 Submissions; oral presentations...

  9. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS...

  10. 14 CFR 414.39 - Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions. 414.39 Section 414.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures §...

  11. 14 CFR 414.39 - Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions. 414.39 Section 414.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.39 Submissions; oral presentations...

  12. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  13. 14 CFR 414.39 - Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submissions; oral presentations in safety approval actions. 414.39 Section 414.39 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.39 Submissions; oral presentations...

  14. 14 CFR 414.41 - Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative law judge's recommended decision in safety approval actions. 414.41 Section 414.41 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING SAFETY APPROVALS Appeal Procedures § 414.41 Administrative law...

  15. Environmental and human safety of major surfactants. Volume 1. Anionic surfactants. Part 2. Alcohol ethoxy sulfates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The report discusses critical reviews of published literature and unpublished company data on major surfactants. Part 2 of Vol. 1 discusses the chemistry, biodegradation, environmental effects and safety and human safety of alcohol ethoxy sulfates. The information presented updates and supplements similar data included in two predecessor studies, Human Safety and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (1977) NTIS Accession Number PB301193 and Human and Environmental Aspects of Major Surfactants (Supplement) (1981) NTIS Accessiion Number PB81-182453.

  16. Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-28

    This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

  17. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anti-angiogenic actions of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Laschke, MW; van Oijen, AE Vorsterman; Scheuer, C; Menger, MD

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA) is a phenolic plant compound, which has been shown to influence many cellular mechanisms. In the present study, we analysed in vitro and in vivo the anti-angiogenic actions of this pleiotropic agent. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Migration and protein expression of HBA- and vehicle-treated endothelial-like eEND2 cells was assessed by cell migration assay and Western blot analyses. HBA action on vascular sprouting was analysed in an aortic ring assay. In vivo anti-angiogenic actions of HBA were studied in the dorsal skinfold chamber model of endometriosis in mice. KEY RESULTS Western blot analyses demonstrated that HBA inhibited proliferation of eEND2 cells, as indicated by down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9. HBA suppressed the migration of eEND2 cells, accompanied by inhibition of actin filament reorganization, revealed by fluorescence staining of the cytoskeleton. In addition, HBA reduced vascular sprouting in the aortic ring assay. Finally, we found, in the dorsal skinfold chamber model in vivo using intravital fluorescence microscopy, that HBA inhibited the vascularization of developing endometriotic lesions, as indicated by a decreased functional capillary density of lesions in HBA-treated mice and a reduced lesion size, compared with control animals. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS HBA targets several angiogenic mechanisms and therefore represents a promising anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of angiogenic diseases, such as endometriosis. PMID:21366552

  18. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them. PMID:24722740

  19. Case study: the Argentina Road Safety Project: lessons learned for the decade of action for road safety, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Veronica; Bliss, Tony; Shotten, Marc; Sleet, David; Blanchard, Claire

    2013-12-01

    This case study of the Argentina Road Safety Project demonstrates how the application of World Bank road safety project guidelines focused on institution building can accelerate knowledge transfer, scale up investment and improve the focus on results. The case study highlights road safety as a development priority and outlines World Bank initiatives addressing the implementation of the World Report on Road Traffic Injury's recommendations and the subsequent launch of the Decade of Action for Road Safety, from 2011-2020. The case study emphasizes the vital role played by the lead agency in ensuring sustainable road safety improvements and promoting the shift to a 'Safe System' approach, which necessitated the strengthening of all elements of the road safety management system. It summarizes road safety performance and institutional initiatives in Argentina leading up to the preparation and implementation of the project. We describe the project's development objectives, financing arrangements, specific components and investment staging. Finally, we discuss its innovative features and lessons learned, and present a set of supplementary guidelines, both to assist multilateral development banks and their clients with future road safety initiatives, and to encourage better linkages between the health and transportation sectors supporting them.

  20. Novel Action of Carotenoids on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Macrophage Polarization and Liver Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yinhua; Zhuge, Fen; Nagashimada, Mayumi; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease. It is characterized by a wide spectrum of hepatic changes, which may progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome; however, mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of NAFLD are still unclear. Resident and recruited macrophages are key players in the homeostatic function of the liver and in the progression of NAFLD to NASH. Progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the polarized activation of macrophages. New NAFLD therapies will likely involve modification of macrophage polarization by restraining M1 activation or driving M2 activation. Carotenoids are potent antioxidants and anti-inflammatory micronutrients that have been used to prevent and treat NAFLD. In addition to their antioxidative action, carotenoids can regulate macrophage polarization and thereby halt the progression of NASH. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of macrophage polarization and the function of liver macrophages/Kupffer cells in NAFLD. From our review, we propose that dietary carotenoids, such as β-cryptoxanthin and astaxanthin, be used to prevent or treat NAFLD through the regulation of macrophage polarization and liver homeostasis. PMID:27347998

  1. Safety Evaluation of Alcoholic Extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata Stem-bark in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devi, P. R. Sakuntala; Adilaxmamma, K.; Rao, G. Srinivisa; Srilatha, Ch.; Raj, M. Alpha

    2012-01-01

    The safety profile of alcoholic extract of stem-bark of B. ovalifoliolata was investigated in male Wistar albino rats as per OECD guidelines 407. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group 1 served as control and was given 0.3% carboxymethylcellulose, groups 2, 3 and 4 were given alcoholic extract of B. ovalifoliolata @ 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively in 0.3% carboxymethylcellulose orally for 28 days. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs, mortality, physiological and behavioral changes. Body weights were measured at weekly intervals and various hematological parameters like Hb, PCV, TEC, TLC and serum biochemical profile which included AST, ALT, creatine phosphokinase, creatinine, total protein and antioxidant parameters like TBARS and GSH in liver were estimated at the end of experimental period. There were no clinical signs of abnormality. The weekly body weights, organ weights and hematological parameters did not vary significantly amongst the groups. The mean activity of AST, ALT and CPK, and the concentration of serum creatinine, total protein, TBARS and GSH did not differ significantly among the groups. Histological abnormalities of toxicological significance were not detected in groups 2 and 3. However, mild histopathological alterations were observed in higher dose group 4. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the alcoholic extract of stem-bark of B. ovalifoliolata is safe at lower doses of 100 and 500 mg/kg. Hence, alcoholic extract of stem bark of B. ovalifoliolata is safe and no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is found to be 500 mg/kg following repeated oral administration for 28 days in rats. PMID:22778507

  2. Action-oriented support for occupational safety and health programs in some developing countries in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, T; Kogi, K

    2001-01-01

    Action-oriented support programs have been increasingly playing vital roles in promoting safety and health in developing countries in Asia. This paper studied achievements of 3 action-oriented support programs: the WISE program for small enterprises, the WIND program for farmers, and the POSITIVE program for workers and trade unions. Special attention was paid to how the programs have strengthened local efforts for sustainable actions in safety and health improvements. The results showed that there were significant achievements in action-oriented support programs in the region, including a large number of improvement examples, integration into government policies, and network support through employers' and workers' organizations. Participatory, action-oriented training tools such as action-checklists, local good example photos, and group work methods played key roles in the effective implementation of the programs. It was of note that there were a number of local efforts to extend the coverage of action-oriented support even to hard-to-reach workers such as home-based workers, rural workers, and ethnic minorities. The efforts included the equal participation in the training by female and male farmers, shortened and weekend training programs, photo sheets showing local good examples, and reasonable fee collection for better sustainability. In conclusion, action-oriented support programs provided local people with concrete means to promote safety and health improvements. The successful programs commonly focused on local initiatives and were built on local wisdom and resources.

  3. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  4. An exploration of the experiences of cultural safety educators in New Zealand: an action research approach.

    PubMed

    Wepa, Dianne

    2003-10-01

    This research is a study of the experiences of four cultural safety educators in nursing education in Aotearoa, New Zealand. Action research methods assisted the participants to implement change in their practice and gain positive personal involvement in the study. Reflective diaries provided the major tool in this process as participants were able to achieve at least one action research cycle by identifying issues, planning action, observing the action, and reflecting. The findings of the research revealed that the participants not only coped with everyday stressors of teaching but were also required to formulate knowledge for cultural safety. For the Maori participants, their stress was confounded with recruiting and retaining Maori students and macro issues such as commitment to their iwi (tribe). Lack of support to teach cultural safety was identified to be a key theme for all participants. An analysis of this theme revealed that many issues were organizational in nature and out of their control. Action research provided a change strategy for participants to have a sense of control of issues within their practice. Recommendations include the following: support for cultural safety educators to have a dialogue on a regular basis, the introduction of nurse educator programmes, paid leave provisions for educators to conduct and publish research so that a body of knowledge can be developed, and that Maori cultural safety educators be recognised for their professional and cultural strengths so that they do not fall victim to burnout. PMID:14535155

  5. Training and Action for Patient Safety: Embedding Interprofessional Education for Patient Safety within an Improvement Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Beverley L.; Lawton, Rebecca; Armitage, Gerry; Bibby, John; Wright, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Despite an explosion of interest in improving safety and reducing error in health care, one important aspect of patient safety that has received little attention is a systematic approach to education and training for the whole health care workforce. This article describes an evaluation of an innovative multiprofessional, team-based…

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. [Health & safety in a steel plant: technical and managerial action].

    PubMed

    Fusato, M

    2012-01-01

    The report presents the experience in a steel company to improve the management of issues relating to health and safety of workers. The first part of the work focuses on the description of the interventions made by the company in recent years, which can be divided into technical interventions on production facilities, training and information, organizational activities and specific projects in collaboration with the health service. The second part presents the certification project according to OHSAS 18001, with particular focus on the efforts for a lean management of the documentation required by the management systems and for the automation of internal processes. The last part finally describes in detail the manner in which it was decided to address some issues that significantly affect the factory doctor: the recording and analysis of accidents and medications, management of hazardous substances and personal protective equipment.

  8. Motor-vehicle occupant injury: strategies for increasing use of child safety seats, increasing use of safety belts, and reducing alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Fielding, J E; Brownson, R C; England, M J; Fullilove, M T; Guerra, F A; Hinman, A R; Isham, G J; Land, G H; Mahan, C S; Mullen, P D; Nolan, P A; Scrimshaw, S C; Teutsch, S M; Thompson, R S

    2001-05-18

    The Task Force on Community Preventive Services has conducted systematic reviews of interventions designed to increase use of child safety seats, increase use of safety belts, and reduce alcohol-impaired driving. The Task Force strongly recommends the following interventions: laws requiring use of child safety seats, distribution and education programs for child safety seats, laws requiring use of safety belts, both primary and enhanced enforcement of safety belt use laws, laws that lower the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for adult drivers to 0.08%, laws that maintain the minimum legal drinking age at 21 years, and use of sobriety checkpoints. The Task Force recommends communitywide information and enforcement campaigns for use of child safety seats, incentive and education programs for use of child safety seats, and a lower legal BAC for young drivers (in the United States, those under the minimum legal drinking age). This report provides additional information regarding these recommendations, briefly describes how the reviews were conducted, and provides information to help apply the interventions locally.

  9. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In 1992, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project experienced several health and safety related incidents at active remediation project sites. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) directed the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to establish a program increasing the DOE`s overall presence at operational remediation sites to identify and minimize risks in operations to the fullest extent possible (Attachments A and B). In response, the TAC, in cooperation with the DOE and the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), developed the Safety Advancement Field Effort (SAFE) Program.

  10. Evaluation of a regional community action intervention in New Zealand to improve age checks for young people purchasing alcohol.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Taisia; Conway, Kim; Casswell, Sally; Pledger, Megan

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a regional community action intervention to reduce access to alcohol from off-license premises by minors. The intervention focussed on: (1) monitoring alcohol sales made without age identification from off-licenses; (2) utilizing data on alcohol sales for media advocacy and direct contact with alcohol retailers and (3) working with key enforcement staff to encourage increased monitoring and enforcement of minimum purchase age legislation for off-licenses. Evaluation of this intervention used a case study design. Purchase survey data was obtained before and after intervention. Media items were monitored and included pre- and post-intervention phases. Interviews, with key enforcement staff, and document review were undertaken post-intervention. Purchase survey data showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in sales of alcohol made to young people without age identification pre- and post-intervention. Pre-intervention: 60% of visits resulted in a sale made without age identification; post-intervention this proportion was 46%. Principal component analysis of newsprint media indicated increased coverage of items advocating improved age checking for off-licenses following intervention. Interview data and document review indicate that some enforcement staff in the region implemented increased enforcement strategies including, controlled purchase operations and increased visits to off-licenses due to the intervention. Evaluation findings indicate that collaborative and intersectoral community action interventions implemented regionally can be effective in redirecting resources to achieve preventive outcomes at a population level.

  11. Evaluation of a regional community action intervention in New Zealand to improve age checks for young people purchasing alcohol.

    PubMed

    Huckle, Taisia; Conway, Kim; Casswell, Sally; Pledger, Megan

    2005-06-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a regional community action intervention to reduce access to alcohol from off-license premises by minors. The intervention focussed on: (1) monitoring alcohol sales made without age identification from off-licenses; (2) utilizing data on alcohol sales for media advocacy and direct contact with alcohol retailers and (3) working with key enforcement staff to encourage increased monitoring and enforcement of minimum purchase age legislation for off-licenses. Evaluation of this intervention used a case study design. Purchase survey data was obtained before and after intervention. Media items were monitored and included pre- and post-intervention phases. Interviews, with key enforcement staff, and document review were undertaken post-intervention. Purchase survey data showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in sales of alcohol made to young people without age identification pre- and post-intervention. Pre-intervention: 60% of visits resulted in a sale made without age identification; post-intervention this proportion was 46%. Principal component analysis of newsprint media indicated increased coverage of items advocating improved age checking for off-licenses following intervention. Interview data and document review indicate that some enforcement staff in the region implemented increased enforcement strategies including, controlled purchase operations and increased visits to off-licenses due to the intervention. Evaluation findings indicate that collaborative and intersectoral community action interventions implemented regionally can be effective in redirecting resources to achieve preventive outcomes at a population level. PMID:15722363

  12. Incidental and Reflective Learning in the Workplace: An Action Science Study of Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Karen E.; And Others

    There are over 28 million children of alcoholics in the United States, 22 million of whom have now reached adulthood yet continue to experience emotional, mental, and physical effects of life in an alcoholic family. In the workplace, adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) have recently become acknowledged as a group who face special challenges. The…

  13. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  14. Early Intervention for Alcohol Use Prevention and Vehicle Safety Skills: Evaluating the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Thomas M.; Barker, Edward D.; Bell, Mary Lou; Lewis, Carol M.; Holleran, Lori; Pomeroy, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports the evaluation results of the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" (PY/PM) alcohol use prevention and safety curriculum for third, fourth, and fifth graders when taught by high school peer leaders. The primary goal of the PY/PM prevention program, developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), is to prevent injury and death…

  15. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  16. Games that ''Work'': Using Computer Games to Teach Alcohol-Affected Children about Fire and Street Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire D.; Strickland, Dorothy C.; Padgett, Lynne; Bellmoff, Lynnae

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death and disability for children. Those with developmental disabilities, including children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, are at highest risk for injuries. Although teaching safety skills is recommended to prevent injury, cognitive limitations and behavioral problems characteristic of…

  17. Psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant administered in combination with alcohol in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Yee, Ka Lai; Gill, Sean; Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Panebianco, Deborah; Mangin, Eric; Morrison, Dennis; McCrea, Jacqueline; Wagner, John A; Troyer, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A double-blind crossover study investigated psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant with and without alcohol. Healthy adults (n=31) were randomized to receive placebo or suvorexant (40 mg) plus placebo solution or alcohol (0.7 g/kg) in each of four treatments (single doses; morning administration). The US Food and Drug Administration approved suvorexant dose is 10 mg (up to 20 mg) daily. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed using tests of digit vigilance (DVT; primary endpoint), choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution, numeric working memory, immediate/delayed word recall, body sway and subjective alertness. Suvorexant alone did not significantly affect DVT reaction time, but did impact some pharmacodynamic tests. Suvorexant with alcohol increased reaction time versus either alone (mean difference at 2 h: 44 ms versus suvorexant, p<0.001; 24 ms, versus alcohol, p<0.05) and had additive negative effects on tests of vigilance, working/episodic memory, postural stability and alertness. No effects of suvorexant alone or with alcohol were observed by 9 h. No important changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed upon co-administration. All treatments were generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. In conclusion, co-administration of 40 mg suvorexant and 0.7 g/kg alcohol had additive negative psychomotor effects. Patients are advised not to consume alcohol with suvorexant. PMID:26464455

  18. Psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant administered in combination with alcohol in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Yee, Ka Lai; Gill, Sean; Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Panebianco, Deborah; Mangin, Eric; Morrison, Dennis; McCrea, Jacqueline; Wagner, John A; Troyer, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A double-blind crossover study investigated psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant with and without alcohol. Healthy adults (n=31) were randomized to receive placebo or suvorexant (40 mg) plus placebo solution or alcohol (0.7 g/kg) in each of four treatments (single doses; morning administration). The US Food and Drug Administration approved suvorexant dose is 10 mg (up to 20 mg) daily. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed using tests of digit vigilance (DVT; primary endpoint), choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution, numeric working memory, immediate/delayed word recall, body sway and subjective alertness. Suvorexant alone did not significantly affect DVT reaction time, but did impact some pharmacodynamic tests. Suvorexant with alcohol increased reaction time versus either alone (mean difference at 2 h: 44 ms versus suvorexant, p<0.001; 24 ms, versus alcohol, p<0.05) and had additive negative effects on tests of vigilance, working/episodic memory, postural stability and alertness. No effects of suvorexant alone or with alcohol were observed by 9 h. No important changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed upon co-administration. All treatments were generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. In conclusion, co-administration of 40 mg suvorexant and 0.7 g/kg alcohol had additive negative psychomotor effects. Patients are advised not to consume alcohol with suvorexant.

  19. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  20. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  1. Determination of safety margins for whole blood concentrations of alcohol and nineteen drugs in driving under the influence cases.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Lena; Strand, Dag Helge; Liane, Veronica Horpestad; Vindenes, Vigdis; Tvete, Ingunn Fride; Aldrin, Magne

    2016-02-01

    Legislative limits for driving under the influence of 20 non-alcohol drugs were introduced in Norway in February 2012. Per se limits corresponding to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0.2g/kg were established for 20 psychoactive drugs, and limits for graded sanctions corresponding to BACs of 0.5 and 1.2g/kg were determined for 13 of these drugs. This new legislation made it possible for the courts to make sentences based on the analytical results, similar to the situation for alcohol. To ensure that the reported concentration is as least as high as the true concentration, with a 99% safety level, safety margins had to be calculated for each of the substances. Diazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and alcohol were used as model substances to establish a new model for estimating the safety margins. The model was compared with a previous used model established several years ago, by a similar yet much simpler model, and they were found to be in agreement. The measurement uncertainties depend on the standard batch used, the work list and the measurements' replicate. A Bayesian modelling approach was used to determine the parameters in the model, using a dataset of 4700 diazepam positive specimens and 5400 THC positive specimens. Different safety margins were considered for low and high concentration levels of diazepam (≤2μM (0.6mg/L) and >2μM) and THC (≤0.01μM (0.003mg/L) and >0.01μM). The safety margins were for diazepam 19.5% (≤2μM) and 34% (>2μM), for THC 19.5% (≤0.01μM) and 24.9% (>0.01μM). Concentration dependent safety margins for BAC were based on a dataset of 29500 alcohol positive specimens, and were in the range 10.4% (0.1g/kg) to 4.0% (4.0g/kg) at a 99% safety level. A simplified approach was used to establish safety margins for the compounds amphetamine, MDMA, methamphetamine, alprazolam, phenazepam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, buprenorphine, GHB, methadone, ketamine, cocaine, morphine, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  2. [Development of tolerance to the activating action of morphine, fenamin, and alcohol on the positive reinforcement system of rats].

    PubMed

    Burov, Iu V; Borisenko, S A

    1980-06-01

    The development of cross tolerance to morphine, amphetamine and alcohol according to their activating effect on the system of positive reinforcement of the brain was shown on the basis of experimental self-stimulation reaction. It is assumed that the common neurophysiological and neurochemical mechanisms, particularly the adrenergic mechanisms of the system of positive reinforcement, lie at the basis of the development of tolerance to the drugs with euphoric type of action.

  3. [Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in experimental liver injury induced by TB drugs in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, D S; Artyushkova, E B; Dudka, V T

    2013-01-01

    Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in 66 male rats with liver disease induced by essential and second-line antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol were studied. One-directed affirmative action study drugs, shown to reduce the level of biochemical markers of cytolysis and cholestasis in conjunction with a significant reduction in symptoms of fatty, hyaline droplet and hydropic degeneration. In this runihol had a more pronounced anticytolitic effect, while under the influence of ademethionine the normalization endothelial dysfunction was established. PMID:24000714

  4. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification.

  5. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents several variations on a demonstration in which alcohol vapors are combusted in large small-necked bottles, causing a blue flame to shoot from the bottle's mouth. Describes variations with different pure alcohols, temperature, alcohol/water solution concentration, oxygen concentration, type of container, and the addition of salt for color.…

  6. Flexible Control of Safety Margins for Action Based on Environmental Variability

    PubMed Central

    Hadjiosif, Alkis M.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the risk of slip, grip force (GF) control includes a safety margin above the force level ordinarily sufficient for the expected load force (LF) dynamics. The current view is that this safety margin is based on the expected LF dynamics, amounting to a static safety factor like that often used in engineering design. More efficient control could be achieved, however, if the motor system reduces the safety margin when LF variability is low and increases it when this variability is high. Here we show that this is indeed the case by demonstrating that the human motor system sizes the GF safety margin in proportion to an internal estimate of LF variability to maintain a fixed statistical confidence against slip. In contrast to current models of GF control that neglect the variability of LF dynamics, we demonstrate that GF is threefold more sensitive to the SD than the expected value of LF dynamics, in line with the maintenance of a 3-sigma confidence level. We then show that a computational model of GF control that includes a variability-driven safety margin predicts highly asymmetric GF adaptation between increases versus decreases in load. We find clear experimental evidence for this asymmetry and show that it explains previously reported differences in how rapidly GFs and manipulatory forces adapt. This model further predicts bizarre nonmonotonic shapes for GF learning curves, which are faithfully borne out in our experimental data. Our findings establish a new role for environmental variability in the control of action. PMID:26085634

  7. Phase II -- Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA): Safety and health action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, K.

    1994-09-01

    To establish guidelines for the implementation and administration of an injury and illness prevention program for PVUSA and to assign specific responsibilities for the execution of the program. To provide a basic Safety and Health Action Plan (hereinafter referred to as Plan) that assists management, supervision, and project personnel in the recognition, evaluation, and control of hazardous activities and/or conditions within their respective areas of responsibility.

  8. Counselor training as a treatment for alcoholism: the helper therapy principle in action.

    PubMed

    Kahn, M W; Fua, C

    1992-01-01

    Extensive harmful drinking of alcohol is a major problem for many groups of Australian Aborigines and western treatment approaches have had limited effect. In order to stress cultural factors in treatment, a program to train indigenous Aborigines as alcoholism counselors for their communities was developed. In its more than 10 years of existence 145 counselors have been graduated. Of those initially entering the two year program 60% have graduated. Most of those have found employment as alcohol counselors for their people, and the numbers of Aborigines treated has increased. About 90% of those who entered the training had severe repeated substance abuse disorders in their recent history. The training and the alcohol counseling employment appears to be highly associated with continuing sobriety. For those who graduated the program only 4.8% returned to drinking. Those who completed only the first phase, 8.4% returned to drinking. Of those who were terminated from the program, 74% returned to drinking. Training alcoholics as alcohol counselors appears to be associated with vocational success and maintenance of sobriety as predicted by Riessman's "helper-therapy principle." PMID:1428664

  9. Prevalence and predictors of problematic alcohol use, risky sexual practices and other negative consequences associated with alcohol use among safety and security employees in the Western Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Harmful alcohol use can compromise worker health and productivity. Persons employed in safety-sensitive occupations are particularly vulnerable to hazardous alcohol use and its associated risks. This study describes the patterns of harmful alcohol use, related HIV risks and risk factors for the harmful use of alcohol among a sample of employees in South Africa working in the safety and security sector. Methods A cross-sectional study that formed the baseline for a clustered randomized control trial was undertaken in 2011. A random sample of 325 employees employed within a safety and security sector of a local municipality in the Western Cape Province of South Africa participated in the study. Data were collected by means of an 18-page self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SAS/STAT software version 9.2. For all significance testing, the F-statistic and p-values are reported. Results Three hundred and twenty-five employees were surveyed. Findings suggest that more than half (76.1%) of the 78.9% of participants who consumed alcohol engaged in binge drinking, with close to a quarter reporting a CAGE score greater than the cut-off of 2, indicating potentially hazardous drinking patterns. The study further found that employees who use alcohol are more likely to engage in risky sexual practices when under the influence. A favorable drinking climate (p < 0.001) and poor levels of group cohesion (p = 0.009) were significantly correlated to binge drinking. Conclusion This study identifies alcohol-related behaviors and associated risks in the context of safety-sensitive occupations at the workplace. It suggests that persons employed within such positions are at high risk for developing alcohol-related disorders and for contracting HIV. This study highlights the need for testing a comprehensive package of services designed to prevent hazardous alcohol use among safety and security employees. PMID:24593946

  10. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  11. Combining Seeking Safety with Sertraline for PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Denise; Levin, Frances Rudnick; Ruglass, Lesia; López-Castro, Teresa; Papini, Santiago; Hu, Mei Chen; Cohen, Lisa; Herron, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study marks the first randomized controlled trial to test the benefit of combining Seeking Safety (SS), a present-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), with sertraline, a front-line medication for PTSD shown to also impact drinking outcomes. Method Sixty-nine participants (81% female; 59% African American) with primarily childhood sexual (46%) and physical (39%) trauma exposure, and drug dependence in addition to AUD were randomized to receive a partial-dose (12 sessions) of SS with either sertraline (n = 32; M = 7 sessions) or placebo (n = 37; M = 6 sessions). Assessments conducted at baseline, end-of-treatment, 6- and 12-months posttreatment measured PTSD and AUD symptom severity. Results Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in PTSD symptoms. The SS plus sertraline group exhibited a significantly greater reduction in PTSD symptoms than the SS plus placebo group at end-of-treatment (M difference = −16.15, p = .04, d = 0.83), which was sustained at 6- and 12-month follow-up (M difference = −13.81, p = .04, d = 0.71, and M difference = −12.72, p = .05, d = 0.65, respectively). Both SS groups improved significantly on AUD severity at all posttreatment time points with no significant differences between SS plus sertraline and SS plus placebo. Conclusion Results support the combining of a cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline for PTSD/AUD. Clinically significant reductions in both PTSD and AUD severity were achieved and sustained through 12-months follow-up, Moreover, greater mean improvement in PTSD symptoms was observed across all follow-up assessments in the SS plus sertraline group. PMID:25622199

  12. [Alcohol and work: the role of the company physician in the occupational health and safety management systems].

    PubMed

    Patussi, V; Muran, A

    2010-01-01

    The organization of safety in the working places and the increasing attention to behaviours and life styles of workers that may lead to increasing occupational risks are the pick innovative aspects of the recent changes in our country's legislation about occupational safety. In this organization, the role of the company physician is becoming more and more important and his work of evaluation beginning with the knowledge both of the working places and of the workers's lifestyles, is irreplaceable. His role in organizing the managing standards of occupational safety and health cannot be limited to health supervision but must be an essential element in risk assessment in the prevision of workplaces and of safe working conditions, in workers training and information, in organizing the control system of each business. The present paper examines--referring to the current regulation--the duties and functions of a company physician when facing the problems concerning the working risks tied to alcohol assumption.

  13. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...) published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11624) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices dated, September 17, 1993 (58 FR 48705). DATES... Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified Products List of Evidential Breath Measurement Devices comprised...

  14. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Register on December 17, 2007 (72 FR 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices (58 FR 48705). DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2010. FOR... Administration (NHTSA) published the Standards for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A...

  15. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... for Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids (59 FR 39382). These specifications... Alcohol in Bodily Fluids (73 FR 16956). These specifications removed testing of interpretive screening...) published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66398) for instruments that conform to...

  16. 77 FR 64588 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Calibrating Units for Breath Alcohol Testers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... calibrating units for breath alcohol testers to Model Specifications for such devices (49 FR 48865) and to... found to conform to the 1994 amended Model Specifications (59 FR 67377) when tested at alcohol... Products List (CPL) published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2007 (72 FR 34747) for devices...

  17. Dimethyl fumarate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: rationale, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Duvyanshu; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hartung, Hans P; Hemmer, Bernhard; Warnke, Clemens; Menge, Til; Miller-Little, William A; Stuve, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a fumaric acid ester, is a new orally available disease-modifying agent that was recently approved by the US FDA and the EMA for the management of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Fumaric acid has been used for the management of psoriasis, for more than 50 years. Because of the known anti-inflammatory properties of fumaric acid ester, DMF was brought into clinical development in MS. More recently, neuroprotective and myelin-protective mechanism actions have been proposed, making it a possible candidate for MS treatment. Two Phase III clinical trials (DEFINE, CONFIRM) have evaluated the safety and efficacy of DMF in patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Being an orally available agent with a favorable safety profile, it has become one of the most commonly prescribed disease-modifying agents in the USA and Europe. PMID:25800129

  18. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  19. Prevention in Action. 1991 Exemplary Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Eight exemplary programs for preventing alcohol and other drug abuse are presented in this document. These programs are summarized: (1) SUPER II Early Intervention Program, Atlanta, Georgia, which serves primarily inner-city youth ages 11-17 and their families through community agencies, juvenile courts, alternative schools, and public housing;…

  20. Remedial actions of nuclear safety shot sites: Double Tracks and Clean Slates

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, M.; Shotton, M.; Lyons, C.

    1998-03-01

    Remedial actions of plutonium (Pu)-contaminated soils are in the preliminary stages of development at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Interim clean-up actions were completed at the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 safety shot sites in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Soil at both sites, with a total transuranic activity greater than 20 picoCuries per gram (pCi/g), was excavated and shipped to the NTS for disposal. Characterization and assessment efforts were initiated at the Double Tracks site in 1995, and the clean-up of this site as an interim action was completed in 1996. Clean-up of this site consisted of taking site-specific data and applying rationale for dose and risk calculations in selecting parameter values for the interim corrective action level. The remediation process included excavating and stockpiling the contaminated soil and loading the soil into supersacks with approximately 1,513 cubic meters (53,500 cubic feet) being shipped to the NTS for disposal. In 1997, remediation began on the Clean Slate 1 site on which characterization had already been completed using a very similar approach; however, the site incorporated lessons learned, cost efficiencies, and significant improvements to the process. This paper focuses on those factors and the progress that has been made in cleaning up the sites. The application of a technically reasonable remediation method, as well as the cost factors that supported transport and disposal of the low-level waste in bulk are discussed.

  1. Terminal ballistics of the 9mm with Action Safety bullet or Blitz-Action-Trauma (BAT) ammunition.

    PubMed

    Lantz, P E; Stone, R S; Broudy, D; Morgan, T M

    1994-05-01

    Specialty ammunition creating atypical gunshot wounds of entrance can create confusion and may be misinterpreted by pathologists unfamiliar with the terminal ballistics of these projectiles. The previously unreported wound ballistics caused by the 9mm with Action Safety bullet described in a homicide highlights the atypical entrance wound(s) and wounding capacity of this novel ammunition. Manufactured by Geco division of Dynamit Nobel, the bullet consists of a nonjacketed solid copper alloy bullet body without a conventional lead core. The large deformation well and part of the smaller central channel is filled with a hard plastic core and post that creates a round nose bullet. The internal ballistics and unique design allow the plastic nose cap and post to separate from the copper alloy base while still in the barrel. The radiolucent nose cap leaves the bullet's path but can still penetrate tissue giving the appearance of a separate but smaller entrance wound. The sharp leading edge of the deformation well and relative high velocity of the bullet body creates a punched out entrance wound with minimal marginal abrasion. When the plastic nose cap or fragments of the plastic post impact the subject, test firings may allow an inference to the muzzle-target distance even in the absence of soot deposition or stippling.

  2. Molecular targets of alcohol action: translational research for pharmacotherapy development and screening

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Giorgio; Bell, Richard L.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with neurobiological, psychological, and environmental components. Research on other complex neuropsychiatric diseases suggests that genetically influenced intermediate characteristics affect the risk for heavy alcohol consumption and its consequences. Diverse therapeutic interventions can be developed through identification of reliable biomarkers for this disorder and new pharmacological targets for its treatment. Advances in the fields of genomics and proteomics offer a number of possible targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches. This brain-focused review highlights studies identifying neurobiological systems associated with these targets and possible pharmacotherapies, summarizing evidence from clinically relevant animal and human studies, as well as sketching improvements and challenges facing the fields of proteomics and genomics. Concluding thoughts on using results from these profiling technologies for medication development are also presented. PMID:21199775

  3. [Review: Patient safety as a national health goal: current state and essential fields of action for the German healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Uvo M; Gausmann, Peter; Haindl, Hans; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Lauer, Wolfgang; Lauterberg, Jörg; Skorning, Max; Thürmann, Petra A

    2014-01-01

    For some years patient safety has been an important topic for the design of the healthcare systems in many countries. In Germany we are still in the starting phase of this development. Here, patient safety is not a main focus for research and there is only little funding for these topics. Thus most findings on patient safety have been derived in foreign studies. Slowly, some find their way into the clinical routine in Germany. This paper summarises the state of development of patient safety from a trans-sectoral point of view and outlines essential fields of action for the German healthcare system. PMID:24602522

  4. Value of public health and safety actions and radiation dose avoided

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    The values judged best to reflect the willingness of society to pay for the avoidance or reduction of risk were deduced from studies of costs of health care, transportation safety, consumer product safety, government agency actions, wage-risk compensation, consumer behavior (market) studies, and willingness-to-pay surveys. The results ranged from $1,400,000 to $2,700,000 per life saved. Applying the mean of these values ($2,100,000) and the latest risk per unit dose coefficients used by the ICRP (1991), which take into account risks to the general public, including genetic effects and nonfatal cancers, yields a value of dose avoided of $750 to $1,500 per person-cSv for public exposures. The lower value applies if adjustments are made for years of life lost per fatality. A nominal value of $1,000 per person-cSv seems appropriate in light of the many uncertainties involved in deducing these values. These values are consistent with values recommended by several European countries for individual doses in the region of 1 mSv/y (100 mrem/y). Below this dose rate, most countries have values a factor of 7 to 10 lower, based on the assumption that society is less concerned with fatality risks below about 10{sup {minus}4}/y.

  5. Construction safety: Can management prevent all accidents or are workers responsible for their own actions?

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Jenkins, S.L.

    1997-10-01

    The construction industry has struggled for many years with the answer to the question posed in the title: Can Management Prevent All Accidents or Are Workers Responsible for Their Own Actions? In the litigious society that we live, it has become more important to find someone {open_quotes}at fault{close_quotes} for an accident than it is to find out how we can prevent it from ever happening again. Most successful companies subscribe to the theme that {open_quotes}all accidents can be prevented.{close_quotes} They institute training and qualification programs, safe performance incentives, and culture-change-driven directorates such as the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP); yet we still see construction accidents that result in lost time, and occasionally death, which is extremely costly in the shortsighted measure of money and, in real terms, impact to the worker`s family. Workers need to be properly trained in safety and health protection before they are assigned to a job that may expose them to safety and health hazards. A management committed to improving worker safety and health will bring about significant results in terms of financial savings, improved employee morale, enhanced communities, and increased production. But how can this happen, you say? Reduction in injury and lost workdays are the rewards. A decline in reduction of injuries and lost workdays results in lower workers` compensation premiums and insurance rates. In 1991, United States workplace injuries and illnesses cost public and private sector employers an estimated $62 billion in workers` compensation expenditures.

  6. Treatment of Chronic Migraine with OnabotulinumtoxinA: Mode of Action, Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Szok, Délia; Csáti, Anett; Vécsei, László; Tajti, János

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic migraine is a common, highly disabling, underdiagnosed and undertreated entity of migraine. It affects 0.9%–2.2% of the general adult population. The present paper overviews the preclinical and clinical data regarding the therapeutic effect of onabotulinumtoxinA in chronic migraineurs. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the database of PubMed up to 20 May 2015 for articles related to the pathomechanism of chronic migraine, the mode of action, and the efficacy, safety and tolerability of onabotulinumtoxinA for the preventive treatment of chronic migraine. Results: The pathomechanism of chronic migraine has not been fully elucidated. The mode of action of onabotulinumtoxinA in the treatment of chronic migraine is suggested to be related to the inhibition of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P in the trigeminovascular system. Randomized clinical trials demonstrated that long-term onabotulinumtoxinA fixed-site and fixed-dose (155–195 U) intramuscular injection therapy was effective and well tolerated for the prophylactic treatment of chronic migraine. Conclusions: Chronic migraine is a highly devastating entity of migraine. Its exact pathomechanism is unrevealed. Two-third of chronic migraineurs do not receive proper preventive medication. Recent clinical studies revealed that onabotulinumtoxinA was an efficacious and safe treatment for chronic migraine. PMID:26193319

  7. Potential medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: An evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Wilford, Bonnie B; Falk, Daniel E; Ryan, Megan L; Fertig, Joanne B

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), as currently defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5), is a heterogeneous disorder stemming from a complex interaction of neurobiological, genetic, and environmental factors. As a result of this heterogeneity, there is no one treatment for AUD that will work for everyone. During the past 2 decades, efforts have been made to develop a menu of medications to give patients and clinicians more choices when seeking a therapy that is both effective and which has limited side effects. To date, 3 medications have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat alcohol dependence: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. In addition to these approved medications, researchers have identified new therapeutic targets and, as a result, a number of alternative medications are now being evaluated for treatment of AUD in human studies. Although not approved by the FDA for the treatment of AUD, in some cases, these alternative medications are being used off-label by clinicians for this purpose. These potential medications are reviewed here. They include nalmefene, varenicline, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, baclofen, ondansetron, levetiracetam, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The effectiveness of these medications has been mixed-some show good efficacy with side effects that are mild to moderate in intensity; others have mixed or promising results but are awaiting findings from ongoing studies; and still others show poor efficacy, despite promising preliminary results. Medications development remains a high priority. Key initiatives for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) include supporting the discovery and development of more effective and safer medications, advancing the field of personalized medicine, and forging public and private partnerships to investigate new and more effective compounds. PMID:26928397

  8. Potential medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorder: An evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Wilford, Bonnie B; Falk, Daniel E; Ryan, Megan L; Fertig, Joanne B

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD), as currently defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5), is a heterogeneous disorder stemming from a complex interaction of neurobiological, genetic, and environmental factors. As a result of this heterogeneity, there is no one treatment for AUD that will work for everyone. During the past 2 decades, efforts have been made to develop a menu of medications to give patients and clinicians more choices when seeking a therapy that is both effective and which has limited side effects. To date, 3 medications have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat alcohol dependence: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. In addition to these approved medications, researchers have identified new therapeutic targets and, as a result, a number of alternative medications are now being evaluated for treatment of AUD in human studies. Although not approved by the FDA for the treatment of AUD, in some cases, these alternative medications are being used off-label by clinicians for this purpose. These potential medications are reviewed here. They include nalmefene, varenicline, gabapentin, topiramate, zonisamide, baclofen, ondansetron, levetiracetam, quetiapine, aripiprazole, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The effectiveness of these medications has been mixed-some show good efficacy with side effects that are mild to moderate in intensity; others have mixed or promising results but are awaiting findings from ongoing studies; and still others show poor efficacy, despite promising preliminary results. Medications development remains a high priority. Key initiatives for the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) include supporting the discovery and development of more effective and safer medications, advancing the field of personalized medicine, and forging public and private partnerships to investigate new and more effective compounds.

  9. Axial compression behavior and partial composite action of SC walls in safety-related nuclear facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai

    Steel-plate reinforced concrete (SC) composite walls typically consist of thick concrete walls with two exterior steel faceplates. The concrete core is sandwiched between the two steel faceplates, and the faceplates are attached to the concrete core using shear connectors, for example, ASTM A108 steel headed shear studs. The shear connectors and the concrete infill enhance the stability of the steel faceplates, and the faceplates serve as permanent formwork for concrete placement. SC composite walls were first introduced in the 1980's in Japan for nuclear power plant (NPP) structures. They are used in the new generation of nuclear power plants (GIII+) and being considered for small modular reactors (SMR) due to their structural efficiency, economy, safety, and construction speed. Steel faceplates can potentially undergo local buckling at certain locations of NPP structures where compressive forces are significant. The steel faceplates are usually thin (0.25 to 1.50 inches in Customary units, or 6.5 to 38 mm in SI units) to maintain economical and constructional efficiency, the geometric imperfections and locked-in stresses induced during construction make them more vulnerable to local buckling. Accidental thermal loading may also reduce the compressive strength and exacerbate the local buckling potential of SC composite walls. This dissertation presents the results from experimental and numerical investigations of the compressive behavior of SC composite walls at ambient and elevated temperatures. The results are used to establish a slenderness limit to prevent local buckling before yielding of the steel faceplates and to develop a design approach for calculating the compressive strength of SC composite walls with non-slender and slender steel faceplates at ambient and elevated temperatures. Composite action in SC walls is achieved by the embedment of shear connectors into the concrete core. The strength and stiffness of shear connectors govern the level of

  10. Low-dose alcohol actions on α4β3δ GABAA receptors are reversed by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, M.; Hanchar, H. J.; Olsen, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is now more than two decades since it was first reported that the imidazobenzodiazepine Ro15-4513 reverses behavioral alcohol effects, the molecular target(s) of Ro15-4513 and the mechanism of alcohol antagonism remain elusive. Here, we show that Ro15-4513 blocks the alcohol enhancement on recombinant “extrasynaptic” α4/6β3δ GABAA receptors at doses that do not reduce the GABA-induced Cl− current. At low ethanol concentrations (≤30 mM), the Ro15-4513 antagonism is complete. However, at higher ethanol concentrations (≥100 mM), there is a Ro15-4513-insensitive ethanol enhancement that is abolished in receptors containing a point mutation in the second transmembrane region of the β3 subunit (β3N265M). Therefore, α4/6β3δ GABA receptors have two distinct alcohol modulation sites: (i) a low-dose ethanol site present in α4/6β3δ receptors that is antagonized by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 and (ii) a site activated at high (anesthetic) alcohol doses, defined by mutations in membrane-spanning regions. Receptors composed of α4β3N265Mδ subunits that lack the high-dose alcohol site show a saturable ethanol dose-response curve with a half-maximal enhancement at 16 mM, close to the legal blood alcohol driving limit in most U.S. states (17.4 mM). Like in behavioral experiments, the alcohol antagonist effect of Ro15-4513 on recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by flumazenil and β-carboline-ethyl ester (β-CCE). Our findings suggest that ethanol/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptors are important mediators of behavioral alcohol effects. PMID:16698930

  11. [ILO plan of action (2010-2016) on occupational safety and health and new list of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Denisov, É I; Mazitova, N N; Shemetova, M V; Chelishcheva, M Iu; Chesalin, P V

    2011-01-01

    ILO plan of action (2010-2016) to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments (Convention No. 155, its 2002 Protocol and Convention No. 187) is discussed. ILO documents on recording and notification as well as new list of occupational diseases (revised 2010) are considered.

  12. [ILO plan of action (2010-2016) on occupational safety and health and new list of occupational diseases].

    PubMed

    Denisov, É I; Mazitova, N N; Shemetova, M V; Chelishcheva, M Iu; Chesalin, P V

    2011-01-01

    ILO plan of action (2010-2016) to achieve widespread ratification and effective implementation of the occupational safety and health instruments (Convention No. 155, its 2002 Protocol and Convention No. 187) is discussed. ILO documents on recording and notification as well as new list of occupational diseases (revised 2010) are considered. PMID:21614798

  13. Taking Risks: Activities and Materials for Teaching About Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Traffic Safety. Book 2, Secondary Level (Grades 7 and 10).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Henry S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help teachers instruct students in the areas of alcohol, drugs, and traffic safety. It consists of two units, targeted to seventh-grade students and the other to tenth-grade students. Each unit can be used over a two-week period. The lesson plans and related materials focus on helping students gain insight into factors…

  14. Taking Risks: Activities and Materials for Teaching About Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Traffic Safety. Book 1, Elementary Level (Grades 3 and 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Henry S.; And Others

    This guide is designed to help teachers instruct students in the areas of alcohol, drugs and traffic safety. It consists of two units targeted to third-grade students and the other to fifth-grade students. Each unit can be used over a two-week period. The lesson plans and related materials focus on helping students gain insight into factors that…

  15. One-pot synthesis of 2,5-dihydropyrroles from terminal alkynes, azides, and propargylic alcohols by relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomoya; Tanaka, Takamasa; Matsumoto, Kohei; Murakami, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Relay actions of copper, rhodium, and gold formulate a one-pot multistep pathway, which directly gives 2,5-dihydropyrroles starting from terminal alkynes, sulfonyl azides, and propargylic alcohols. Initially, copper-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of terminal alkynes with sulfonyl azides affords 1-sulfonyl-1,2,3-triazoles, which then react with propargylic alcohols under the catalysis of rhodium. The resulting alkenyl propargyl ethers subsequently undergo the thermal Claisen rearrangement to give α-allenyl-α-amino ketones. Finally, a gold catalyst prompts 5-endo cyclization to produce 2,5-dihydropyrroles. PMID:25345587

  16. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume II. High School Youth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The second part of a two-part, two volume study deals with high school youth and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Data, collected from interviews and questionnaires, are summarized and presented in tabular form. One fourth of high schoolers in a…

  17. Alcohol Regulates Genes that Are Associated with Response to Endocrine Therapy and Attenuates the Actions of Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Candelaria, Nicholes R.; Weldon, Ryan; Muthusamy, Selvaraj; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Addanki, Sridevi; Yoffou, Paule-Helena; Karaboga, Husna; Blessing, Alicia M.; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Lin, Chin-Yo

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary, hormonal, and behavioral factors contribute to the development of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable behavior that is linked to increased breast cancer risks and is associated with the development of hormone-dependent breast cancers as well as disease progression and recurrence following endocrine treatment. In this study we examined the molecular mechanisms of action of alcohol by applying molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches in characterizing its effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Treatments with alcohol promoted cell proliferation, increased growth factor signaling, and up-regulated the transcription of the ER target gene GREB1 but not the canonical target TFF1/pS2. Microarray analysis following alcohol treatment identified a large number of alcohol-responsive genes, including those which function in apoptotic and cell proliferation pathways. Furthermore, expression profiles of the responsive gene sets in tumors were strongly associated with clinical outcomes in patients who received endocrine therapy. Correspondingly, alcohol treatment attenuated the anti-proliferative effects of the endocrine therapeutic drug tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer cells. To determine the contribution and functions of responsive genes, their differential expression in tumors were assessed between outcome groups. The proto-oncogene BRAF was identified as a novel alcohol- and estrogen-induced gene that showed higher expression in patients with poor outcomes. Knock-down of BRAF, moreover, prevented the proliferation of breast cancer cells. These findings not only highlight the mechanistic basis of the effects of alcohol on breast cancer cells and increased risks for disease incidents and recurrence, but may facilitate the discovery and characterization of novel oncogenic pathways and markers in breast cancer research and therapeutics. PMID:26661278

  18. Alcohol Regulates Genes that Are Associated with Response to Endocrine Therapy and Attenuates the Actions of Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Candelaria, Nicholes R; Weldon, Ryan; Muthusamy, Selvaraj; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Addanki, Sridevi; Yoffou, Paule-Helena; Karaboga, Husna; Blessing, Alicia M; Bollu, Lakshmi Reddy; Miranda, Rajesh C; Lin, Chin-Yo

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary, hormonal, and behavioral factors contribute to the development of breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable behavior that is linked to increased breast cancer risks and is associated with the development of hormone-dependent breast cancers as well as disease progression and recurrence following endocrine treatment. In this study we examined the molecular mechanisms of action of alcohol by applying molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches in characterizing its effects on estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. Treatments with alcohol promoted cell proliferation, increased growth factor signaling, and up-regulated the transcription of the ER target gene GREB1 but not the canonical target TFF1/pS2. Microarray analysis following alcohol treatment identified a large number of alcohol-responsive genes, including those which function in apoptotic and cell proliferation pathways. Furthermore, expression profiles of the responsive gene sets in tumors were strongly associated with clinical outcomes in patients who received endocrine therapy. Correspondingly, alcohol treatment attenuated the anti-proliferative effects of the endocrine therapeutic drug tamoxifen in ER-positive breast cancer cells. To determine the contribution and functions of responsive genes, their differential expression in tumors were assessed between outcome groups. The proto-oncogene BRAF was identified as a novel alcohol- and estrogen-induced gene that showed higher expression in patients with poor outcomes. Knock-down of BRAF, moreover, prevented the proliferation of breast cancer cells. These findings not only highlight the mechanistic basis of the effects of alcohol on breast cancer cells and increased risks for disease incidents and recurrence, but may facilitate the discovery and characterization of novel oncogenic pathways and markers in breast cancer research and therapeutics.

  19. Experiences of successful action programmes for occupational health, safety, and ergonomics promotion in small scale enterprises in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tandhanskul, N; Duangsa-Ad, S; Pongpanich, C; Pungok, A; Punpeng, T; Juengprasert, W; Kawakami, T

    1995-06-01

    Small-scale enterprises are playing a vital role for the national economy in Thailand, creating employment in both urban and rural areas. The improvement of working conditions and occupational safety and health, together with improved productivity has long been a priority. How we could practically provide owners and workers of small-scale enterprises with opportunities for improvement action has been our concern. In the present project, we have adopted a new programme of action which emphasizes participation, a positive approach and locally made solutions. The project site was in Samutprakarn province, an industrial zone near Bangkok. Four local small-scale enterprises participated in the action programme. They were a lead smelting, a dry-cell battery plant, a wet-cell battery plant and a pesticides factory. The programme consisted of the following steps. 1) A demonstration training session was conducted to motivate the enterprises' representatives to take action. Locally invented improvement examples were presented and small group discussion was organized for facilitating their action. 2) The participants were encouraged to use a checklist for assessing safety, health and ergonomic risks in their own workplaces. Concrete action plans were established based on their checklist results. 3) The improvement action started, in which step-by-step approaches were emphasized. Advisory and supporting roles of expert teams comprising the authors and other professionals were important to accelerate and sustain the action at these enterprises. On the basis of this self-help action, the participants were enabled to make many improvements at their workplaces. These improvements developed by their own initiative were multi-factorial. They included 1) machine and electrical safety device, 2) workstation redesign, 3) materials handling improvement, 4) establishing new welfare facilities such as canteens or bathrooms and 5) work environment improvement such as better lighting or

  20. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  1. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  2. Amended final report of the safety assessment of t-Butyl Alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Melody

    2005-01-01

    t-Butyl Alcohol (t-BuOH) is a tertiary aliphatic alcohol that is used as a solvent or an alcohol denaturant and as a perfume carrier in cosmetics. t-BuOH was reported as an ingredient in 32 formulations of eye makeup, fragrance, and shaving preparations, at concentrations ranging from 0.00001% and 0.3%. There is little acute oral toxicity in animals; e.g., the acute oral LD(50) in rats was 3.0 to 3.7 g/kg. In short-term oral studies in rats, t-BuOH at 2% (w/v) or less in drinking water did not cause gross organ or tissue damage in mice, although weight loss was reported and microscopic damage to livers and kidney and alterations such as centrilobular necrosis, vacuolation in hepatocytes, and loss of hepatic architecture were noted. Subchronic oral dosing with t-BuOH increased the mineralization of the kidney, nephropathy, and urinary bladder transitional cell epithelial hyperplasia in rats; and liver damage, chronic inflammation, hyperplasia of transitional cell epithelium urinary, and proliferative changes including hyperplasia and neoplasia in the thyroid in mice. Male rats exposed to t-BuOH were susceptible to alpha 2mu-globulin nephropathy. t-BuOH (99.9%) was a moderate to severe ocular irritant to rabbits and caused mild to moderate dermal irritation to rabbits. It was not considered to be a primary dermal irritant to rabbits. In animal studies, fetotoxicity generally increased with concentration, and fetal weights were slightly depressed at concentrations of 0.5% to 1% t-BuOH. t-BuOH produced a significant increase in the number of resorptions per litter. There was also a significant decrease in the number of live fetuses per litter. t-BuOH reduced maternal weight gain, litter sizes, birth weights, and weights at weaning, and increased perinatal and postnatal mortality. t-BuOH was not mutagenic in several bacterial and mammalian test systems. The principal effects from 2 years of exposure to t-BuOH in drinking water (up to 10 mg/ml for rats and 20 mg/ml for

  3. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Fenchyl alcohol, CAS registry number 1632-73-1.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 15 mg/kg/day. A gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 10,714 while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable.

  4. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, Fenchyl alcohol, CAS registry number 1632-73-1.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Shen, J; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2015-10-01

    The use of this material under current use conditions is supported by the existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental toxicity, reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity, skin sensitization potential, as well as, environmental safety. Repeated dose toxicity was determined to have the most conservative systemic exposure derived NO[A]EL of 15 mg/kg/day. A gavage 13-week subchronic toxicity study conducted in rats on a suitable read across analog resulted in a MOE of 10,714 while assuming 100% absorption from skin contact and inhalation. A MOE of >100 is deemed acceptable. PMID:26342767

  5. Assessment of the impact of scheduled postmarketing safety summary analyses on regulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Sekine, S; Pinnow, E E; Wu, E; Kurtzig, R; Hall, M; Dal Pan, G J

    2016-07-01

    In addition to standard postmarketing drug safety monitoring, Section 915 of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA) requires the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conduct a summary analysis of adverse event reports to identify risks of a drug or biologic product 18 months after product approval, or after 10,000 patients have used the product, whichever is later. We assessed the extent to which these analyses identified new safety signals and resultant safety-related label changes. Among 458 newly approved products, 300 were the subjects of a scheduled analysis; a new safety signal that resulted in a safety-related label change was found for 11 of these products. Less than 2% of 713 safety-related label changes were based on the scheduled analyses. Our study suggests that the safety summary analyses provide only marginal value over other pharmacovigilance activities.

  6. [Action on the emotional-reinforcement systems of the brain as a means of pathogenetic therapy for alcoholism and drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Val'dman, A V; Zvartau, E E

    1980-01-01

    The influence of alcohol and drugs with dependence liability (morphine, cocain, amphetamine, diazepam, pentobarbital) on emotionally positive reactions produced by hypothalamic stimulation has been studied in rats. All the drugs activated electrial self-stimulation of the brain and this effect was regarded as a basic one for the euphorigenic action thereof. Methods of estimation and prediction of effective drugs for prevention and therapy of dependence have been developed. Antieuphoric action is considered to be one of the important means of pathogenetic therapy of psychological dependence on narcotic drugs.

  7. Efficacy and safety of a quick drying rubbing type povidone-iodine alcoholic disinfectant solution.

    PubMed

    Kirita, T; Hamano, K; Ochi, T; Ihara, H; Nishiyama, T; Seshimo, A; Yagi, Y; Sakakida, K

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of a quick drying rubbing type disinfectant (HAD Hand Wash) composed of a povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and ethanol were evaluated in the disinfection of transient skin flora on fingers of 30 medical staff of our department. Three millilitres of HAD solution was rubbed onto the hands for three minutes several times a day over a four week period. Bacteriological effects were evaluated twice, on the first day and after four weeks, by the palm stamp method. The rate of colonies sterilized (bacterial reduction rate) after the use of HAD Hand Wash was 86.9 +/- 21.2% (mean +/- SD) on the first measurement, and 91.5% +/- 12.8% at four weeks. Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated most frequently and this was eradicated in 83.3% of subjects, the bacterial reduction rate 99.7%. Staphylococcus aureus was originally isolated in 14 subjects and was eradicated in 13; the bacterial colony reduction rate was 99.9% showing high antiseptic efficacy. Although the bacterial reduction rate for Bacillus sp. was a rather low, 75.8-100%, this result was not considered problematic from the clinical standpoint. There were no side effects like chapping in spite of an average 104 applications of HAD Hand Wash during the 4-week test period. From these results, HAD Hand Wash was considered highly effective and safe.

  8. Different Sites of Alcohol Action in the NMDA Receptor GluN2A and GluN2B Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yulin; Ren, Hong; Dwyer, Donard S.; Peoples, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The NMDA receptor is a major target of alcohol action in the CNS, and recent behavioral and cellular studies have pointed to the importance of the GluN2B subunit in alcohol action. We and others have previously characterized four amino acid positions in the third and fourth membrane-associated (M) domains of the NMDA receptor GluN2A subunit that influence both ion channel gating and alcohol sensitivity. In this study, we found that substitution mutations at two of the four corresponding positions in the GluN2B subunit, F637 and G826, influence ethanol sensitivity and ion channel gating. Because position 826 contains a glycine residue in the native protein, we focused our attention on GluN2B(F637). Substitution mutations at GluN2B(F637) significantly altered ethanol IC50 values, glutamate EC50 values for peak (Ip) and steady-state (Iss) current, and steady-state to peak current ratios (Iss:Ip). Changes in apparent glutamate affinity were not due to agonist trapping in desensitized states, as glutamate Iss EC50 values were not correlated with Iss:Ip values. Ethanol sensitivity was correlated with values of both Ip and Iss glutamate EC50, but not with Iss:Ip. Values of ethanol IC50, glutamate EC50, and Iss:Ip for mutants at GluN2B(F637) were highly correlated with the corresponding values for mutants at GluN2A(F636), consistent with similar functional roles of this position in both subunits. These results demonstrate that GluN2B(Phe637) regulates ethanol action and ion channel function of NMDA receptors. However, despite highly conserved M domain sequences, ethanol's actions on GluN2A and GluN2B subunits differ. PMID:26051400

  9. 77 FR 36604 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety Actions on Special Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    .... cylinders (pressure vessels) for use as components of automobile vehicle safety systems. 15531-M National... vehicle, 2--Rail freight, 3--Cargo vessel, 4--Cargo aircraft only, 5--Passenger-carrying...

  10. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Phase 1 Verification Corrective Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-08-09

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan is to demonstrate the OW planned and/or completed actions to implement ISMS as well as prepare for the RPP ISMS Phase II Verification scheduled for August, 1999. This Plan collates implied or explicit ORP actions identified in several key ISMS documents and aligns those actions and responsibilities perceived necessary to appropriately disposition all ISM Phase II preparation activities specific to the ORP. The objective will be to complete or disposition the corrective actions prior to the commencement of the ISMS Phase II Verification. Improvement products/tasks not slated for completion prior to the RPP Phase II verification will be incorporated as corrective actions into the Strategic System Execution Plan (SSEP) Gap Analysis. Many of the business and management systems that were reviewed in the ISMS Phase I verification are being modified to support the ORP transition and are being assessed through the SSEP. The actions and processes identified in the SSEP will support the development of the ORP and continued ISMS implementation as committed to be complete by end of FY-2000.

  11. The correlation between CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity and haloperidol efficacy and safety profile in patients with alcohol addiction during the exacerbation of the addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:27695358

  12. The correlation between CYP2D6 isoenzyme activity and haloperidol efficacy and safety profile in patients with alcohol addiction during the exacerbation of the addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich

    2016-01-01

    Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction.

  13. Action research for the health and safety of domestic workers in montreal: using numbers to tell stories and effect change.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jill; Premji, Stephanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a Filipina organization in Quebec (PINAY) sought the help of university researchers to document the workplace health and safety experiences of domestic workers. Together, they surveyed 150 domestic workers and produced a report that generated interest from community groups, policy-makers, and the media. In this article, we-the university researchers-offer a case study of community-university action research. We share the story of how one project contributed to academic knowledge of domestic workers' health and safety experiences and also to a related policy campaign. We describe how Quebec workers' compensation legislation excludes domestic workers, and we analyze the occupational health literature related to domestic work. Striking data related to workplace accidents and illnesses emerged from the survey, and interesting lessons were learned about how occupational health questions should be posed. We conclude with a description of the successful policy advocacy that was possible as an outcome of this project. PMID:21342868

  14. Action research for the health and safety of domestic workers in montreal: using numbers to tell stories and effect change.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jill; Premji, Stephanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a Filipina organization in Quebec (PINAY) sought the help of university researchers to document the workplace health and safety experiences of domestic workers. Together, they surveyed 150 domestic workers and produced a report that generated interest from community groups, policy-makers, and the media. In this article, we-the university researchers-offer a case study of community-university action research. We share the story of how one project contributed to academic knowledge of domestic workers' health and safety experiences and also to a related policy campaign. We describe how Quebec workers' compensation legislation excludes domestic workers, and we analyze the occupational health literature related to domestic work. Striking data related to workplace accidents and illnesses emerged from the survey, and interesting lessons were learned about how occupational health questions should be posed. We conclude with a description of the successful policy advocacy that was possible as an outcome of this project.

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  16. Americans with Disabilities Act-related considerations when an alcoholic nurse is your employee: when is a nurse legally considered a "direct threat" to patient safety?

    PubMed

    Menendez, Juliet Battard

    2010-01-01

    When contemplating the legal and ethical issues surrounding employment of an alcoholic nurse, nursing administrators are challenged with recognizing and upholding the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)-related civil rights of their employees while ensuring the quality of care provided by the practitioners in their facility. The "direct-threat" exception to disability accommodations relieves employers from making accommodations for a disability if those accommodations would necessitate lowering patient care quality standards. According to the ADA's direct-threat exception, a healthcare facility may legally terminate a nurse with the disability of alcoholism if that practitioner poses a threat to the safety of its patients. This article provides an informative overview of alcoholism as a disability in the context of nursing. A nurse administrator could use the information provided to objectively and competently make a determination of direct threat. The focus is on the importance of making an objective and unbiased assessment when determining if an alcoholic nurse meets the direct-threat" criteria that eliminates the requirement for making reasonable accommodations for a disabled employee. General ADA guidelines are provided, but the assessment must be individualized based on the patient care setting, the requirements of the position, and the nurse's present ability to safely perform the essential job functions.

  17. Long-term efficacy, tolerability and safety of nalmefene as-needed in patients with alcohol dependence: A 1-year, randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Wim; Sørensen, Per; Torup, Lars; Mann, Karl; Gual, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of nalmefene treatment in reducing alcohol consumption. We randomised (1:3) 675 alcohol-dependent patients ≥ 18 years of age to 52 weeks of as-needed treatment with placebo or nalmefene 18 mg/day: A total of 112 patients (68%) in the placebo group and 310 (62%) in the nalmefene group completed the study. At month 6, the co-primary outcome variables showed no statistically-significant differences between the treatment groups; but at month 13, nalmefene was more effective than placebo, both in the reduction of the number of heavy drinking days (HDDs) (- 1.6 days/month (95% CI - 2.9; - 0.3); p = 0.017) and the reduction of total alcohol consumption (TAC) (- 6.5 g/day last month (95% CI - 12.5; - 0.4); p = 0.036). In a subgroup analysis of patients with high/very high drinking risk levels at screening and at randomisation (the target population), there was a significant effect in favour of nalmefene on TAC at month 6, and on both HDD and TAC at month 13. Improvements in Clinical Global Impression and liver enzymes were greater with nalmefene, compared to placebo. Most adverse events were mild or moderate, and transient; adverse events, including those leading to dropout, were more common with nalmefene. This study provides evidence for the long-term safety and efficacy of nalmefene as-needed in alcohol-dependent patients whom continue to drink heavily, following a brief intervention.

  18. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  19. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies. PMID:22317200

  20. Action description memorandum for the FY 1989 line item: Environmental, safety and health upgrades, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, F.S.; Hunter, M.R.; Anderson, C.R.

    1989-03-01

    This ADM documents the evaluation of the potential environmental impact hazards from the Environmental, Safety and Health Upgrades, Phase 2, project. Environmental, Safety and Health Upgrades, Phase 2, project is a $6,500,000 Line Item project for FY 1989. ES and H Phase 2, is a portion of a continuing effort to protect the environment, neighbors and employees from any adverse effects caused by the development and production missions of EG and G Mound Applied Technologies. The three parts of ES and H Phase 2 include: (A) new piping to separate potable water from domestic and process water; (B) improvements in explosive storage facilities; and (C) upgrades of the fuel oil storage systems, including a new tank, the containment basin, and dike.

  1. Methodological proposal for occupational health and safety actions in research laboratories with nanotechnologies activities.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Luís Renato Balbão; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnologies is a multidisciplinary set of techniques to manipulate matter on nanoscale level, more precisely particles below 100 nm whose characteristic due to small size is essentially different from those found in macro form materials. Regarding to these new properties of the materials there are knowledge gaps about the effects of these particles on human organism and the environment. Although it still being considered emerging technology it is growing increasingly fast as well as the number of products using nanotechnologies in some production level and so the number of researchers involved with the subject. Given this scenario and based on literature related, a comprehensive methodology for health and safety at work for researching laboratories with activities in nanotechnologies was developed, based on ILO structure guidelines for safety and health at work system on which a number of nanospecific recommendations were added to. The work intends to offer food for thought on controlling risks associated to nanotechnologies.

  2. Perspective: call to action: it is time for academic institutions to appoint a resident quality and patient safety officer.

    PubMed

    Fleischut, Peter M; Evans, Adam S; Nugent, William C; Faggiani, Susan L; Kerr, Gregory E; Lazar, Eliot J

    2011-07-01

    In meeting the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competency requirements, teaching hospitals often find it challenging to ensure effective involvement of housestaff in the area of quality and patient safety (QPS). Because housestaff are the frontline providers of care to patients, and medical errors occasionally occur based on their actions, it is essential for health care organizations to engage them in QPS processes.In early 2008 a Housestaff Quality Council (HQC) was established at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, to improve QPS by engaging housestaff in policy and decision-making processes and to promote greater housestaff participation in QPS initiatives. It was quickly realized that the success of the HQC was highly contingent on alignment with the institution's overall QPS agenda. To this end, the position of resident QPS officer was created to strengthen the relationship between the hospital's strategic goals and the HQC. The authors describe the success of the resident QPS officers at their institution and observe that by appointing and supporting resident QPS officers, hospitals will be better able to meet their quality and safety goals, residency programs will be able to fulfill their required ACGME core competencies, and the overall quality and safety of patient care can be improved. Simultaneously, the creation of this position will help to create a new cadre of physician leaders needed to further the goals of QPS in health care. PMID:21617508

  3. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  4. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, Asher; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2010-01-01

    Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of “alcoholic effects” mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised. PMID:20616979

  5. Evaluating a Greek National Action on Parents' Training on ICT and Internet Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manouselis, Nikos; Riviou, Katerina; Palavitsinis, Nikos; Giannikopoulou, Vasiliki; Tsanakas, Panayotis

    The Greek national action "Goneis.gr" educates and trains the parents of highschool children on the issue of safer internet, as well as on the use of ICT. Having trained more than 28.300 parents, the initiative aims at providing about 45.000 parents with the same training. Examining the Beneficiaries' degree of satisfaction by the initiative, we conducted a survey in a sample of Beneficiaries that completed the training. This paper introduces the initiative and presents the results of the survey in order to conclude to specific decisions about the future implementation of the initiative which is still running.

  6. Health policy making through operative actions: a case study of provider capacity reduction in a public safety-net system.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David B

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and assesses the implications of policy decisions affecting health provider capacity in the Los Angeles County municipal safety-net health system from 1980 to 2000. Although never articulated in law or a county ordinance, the county pursued a sustained and discernable policy of cost reductions that affected capacity at King/Drew Medical Center from 1980 to 2000 without the input of beneficiaries or their advocates. Year after year, the county reduced personnel, supplies, and available beds either by reducing formal budgets or through operative actions of facility administrators that prevented the implementation of formally approved expenditures. This policy appears to have undermined the hospital system's mission of providing health services to at-risk populations with nowhere else to go. Decision making during the two decades under study revealed a decision-making pattern that challenged traditional models of policy decision making.

  7. A Novel Cholinergic Action of Alcohol and the Development of Tolerance to That Effect in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Edward G.; Martin, Ian; Kondo, Lindsay M.; Judy, Meredith E.; Brings, Victoria E.; Chan, Chung-Lung; Blackwell, GinaMari G.; Bettinger, Jill C.; Davies, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genes and mechanisms involved in acute alcohol responses has the potential to allow us to predict an individual’s predisposition to developing an alcohol use disorder. To better understand the molecular pathways involved in the activating effects of alcohol and the acute functional tolerance that can develop to such effects, we characterized a novel ethanol-induced hypercontraction response displayed by Caenorhabditis elegans. We compared body size of animals prior to and during ethanol treatment and showed that acute exposure to ethanol produced a concentration-dependent decrease in size followed by recovery to their untreated size by 40 min despite continuous treatment. An increase in cholinergic signaling, leading to muscle hypercontraction, is implicated in this effect because pretreatment with mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, blocked ethanol-induced hypercontraction, as did mutations causing defects in cholinergic signaling (cha-1 and unc-17). Analysis of mutations affecting specific subunits of nAChRs excluded a role for the ACR-2R, the ACR-16R, and the levamisole-sensitive AChR and indicated that this excitation effect is dependent on an uncharacterized nAChR that contains the UNC-63 α-subunit. We performed a forward genetic screen and identified eg200, a mutation that affects a conserved glycine in EAT-6, the α-subunit of the Na+/K+ ATPase. The eat-6(eg200) mutant fails to develop tolerance to ethanol-induced hypercontraction and remains contracted for at least 3 hr of continuous ethanol exposure. These data suggest that cholinergic signaling through a specific α-subunit-containing nAChR is involved in ethanol-induced excitation and that tolerance to this ethanol effect is modulated by Na+/K+ ATPase function. PMID:25342716

  8. A novel cholinergic action of alcohol and the development of tolerance to that effect in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Edward G; Martin, Ian; Kondo, Lindsay M; Judy, Meredith E; Brings, Victoria E; Chan, Chung-Lung; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Bettinger, Jill C; Davies, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the genes and mechanisms involved in acute alcohol responses has the potential to allow us to predict an individual's predisposition to developing an alcohol use disorder. To better understand the molecular pathways involved in the activating effects of alcohol and the acute functional tolerance that can develop to such effects, we characterized a novel ethanol-induced hypercontraction response displayed by Caenorhabditis elegans. We compared body size of animals prior to and during ethanol treatment and showed that acute exposure to ethanol produced a concentration-dependent decrease in size followed by recovery to their untreated size by 40 min despite continuous treatment. An increase in cholinergic signaling, leading to muscle hypercontraction, is implicated in this effect because pretreatment with mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist, blocked ethanol-induced hypercontraction, as did mutations causing defects in cholinergic signaling (cha-1 and unc-17). Analysis of mutations affecting specific subunits of nAChRs excluded a role for the ACR-2R, the ACR-16R, and the levamisole-sensitive AChR and indicated that this excitation effect is dependent on an uncharacterized nAChR that contains the UNC-63 α-subunit. We performed a forward genetic screen and identified eg200, a mutation that affects a conserved glycine in EAT-6, the α-subunit of the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase. The eat-6(eg200) mutant fails to develop tolerance to ethanol-induced hypercontraction and remains contracted for at least 3 hr of continuous ethanol exposure. These data suggest that cholinergic signaling through a specific α-subunit-containing nAChR is involved in ethanol-induced excitation and that tolerance to this ethanol effect is modulated by Na(+)/K(+) ATPase function.

  9. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  10. Alcohol and drug use in Australian male sex workers: its relationship to the safety outcome of the sex encounter.

    PubMed

    Minichiello, V; Mariño, R; Khan, M A; Browne, J

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the self-reporting patterns of alcohol and drug consumption among male sex workers (MSWs) in three Australian cities during commercial sex encounters, and examines to what extent alcohol and drugs are used and whether this is related to the safe/unsafe outcome of the commercial sex encounter. One hundred and eighty-six MSWs from Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne completed a diary following each commercial sex encounter over a two-week period. MSWs reported 2,087 commercial sex encounters during the study period. Alcohol or drug consumption was reported in 50.5% of the encounters. There were 488 instances of marijuana use reported before or during a commercial sex encounter, 210 instances of volatile inhalants use, 149 instances of heroine use and 151 of other drug use, including benzodiasepines, ecstasy, speed and cocaine. These substances were consumed either alone or combined. Marijuana consumption was associated with the commercial sex encounter occurring at the MSWs' place of residence and consumption of alcohol, marijuana and nitrites with the client's place. The results also reveal that consumption of drugs and alcohol was statistically related to length of the encounter, and that clients obtained through escort agencies or brothels were significantly associated with marijuana, other drug consumption and heroine use. Interestingly, a multivariate analysis indicated that encounters where the MSW consumed marijuana or did not consume any substance were less likely to have an unsafe outcome. The paper argues that it is necessary to identify and target risk groups and behaviours that are usually not included in broad based health education messages.

  11. Safety Strategies in an Academic Radiation Oncology Department and Recommendations for Action

    PubMed Central

    Terezakis, Stephanie A.; Pronovost, Peter; Harris, Kendra; DeWeese, Theodore; Ford, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety initiatives in the United States continue to work on providing guidance as to how the average practitioner might make patients safer in the face of the complex process by which radiation therapy (RT), an essential treatment used in the management of many patients with cancer, is prepared and delivered. Quality control measures can uncover certain specific errors such as machine dose mis-calibration or misalignments of the patient in the radiation treatment beam. However, they are less effective at uncovering less common errors that can occur anywhere along the treatment planning and delivery process, and even when the process is functioning as intended, errors still occur. Prioritizing Risks and Implementing Risk-Reduction Strategies Activities undertaken at the radiation oncology department at the Johns Hopkins Hospital (Baltimore) include Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), risk-reduction interventions, and voluntary error and near-miss reporting systems. A visual process map portrayed 269 RT steps occurring among four subprocesses—including consult, simulation, treatment planning, and treatment delivery. Two FMEAs revealed 127 and 159 possible failure modes, respectively. Risk-reduction interventions for 15 “top-ranked” failure modes were implemented. Since the error and near-miss reporting system’s implementation in the department in 2007, 253 events have been logged. However, the system may be insufficient for radiation oncology, for which a greater level of practice-specific information is required to fully understand each event. Conclusions The “basic science” of radiation treatment has received considerable support and attention in developing novel therapies to benefit patients. The time has come to apply the same focus and resources to ensuring that patients safely receive the maximal benefits possible. PMID:21819027

  12. Assessment of a large break loss of coolant accident scenario requiring operator action to initiate safety injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grendys, R.C.; Nissley, M.E.; Baker, D.C.

    1996-11-01

    As part of the licensing basis for a nuclear power plant, the acceptability of the Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) following a postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) as described in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.46, must be verified. The LOCA analysis is performed with an acceptable ECCS Evaluation Model and results must show compliance with the 10 CFR 50.46 acceptance criteria. Westinghouse Electric Corporation performs Large and Small Break LOCA and LOCA-related analyses to support the licensing basis of various nuclear power plants and also performs evaluations against the licensing basis analyses as required. Occasionally, the need arises for the holder of an operating license of a nuclear power plant to submit a Licensee Event Report (LER) to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) for any event of the type described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Chapter 1, Part 50.73. To support the LER, a Justification for Past Operation (JPO) may be performed to assess the safety consequences and implications of the event based on previous operating conditions. This paper describes the work performed for the Large Break LOCA to assess the impact of an event discovered by Florida Power and Light and reported in LER-94-005-02. For this event, it was determined that under certain circumstances, operator action would have been required to initiate safety injection (SI), thus challenging the acceptability of the ECCS. This event was specifically addressed for the Large Break LOCA by using an advanced thermal hydraulic analysis methodology with realistic input assumptions.

  13. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed

    PubMed Central

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R.; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  14. E. coli metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase-E binds to the ribosome: a unique moonlighting action revealed.

    PubMed

    Shasmal, Manidip; Dey, Sandip; Shaikh, Tanvir R; Bhakta, Sayan; Sengupta, Jayati

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that a high degree of regulation is involved in the protein synthesis machinery entailing more interacting regulatory factors. A multitude of proteins have been identified recently which show regulatory function upon binding to the ribosome. Here, we identify tight association of a metabolic protein aldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) with the E. coli 70S ribosome isolated from cell extract under low salt wash conditions. Cryo-EM reconstruction of the ribosome sample allows us to localize its position on the head of the small subunit, near the mRNA entrance. Our study demonstrates substantial RNA unwinding activity of AdhE which can account for the ability of ribosome to translate through downstream of at least certain mRNA helices. Thus far, in E. coli, no ribosome-associated factor has been identified that shows downstream mRNA helicase activity. Additionally, the cryo-EM map reveals interaction of another extracellular protein, outer membrane protein C (OmpC), with the ribosome at the peripheral solvent side of the 50S subunit. Our result also provides important insight into plausible functional role of OmpC upon ribosome binding. Visualization of the ribosome purified directly from the cell lysate unveils for the first time interactions of additional regulatory proteins with the ribosome. PMID:26822933

  15. Pharmacological and antioxidant actions of garlic and.or onion in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Din, Sayed H Seif; Sabra, Abdel-Nasser A; Hammam, Olfat A; Ebeid, Fatma A; El-Lakkany, Naglaa M

    2014-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a broad spectrum of fat-induced liver injury, ranging from mild steatosis to cirrhosis and liver failure. This study investigates the hepatoprotective properties of garlic and onion in NAFLD rat model. Ninety male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups; normal (I), NAFLD induced with high fat diet (HFD; II), NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or NAFLD-RD treated with garlic (IV, V), onion (VI, VII) or the combined garlic+onion (VIII, IX) respectively. A NAFLD rat model was established by feeding the animals with a high-fat diet for 12 wk. These animals were then treated with garlic or/and onion or vehicle for 8 wk (weeks 13-20) and then killed to obtain serum samples and liver tissues. Liver histology, lipids, parameters of oxidative stress, TNF-α and TGF-β were measured. The liver in NAFLD-HFD showed typical steatosis, accompanied with mild to moderate lobular inflammatory cell infiltration. Serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, leptin, cholesterol, triglycerides, TNF-α, TGF-β and hepatic MDA' were significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with normal group. This was accompanied with reduction of hepatic GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD and serum adiponectin. These changes were to a less degree in NAFLD-RD group. Combined administration of garlic+onion produced a better and significant decrease in liver steatosis, serum liver enzymes, oxidative markers and lipid peroxidation versus each one alone. In the same time, NAFLD-induced inflammation was also mitigated via reduction of TNF-α and TGF-β. In addition, these results were better in the group IX versus group VIII.

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  18. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  19. Factors associated with regulatory action involving investigation of illnesses associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in products regulated by the Food Safety and Inspection Service.

    PubMed

    Green, Alice L; Seys, Scott; Douris, Aphrodite; Levine, Jeoff; Robertson, Kis

    2014-07-01

    We described characteristics of the Escherichia coli O157 and Escherichia coli non-O157 illness investigations conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) during the 5-year period from 2006 through 2010. We created a multivariable logistic regression model to determine characteristics of these investigations that were associated with FSIS regulatory action, which was defined as having occurred if a product recall occurred or if FSIS personnel performed an environmental health assessment (Food Safety Assessment) at the implicated establishment. During this period, FSIS took regulatory action in 38 of 88 (43%) investigations. Illness investigations in which FoodNet states were involved were more likely to result in regulatory action. Illness investigations in which state and local traceback, or FSIS traceback occurred were more likely to result in regulatory action. Reasons for lack of action included evidence of cross-contamination after the product left a regulated establishment, delayed notification, lack of epidemiological information, and insufficient product information. PMID:24826872

  20. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  1. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  2. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  3. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  4. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  5. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  6. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  7. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  10. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking: What It Means to You. A Guide to Action for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Stephen; Beazley, Hamilton; Fine, Theodora

    2007-01-01

    The Surgeon General, the Nation's top public health officer, is appointed by the President of the United States to help protect and promote the health of the Nation. The recently published "Surgeon General's Call to Action To Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking" [ED496083] highlights underage alcohol use as a major public health and safety issue.…

  11. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  12. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  13. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  14. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  15. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  16. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Exercise Training in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: HF-ACTION Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Whellan, David J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Ellis, Stephen J.; Leifer, Eric S.; Kraus, William E.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Blumenthal, James A.; Rendall, David S.; Miller, Nancy Houston; Fleg, Jerome L.; Schulman, Kevin A.; McKelvie, Robert S.; Zannad, Faiez; Piña, Ileana L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Guidelines recommend that exercise training be considered for medically stable outpatients with heart failure. Previous studies have not had adequate statistical power to measure the effects of exercise training on clinical outcomes. Objective To test the efficacy and safety of exercise training among patients with heart failure. Design, Setting, and Patients Multicenter, randomized controlled trial among 2331 medically stable outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Participants in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) were randomized from April 2003 through February 2007 at 82 centers within the United States, Canada, and France; median follow-up was 30 months. Interventions Usual care plus aerobic exercise training, consisting of 36 supervised sessions followed by home-based training, or usual care alone. Main Outcome Measures Composite primary end point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization and prespecified secondary end points of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, and cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization. Results The median age was 59 years, 28% were women, and 37% had New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms. Etiology was ischemic in 51%. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25%. Exercise adherence decreased from a median of 95 minutes per week during months 4 through 6 of follow-up to 74 minutes per week during months 10 through 12. A total of 759 (65%) patients in the exercise group died or were hospitalized, compared with 796 (68%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–1.02; P = .13). There were nonsignificant reductions in the exercise training group for mortality (189 [16%] in the exercise group vs 198 [17%] in the usual care group; HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79–1.17; P = .70), cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (632

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  19. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... function, the employer shall ensure the employee meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 for returning to...) Immediately after receiving notice from a Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT) that a covered employee has...

  20. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... function, the employer shall ensure the employee meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 for returning to...) Immediately after receiving notice from a Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT) that a covered employee has...

  1. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... function, the employer shall ensure the employee meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 for returning to...) Immediately after receiving notice from a Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT) that a covered employee has...

  2. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... function, the employer shall ensure the employee meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 for returning to...) Immediately after receiving notice from a Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT) that a covered employee has...

  3. Liraglutide efficacy and action in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (LEAN): study protocol for a phase II multicentre, double-blinded, randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Matthew J; Barton, Darren; Gaunt, Piers; Hull, Diana; Guo, Kathy; Stocken, Deborah; Gough, Stephen C L; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Brown, Rachel M; Hübscher, Stefan G; Newsome, Philip N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is now the commonest cause of chronic liver disease. Despite this, there are no universally accepted pharmacological therapies for NASH. Liraglutide (Victoza), a human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has been shown to improve weight loss, glycaemic control and liver enzymes in type 2 diabetes. There is currently a lack of prospective-controlled studies investigating the efficacy of GLP-1 analogues in patients with NASH. Methods and analysis Liraglutide efficacy and action in NASH (LEAN) is a phase II, multicentre, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial designed to investigate whether a 48-week treatment with 1.8 mg liraglutide will result in improvements in liver histology in patients with NASH. Adult, overweight (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH were assessed for eligibility at five recruitment centres in the UK. Patients who satisfied the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily subcutaneous injections of either 1.8 mg liraglutide or liraglutide-placebo (control). Using A'Hern's single stage phase II methodology (significance level 0.05; power 0.90) and accounting for an estimated 20% withdrawal rate, a minimum of 25 patients were randomised to each treatment group. The primary outcome measure will be centrally assessed using an intention-to-treat analysis of the proportion of evaluable patients achieving an improvement in liver histology between liver biopsies at baseline and after 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement will be defined as a combination of the disappearance of active NASH and no worsening in fibrosis. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was approved by the National Research Ethics Service (East Midlands—Northampton committee; 10/H0402/32) and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Recruitment into the LEAN started in August 2010 and ended in May 2013, with 52

  4. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  5. [Team Care for Patient Safety, TeamSTEPPS to Improve Nontechnical Skills and Teamwork--Actions to Become an HRO].

    PubMed

    Kaito, Ken

    2015-07-01

    It is important to develop safer medical systems and follow manuals of medical procedures for patient safety. However, these approaches do not always result in satisfactory results because of many human factors. It is known that defects of nontechnical skills are more important than those of technical skills regarding medical accidents and incidents. So, it is necessary to improve personal nontechnical skills and compensate for each other's defects based on a team approach. For such purposes, we have implemented TeamSTEPPS to enhance performance and patient safety in our hospital. TeamSTEPPS (team strategies and tools to enhance performance and patient safety) is a useful method to improve the nontechnical skills of each member and the team. In TeamSTEPPS, leadership to share mental models among the team, continuous monitoring and awareness for team activities, mutual support for workload and knowledge, and approaches to complete communication are summarized to enhance teamwork and patient safety. Other than improving nontechnical skills and teamwork, TeamSTEPPS is also very important as a High Reliability Organization (HRO). TeamSTEPPS is worth implementing in every hospital to decrease medical errors and improve patient outcomes and satisfaction. PMID:26591437

  6. Pathophysiology of alcoholic pancreatitis: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Gupta, Priya

    2006-01-01

    Use of alcohol is a worldwide habit regardless of socio-economic background. Heavy alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for induction of pancreatitis. The current review cites the updated literature on the alcohol metabolism, its effects on gastrointestinal and pancreatic function and in causing pancreatic injury, genetic predisposition of alcohol induced pancreatitis. Reports describing prospective mechanisms of action of alcohol activating the signal transduction pathways, induction of oxidative stress parameters through the development of animal models are being presented. PMID:17167828

  7. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  8. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  9. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  10. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  11. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  12. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  13. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  14. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  15. Racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in urban transit operators: findings from the San Francisco Muni Health and Safety Study.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, I H; Ragland, D R; Greiner, B A; Fisher, J M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A growing body of literature is documenting the health effects of racial discrimination. The authors investigated the association between racial discrimination and alcohol-related behavior in a sample of urban transit operators. METHODS: Using data from a 1993-1995 cross-sectional study of transit operators in San Francisco, California, the authors analyzed responses to two sets of questions about racial discrimination; the first set focused on reaction to unfair treatment and the second on arenas, or domains, of discrimination. Alcohol-related variables were: number of drinks per month, heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Operators who reported five or more domains of discrimination drank an average of 13.4 more drinks per month than those who reported no domains of discrimination (P = 0.01). Similarly, they were more likely to be heavy drinkers (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14, 4.09) and dependent on alcohol (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.08, 3.79) than operators who reported no domains of discrimination. The number of domains in which operators reported having experienced discrimination was not related to sex, age, household income, job seniority, or marital status, but varied significantly by educational level and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS: Data from a sample of urban transit operators showed an association between the number of domains of discrimination and some alcohol-related outcomes, but not others. PMID:10590767

  16. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action when an employee has a verified positive... DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.61 Action when an employee has a verified positive.../third party administrator (C/TPA) that a covered employee has a verified positive drug test result,...

  17. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  18. Mutations of L293 in transmembrane two of the mouse 5-hydroxytryptamine3A receptor alter gating and alcohol modulatory actions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Qun; Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Gadhiya, Jay J; Rhubottom, Heather E; Lovinger, David M; Machu, Tina K

    2006-05-01

    1 The goal of this study was to determine whether mutations of L293 at the 15' position of TM2 in the 5-HT(3A) receptor alter macroscopic current kinetics, and if these changes could account for alterations in alcohol modulation. Receptor function was assessed in Xenopus oocytes under voltage-clamp and in HEK293 cells with whole-cell patch-clamp recording and rapid drug application. 2 Examination of responses of L293C and L293S receptors to agonist alone revealed enhanced activation, deactivation, and desensitization rates relative to the wild-type receptor. The L293G mutation produced marked slowing of deactivation and desensitization rates. Increased potency of 5-HT and increased efficacy of the partial agonist, DA, was also observed in these mutant receptors. 3 Ethanol and trichloroethanol (TCEt) enhancement of receptor function was reduced or eliminated in receptors containing L293 mutations to C, G, or S. The L293I mutant receptor retained ethanol and TCEt sensitivity. Ethanol and TCEt enhanced activation rate in the wild-type, but not the L293G and L293S receptors. No relationship was observed between any physicochemical property of the substituted amino acids and the change in alcohol potentiation of function. 4 The changes in receptor-channel properties in the mutant receptors support the idea that the L293 residue has important roles in channel gating. Our findings indicate that loss of allosteric modulation by alcohols is not related in any simple way to changes in channel kinetic properties brought about by L293 mutants. We did not observe any evidence that L293 is part of an alcohol binding site. PMID:16520747

  19. 78 FR 18420 - Special Permit Applications Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Special Permit Applications Actions AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on special... processing of, special permits from the Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49...

  20. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  1. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  2. Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunization against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J F; Turner, A

    2002-01-01

    Contraceptive management of publicly valued wildlife species requires safeguards to ensure that these populations are preserved in a healthy state. In addition, reversibility of contraceptive effects and safety in pregnant animals are major concerns. A population of wild horses has been immunized against porcine zona pellucida (PZP) over a 12 year period on Assateague Island National Seashore, MD (ASIS). Mares initially received one or two 65 microg inoculations and once a year 65 microg booster inoculations, all delivered by dart. All young mares aged > 2 years were treated with PZP for 3 consecutive years regardless of whether they have bred successfully and they were then removed from treatment until they had foaled. All mares vaccinated for 1 or 2 consecutive years became fertile again and 69% of mares treated for 3 consecutive years returned to fertility. All five mares treated for 4 or 5 consecutive years have also returned to fertility, but over longer periods of time. Mares treated for 7 consecutive years have not returned to fertility, but several, while still infertile, have started ovulating again. There was no difference in survival rates between foals born to treated and untreated mares, and PZP treatment of pregnant mares did not affect subsequent fertility of their female offspring.

  3. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work.

  4. Human ergology that promotes participatory approach to improving safety, health and working conditions at grassroots workplaces: achievements and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2011-12-01

    Participatory approaches are increasingly applied to improve safety, health and working conditions of grassroots workplaces in Asia. The core concepts and methods in human ergology research such as promoting real work life studies, relying on positive efforts of local people (daily life-technology), promoting active participation of local people to identify practical solutions, and learning from local human networks to reach grassroots workplaces, have provided useful viewpoints to devise such participatory training programmes. This study was aimed to study and analyze how human ergology approaches were applied in the actual development and application of three typical participatory training programmes: WISH (Work Improvement for Safe Home) with home workers in Cambodia, WISCON (Work Improvement in Small Construction Sites) with construction workers in Thailand, and WARM (Work Adjustment for Recycling and Managing Waste) with waste collectors in Fiji. The results revealed that all the three programmes, in the course of their developments, commonly applied direct observation methods of the work of target workers before devising the training programmes, learned from existing local good examples and efforts, and emphasized local human networks for cooperation. These methods and approaches were repeatedly applied in grassroots workplaces by taking advantage of their the sustainability and impacts. It was concluded that human ergology approaches largely contributed to the developments and expansion of participatory training programmes and could continue to support the self-help initiatives of local people for promoting human-centred work. PMID:25665213

  5. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  6. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  7. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  8. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  9. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  10. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  11. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  12. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  13. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  14. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  15. Driver Education Curriculum Guide. Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus.

    Designed to provide instructors and students with reliable and scientifically validated information about alcohol and other drugs, this curriculum guide presents lessons in six major areas: (1) drugs and traffic safety; (2) alcohol: what it is and how it works; (3) alcohol: use, abuse, and moderation; (4) drugs other than alcohol: types, uses, and…

  16. 75 FR 61820 - Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). (57 FR 11772.) Ignition interlocks are... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Model Specifications for Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock... Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices (BAIIDs). The Model Specifications are guidelines for...

  17. Policies and Programs for the 1990's: A Team Approach to the Prevention of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Traffic Safety Problems in Higher Education. 1989 Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelden Services, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This is a workshop training manual designed to help higher education institutional teams develop policies and programs aimed at preventing the abuse of alcohol and use of illegal drugs on their campuses. Three circular diagrams display the community groups that can be involved in drug abuse prevention, higher education institutions that play a…

  18. Safety and efficacy of flumazenil for reversal of iatrogenic benzodiazepine-associated delirium toxicity during treatment of alcohol withdrawal, a retrospective review at one center.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip W; Donovan, J Ward; Burkhart, Keith K; Waskin, Jeffrey A; Hieger, Michelle A; Adkins, Audrey R; Wert, Yijin; Haggerty, David A; Rasimas, J J

    2014-06-01

    Both alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and benzodiazepines can cause delirium. Benzodiazepine-associated delirium can complicate AWS and prolong hospitalization. Benzodiazepine delirium can be diagnosed with flumazenil, a GABA-A receptor antagonist. By reversing the effects of benzodiazepines, flumazenil is theorized to exacerbate symptoms of AWS and precludes its use. For patients being treated for alcohol withdrawal, flumazenil can diagnose and treat benzodiazepine delirium without precipitating serious or life-threatening adverse events. Hospital admission records were retrospectively reviewed for patients with the diagnosis of AWS who received both benzodiazepines and flumazenil from December 2006 to June 2012 at a university-affiliated inpatient toxicology center. The day of last alcohol consumption was estimated from available blood alcohol content or subjective history. Corresponding benzodiazepine, flumazenil, and adjunctive sedative pharmacy records were reviewed, as were demographic, clinical course, and outcome data. Eighty-five patients were identified (average age 50.3 years). Alcohol concentrations were detectable for 42 patients with average 261 mg/dL (10-530 mg/dL). Eighty patients were treated with adjunctive agents for alcohol withdrawal including antipsychotics (n = 57), opioids (n = 27), clonidine (n = 35), and phenobarbital (n = 23). Average time of flumazenil administration was 4.7 days (1-11 days) after abstinence, and average dose was 0.5 mg (0.2-1 mg). At the time of flumazenil administration, delirium was described as hypoactive (n = 21), hyperactive (n = 15), mixed (n = 41), or not specified (n = 8). Response was not documented in 11 cases. Sixty-two (72.9 %) patients had significant objective improvement after receiving flumazenil. Fifty-six patients required more than one dose (average 5.6 doses). There were no major adverse events and minor adverse effects included transiently increased anxiety

  19. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  20. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  1. The metabolome of [2-14C](−)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives

    PubMed Central

    Ottaviani, Javier I.; Borges, Gina; Momma, Tony Y.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E.; Keen, Carl L.; Crozier, Alan; Schroeter, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a major life style factor affecting human health, thus emphasizing the need for evidence-based dietary guidelines for primary disease prevention. While current recommendations promote intake of fruit and vegetables, we have limited understanding of plant-derived bioactive food constituents other than those representing the small number of essential nutrients and minerals. This limited understanding can be attributed to some extent to a lack of fundamental data describing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of bioactive compounds. Consequently, we selected the flavanol (−)-epicatechin (EC) as an example of a widely studied bioactive food constituent and investigated the ADME of [2-14C](−)-epicatechin (300 μCi, 60 mg) in humans (n = 8). We demonstrated that 82 ± 5% of ingested EC was absorbed. We also established pharmacokinetic profiles and identified and quantified >20 different metabolites. The gut microbiome proved to be a key driver of EC metabolism. Furthermore, we noted striking species-dependent differences in the metabolism of EC, an insight with significant consequences for investigating the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of EC. These differences need to be considered when assessing the safety of EC intake in humans. We also identified a potential biomarker for the objective assessment of EC intake that could help to strengthen epidemiological investigations. PMID:27363516

  2. The metabolome of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Javier I; Borges, Gina; Momma, Tony Y; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Keen, Carl L; Crozier, Alan; Schroeter, Hagen

    2016-07-01

    Diet is a major life style factor affecting human health, thus emphasizing the need for evidence-based dietary guidelines for primary disease prevention. While current recommendations promote intake of fruit and vegetables, we have limited understanding of plant-derived bioactive food constituents other than those representing the small number of essential nutrients and minerals. This limited understanding can be attributed to some extent to a lack of fundamental data describing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of bioactive compounds. Consequently, we selected the flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) as an example of a widely studied bioactive food constituent and investigated the ADME of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin (300 μCi, 60 mg) in humans (n = 8). We demonstrated that 82 ± 5% of ingested EC was absorbed. We also established pharmacokinetic profiles and identified and quantified >20 different metabolites. The gut microbiome proved to be a key driver of EC metabolism. Furthermore, we noted striking species-dependent differences in the metabolism of EC, an insight with significant consequences for investigating the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of EC. These differences need to be considered when assessing the safety of EC intake in humans. We also identified a potential biomarker for the objective assessment of EC intake that could help to strengthen epidemiological investigations.

  3. The metabolome of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin in humans: implications for the assessment of efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of action of polyphenolic bioactives.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Javier I; Borges, Gina; Momma, Tony Y; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Keen, Carl L; Crozier, Alan; Schroeter, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Diet is a major life style factor affecting human health, thus emphasizing the need for evidence-based dietary guidelines for primary disease prevention. While current recommendations promote intake of fruit and vegetables, we have limited understanding of plant-derived bioactive food constituents other than those representing the small number of essential nutrients and minerals. This limited understanding can be attributed to some extent to a lack of fundamental data describing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of bioactive compounds. Consequently, we selected the flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EC) as an example of a widely studied bioactive food constituent and investigated the ADME of [2-(14)C](-)-epicatechin (300 μCi, 60 mg) in humans (n = 8). We demonstrated that 82 ± 5% of ingested EC was absorbed. We also established pharmacokinetic profiles and identified and quantified >20 different metabolites. The gut microbiome proved to be a key driver of EC metabolism. Furthermore, we noted striking species-dependent differences in the metabolism of EC, an insight with significant consequences for investigating the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effects of EC. These differences need to be considered when assessing the safety of EC intake in humans. We also identified a potential biomarker for the objective assessment of EC intake that could help to strengthen epidemiological investigations. PMID:27363516

  4. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult.

    PubMed

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  5. Mechanism of antibacterial action of the alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Kongari; Rajesh, Angireddy; Manjulatha, Khanapur; Setty, Oruganti H.; Yenugu, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Herbal products derived from Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Leucas aspera (Wild.), Plumbago zeylanica L., and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult. are widely used in traditional medicine. Though the extracts of these plants were found to be antimicrobial in nature and have the potential to be used in clinics, the mechanism of action of is not reported. The ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Hemidesmus indicus ethanolic extract (HIEE), Leucas aspera (Wild.), Leucas aspera ethanolic extract (LAEE), Plumbago zeylanica L., Plumbago zeylanica ethanolic extract (PZEE), and Tridax procumbens (L.) R. Br. ex Schult, Tridax procumbens ethanolic extract (TPEE) were tested for their antibacterial activity against E. coli. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by CFU assay and the effect on the bacterial membrane by fluorescence activated cell sorting and scanning electron microscopy. LAEE, PZEE, and HIEE displayed potent bacterial killing activity in a time and concentration dependent manner. TPEE did not display appreciable antibacterial activity. The antibacterial action involved disruption of membrane potential, inner membrane permeabilization, blebbing and leakage of cellular contents. Our results contribute to the understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of alcoholic extracts of the medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:26106379

  6. Differing features of proteins in membranes may result in antioxidant or prooxidant action: opposite effects on lipid peroxidation of alcohol dehydrogenase and albumin in liposomal systems.

    PubMed

    Riedl, A; Shamsi, Z; Anderton, M; Goldfarb, P; Wiseman, A

    1996-02-01

    The influence of 3 thiol-containing compounds, bovine serum albumin (fatty acid free: BSA), glutathione (GSH) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) on lipid peroxidation in multilamellar liposomes, prepared from ox-brain phospholipid, was investigated. Thiol-compounds were added either before liposome formation, or after liposome formation; and their effects compared to a positive control. Bovine serum albumin (BSA), an acidic hydrophilic protein, displays a small, concentration dependent, antioxidant effect when added to preformed liposomes. A much larger antioxidant effect was observed when the BSA was entrapped inside the liposome, by adding BSA just prior to liposome preparation. In contrast, a Zn(2+) containing redox enzyme, YADH, a basic hydrophobic membrane-associating protein, displays a large pro-oxidant effect at much lower concentrations especially when entrapped inside the liposome. This was observed also with GSH; but per mole of -SH, YADH was about 18 times as powerful a pro-oxidant perhaps because of structural changes to the membrane. Oxidized glutathione and N-acetylcysteine were also pro-oxidant (cysteine and cystine showed little effect). Formation of thiyl radicals may occur in the presence of iron ions with these pro-oxidant sulphur-containing compounds. Partial protection against lipid peroxidation was observed with EDTA, desferrioxamine and protoporphyrin (IX), potent iron-chelating agents.

  7. Communicating alcohol narratives: creating a healthier relationship with alcohol.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Amaral-Sabadini, Michaela Bitarello do; Baumberg, Ben; Jarl, Johan; Stuckler, David

    2011-08-01

    Alcohol, like mental health, is a neglected topic in public health discussions. However, it should be defined as a priority public health area because the evidence available to support this is very persuasive. Although only half the world's population drinks alcohol, it is the world's third leading cause of ill health and premature death, after low birth weight and unsafe sex, and the world's greatest cause of ill health and premature death among individuals between 25 and 59 years of age. This article aims to outline current global experiences with alcohol policies and suggests how to communicate better evidence-based policy responses to alcohol-related harm using narratives. The text summarizes 6 actions to provide incentives that would favor a healthier relationship with alcohol in contemporary society. Actions include price and availability changes, marketing regulations, changes in the format of drinking places and on the product itself, and actions designed to nudge people at the time of their purchasing decisions. Communicating alcohol narratives to policymakers more successfully will likely require a discourse emphasizing the reduction of heavy drinking occasions and the protection of others from someone else's problematic drinking.

  8. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  9. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles; Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph; Tibbitts, Jay; Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  10. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs.

  11. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  12. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  13. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  14. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  15. Ways to say "no" to alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... like so many people drink. But lots of teenagers have figured out that they don’t have ...

  16. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  17. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePlus

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; ...

  18. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  19. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  20. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  1. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  2. 76 FR 12214 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice: Announcement of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  3. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  6. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  8. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  9. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  11. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  13. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  14. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  15. 14 CFR 120.37 - Misuse of alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Misuse of alcohol. 120.37 Section 120.37... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.37 Misuse of alcohol. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  17. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  18. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our... than March 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any one of three methods-- Internet, fax,...

  19. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ... en gatillo See More... Hand Anatomy Hand Safety Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening ...

  20. Hand Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ... Fireworks Safety Lawnmower Safety Snowblower safety Pumpkin Carving Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis ...

  1. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  2. 75 FR 23280 - Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma's Alcohol... Bill CB-64-2010 enacted on March 13, 2010. The Alcohol Control Ordinance regulates and controls...

  3. Saving Our Children from Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Dorothy

    1982-01-01

    Describes current efforts undertaken by the Catholic community to prevent alcoholism and drug abuse among young people. Outlines the objectives of such preventive programs and actions currently being taken. Highlights efforts including parent education programs, workshops for teachers, clergy, and community networks. (WL)

  4. Collegiate Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David S.; Janosik, Steven M.

    An instrument to help administrators assess the liability resulting from alcohol-related activities on the college campus is presented. The hazards and associated liability of these events can be reduced by developing an aggressive risk management strategy designed to inform, educate, and coordinate the actions of individuals and groups associated…

  5. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of phenolic compounds and aromatic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, J J; Corre, J; Cremieux, A

    1990-05-01

    The antibacterial properties of phenolic compounds and aromatic alcohols (growth inhibition, lethal effect and cytological damage) were investigated. The role of protein and RNA synthesis in the bactericidal action was also determined. All compounds tested demonstrated lethal properties and the ability to alter membranes, especially in Gram-negative bacteria. Efficacious concentrations, however, varied greatly among the compounds. These data corroborate previous findings which suggest that the mechanism of action of these compounds is related to their lipophilia. Moreover, since it was demonstrated that the lethal effect of two aromatic alcohols (phenethyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol) stops when protein synthesis is inhibited, it is likely that both possess specific mechanisms of action.

  8. Fragrance materials review on isoamyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Lapczynski, A; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isoamyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isoamyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  9. Fragrance material review on isodecyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isodecyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isodecyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  10. Fragrance material review on isononyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2010-07-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of isononyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Isononyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group branched chain saturated alcohols. The common characteristic structural elements of the alcohols with saturated branched chain are one hydroxyl group per molecule, and a C(4)-C(12) carbon chain with one or several methyl side chains. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire branched chain saturated alcohol group will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2010) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  11. ▼Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ▼Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy.

  12. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  15. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  16. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  17. Do Alcohol Expectancy Outcomes and Valuations Mediate Peer Influences and Lifetime Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Jarvis, Lorna Hernandez; Olthuis, Janine V.

    2009-01-01

    Building on the theory of reasoned action (I. Ajzen & M. Fishbein, 1973, 1980; M. Fishbein & I. Ajzen, 1975) and expectancy theory, the authors examined the mediating role of alcohol expectancies in adolescent drinking behaviors by testing whether alcohol expectancy outcomes and valuations (the extent to which these outcomes are perceived as good…

  18. Pharmacologic treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Schacht, Joseph P; Book, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding the neuroscience of addiction has significantly advanced the development of more efficacious medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While several medications have been approved by regulatory bodies around the world for the treatment of AUD, they are not universally efficacious. Recent research has yielded improved understanding of the genetics and brain circuits that underlie alcohol reward and its habitual use. This research has contributed to pharmacogenetic studies of medication response, and will ultimately lead to a more "personalized medicine" approach to AUD pharmacotherapy. This chapter summarizes work on clinically available medications (both approved by regulatory bodies and investigational) for the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as the psychiatric disorders that are commonly comorbid with AUD. Studies that have evaluated genetic influences on medication response and those that have employed neuroimaging to probe mechanisms of medication action or response are highlighted. Finally, new targets discovered in animal models for possible pharmacologic intervention in humans are overviewed and future directions in medications development provided.

  19. 77 FR 6856 - Agency Requests Approval To Extend Information Collection(s): Section 410 Alcohol Impaired...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ...): Section 410 Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Part 1313, Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures. Form Numbers: NA. Type of Review: Collection extension. Background: An impaired driving incentive grant is available to States that have an...

  20. Health behaviour and safety in the construction sector.

    PubMed

    Meliá, José L; Becerril, Marta

    2009-08-01

    Workers' health behaviour includes habits or actions related to physical exercise, nutrition, smoking, and drug or alcohol consumption. Unhealthy behaviour, and especially alcohol consumption, has been considered a source of accidents and injuries among construction workers. However, unhealthy behaviour can also be seen as a result of the safety and risk conditions of these jobs. The purpose of this paper is to contrast the role of unhealthy behaviour as a source or as an outcome of safety and risk in the construction sector. Data was collected from 180 workers belonging to a Spanish construction company. Two path models representing these two hypotheses were tested. The model in which unhealthy behaviour is an antecedent of injuries did not fit the data (Chi square=73.798, df=3, p<0.001). Results support the hypothesis of unhealthy behaviour as a result of safety and risk factors through the mediating effect of the experience of tension (Chi-square=4.507, df=2, p=.212). This model not only corroborates the stressful nature of exposure to risk and the absence of supervisors' safety response, but it also makes it possible to consider injuries as a cause of tension that, in turn, affects the employees' unhealthy behaviour. PMID:19622324

  1. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  2. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  3. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  4. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  5. [Alcohol and street traffic (critical comments from the legal and traffic medicine viewpoint)].

    PubMed

    Heifer, U

    1990-01-01

    1. Our official traffic statistics in general and in regard to the problem "alcohol and road traffic security" is not reliable enough. It contains too many unaccounted factors, so that an objective reorganisation and supplement is badly needed. The present statistics is not suited to show the real dimension and the actual danger of the effects of "alcohol in traffic", especially in connection with relatively low blood-alcohol-concentration. 2. In connection with the problem "alcohol and road traffic" the Federal Republic of Germany is able to develop, by way of law, significant epidemiological research, which, so far, has been neglected. 3. Danger and frequency of low and high blood-alcohol-concentration in road traffic participants are collectively in inverse ratio: The larger group of the less dangerous road traffic participants with low blood-alcohol-concentration does not necessarily cause less damage, than the smaller group of the more dangerous ones with high blood-alcohol-concentration. 4. From the legal and traffic medical point of view the reaching and exceeding of the abstract promille limit of 0.8 shoudl be considered a violation within the meaning of penal law and should be connected with the loss of the driver's license. This was put up for discussion by Spiegel (1989). Such a legal measure would lead to a consequent and successful general and specific prevention. There should be initiated supportive side effects as for example discrimination of the drunken driver and permanent education concerning the effects of alcohol on traffic safety. 5. It seems reasonable to set the limit as low as possible, however, only if there is an sufficient police control to make it effective. 6. The concept "absolute driving incapability" has an extreme confidential value and will surely not result in any disadvantages, however, its preventive reaction is not sufficient. There is no need for this concept any more, if an abstract danger limit is connected with appropriate

  6. Proposed trial: safety and efficacy of resveratrol for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated insulin resistance in adolescents who are overweight or obese adolescents - rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Wicklow, Brandy; Wittmeier, Kristy; T' Jong, Geert W; McGavock, Jonathon; Robert, Marni; Duhamel, Todd; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) disease (NAFLD) affects 30% of overweight adolescents and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound with potential to reverse NAFL and its associated insulin resistance in adults. The use of resveratrol to reduce risk for T2D through its effect on NAFL has not been examined to date in youth. This paper provides a literature review and protocol for a 30 day proof of principle trial of resveratrol in a population of adolescents at risk for T2D. This randomized double-blind controlled trial is designed with the primary objective of evaluating a twice daily supplementation of 75 mg of resveratrol for safety and tolerability in overweight and obese adolescent subjects (13 to <18 years of age) with NAFL. Secondary objectives are to determine the effect size of the intervention on hepatic steatosis and whole body insulin sensitivity. Adolescents in the intervention arm (n = 10) will receive oral supplementation of resveratrol 75 mg twice daily (with breakfast and dinner) for a total daily dose of 150 mg for the duration of 30 days. The comparison group (n = 10) will receive a placebo twice daily for 30 days. Both cases and controls will receive a standardized lifestyle intervention program. Subjects in both groups will be followed for an additional 30 days post intervention for total study duration of approximately 60 days. Primary outcome measures include a primary side effect profile determined by participant interview, a side effect profile determined by serum biochemistry and vital signs. Secondary outcome measures include an oral glucose tolerance test, liver and cardiac fat content measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, anthropometric measures of overweight/obesity, inflammatory markers, and cardiac function and morphology measured with ultrasonography. Additional outcome measures include serum concentrations of resveratrol, compliance to protocol, physical activity, and

  7. Proposed trial: safety and efficacy of resveratrol for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated insulin resistance in adolescents who are overweight or obese adolescents - rationale and protocol.

    PubMed

    Wicklow, Brandy; Wittmeier, Kristy; T' Jong, Geert W; McGavock, Jonathon; Robert, Marni; Duhamel, Todd; Dolinsky, Vernon W

    2015-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) disease (NAFLD) affects 30% of overweight adolescents and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Resveratrol is a naturally occurring compound with potential to reverse NAFL and its associated insulin resistance in adults. The use of resveratrol to reduce risk for T2D through its effect on NAFL has not been examined to date in youth. This paper provides a literature review and protocol for a 30 day proof of principle trial of resveratrol in a population of adolescents at risk for T2D. This randomized double-blind controlled trial is designed with the primary objective of evaluating a twice daily supplementation of 75 mg of resveratrol for safety and tolerability in overweight and obese adolescent subjects (13 to <18 years of age) with NAFL. Secondary objectives are to determine the effect size of the intervention on hepatic steatosis and whole body insulin sensitivity. Adolescents in the intervention arm (n = 10) will receive oral supplementation of resveratrol 75 mg twice daily (with breakfast and dinner) for a total daily dose of 150 mg for the duration of 30 days. The comparison group (n = 10) will receive a placebo twice daily for 30 days. Both cases and controls will receive a standardized lifestyle intervention program. Subjects in both groups will be followed for an additional 30 days post intervention for total study duration of approximately 60 days. Primary outcome measures include a primary side effect profile determined by participant interview, a side effect profile determined by serum biochemistry and vital signs. Secondary outcome measures include an oral glucose tolerance test, liver and cardiac fat content measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, anthropometric measures of overweight/obesity, inflammatory markers, and cardiac function and morphology measured with ultrasonography. Additional outcome measures include serum concentrations of resveratrol, compliance to protocol, physical activity, and

  8. Alcoholic myopathy: biochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Preedy, V R; Paice, A; Mantle, D; Dhillon, A S; Palmer, T N; Peters, T J

    2001-08-01

    Between one- and two-thirds of all alcohol abusers have impairment of muscle function that may be accompanied by biochemical lesions and/or the presence of a defined myopathy characterised by selective atrophy of Type II fibres. Perturbations in protein metabolism are central to the effects on muscle and account for the reductions in muscle mass and fibre diameter. Ethanol abuse is also associated with abnormalities in carbohydrate (as well as lipid) metabolism in skeletal muscle. Ethanol-mediated insulin resistance is allied with the inhibitory effects of ethanol on insulin-stimulated carbohydrate metabolism. It acutely impairs insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism, although it is not known whether it has an analogous effect on insulin-stimulated protein synthesis. In alcoholic cirrhosis, insulin resistance occurs with respect to carbohydrate metabolism, although the actions of insulin to suppress protein degradation and stimulate amino acid uptake are unimpaired. In acute alcohol-dosing studies defective rates of protein synthesis occur, particularly in Type II fibre-predominant muscles. The relative amounts of mRNA-encoding contractile proteins do not appear to be adversely affected by chronic alcohol feeding, although subtle changes in muscle protein isoforms may occur. There are also rapid and sustained reductions in total (largely ribosomal) RNA in chronic studies. Loss of RNA appears to be related to increases in the activities of specific muscle RNases in these long-term studies. However, in acute dosing studies (less than 1 day), the reductions in muscle protein synthesis are not due to overt loss of total RNA. These data implicate a role for translational modifications in the initial stages of the myopathy, although changes in transcription and/or protein degradation may also be superimposed. These events have important implications for whole-body metabolism.

  9. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    PubMed

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  10. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  11. 75 FR 4610 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) published a notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 61403... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration. ACTION: Notice and request for...

  12. 76 FR 26793 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is re- publishing this notice...

  13. 78 FR 66801 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Announcement of advisory... Committee that provides the Agency with advice and recommendations on motor carrier safety programs...

  14. Protest and survive, the U.K. Construction Safety Campaign: a case study of workers' and victims' family action and legal and regulatory inaction on construction health and safety.

    PubMed

    Holder, Mick; O'Brien, Tony

    2007-01-01

    The U.K. Construction Safety Campaign, based on grass-roots rank-and-file trade union activity, has both a domestic agenda and a wider sphere with regard to international developments. Using organized protests and media exposure to achieve its ends, the Campaign has contributed substantially to reducing injuries and fatalities in the U.K. construction industry, as well as achieving some justice for victims of the industry's neglect of safe management practices.

  15. Alcohol use patterns, problems and policies in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, D H; Indran, S K

    1997-12-01

    The roots of Malaysia's drinking patterns lie in the introduction of most forms of alcohol by Europeans. Although Malaysia today has relatively low per capita alcohol consumption, available studies and interviews with alcohol industry officials point to a small segment of the population that drinks heavily and causes and experiences substantial alcohol related-problems. Indians are over-represented in this sub-population, but studies also reveal substantial drinking problems among Chinese and Malays. Government officials categorize alcohol as an Indian problem. The government devotes little resources to monitoring drinking patterns, use or problems; or to preventing, treating or educating the public about alcohol-related problems. Alcohol-producing transnational corporations own shares of all of Malaysia's major alcohol producers. In the face of high alcohol taxes and a ban on broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages, these companies market alcohol aggressively, making health claims, targeting heavy drinkers and encouraging heavy drinking, employing indirect advertising, and using women in seductive poses and occupations to attract the mostly male drinking population. Monitoring of the country's alcohol problems is greatly needed in order to establish alcohol consumption more clearly as a national health and safety issue, while stronger controls and greater corporate responsibility are required to control alcohol marketing.

  16. Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine: proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Think Tank held on February 28, 2011.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Carr, J Jeffrey; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Cummings, Jennifer E; Gerber, Thomas C; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-05-15

    Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert “think tank” reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community, but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.

  17. Developing an action plan for patient radiation safety in adult cardiovascular medicine: proceedings from the Duke University Clinical Research Institute/American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association think tank held on February 28, 2011.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela S; Carr, J Jeffery; Cerqueira, Manuel D; Cummings, Jennifer E; Gerber, Thomas C; Mukherjee, Debabrata; Taylor, Allen J

    2012-05-01

    Technological advances and increased utilization of medical testing and procedures have prompted greater attention to ensuring the patient safety of radiation use in the practice of adult cardiovascular medicine. In response, representatives from cardiovascular imaging societies, private payers, government and nongovernmental agencies, industry, medical physicists, and patient representatives met to develop goals and strategies toward this end; this report provides an overview of the discussions. This expert "think tank" reached consensus on several broad directions including: the need for broad collaboration across a large number of diverse stakeholders; clarification of the relationship between medical radiation and stochastic events; required education of ordering and providing physicians, and creation of a culture of safety; development of infrastructure to support robust dose assessment and longitudinal tracking; continued close attention to patient selection by balancing the benefit of cardiovascular testing and procedures against carefully minimized radiation exposures; collation, dissemination, and implementation of best practices; and robust education, not only across the healthcare community, but also to patients, the public, and media. Finally, because patient radiation safety in cardiovascular imaging is complex, any proposed actions need to be carefully vetted (and monitored) for possible unintended consequences.

  18. Fragrance material review on anisyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  19. Fragrance material review on phenylethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenylethyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenylethyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenylethyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  20. Fragrance material review on benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl alcohol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl alcohol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl alcohol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, photoallergy, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances.

  1. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  2. [Metadoxine in alcohol-related pathology].

    PubMed

    Santoni, S; Corradini, P; Zocchi, M; Camarri, F

    1989-07-31

    Metadoxine is an active drug for treatment of acute and chronic alcohol intoxication, affecting both liver and brain function. The authors reviewed the international pharmacological and clinical literature on the drug which shows the potential usefulness of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol-induced diseases. The case report concerns the results in 20 chronic alcoholics, admitted to the hospital for acute alcohol intake treated with metadoxine (one 500 mg tablet twice daily). Biohumoral hepatopathy parameters and clinical parameters of neuropsychic behaviour were examined simultaneously. Compared with a control group of patients undergoing traditional therapy (sedative and multi-vitamin drugs), metadoxine showed a significant improvement of the values of gamma-GT, GPT, blood ammonia, blood alcohol and of neuropsychic and behavioural parameters such as agitation, tremor, asterixis, sopor and depression. No side-effects or unfavourable reactions occurred during metadoxine treatment, which confirms the safety of this molecule. PMID:2529084

  3. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  4. 76 FR 9350 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ... Delisting From Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY: Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization: AHRQ has accepted a notification of voluntary relinquishment from Rocky Mountain Patient Safety Organization,...

  5. "We Should Talk"-Moving knowledge into action by learning to engage patients, families, and healthcare staff to communicate for patient safety.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Alexander Sasha; Bishop, Andrea; Biron, Alain; Cunningham-Allard, Gabrielle; DeCivita, Frederick; Fima, Aaron; Korah, Nadine; Marchionni, Caroline; Proulx, Marie Claude; Toman, Pamela; Tsirgiotis, Stephanie; Zavalkoff, Samara

    2016-07-01

    Innovation in patient engagement and empowerment has been identified as a priority area in the Canadian healthcare system. This article describes the development and implementation of the We Should Talk campaign at an academic pediatric hospital. Through the use of a guiding theoretical framework and a multidisciplinary project team, a multimedia campaign was designed to inspire staff, patients and families to effectively communicate to improve patient safety. The We Should Talk campaign provides a case study for how an organization can foster frontline improvement through the engagement of patient, families, and healthcare providers. PMID:27269815

  6. Safety in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this K-12 science safety resource is to bring together information needed by administrators, planners, teachers and support staff to help them make sound decisions regarding science safety. The document identifies areas for decision making and action at a variety of levels. It supports planning and action by providing information on…

  7. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  8. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  9. 27 CFR 479.115 - Action by Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action by Director. 479.115 Section 479.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  10. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action on application. 479.86 Section 479.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  11. 27 CFR 479.115 - Action by Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action by Director. 479.115 Section 479.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  12. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action on application. 479.86 Section 479.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  13. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action on application. 479.86 Section 479.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  14. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Customs. 479.117 Section 479.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  15. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action on application. 479.86 Section 479.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  16. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action by Customs. 479.117 Section 479.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  17. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action by Customs. 479.117 Section 479.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  18. 27 CFR 479.86 - Action on application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action on application. 479.86 Section 479.86 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  19. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Action by Customs. 479.117 Section 479.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  20. 27 CFR 479.117 - Action by Customs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action by Customs. 479.117 Section 479.117 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  1. 27 CFR 479.115 - Action by Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Action by Director. 479.115 Section 479.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  2. 27 CFR 479.115 - Action by Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by Director. 479.115 Section 479.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  3. 27 CFR 479.115 - Action by Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Action by Director. 479.115 Section 479.115 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND...

  4. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum.

  5. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Julyana de Araújo; da Silva, Ingrid Carla Guedes; Trindade, Leonardo Antunes; Lima, Edeltrudes Oliveira; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; de Castro, Ricardo Dias

    2014-01-01

    The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (α = 5%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (P < 0.0001), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. PMID:25574178

  6. [An open-label non-comparative study of the efficacy and safety of melaxen in treatment of sleep disorders in alcohol dependent patients during the period of abstinence].

    PubMed

    Eryshev, O F; Anipchenko, A V; Andreeva, N E; Andrianov, F V

    2013-01-01

    Forty-five alcohol dependent patients with sleep and mild affective disorders were treated with melaxen (melatonin IR) for 3-weeks. All subjects did not use alcohol for at least 14 days prior the trial. The battery of psychometric scales (a subjective sleep quality questionnaire, the Epworth sleepiness scale, a sleep apnea screening questionnaire, HAM-A, HAM-D, an alcohol consumption questionnaire) was used. Melaxen distinctly improved sleep latency, quality and duration of sleep, breathing during sleep. The drug decreased daily sleepiness and affective disorders, particularly, anxiety. The dosage of melaxen ranged from 3 to 6 mg depending on the respond to the minimal dose.

  7. 76 FR 32390 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory... MCSAC will complete action on Task 11-01, regarding Patterns of Safety Violations by Motor...

  8. 77 FR 60507 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Meeting of Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Subcommittee of Motor Carrier Safety...

  9. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  10. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a... an open container. The operator of a motor vehicle is the person responsible for complying with...

  11. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  12. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  13. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open container of...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Open container of...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of...

  16. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of...

  17. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic beverage. 1004.14 Section 1004.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle...

  18. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ..., final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653). 3. It reorganizes existing rule... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (77 FR 39194), entitled ``Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.'' The..., the National Air Tour Safety Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a...

  19. Neuropeptide Y Opposes Alcohol Effects on GABA Release in Amygdala and Blocks the Transition to Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Misra, Kaushik; Herman, Melissa A.; Cruz, Maureen T.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Background During the transition to alcohol and drug addiction, neuromodulator systems in the extended amygdala are recruited to mediate aspects of withdrawal and relapse via convergence on inhibitory GABA neurons in central amygdala (CeA). Methods This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in excessive alcohol drinking by making rats dependent on alcohol via alcohol vapor inhalation. This study also utilized intracellular and whole-cell recording techniques to determine the effects of NPY on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in CeA, synaptic mechanisms involved in these NPY effects, and NPY interactions with alcohol in the CeA of alcohol-naïve and alcohol-dependent rats. Results Chronic NPY treatment blocked excessive operant alcohol-reinforced responding associated with alcohol dependence, as well as gradual increases in alcohol responding by intermittently tested non-dependent controls. NPY decreased baseline GABAergic transmission and reversed alcohol-induced enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CeA by suppressing GABA release via actions at presynaptic Y2 receptors. Conclusions These results highlight NPY modulation of GABAergic signaling in central amygdala as a promising pharmacotheraputic target for the treatment of alcoholism. GABA neurons in the CeA likely constitute a major point of convergence for neuromodulator systems recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:21459365

  20. Phenethyl Alcohol I. Effect on Macromolecular Synthesis of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkranz, Herbert S.; Carr, Howard S.; Rose, Harry M.

    1965-01-01

    Rosenkranz, Herbert S. (Columbia University, New York, N.Y.), Howard S. Carr, and Harry M. Rose. Phenethyl alcohol. I. Effect on macromolecular synthesis of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:1354–1369. 1965.—An investigation of the mode of action of phenethyl alcohol produced the following results. Phenethyl alcohol had no effect on the physicochemical properties of isolated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The DNA isolated from phenethyl alcohol-treated bacteria had physicochemical properties identical with those of DNA isolated from normal cells. The metabolic functions most sensitive to the inhibitory action of phenethyl alcohol appeared to be the process of enzyme induction and, possibly, the synthesis of messenger ribonucleic acid. Phenethyl alcohol did not affect the polyuridylic acid-mediated synthesis of polyphenylalanine in a cell-free amino acid-incorporating system. Images PMID:14293009

  1. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  2. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  3. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  4. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation.

    PubMed

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K; Tulashie, Samuel K

    2015-06-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements. PMID:26106516

  5. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation.

    PubMed

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K; Tulashie, Samuel K

    2015-06-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements.

  6. A Call for Action to Improve Occupational Health and Safety in Ghana and a Critical Look at the Existing Legal Requirement and Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Joe-Steve; Addai, Emmanuel K.; Tulashie, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a broad field of professional practice, which involves specialists from different disciplines including but not limited to engineers, occupational health physicians, physical and biological scientists, economists, and statisticians. The preventive systems required to ensure workers are protected from injuries and illnesses dwell heavily on engineers; however, the extent to which the engineer can go regarding planning and implementing preventive measures is dependent on specific legal requirements, leadership commitment from the company, organization, and nation. The objective of this paper is to identify the areas of opportunities for improvements in OHS management in Ghana with regard to the nation's legal requirements, commitment of the Ghana government, and Ghanaian leadership as well as appropriate structuring of Ghanaian institutions responsible for monitoring and managing OHS in Ghana. This paper identified Ghana's fragmented legal requirements concerning OHS, which are under different jurisdictions with unclear responsibilities and accountabilities. The paper also highlights the training needs of Ghanaian academic institutions regarding OHS. Among other recommendations made including structuring of Ghanaian institutions to manage OHS in line with the ILO-OSH 2001, this paper aligns the recommendations with the articles and elements of International Labour Organization convention number 155 and OHSAS 18001 elements. PMID:26106516

  7. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  8. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  9. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  10. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  11. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  12. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  13. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  14. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  15. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  16. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  17. 77 FR 33266 - Proposed Collection of Information; Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information; Alcohol Impaired Driving... CFR, Part 1313, Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures--Section 410. OMB Number: 2127-0501. Type of... alcohol fatality rate of 0.5 or less per 100 million vehicle miles traveled as determined by using...

  18. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... completion of an educational or treatment program, as determined by a drug and alcohol abuse evaluation... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employee admission of alcohol and controlled... SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.121 Employee...

  19. 49 CFR 382.121 - Employee admission of alcohol and controlled substances use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... completion of an educational or treatment program, as determined by a drug and alcohol abuse evaluation... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employee admission of alcohol and controlled... SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING General § 382.121 Employee...

  20. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future. PMID:26259002

  1. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  2. Mechanism of anti-diabetic action, efficacy and safety profile of GII purified from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum Linn.) seeds in diabetic animals.

    PubMed

    Moorthy, Radha; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2010-11-01

    Mechanism of action of GII (100 mg/kg body weight, po for 15 days) purified from fenugreek (T. foenum-graecum) seeds was studied in the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. In the sub-diabetic rabbits it did not change much the content of total lipids, glycogen and proteins in the liver, muscle and heart (glycogen was not studied in the heart). However, in the moderately diabetic rabbits same treatment decreased total lipids more in the liver (21%) than those in the heart and muscle. Total protein content increased (14%) in the liver but negligible change (5-7%) was observed in heart and muscle. Glycogen increased (17%) in the liver but not in the muscle of the moderately diabetic rabbits (glycogen was not estimated in the heart). Among the enzymes of glycolysis, activity of glucokinase was not affected in the liver of both the sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits. Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity in both sub-diabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits increased (13-50%) indicating stimulation of glycolysis. The activity of gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase of the sub-diabetic rabbits decreased in the liver (15-20%) but not in the kidneys. In the moderately diabetic rabbits after treatment with GII, glucokinase in the liver was not affected much (-9%) but increased well in the muscle (40%). Phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase were moderately increased both in the liver and the muscle (18-23%). The gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase decreased reasonably well in the liver and kidneys (22, 32%). Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase decreased only slightly (10, 9%) in the moderately diabetic rabbits. Thus GII seems to decrease lipid content of liver and stimulate the enzymes of glycolysis (except glucokinase) and inhibit enzymes of gluconeogenesis in the liver of the diabetic especially moderately diabetic rabbits. PMID:21117452

  3. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  4. The P300 as an Electrophysiological Probe of Alcohol Expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Inna; Goldman, Mark S.; Donchin, Emanuel

    2008-01-01

    Language-based measures indicate that alcohol expectancies influence alcohol consumption. To relate these measures to brain actions that precede verbal output, the P300 component of the Event-related potentials (ERPs) was used to detect violations of individually held alcohol expectancies. As predicted, P300 amplitude elicited by negative alcohol expectancy stimuli was positively correlated with endorsement of positive/arousing alcohol expectancies on the language-based measure, such that the higher an individual's positive/arousing expectancies, the larger was the P300 elicited by negative alcohol expectancy stimuli. These results demonstrated concordance between language-based measures of alcohol expectancies and electrophysiological probes of expectancy. Although whether these expectancy processes are integral to decision pathways that influence consumption is unknown, these findings suggest that such processing can occur very quickly outside of conscious deliberation. PMID:18729689

  5. Alcohol, diabetes, and public health in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas; Rehm, Jurgen; Jernigan, David; Vaeth, Patrice; Monteiro, Maristela; Lehman, Hallie

    2012-08-01

    This article describes epidemiological evidence on the association between alcohol use and diabetes, and the implications for clinical management and public health policies in the Americas. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for both diabetes and poor treatment adherence, despite evidence that moderate drinking can protect against type 2 diabetes under some circumstances. The burden of disease from diabetes associated with excessive alcohol consumption warrants both clinical and public health measures. On the clinical level, research on early interventions to prevent hazardous drinking shows that new screening, brief intervention, and referral techniques are effective ways to manage hazardous drinking in primary care settings. On the population level, restrictions on alcohol marketing and other alcohol control policies reduce the frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption in at-risk populations. These policy actions are recommended within the context of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol.

  6. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Valcin, Jennifer A.; Gamble, Karen L.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases. PMID:26473939

  7. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Udoh, Uduak S; Valcin, Jennifer A; Gamble, Karen L; Bailey, Shannon M

    2015-10-14

    Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  9. Effectiveness of bans and laws in reducing traffic deaths: legalized Sunday packaged alcohol sales and alcohol-related traffic crashes and crash fatalities in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Garnett P; Lapham, Sandra

    2006-11-01

    We determined the relative risk of alcohol-related motor vehicle accidents and fatalities after New Mexico lifted its ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales. We extracted all alcohol-related crashes from New Mexico police reports for 3652 days between July 1, 1990, and June 30, 2000, and found a 29% increase in alcohol-related crashes and a 42% increase in alcohol-related crash fatalities on Sundays after the ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales was lifted. There was an estimated excess of 543.1 alcohol-related crashes and 41.6 alcohol-related crash fatalities on Sundays after the ban was lifted. Repealing the ban on Sunday packaged alcohol sales introduced a public health and safety hazard in New Mexico.

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  12. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  13. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  14. Alcohol and the cardiovascular system: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Diane L; Brown, Ricardo A; Wassef, Momtaz; Giles, Thomas D

    2005-06-21

    Excessive alcohol consumption has long been associated with cardiovascular disorders, including cardiomyopathy, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and stroke. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate alcohol intake can actually provide a measure of cardioprotection, particularly against coronary heart disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury. To explore the various dimensions of these opposing actions of alcohol, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a state-of-the-art workshop on "Alcohol and the Cardiovascular System: Research Challenges and Opportunities" in Bethesda, Maryland, in May 2003. Speakers discussed the following topics: the epidemiology of alcohol and cardiovascular disease, clinical manifestations of alcohol, genetics of alcohol and cardiovascular disease, mechanisms underlying the molecular and cellular effects of alcohol, the application of new and emerging technology, and translation from discovery to therapeutic modalities of treatment. The panel concluded that future studies are needed to: 1) determine the role of genes and the environment in assessing mechanisms underlying the benefits of alcohol use and cardiovascular disease risk; 2) define the biological mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced peripheral vascular damage; 3) clarify the role of genetic variation in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, genetic susceptibility, and pharmacogenomics in determining cardiovascular disease risk and effective treatment; 4) determine common mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced cardiovascular disease, such as oxidative stress and inflammation; 5) assess the role of insulin resistance, blood clotting, protein kinase C isoforms, and signal transduction mechanisms mediating alcohol's beneficial effects; and 6) explore the potential of stem cells in myocardial regeneration and repair in hearts damaged by alcohol.

  15. Alcohol and the cardiovascular system: research challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Diane L; Brown, Ricardo A; Wassef, Momtaz; Giles, Thomas D

    2005-06-21

    Excessive alcohol consumption has long been associated with cardiovascular disorders, including cardiomyopathy, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and stroke. However, recent evidence suggests that moderate alcohol intake can actually provide a measure of cardioprotection, particularly against coronary heart disease and ischemia-reperfusion injury. To explore the various dimensions of these opposing actions of alcohol, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute sponsored a state-of-the-art workshop on "Alcohol and the Cardiovascular System: Research Challenges and Opportunities" in Bethesda, Maryland, in May 2003. Speakers discussed the following topics: the epidemiology of alcohol and cardiovascular disease, clinical manifestations of alcohol, genetics of alcohol and cardiovascular disease, mechanisms underlying the molecular and cellular effects of alcohol, the application of new and emerging technology, and translation from discovery to therapeutic modalities of treatment. The panel concluded that future studies are needed to: 1) determine the role of genes and the environment in assessing mechanisms underlying the benefits of alcohol use and cardiovascular disease risk; 2) define the biological mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced peripheral vascular damage; 3) clarify the role of genetic variation in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, genetic susceptibility, and pharmacogenomics in determining cardiovascular disease risk and effective treatment; 4) determine common mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced cardiovascular disease, such as oxidative stress and inflammation; 5) assess the role of insulin resistance, blood clotting, protein kinase C isoforms, and signal transduction mechanisms mediating alcohol's beneficial effects; and 6) explore the potential of stem cells in myocardial regeneration and repair in hearts damaged by alcohol. PMID:15963387

  16. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  17. Ensuring patient safety.

    PubMed

    Novo, Ahmed; Masic, Izet

    2007-01-01

    Patient safety is key factor in the process of health care improvement. World Health Organization (WHO) as coordinating authority for health within the United Nations launched a World Alliance for Patient Safety dedicated to bringing significant benefits to patients. Patients for Patient Safety, one of ten action areas of the World Alliance, is designed to ensure that the perspective of patients and families, consumers and citizens, is a central reference point in shaping this important work. This action area is led by the patient safety consumer movement. In Bosnia and Herzegovina has not State Law to regulate patient safety, but Law on the System of Quality and Safety Improvement, and Accreditation in Healthcare in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H) established Agency for Quality and Accreditation in the Health Care System of the FB&H as a competent entity in the field of improvement of quality and safety, and accreditation in healthcare. Beside the Agency, all service providers need to promote a culture of openness, fairness, accountability and transparency. Also, stakeholders involved in health care should recognize that patients can actively contribute to strengthening thũality and safety of health servicesthrough active participation and to insist on open dialogue, transparency and appropriate information on the potential risks that the health service incurs, as part of enhancing patient health literacy and involvement.

  18. 78 FR 33836 - CPSC Safety Academy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CPSC Safety Academy AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC, Commission, or we) is announcing its intent to hold a...

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ..., the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] updating the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF). The... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation published a final rule authorizing the use of an updated Alcohol Testing Form...

  1. 77 FR 21581 - Kootenai Tribe of Idaho: Chapter 11-Alcohol Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Kootenai Tribe of Idaho: Chapter 11--Alcohol Control Act AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Chapter 11--Alcohol Control Act... enact a new Chapter 11--Alcohol Control Act on August 9, 2011. This notice is published in...

  2. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ..., 2010, the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] which updated the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... our recently updated Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) to January 1, 2011. The revised ATF went into...

  3. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Slider, J.E. ); Patterson, M. )

    1993-01-01

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of [open quotes]safety culture.[close quotes] This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to [open quotes]do the right thing[close quotes] even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants.

  4. Action identification of drinking and self-control.

    PubMed

    Palfai, Tibor P; Ostafin, Brian D

    2010-03-01

    A number of investigators have proposed that self-control over addictive behaviors may be influenced by the way individuals mentally represent their actions. Previous research based on questionnaires has suggested that those who report higher-level identifications of their alcohol use behavior may exhibit more difficulty controlling their alcohol use (Wegner, Vallacher, & Dizadji, 1989). However, it is unclear whether this association is because of characteristic ways of mentally representing specific drinking events or the fact that those who have more impaired control consume more alcohol and drink across a broader array of situations. The current study sought to address this question by examining the association between impaired control over alcohol and action identification of drinking behavior in a structured laboratory drinking task. Ninety-one young adult hazardous drinkers (21-35 years) completed the Impaired Control Over Alcohol Scale (Heather, Tebbut, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993) and an alcohol consumption task. Participants then completed a Likert scale measure to assess action identification of their drinking behavior. Results showed that those who reported greater impaired control over alcohol experienced the drinking task at higher-level action identification even when accounting for alcohol consumption variables. These findings are consistent with the view that higher-level identification of alcohol use behavior may hinder self-control (Wegner et al., 1989), and that self-management approaches may be enhanced through strategies to address mental representation of action.

  5. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  6. The moderating role of implicit alcohol-related cognitions in hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Cavanagh, Lucia; Obasi, Ezemenari M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied the Go/No-Go Association Test (GNAT; Nosek & Banaji, 2001) to measure alcohol-related implicit cognitions. Additionally, it assessed the role of implicit cognitions as a potential moderator in the relationship between explicit predictors of alcohol use and hazardous drinking behavior. University undergraduate students (N = 214) completed self-report questionnaires assessing reasons for drinking and reported alcohol use. Participants also completed two GNATs assessing implicit-alcohol-related cognitions associated with attitude (good-bad) and perceived safety (safe-dangerous). As expected, participants held implicit appraisals of alcohol as ‘‘bad’’ and ‘‘dangerous’’ in the context of nonalcoholic drinks, and as ‘‘good’’ and ‘‘safe’’ in the context of licit and illicit drugs. Implicit alcohol-related cognitions moderated the relationship between drinking to cope with negative affect and hazardous drinking and drinking due to cues or craving and hazardous drinking. These findings highlight the multidimensional nature of implicit cognitions and the role of negative implicit alcohol-related associations in moderating relationships between explicit processes and subsequent alcohol use behaviors. PMID:26989352

  7. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  8. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  9. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  10. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Information on Services for... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  11. 77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ..., PHMSA published a notice with request for comments in the Federal Register (76 FR 81013). The notice... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  12. 78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... 23, 2013, (78 FR 23972). PHMSA received one comment in response to that notice. PHMSA is publishing... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  13. 77 FR 61826 - Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Communication During Emergency Situations AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice..., hazardous liquid, and liquefied natural gas pipeline facilities that operators should immediately...

  14. 76 FR 65778 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ..., PHMSA published a notice with request for comments in the Federal Register (76 FR 45904). The notice... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  15. 77 FR 58622 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... comments on this information collection was published on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39797). No comments were... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  16. 78 FR 57455 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... June 14, 2013, (78 FR 36016). PHMSA received one comment in response to that notice. PHMSA is... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  17. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... and hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that they must make their pipeline emergency response...

  18. 78 FR 16764 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... information collection was published on December 13, 2012, (77 FR 74276) under docket number PHMSA-2012- 0302... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  19. 77 FR 74275 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... following information collections was published on August 27, 2012, (77 FR 51848) under docket number PHMSA... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and...

  20. 75 FR 66425 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... received from Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP, a natural gas pipeline operator, seeking relief from... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  1. 75 FR 43612 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... received from Dominion Transmission, Inc., a natural gas pipeline operator, seeking relief from compliance... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  2. 77 FR 26822 - Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Verification of Records AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory...; (2) pressure testing; (3) the highest actual operating pressure in the five years prior to...

  3. 78 FR 65429 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  4. 77 FR 58623 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant...

  5. 78 FR 18419 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Delayed Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Delayed Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  6. Relationships Between Minimum Alcohol Pricing and Crime During the Partial Privatization of a Canadian Government Alcohol Monopoly

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Macdonald, Scott; Ponicki, William R.; Martin, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate the independent effects of increases in minimum alcohol prices and densities of private liquor stores on crime outcomes in British Columbia, Canada, during a partial privatization of off-premise liquor sales. Method: A time-series cross-sectional panel study was conducted using mixed model regression analysis to explore associations between minimum alcohol prices, densities of liquor outlets, and crime outcomes across 89 local health areas of British Columbia between 2002 and 2010. Archival data on minimum alcohol prices, per capita alcohol outlet densities, and ecological demographic characteristics were related to measures of crimes against persons, alcohol-related traffic violations, and non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Analyses were adjusted for temporal and regional autocorrelation. Results: A 10% increase in provincial minimum alcohol prices was associated with an 18.81% (95% CI: ±17.99%, p < .05) reduction in alcohol-related traffic violations, a 9.17% (95% CI: ±5.95%, p < .01) reduction in crimes against persons, and a 9.39% (95% CI: ±3.80%, p < .001) reduction in total rates of crime outcomes examined. There was no significant association between minimum alcohol prices and non–alcohol-related traffic violations (p > .05). Densities of private liquor stores were not significantly associated with alcohol-involved traffic violations or crimes against persons, though they were with non–alcohol-related traffic violations. Conclusions: Reductions in crime events associated with minimum-alcohol-price changes were more substantial and specific to alcohol-related events than the countervailing increases in densities of private liquor stores. The findings lend further support to the application of minimum alcohol prices for public health and safety objectives. PMID:26098040

  7. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder: Current and Emerging Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert M.; Aston, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a complex biology that is controlled by many genes and gene-by-environment interactions. Several efficacious, evidence-based treatments currently exist for treating and managing alcohol use disorder, including a number of pharmacotherapies that target specific aspects of biology that initiate and maintain dangerous alcohol misuse. This article reviews the neurobiological and neurobehavioral foundation of alcohol use disorder, the mechanisms of action and evidence for the efficacy of currently approved medications for treatment, and the literature on other emerging pharmacotherapies. PMID:25747925

  8. [A method to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration when the ministerial tables are not avaible].

    PubMed

    Dosi, G; Taggi, F; Macchia, T

    2009-01-01

    To reduce the prevalence of driving under the influence, tables allowing to estimate one's own blood alcohol concentration (BAC) by type and quantity of alcoholic drinks intake have been enacted by decree in Italy. Such tables, based on a modified Widmark's formula, are now put up in all public concerns serving alcoholic beverages. Aim of this initiative is to try to get subjects which consume alcoholics and then will drive a vehicle take in account their own estimated BAC and, on this base, put into effect, if needed, suitable actions (to avoid or to limit a further consumption, to wait more time before driving, to leave driving a sober subject). Nevertheless, many occasions exist in which these tables are not available. To allow anybody to rough estimate his own BAC in these cases too, a proper method has been developed. Briefly, the weight (in grams) of consumed alcohol has to be divided by half her own weight, if female drunk on an empty stomach (by the 90% of her own weight, if she drunk on a full stomach); by 70% of his own weight, if male drunk on an empty stomach (by 120% of his own weight, if he drunk in a full stomach). Consistency between BAC values estimated by the proposed method and those shown in the ministerial tables is very narrow: they differ in a few hundredth of grams/liter. Unlike the ministerial tables, the proposed method needs to compute the grams of ingested alcohol. This maybe involves some difficulties that, nevertheless, can be overcome easily. In our opinion, the skillfulness in computing the grams of assumed alcohol is of great significance since it provides the subject with a strong signal not only in road safety terms, but also in health terms. The ministerial tables and the proposed method should be part of teaching to issue the driving licence and to recovery of driving licence taken away points. In broad terms, the school should teach youngs to calculate alcohol quantities assumed by drink to acquaint them with the risks paving

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  11. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  12. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  13. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  14. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  15. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  16. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  17. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  18. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  19. Neural correlates of alcohol-approach bias in alcohol addiction: the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak for spirits.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Corinde E; Stelzel, Christine; Park, Soyoung Q; Gawron, Christiane K; Ludwig, Vera U; Gutwinski, Stefan; Heinz, Andreas; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Wiers, Reinout W; Walter, Henrik; Bermpohl, Felix

    2014-02-01

    Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol compared with neutral cues, which has been associated with craving and relapse. Although this is a well-studied psychological phenomenon, little is known about the brain processes underlying automatic action tendencies in addiction. We examined 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 17 healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while performing an implicit approach-avoidance task. Participants pushed and pulled pictorial cues of alcohol and soft-drink beverages, according to a content-irrelevant feature of the cue (landscape/portrait). The critical fMRI contrast regarding the alcohol-approach bias was defined as (approach alcohol>avoid alcohol)>(approach soft drink>avoid soft drink). This was reversed for the avoid-alcohol contrast: (avoid alcohol>approach alcohol)>(avoid soft drink>approach soft drink). In comparison with healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients had stronger behavioral approach tendencies for alcohol cues than for soft-drink cues. In the approach, alcohol fMRI contrast patients showed larger blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions involved in reward and motivational processing. In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-craving scores were positively correlated with activity in the amygdala for the approach-alcohol contrast. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was not activated in the avoid-alcohol contrast in patients vs controls. Our data suggest that brain regions that have a key role in reward and motivation are associated with the automatic alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients.

  20. Neural Correlates of Alcohol-Approach Bias in Alcohol Addiction: the Spirit is Willing but the Flesh is Weak for Spirits

    PubMed Central

    Wiers, Corinde E; Stelzel, Christine; Park, Soyoung Q; Gawron, Christiane K; Ludwig, Vera U; Gutwinski, Stefan; Heinz, Andreas; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Wiers, Reinout W; Walter, Henrik; Bermpohl, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown an alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients: the automatic tendency to faster approach than avoid alcohol compared with neutral cues, which has been associated with craving and relapse. Although this is a well-studied psychological phenomenon, little is known about the brain processes underlying automatic action tendencies in addiction. We examined 20 alcohol-dependent patients and 17 healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while performing an implicit approach-avoidance task. Participants pushed and pulled pictorial cues of alcohol and soft-drink beverages, according to a content-irrelevant feature of the cue (landscape/portrait). The critical fMRI contrast regarding the alcohol-approach bias was defined as (approach alcohol>avoid alcohol)>(approach soft drink>avoid soft drink). This was reversed for the avoid-alcohol contrast: (avoid alcohol>approach alcohol)>(avoid soft drink>approach soft drink). In comparison with healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients had stronger behavioral approach tendencies for alcohol cues than for soft-drink cues. In the approach, alcohol fMRI contrast patients showed larger blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, regions involved in reward and motivational processing. In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-craving scores were positively correlated with activity in the amygdala for the approach-alcohol contrast. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was not activated in the avoid-alcohol contrast in patients vs controls. Our data suggest that brain regions that have a key role in reward and motivation are associated with the automatic alcohol-approach bias in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:24060832

  1. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  2. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  3. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  4. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  5. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  6. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  7. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  8. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  9. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  10. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  11. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  12. Drug Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  13. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  14. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  15. 76 FR 71077 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of... advise the Secretary of Labor (Secretary) on all matters relating to the occupational safety and......

  16. 77 FR 33495 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH..., Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, authorized the preparation of......

  17. 77 FR 58174 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of FACOSH meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)...

  18. 75 FR 78775 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH......

  19. 75 FR 62147 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meeting and member appointments. SUMMARY: The Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and......

  20. 76 FR 32374 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meetings of the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) and NACOSH......

  1. 77 FR 43616 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on NACOSH. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and......

  2. 76 FR 54806 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of MACOSH Meeting. SUMMARY: The Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)...

  3. 78 FR 68865 - Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of FACOSH meeting. SUMMARY: The Federal Advisory Council on Occupational Safety and Health (FACOSH)...

  4. 76 FR 60085 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nominations to serve on NACOSH. SUMMARY: The Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and......

  5. 77 FR 62536 - National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of renewal of... Committee on Occupational Safety and Health (NACOSH). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms.......

  6. 77 FR 46126 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Request for nomination of members to serve on the Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health.......

  7. 75 FR 70702 - Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) and ACCSH Work Group...

  8. 76 FR 41304 - Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meetings of the Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) and ACCSH Work Groups, and...

  9. 76 FR 73687 - Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Announcement of meetings of the Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health (ACCSH) and ACCSH Work Groups, and...

  10. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration; DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance of Advisory Bulletin. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) is...

  11. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: PHMSA and the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  12. 76 FR 11752 - Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Australia's Meat Safety Enhancement Program; Notice of Affirmation of Equivalence Decision AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of affirmation of equivalence decision. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is affirming...

  13. 78 FR 5243 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC): Public Meeting of Subcommittees AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of meeting of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC). SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that...

  14. Safety Awareness & Communications Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, Zanani

    2015-01-01

    The projects that I have worked on during my internships were updating the JSC Safety & Health Action Team JSAT Employee Guidebook, conducting a JSC mishap case study, preparing for JSC Today Close Call success stories, and assisting with event planning and awareness.

  15. Toxicology and Chemical Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Stephen K.

    1983-01-01

    Topics addressed in this discussion of toxicology and chemical safety include routes of exposure, dose/response relationships, action of toxic substances, and effects of exposure to chemicals. Specific examples are used to illustrate the principles discussed. Suggests prudence in handling any chemicals, whether or not toxicity is known. (JN)

  16. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  17. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  18. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  20. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  1. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  2. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, John Y., Ed.; And Others

    Safety education information is provided in this guide designed for Pennsylvania industrial arts teachers. Twelve sections and section topics include the following: introduction (policy statement on safety); responsibility (school board and superintendent, principal and/or department head, the teacher); emergency action (primary concerns,…

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 553 - Statement of Policy: Action on Petitions for Reconsideration

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Pt. 553... policy of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to issue notice of the action taken on...

  4. Fire Safety in Extraterrestrial Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Despite rigorous fire-safety policies and practices, fire incidents are possible during lunar and Martian missions. Fire behavior and hence preventive and responsive safety actions in the missions are strongly influenced by the low-gravity environments in flight and on the planetary surfaces. This paper reviews the understanding and key issues of fire safety in the missions, stressing flame spread, fire detection, suppression, and combustion performance of propellants produced from Martian resources.

  5. Safety Recommendation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Transportation Safety Board (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This report focuses on teenage drivers and drinking. The first topic discussed is youth accident experience. Vignettes of accidents are given, as well as national statistics on deaths involving teenage drivers. The next topic discussed is youth alcohol consumption. Statistics on percentage of youth who report using alcohol; comparison of…

  6. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  7. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  8. Discovering genes involved in alcohol dependence and other alcohol responses: role of animal models.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kari J; Milner, Lauren C; Denmark, Deaunne L; Grant, Seth G N; Kozell, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a variety of genetic animal models, the identification of regions of chromosomal DNA that contain a gene or genes which affect a complex phenotype (i.e., quantitative trait loci [QTLs]) has allowed unbiased searches for candidate genes. Several QTLs with large effects on alcohol withdrawal severity in mice have been detected, and fine mapping of these QTLs has placed them in small intervals on mouse chromosomes 1 and 4 (which correspond to certain regions on human chromosomes 1 and 9). Subsequent work led to the identification of underlying quantitative trait genes (QTGs) (e.g., Mpdz) and high-quality QTG candidates (e.g., Kcnj9 and genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress) and their plausible mechanisms of action. Human association studies provide supporting evidence that these QTLs and QTGs may be directly relevant to alcohol risk factors in clinical populations.

  9. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics. PMID:21164074

  10. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  11. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  12. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  13. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  14. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  15. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  16. Alcohol in New Zealand road trauma.

    PubMed

    Guria, Jagadish; Jones, Wayne; Leung, Joanne; Mara, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving is one of the major contributing factors to fatal and serious crashes in New Zealand. To curb the high level of road trauma resulting from drink-driving, a compulsory breath test (CBT) programme was introduced in 1993 and a supplementary road safety package (SRSP) in 1995/1996. The SRSP aimed to enhance road safety enforcement and advertising activities, and focused primarily on drink-driving and speeding. These interventions have resulted in a substantial reduction in alcohol-related road trauma. Subsequently, in 1999, the drinking age was lowered from 20 to 18 years. This paper examines the impacts of these drink-driving interventions. The analysis shows that the CBT programme and the SRSP have contributed to the reduction in alcohol-related crashes in recent years. There is also some evidence that, following the lowering of the drinking age, there has been an increase in drink-driving and subsequent alcohol-related crash involvement for drivers under 18 years.

  17. Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of NASA's safety performance for 1983 affirms that NASA Headquarters and Center management teams continue to hold the safety of manned flight to be their prime concern, and that essential effort and resources are allocated for maintaining safety in all of the development and operational programs. Those conclusions most worthy of NASA management concentration are given along with recommendations for action concerning; product quality and utility; space shuttle main engine; landing gear; logistics and management; orbiter structural loads, landing speed, and pitch control; the shuttle processing contractor; and the safety of flight operations. It appears that much needs to be done before the Space Transportation System can achieve the reliability necessary for safe, high rate, low cost operations.

  18. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  19. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  20. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480