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Sample records for alcohol screening tools

  1. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  2. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    PubMed

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  4. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study.

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, M.; Tessari, E.; Bortolomasi, M.; Piasere, O.; Semenzin, M.; Garzotto, N.; Tansella, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test in screening primary care attenders for alcohol problems. DESIGN: A validity study among consecutive primary care attenders aged 18-65 years. Every third subject completed the alcohol use disorders identification test (a 10 item self report questionnaire on alcohol intake and related problems) and was interviewed by an investigator with the composite international diagnostic interview alcohol use module (a standardised interview for the independent assessment of alcohol intake and related disorders). SETTING: 10 primary care clinics in Verona, north eastern Italy. PATIENTS: 500 subjects were approached and 482 (96.4%) completed evaluation. RESULTS: When the alcohol use disorders identification test was used to detect subjects with alcohol problems the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. The cut off score of 5 was associated with a sensitivity of 0.84, a specificity of 0.90, and a positive predictive value of 0.60. The screening ability of the total score derived from summing the responses to the five items minimising the probability of misclassification between subjects with and without alcohol problems provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93. A score of 5 or more on the five items was associated with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol use disorders identification test performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Using five of the 10 items on the questionnaire gives reasonable accuracy, and these are recommended as questions of choice to screen patients for alcohol problems. PMID:9040389

  5. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  6. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  7. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  8. Screening for alcohol problems among the unemployed.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, G R; Lindsay, D

    1979-01-01

    Of 2,996 welfare recipients applying for CETA benefits at the Milwaukee office of Jewish Vocational Service between 3/1/78-9/30/78, a 10% sample (N = 309) was screened for assessment of alcohol problems. After obtaining voluntary informed consent from participants (6% declined), trained interviewers individually administered a 16-item alcoholism At-Risk Questionnaire (ARQ) based on observations by NCA's Criteria Committee; a standard form of the 25-item Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST); and a 35-item interview structured around a selectively modified version of NCA's Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism (CRIT). Analyses of data suggested that our ARQ was of little value in discriminating between problem drinkers and other persons, although significantly correlated with MAST and CRIT scores. Using a conventional scoring of the MAST, 53.6% of the sample appeared to have significant alcohol problems, while our CRIT identified only 31.9% as problem drinkers. By combining the MAST + CRIT in a unique scoring system, a more conservative estimate of 36.57% problem drinkers, with an estimated error rate of 1.63% false negatives and 23.45% false positives, was determined. Further modification of MAST + CRIT scoring led to a revised estimate of 25.41% problem drinkers with estimated false-positive and false-negative rates of 7.55% and 6.5% respectively. Implications for research and plans for further modifications of screening procedures are discussed.

  9. Optimizing the Use of the AUDIT for Alcohol Screening in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2012-01-01

    The screening and brief intervention modality of treatment for at-risk college drinking is becoming increasingly popular. A key to effective implementation is use of validated screening tools. Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated in adult samples and is often used with college students, research has not…

  10. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  11. EJSCREEN: Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EJSCREEN is an environmental justice screening and mapping tool that provides EPA and the public with a nationally consistent approach to characterizing potential areas may warrant further consideration, analysis, or outreach.

  12. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pincock, Layne

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  13. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... a co-payment. Top of Page Problem Doctors, nurses, and other health professionals should screen all adult ... community activities that reduce drinking too much. Doctors, nurses, health plans, and insurers can Screen all adult ...

  15. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  16. Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.

    PubMed

    Kline, Emily; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Bussell, Kristin; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The development of widely used interview tools has helped to standardize the criteria for a "clinical high risk" syndrome, thus enabling advances in efforts to develop interventions for this phase of illness. These assessments, however, are burdensome to administer and not likely to be adopted for widespread use. Scalable early intervention depends on the availability of brief, low-cost assessment tools that can serve to screen populations of interest or triage treatment-seekers toward specialized care. The current study examines the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive strength of three self-report measures (Prime Screen-Revised, Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, and Youth Psychosis at Risk Questionnaire-Brief) with regard to psychosis onset and symptom persistence over six months of follow-up within an indicated sample of 54 adolescents and young adults ages 12-22. Within this sample, all three measures demonstrated excellent sensitivity to emerging psychosis and strong agreement with clinician evaluations of attenuated psychosis symptoms. Additionally, all screeners obtained negative predictive values of 1.00 with regard to psychosis onset, indicating that an individual scoring below the recommended threshold score would be extremely unlikely to develop psychosis over the following six months. The longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools constitutes an important step toward establishing a standard of care for early identification and monitoring in this vulnerable population.

  17. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  18. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  19. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  20. Women and Alcohol Problems: Tools for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This report presents a practical guide to the prevention of women's alcohol problems. It is intended for use by individuals interested in incorporating prevention measures into the workplace, schools, treatment facilities, and other settings, and for women interested in reducing the risks of alcohol problems or preventing existing problems from…

  1. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention for Persons Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Michael; Finnell, Deborah

    Alcohol use among persons living with HIV (PLWH) is consequential. More than half of PLWH have reported having a drink of alcohol and about 8% have reported heavy drinking. Alcohol use in PLWH has been associated with a higher risk of nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and poor treatment outcomes. We provide guidance to clinicians for using an evidence-based approach to intervene and ensure follow-up for PLWH who drink alcohol. This set of clinical strategies, known as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment, when fully disseminated may help address the 90-90-90 targets proposed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, in particular in the receipt of sustained ART and the attainment of viral suppression.

  2. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  3. Acamprosate: a new tool in the battle against alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tara M; Myrick, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Acamprosate, a medication that has been used in Europe for years, is the newest drug to be approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It has been shown to assist in the maintenance of abstinence in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. The following review delineates the proposed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of the drug. Findings of clinical trials are outlined and topics such as cost effectiveness, comparison with other medications used for the treatment of alcohol dependences as well as combination pharmacotherapy are discussed. In combination with psychosocial treatment, acamprosate is a promising tool for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol withdrawal. This review also illustrates the continued need to search for more effective treatments, as the overall effectiveness of our currently available pharmacotherapies remains limited in the long-term maintenance of recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:19412493

  4. Optimizing the use of the AUDIT for alcohol screening in college students.

    PubMed

    Demartini, Kelly S; Carey, Kate B

    2012-12-01

    The screening and brief intervention modality of treatment for at-risk college drinking is becoming increasingly popular. A key to effective implementation is use of validated screening tools. Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated in adult samples and is often used with college students, research has not yet established optimal cutoff scores to screen for at-risk drinking. Four hundred and one current drinkers completed computerized assessments of demographics, family history of alcohol use disorders, alcohol use history, alcohol-related problems, and general health. Of the 401 drinkers, 207 met criteria for at-risk drinking. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that the area under the ROC (AUROC) of the AUDIT was .86 (95% CI [.83, .90]). The first 3 consumption items of the AUDIT (AUDIT-C; AUROC = .89, 95% CI [.86, .92]) performed significantly better than the AUDIT in the detection of at-risk drinking in the whole sample, and specifically for females. Gender differences emerged in the optimal cutoff scores for the AUDIT-C. A total score of 7 should be used for males, and a score of 5 should be used for females. These empirical guidelines may enhance identification of at-risk drinkers in college settings.

  5. Validity of Nutritional Screening Tools for Hospitalized Children

    PubMed Central

    Djais, Julistio T. B.; Rosalina, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malnutrition in hospitalized children can be prevented if children with risk of malnutrition are identified. Every hospital is recommended to have a standard nutritional screening tool. Numerous simple screening tools have been developed, namely Paediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Paediatrics (STAMP), and Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONG-kids). None has been accepted as a universal tool. Our study aims to determine the best screening tools compared to Subjective Global Nutrition Assessment (SGNA), an assessment tool which is more complex as our gold standard. Methods. This diagnostic study involved 116 patients aged 1–15 years. Three screening tools and SGNA were examined to each subject. Statistical analysis was used to determine sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LR) by results from screening tools divided into low and moderate-high risk of malnutrition compared to results from SGNA divided into no and moderate-severe malnutrition. Results. PYMS showed superior agreement to SGNA resulting in sensitivity 95.32%, specificity 76.92%, positive LR 4.13, and negative LR 0.061. STAMP resulted in sensitivity, specificity, positive LR, and negative LR, respectively, as 100%, 11.54%, 1.13, and 0 and STRONG-kids resulted in 100%, 7.7%, 1.083, and 0. Conclusion. PYMS was the most reliable screening tool. PMID:25298890

  6. Eating disorders in female athletes: use of screening tools.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Jessica; Aerni, Giselle; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Screening female athletes for eating disorders is not performed commonly even though the American College of Sports Medicine, National Athletic Trainer Association, and International Olympic Committee have guidelines recommending screening. Eating disorders are more prevalent in the female athlete population than in the general population and carry short-term and long-term consequences that can affect sport performance. There are several screening tools available that have been studied in the general population and fewer tools that were validated specifically in female athletes. Female athletes with eating disorder pathology often have different factors and environmental pressures contributing to their pathology that can be identified best with an athlete-specific screening tool. We will discuss various screening tools available and the evidence for each one. Screening for eating disorders in all female athletes is an important part of the preparticipation examination and should be done using a tool specifically validated for the female athlete.

  7. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst

  8. EPA Releases EJSCREEN, An Environmental Justice Screening and Mapping Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released EJSCREEN, an environmental justice screening and mapping tool that uses high resolution maps combined with demographic and environmental data to identify places with potenti

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RAPID OPTICAL SCREEN TOOL (ROST™) - LORAL CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Loral Rapid Optical Screen Tool (ROST™) is a tunable dye laser system used for the detection of petroleum, semi-volatile, and some volatile organic compounds in soils. The technology is used in conjunction with a cone penetrometer (CP).

  10. Drinking Game Participation among Undergraduate Students Attending National Alcohol Screening Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer M.; Heidelberg, Natalie; Simmons, Lisa; Lyle, Sarah B.; Mitra-Varma, Kathakali; Correia, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives, Participants, Methods: Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated drinking game participation among 133 undergraduates attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) in April of 2007.…

  11. Alcohol Screening among Opioid Agonist Patients in a Primary Care Clinic and an Opioid Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    Klimas, Jan; Muench, John; Wiest, Katharina; Croff, Raina; Rieckman, Traci; McCarty, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Problem alcohol use is associated with adverse health and economic outcomes, especially among people in opioid agonist treatment. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) are effective in reducing alcohol use; however, issues involved in SBIRT implementation among opioid agonist patients are unknown. To assess identification and treatment of alcohol use disorders, we reviewed clinical records of opioid agonist patients screened for an alcohol use disorder in a primary care clinic (n = 208) and in an opioid treatment program (n = 204) over a two-year period. In the primary care clinic, 193 (93%) buprenorphine patients completed an annual alcohol screening and six (3%) had elevated AUDIT scores. In the opioid treatment program, an alcohol abuse or dependence diagnosis was recorded for 54 (27%) methadone patients. Practitioner focus groups were completed in the primary care (n = 4 physicians) and the opioid treatment program (n = 11 counselors) to assess experience with and attitudes towards screening opioid agonist patients for alcohol use disorders. Focus groups suggested that organizational, structural, provider, patient, and community variables hindered or fostered alcohol screening. Alcohol screening is feasible among opioid agonist patients. Effective implementation, however, requires physician training and systematic changes in workflow.

  12. Screen Recording: An Essential Classroom Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, April; Christianson, Jenn; Schafer, Raye; Whitney, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Technology has opened up avenues for deaf and hard of hearing students that were previously inaccessible. No longer dependent on such equipment as chalkboards and filmstrip projectors, tools such as Smart Boards, computers, and even iPads have become part of the standard educational experience for many children. For teachers at the Washington…

  13. Frontal assessment battery: A tool for screening minimal hepatic encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Karina Zamprogno; Zago-Gomes, Maria Penha

    2016-01-01

    AIM To apply the Frontal Assessment Battery to cirrhotic patients with or without overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) and controls. METHODS The frontal assessment battery (FAB) was applied to 87 patients with liver cirrhosis (16 with and 71 without OHE) and 40 control subjects without cirrhosis treated at the alcohol and liver outpatient clinics and the gastroenterology ward of the Cassiano Antônio de Moraes University Hospital (Hospital Universitário Cassiano Antônio de Moraes - HUCAM), Espírito Santo, Brazil. RESULTS The average FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic than for the non-cirrhotic patients (10.6 ± 3.67 vs 12.25 ± 2.72, P = 0.015). The FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic patients with OHE than for the patients without OHE (8.25 ± 4.55 vs 11.14 ± 3.25, P = 0.027). The total FAB score was lower for the cirrhotic patients without OHE than for the non-cirrhotic patients, although this difference was not significant (11.14 ± 3.25 vs 12.25 ± 2.72, P = 0.067). Nevertheless, the difference in the scores on the subtest that assessed the ability to inhibit a response previously conditioned to a stimulus was significant (1.72 ± 0.93 vs 2.2 ± 0.85, P = 0.011). CONCLUSION The present study indicates that the FAB is a promising tool for outpatient minimal HE screening and the assessment of HE severity. PMID:27843536

  14. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  15. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  16. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document.

  17. Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Using Telemedicine Tools: Pilot Study in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Eszes, Dóra J.; Szabó, Dóra J.; Russell, Greg; Kirby, Phil; Paulik, Edit; Nagymajtényi, László

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Telemedicine tools can prevent blindness. We aimed to investigate the patients' satisfaction when using such tools (fundus camera examination) and the effect of demographic and socioeconomic factors on participation in screening. Methods. Pilot study involving fundus camera screening and self-administered questionnaire on participants' experience during fundus examination (comfort, reliability, and future interest in participation), as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors was performed on 89 patients with known diabetes in Csongrád County, a southeastern region of Hungary. Results. Thirty percent of the patients had never participated in any ophthalmological screening, while 25.7% had DR of some grade based upon a standard fundus camera examination and UK-based DR grading protocol (Spectra™ software). Large majority of the patients were satisfied with the screening and found it reliable and acceptable to undertake examination under pupil dilation; 67.3% were willing to undergo nonmydriatic fundus camera examination again. There was a statistically significant relationship between economic activity, education and marital status, and future interest in participation. Discussion. Participants found digital retinal screening to be reliable and satisfactory. Telemedicine can be a strong tool, supporting eye care professionals and allowing for faster and more comfortable DR screening. PMID:28078306

  18. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  19. Neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: assessment of voluntary maternal participation in an open meconium screening program.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are validated biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure. Meconium FAEE testing can potentially be used as a screen by health-care professionals to identify neonates at-risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, thereby permitting diagnostic follow-up of these children and early intervention in those who develop disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether women would willingly partake in a screening program of this nature. This was determined by launching a pilot screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure in a high-risk obstetric unit previously shown to have a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium via anonymous meconium testing. The program involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-term developmental follow-up of positive cases through an existing public health program. The participation rate in the screening program was significantly lower than when testing was conducted anonymously (78% vs. 95%, respectively; p < 0.05), and the positivity rate was 3% in contrast to 30% observed under anonymous conditions (p < 0.001). These low rates suggest that the majority of mothers who consumed alcohol in pregnancy refused to participate. We conclude that despite the potential benefits of such screening programs, maternal unwillingness to consent, likely due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may limit the effectiveness of meconium testing for population-based open screening, highlighting the need for public education and social marketing efforts for such programs to be of benefit.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  1. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing
    Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber

    The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  2. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of an...

  3. Screening for alcohol problems: an epidemiological perspective and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Grucza, Richard A; Przybeck, Thomas R; Cloninger, C Robert

    2008-01-01

    In a random sample of 917 adults from the general population greater St. Louis, 19.6% of respondents screened positive for "probable alcohol abuse or dependence". Screening positive is indicative of unhealthy drinking patterns. The regular use of such instruments in primary care settings could facilitate patient-physician communication regarding alcohol problems, thereby improving detection and leading to greater utilization of appropriate medical treatment, including pharmacotherapy.

  4. Prairie Voles as a Model to Screen Medications for the Treatment of Alcoholism and Addictions.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, A E; Hostetler, C M

    2016-01-01

    Most preclinical studies of medications to treat addictions are performed in mice and rats. These two rodent species belong to one phylogenetic subfamily, which narrows the likelihood of identifying potential mechanisms regulating addictions in other species, ie, humans. Expanding the genetic diversity of organisms modeling alcohol and drug abuse enhances our ability to screen for medications to treat addiction. Recently, research laboratories adapted the prairie vole model to study mechanisms of alcohol and drugs of abuse. This development not only expanded the diversity of genotypes used to screen medications, but also enhanced capabilities of such screens. Prairie voles belong to 3-5% of mammalian species exhibiting social monogamy. This unusual trait is reflected in their ability to form lasting long-term affiliations between adult individuals. The prairie vole animal model has high predictive validity for mechanisms regulating human social behaviors. In addition, these animals exhibit high alcohol intake and preference. In laboratory settings, prairie voles are used to model social influences on drug reward and alcohol consumption as well as effects of addictive substances on social bonding. As a result, this species can be adapted to screen medications whose effectiveness could be (a) resistant to social influences promoting excessive drug taking, (b) dependent on the presence of social support, and (c) medications affecting harmful social consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. This report reviews the literature on studies of alcohol and psychostimulants in prairie voles and discusses capabilities of this animal model as a screen for novel medications to treat alcoholism and addictions.

  5. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  6. Integrating Mailed Personalized Feedback and Alcohol Screening Events: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Trisha A.; Ambrose, Carrie; Mulfinger, Amanda M. M.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    This study characterized a sample of college students attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD), and tested the feasibility of using NASD as a platform for initiating the delivery of mailed personalized feedback forms. Participants (N = 153, 65% female) attended NASD and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT [1]). A…

  7. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST) AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the USEPA's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, including a discussion of the models used and outputs. The tool is currently being expanded to include pollution prevention considerations as part of the model. The current st...

  8. Screening, diagnosing and prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome: is this syndrome treatable?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sahar; Buckley, Stephanie; Budacki, Ross; Jabbar, Ahmad; Gallicano, G Ian

    2010-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects on a developing fetus. As a whole, these teratogenic outcomes are generally known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, the most severe of which is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Clinically, children diagnosed with FAS vary greatly in their presentation of symptoms, likely due to the amount of alcohol and timing of exposure, as well as maternal and genetic influences. All these factors play a role in determining the mechanisms through which alcohol damages a developing brain, the details of which are still largely unknown. However, continuing research and recent developments have provided promising results that may lead to screening mechanisms and treatment therapies for children with FAS. Here we review the teratogenic effects of alcohol, strategies for detecting maternal alcohol consumption, identification of fetal biological markers, and prevention methods for FAS.

  9. Screening Tools for Anxiety in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Litster, Brittany; Fiest, Kirsten M.; Patten, Scott B.; Fisk, John D.; Walker, John R.; Graff, Lesley A.; Bolton, James M.; Sareen, Jitender; Marriott, James J.; Berrigan, Lindsay I.; Bernstein, Charles N.; Zarychanski, Ryan; Singer, Alexander; Hitchon, Carol A.; Peschken, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is prevalent in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Screening measures are used to identify symptoms of anxiety, but the optimal measure to screen for anxiety disorders in MS has not been established. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES Full Text, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from database inception until August 7, 2015. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full-text reports for study inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We included studies that evaluated the criterion validity of anxiety screening tools when measuring anxiety in individuals with well-documented MS, as measured by sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Results: Of the 3181 abstracts screened, 18 articles were reviewed in full text, of which 4 met the inclusion criteria. The criterion validity of three screening tools was assessed: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Anxiety (HADS-A), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). The HADS-A was validated against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) interview, and the BAI. The BAI was validated against the SCAN, and the GAD-7 was validated against the HADS-A. The HADS-A had higher measures of sensitivity and specificity than did the BAI and the GAD-7. Conclusions: Based on this small sample, the HADS-A shows promise as an applicable measure for people with MS. Screening scales used to identify anxiety in MS must be validated against appropriate reference standards. PMID:27999521

  10. Feasibility of emergency department bilingual computerized alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Federico; Winn, Diane; Anderson, Craig; Kim, Doug; Arcila, Mauricio

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing a computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI) kiosk in an emergency department (ED). An interactive English and Spanish audiographical computer program, developed for used on a mobile computer cart, was administered to 5103 patients. Patients who screened at risk (19%) also received a fully computer-guided brief negotiated interview (BNI) and a printed personal alcohol reduction plan. A higher percentage of younger patients, and males (31% versus 16% females), screened at risk or dependent. Patient surveys indicated CASI was easy to use and over 75% did not prefer a medical professional over the computer. The ED-based bilingual computerized alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment required little time to administer, was acceptable to patients, identified at-risk and dependent drinkers, and was able to provide personalized feedback and brief intervention.

  11. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as markers for alcohol in meconium: method validation and implementation of a screening program for prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Hastedt, Martin; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Gapert, René; Tsokos, Michael; Hartwig, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem and can cause severe fetal damage. As the diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome is difficult, the implementation of a reliable marker for alcohol consumption during pregnancy into meconium drug screening programs would be invaluable. A previously published gas chromatography mass spectrometry method for the detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as alcohol markers in meconium was optimized and newly validated for a sample size of 50 mg. This method was applied to 122 cases from a drug-using population. The meconium samples were also tested for common drugs of abuse. In 73 % of the cases, one or more drugs were found. Twenty percent of the samples tested positive for FAEEs at levels indicating significant alcohol exposure. Consequently, alcohol was found to be the third most frequently abused substance within the study group. This re-validated method provides an increase in testing sensitivity, is reliable and easily applicable as part of a drug screening program. It can be used as a non-invasive tool to detect high alcohol consumption in the last trimester of pregnancy. The introduction of FAEEs testing in meconium screening was found to be of particular use in a drug-using population.

  12. Use of a single alcohol screening question to identify other drug use

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter C; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background People who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol are more likely to use illicit drugs. We tested the ability of a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use to simultaneously detect drug use. Methods Adult English speaking patients (n=286) were enrolled from a primary care waiting room. They were asked the screening question for unhealthy alcohol use “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of one or more is considered positive. A standard diagnostic interview was used to determine current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence). Oral fluid testing was also used to detect recent use of common drugs of abuse. Results The single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was 67.6% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2%- 82.0%) and 64.7% specific (95% CI, 58.4%- 70.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was similarly insensitive for drug use detected by oral fluid testing and/or self-report. Conclusions Although a patient with a drug use disorder has twice the odds of screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use compared to one without a drug use disorder, suggesting patients who screen positive for alcohol should be asked about drug use, a single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was not sensitive or specific for the detection of other drug use or drug use disorders in a sample of primary care patients. PMID:24768061

  13. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David F.; DeWalt, Gary; Lin, King-teh N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of analysis called mold specific quantitative PCR was used to measure 36 molds in standard protocol dust samples. This resulted in a national index called the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index. In this current study, two possible screening methods were considered: use of the vacuum cleaner bag dust rather than the standard protocol dust samples and reducing the number of molds needed to be quantified resulting in the creation of a simpler mold burden scale. Results: Comparison of vacuum bag and standard dust samples from 157 of the same homes demonstrated that most molds had higher detection rates in vacuum bag dust compared to the standard dust samples but the ERMI values were still related to each other. The second approach to simplifying the screening for mold burdens produced a correlated (ρ=0.80) index to the ERMI called the American Relative Moldiness Index (ARMI) which requires the analysis of only 12 species. Conclusions: Vacuum bag dust sample ERMI values were predictive in placing a home into the lower or upper 50% of homes on the ERMI scale. If it is not possible to obtain the standard dust sample, the vacuum cleaner bag dust may be a useful screening tool for estimating mold burdens in homes. If the standard sample is available and a simpler screening test is sought to estimate the mold burden in homes, the ARMI scale might be useful.

  14. 49 CFR 40.243 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or non-evidential breath ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the procedure for an alcohol screening... Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.243 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using an EBT or...

  15. Screening and Assessment Tools: A Manual Discussing Appropriate Tools for Use in the Home Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Herschel W. Nisonger Center.

    The manual describes seven tools for use in screening and assessing the developmentally disabled infant and young child in the home. Instruments are said to have met four criteria (easy adaptation to the home setting, minimum training required to administer, speed of administration, and minimum equipment needed). Five categories of information are…

  16. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use.

  17. Circulating microRNA-based screening tool for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Frères, Pierre; Wenric, Stéphane; Boukerroucha, Meriem; Fasquelle, Corinne; Thiry, Jérôme; Bovy, Nicolas; Struman, Ingrid; Geurts, Pierre; Collignon, Joëlle; Schroeder, Hélène; Kridelka, Frédéric; Lifrange, Eric; Jossa, Véronique; Bours, Vincent; Josse, Claire; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-02-02

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as powerful biomarkers in several pathologies, including breast cancer. Here, their plasmatic levels were measured to be used as an alternative screening procedure to mammography for breast cancer diagnosis.A plasma miRNA profile was determined by RT-qPCR in a cohort of 378 women. A diagnostic model was designed based on the expression of 8 miRNAs measured first in a profiling cohort composed of 41 primary breast cancers and 45 controls, and further validated in diverse cohorts composed of 108 primary breast cancers, 88 controls, 35 breast cancers in remission, 31 metastatic breast cancers and 30 gynecologic tumors.A receiver operating characteristic curve derived from the 8-miRNA random forest based diagnostic tool exhibited an area under the curve of 0.81. The accuracy of the diagnostic tool remained unchanged considering age and tumor stage. The miRNA signature correctly identified patients with metastatic breast cancer. The use of the classification model on cohorts of patients with breast cancers in remission and with gynecologic cancers yielded prediction distributions similar to that of the control group.Using a multivariate supervised learning method and a set of 8 circulating miRNAs, we designed an accurate, minimally invasive screening tool for breast cancer.

  18. Screening wild yeast strains for alcohol fermentation from various fruits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa; Kim, Jung-Wan

    2011-03-01

    Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five α-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the α-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except α-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts.

  19. Screening Wild Yeast Strains for Alcohol Fermentation from Various Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon-Ju; Choi, Yu-Ri; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jong-Tae; Shim, Jae-Hoon; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Wild yeasts on the surface of various fruits including grapes were surveyed to obtain yeast strains suitable for fermenting a novel wine with higher alcohol content and supplemented with rice starch. We considered selected characteristics, such as tolerance to alcohol and osmotic pressure, capability of utilizing maltose, and starch hydrolysis. Among 637 putative yeast isolates, 115 strains exhibiting better growth in yeast-peptone-dextrose broth containing 30% dextrose, 7% alcohol, or 2% maltose were selected, as well as five α-amylase producers. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA gene classified the strains into 13 species belonging to five genera; Pichia anomala was the most prevalent (41.7%), followed by Wickerhamomyces anomalus (19.2%), P. guilliermondii (15%), Candida spp. (5.8%), Kodamaea ohmeri (2.5%), and Metschnikowia spp. (2.5%). All of the α-amylase producers were Aureobasidium pullulans. Only one isolate (NK28) was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. NK28 had all of the desired properties for the purpose of this study, except α-amylase production, and fermented alcohol better than commercial wine yeasts. PMID:22783070

  20. Novel Objective Biomarkers of Alcohol Use: Potential Diagnostic and Treatment Management Tools in Dual Diagnosis Care

    PubMed Central

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Chambers, R.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are highly prevalent conditions that generate a large fraction of the total public health burden. These disorders are concentrated in mentally ill populations, in which reliability of self-reporting of alcohol consumption may be especially compromised. The application of objective biomarkers for alcohol use may therefore play an important role in these patients. This article provides a description and comparative overview of traditional versus novel biomarkers of alcohol consumption. Greater professional familiarity with and use of novel biomarkers as diagnostic and treatment management tools may enhance clinical standards and research on alcohol use in patients with a dual diagnosis. PMID:20582236

  1. Screening and Evaluation Tools for Sleep Disorders in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Choi, JiYeon; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Imes, Christopher C.; Johansson, Ann E. E.; Chasens, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects of impaired sleep on physical and mental well-being in older adults have recently been recognized by health care professionals. However, researchers and clinicians may be unaware of reliable and valid screening and evaluation tools for evaluating sleep disorders in older adults. The purpose of this article is to present subjective and objective instruments that measure sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome that are appropriate for use in adult and older adult patients. PMID:26608435

  2. IRon Overload screeNing tool (IRON): development of a tool to guide screening in primary care.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Diaz, Vanessa A; Everett, Charles J; Knoll, Michele E; Hulihan, Mary M; Grant, Althea M; McLaren, Christine E; McLaren, Gordon D

    2011-09-01

    Iron overload is associated with significant morbidity and mortality yet is easily treated. The objective of this study was to create a tool that could be easily adapted to clinical practice that indicates the likelihood of a patient having undetected iron overload. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002 for US adults aged 20 years and older to build a model (unweighted n=8,779). We chose potential variables for inclusion that could be gathered by self-report or measured without laboratory data and were suggested by past literature on hemochromatosis and iron overload. We computed logistic regressions to create the scores by initially evaluating the variables' relationship with elevated ferritin and elevated transferrin saturation and then using odds ratios to correspond to scores. The resulting score on the IRon Overload ScreeNing Tool (IRON) was then validated with data on 13,844 adults in the NHANES III, 1988-94. Predictors in the final tool were age, gender, previous diagnoses of liver condition, osteoporosis or thyroid disease. The IRON score yielded an area under the curve (AUC) in the NHANES 1999-02 of 0.720 and an AUC of 0.685 in the NHANES III validation sample. The IRON score is a tool to assist in identification of patients with iron overload that has several qualities that make it attractive for use in clinical practice with an undifferentiated patient population including brevity, easily collected information and predictive ability comparable to other tools that help in directing screening.

  3. The Bristol Online Obesity Screening Tool: experience of using a screening tool for assessing obese children in primary care.

    PubMed

    Owen, Sarah E; Sharp, Deborah J; Shield, Julian P H

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity is rising in the United Kingdom and this has far-reaching and serious consequences both for the physical and psychological well-being of the child, as well as significant financial implications for the health service. General practitioners (GPs) play a central role in identifying and assessing such children and directing them to the best services. While most cases of obesity are simply due to an imbalance in calorie intake and expenditure, children do need to be formally assessed to ensure that red flags are not missed, which might signify an important underlying aetiology, co-morbidity or complication. To date, there have not been tools available to guide a GP through this assessment. In this paper, we present and explain the thinking behind a tool, which was developed for use by GPs from Bristolas part of a trial to assess the transferability of a childhood obesity clinic into primary care. We look at the evidence base behind the guidelines and then assess the appropriateness and safety of the 152 referrals made using this tool. We believe that this screening tool would enable over 85% of obese children to seek their initial weight management in primary care. Additional evaluation is needed in different regions to ensure effectiveness, sensitivity and specificity of this new tool.

  4. Alcohol, Sex, and Screens: Modeling Media Influence on Adolescent Alcohol and Sex Co-Occurrence.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Ellithorpe, Morgan E; Hennessy, Michael; Khurana, Atika; Jamieson, Patrick; Weitz, Ilana

    2017-02-26

    Alcohol use and sexual behavior are important risk behaviors in adolescent development, and combining the two is common. The reasoned action approach (RAA) is used to predict adolescents' intention to combine alcohol use and sexual behavior based on exposure to alcohol and sex combinations in popular entertainment media. We conducted a content analysis of mainstream (n = 29) and Black-oriented movies (n = 34) from 2014 and 2013-2014, respectively, and 56 television shows (2014-2015 season). Content analysis ratings featuring character portrayals of both alcohol and sex within the same five-minute segment were used to create exposure measures that were linked to online survey data collected from 1,990 adolescents ages 14 to 17 years old (50.3% Black, 49.7% White; 48.1% female). Structural equation modeling (SEM) and group analysis by race were used to test whether attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioral control mediated the effects of media exposure on intention to combine alcohol and sex. Results suggest that for both White and Black adolescents, exposure to media portrayals of alcohol and sex combinations is positively associated with adolescents' attitudes and norms. These relationships were stronger among White adolescents. Intention was predicted by attitude, norms, and control, but only the attitude-intention relationship was different by race group (stronger for Whites).

  5. Adapting Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Drugs to Culturally Diverse Clinical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Jennifer K.; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice; Moreno-John, Gina; Ramos, Jacqueline S.; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Satterfield, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to alcohol and drug use with racial and ethnic subgroups in the United States and to develop recommendations for culturally competent SBIRT practice. METHODS Articles reporting on the use of SBIRT components (Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment) for alcohol and drug use were identified through a comprehensive literature search of PubMed from 1995–2015. RESULTS A synthesis of the published literature on racial and ethnic considerations regarding SBIRT components (including motivational interviewing techniques) was created using evidence-based findings. Recommendations on culturally competent use of SBIRT with specific ethnic groups also are described. CONCLUSIONS Based on the literature reviewed, SBIRT offers a useful set of tools to help reduce risky or problematic substance use. Special attention to validated screeners, appropriate use of language/literacy, trust building, and incorporation of patient and community health care preferences may enhance SBIRT acceptability and effectiveness. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS Providers should consider the implications of previous research when adapting SBIRT for diverse populations, and use validated screening and brief intervention methods. The accompanying case illustration provides additional information relevant to clinical practice. PMID:26428359

  6. Screening services for alcohol misuse and abuse at four-year colleges in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Erickson, Darin J; Winters, Ken C; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L

    2012-10-01

    We examine the prevalence of screening for student alcohol misuse/abuse among 333 U.S. colleges via a survey of campus leaders. We also use latent class modeling to identify classes of colleges based on screening practices. We found that most colleges conduct screening after a student is involved in an alcohol-related incident, and about 50% of colleges screen students at regular health care visits. Legal, health care, and housing staff are trained in screening at nearly all colleges; other key personnel were trained at about one third of colleges. We identified four classes of colleges: 62% of colleges fit in a class that had many screening components in place, 9% in a class with very limited services, and the remainder (29%) fit in 2 middle classes. Although most colleges had many alcohol misuse/abuse screening components in place, more than one third show need for improvement in how, where, and when screening is conducted.

  7. "Thinking about Drinking": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Alcohol Using the Draw and Write Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Siobhan; Porcellato, Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore perceptions of alcohol held by schoolchildren using the "Draw and Write" tool, to inform the planning of alcohol education in the classroom setting. Design/methodology/approach: A specifically designed "Draw and Write" booklet was used with 169 children aged nine to ten years…

  8. Accuracy of quick and easy undernutrition screening tools--Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, and modified Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool--in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    van Venrooij, Lenny M W; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Hopmans, Wendy; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M M J; de Vos, Rien; De Mol, Bas A J M

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quick-and-easy undernutrition screening tools, ie, Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with respect to their accuracy in detecting undernutrition measured by a low-fat free mass index (FFMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), and secondly, to assess their association with postoperative adverse outcomes. Between February 2008 and December 2009, a single-center observational cohort study was performed (n=325). A low FFMI was set at ≤14.6 in women and ≤16.7 in men measured using bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. To compare the accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire in detecting low FFMI sensitivity, specificity, and other accuracy test characteristics were calculated. The associations between the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and adverse outcomes were analyzed using logistic regression analyses with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) presented. Sensitivity and receiver operator characteristic-based area under the curve to detect low FFMI were 59% and 19%, and 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60 to 0.82) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.68) for the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, respectively. Accuracy of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool improved when age and sex were added to the nutritional screening process (sensitivity 74%, area under the curve: 0.72 [95% CI: 0.62 to 0.82]). This modified version of the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool, but not the original Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool or Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire, was associated with prolonged intensive care unit and hospital stay (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4; odds ratio: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0 to 2.7). The accuracy to detect a low FFMI was considerably higher for the Malnutrition

  9. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS): a new hospital screening tool for malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Roller, Regina E; Eglseer, Doris; Eisenberger, Anna; Wirnsberger, Gerhard H

    2016-02-28

    Despite the significant impact of malnutrition in hospitalised patients, it is often not identified by clinical staff in daily practice. To improve nutritional support in hospitals, standardised routine nutritional screening is essential. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS) tool was developed for the purpose of malnutrition risk screening in a large hospital setting involving different departments. It was the aim of the present study to validate the GMS against Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-sf) in a randomised blinded manner. A total of 404 randomly selected patients admitted to the internal, surgical and orthopaedic wards of the University Hospital Graz were screened in a blinded manner by different raters. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing the GMS with the NRS and in older patients (70+ years) with the MNA-sf additionally. According to GMS, 31·9 or 28·5% of the admitted patients were categorised as at 'risk of malnutrition' (depending on the rater). According to the reference standard of NRS, 24·5% of the patients suffered from malnutrition. Pearson's r values of 0·78 compared with the NRS and 0·84 compared with the MNA showed strong positive correlations. Results of accuracy (0·85), sensitivity (0·94), specificity (0·77), positive predictive value (0·76) and negative predictive value (0·95) of GMS were also very high. Cohen's κ for internal consistency of the GMS was 0·82. GMS proves to be a valid and reliable instrument for the detection of malnutrition in adult patients in acute-care hospitals.

  10. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  11. Electroantennographic Bioassay as a Screening Tool for Host Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Beck, John J.; Light, Douglas M.; Gee, Wai S.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant.1,2 When a host plant is an important agronomic commodity feeding damage by insect pests can inflict serious economic losses to growers. Accordingly, kairomones can be used as attractants to lure or confuse these insects and, thus, offer an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides for insect control.3 Unfortunately, plants can emit a vast number volatiles with varying compositions and ratios of emissions dependent upon the phenology of the commodity or the time of day. This makes identification of biologically active components or blends of volatile components an arduous process. To help identify the bioactive components of host plant volatile emissions we employ the laboratory-based screening bioassay electroantennography (EAG). EAG is an effective tool to evaluate and record electrophysiologically the olfactory responses of an insect via their antennal receptors. The EAG screening process can help reduce the number of volatiles tested to identify promising bioactive components. However, EAG bioassays only provide information about activation of receptors. It does not provide information about the type of insect behavior the compound elicits; which could be as an attractant, repellent or other type of behavioral response. Volatiles eliciting a significant response by EAG, relative to an appropriate positive control, are typically taken on to further testing of behavioral responses of the insect pest. The experimental design presented will detail the methodology employed to screen almond-based host plant volatiles4,5 by measurement of the electrophysiological antennal responses of an adult insect pest navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) to single components and simple blends of components via EAG bioassay. The method utilizes two excised antennae placed across a "fork" electrode holder. The

  12. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  13. Ground-water-withdrawal component of the Michigan water-withdrawal screening tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  14. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vanoh, Divya; Shahar, Suzana; Rosdinom, Razali; Din, Normah Che; Yahya, Hanis Mastura; Omar, Azahadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS). Methodology A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI) assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic purpose. PMID:27274208

  15. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  16. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5 min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial

  17. Application of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) instrument: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Andrécia Cósmen da; Lucchese, Roselma; Vargas, Lorena Silva; Benício, Patrícia Rosa; Vera, Ivânia

    2016-03-01

    Objective To systematize the knowledge and the learning of how the instrument Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) has been applied. Method Integrative review, performed from May to July 2014, searching the databases Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), PubMed and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), as well as in the search system of the Portal of Journals of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES). We selected 26 articles. Results ASSIST focused on helping the identification and classification of psychoactive substances use, and it has proved to be important in screening the involvement with alcohol and other drugs, and effectiveness in primary health care. Conclusion It was confirmed as an instrument to be used in Health Care.

  18. [Screening and brief intervention for alcoholic patients treated at emergency rooms: prospects and challenges].

    PubMed

    Segatto, Maria Luiza; Pinsky, Ilana; Laranjeira, Ronaldo; Rezende, Fabiana Faria; dos Reis Vilela, Thaís

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to present the general principles, concepts, and main elements of brief intervention, with a literature review on its use for alcoholic patients treated at emergency rooms. It also presents the applicability of screening as a first step to the brief intervention process and the use of validated standard instruments that allow useful information for consistent feedback. Finally, it highlights the challenges associated with screening in emergency rooms due to insufficient time, inadequate professional training, fear of annoying the patient, and common beliefs that alcoholics do not respond to such interventions. Meanwhile, it emphasizes the relevancy of brief emergency intervention, which is both feasible and efficient, and the need for research to define the relevant adjustments by professionals and the health care system.

  19. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention as Standard Practice: Working with the American Indian/Native Alaskan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074

  20. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  1. Introduction to the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists are working partners to design and test the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST), a community mapping, information access, and assessment tool to help assess risk and assist in decision making with communities

  2. The Diagnostic Accuracy of Screening Tools to Detect Eating Disorders in Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alyssa J; Erickson, Casey D; Tierney, Dayna K; Houston, Megan N; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2016-12-01

    Clinical Scenario: Eating disorders in female athletes are a commonly underdiagnosed condition. Better screening tools for eating disorders in athletic females could help increase diagnosis and help athletes get the treatment they need. Focused Clinical Question: Should screening tools be used to detect eating disorders in female athletes? Summary of Key Findings: The literature was searched for studies that included information regarding the sensitivity and specificity of screening tools for eating disorders in female athletes. The search returned 5 possible articles related to the clinical question; 3 studies met the inclusion criteria (2 cross-sectional studies, 1 cohort study) and were included. All 3 studies reported sensitivity and specificity for the Athletic Milieu Direct Questionnaire version 2, the Brief Eating Disorder in Athletes Questionnaire version 2, and the Physiologic Screening Test to Detect Eating Disorders Among Female Athletes. All 3 studies found that the respective screening tool was able to accurately identify female athletes with eating disorders; however, the screening tools varied in sensitivity and specificity values. Clinical Bottom Line: There is strong evidence to support the use of screening tools to detect eating disorders in female athletes. Screening tools with higher sensitivity and specificity have demonstrated a successful outcome of determining athletes with eating disorders or at risk for developing an eating disorder. Strength of Recommendation: There is grade A evidence available to demonstrate that screening tools accurately detect female athletes at risk for eating disorders.

  3. Feasibility and Acceptability of an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview Version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Primary Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Suzanne E.; Shedlin, Michele; Gilberti, Brian; Fiellin, Maya; McNeely, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of a computer self-administered approach to substance use screening from the perspective of primary care patients. Methods Forty-eight patients from a large safety net hospital in New York City completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) version of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and a qualitative interview to assess feasibility and acceptability; comprehension; comfort with screening questions; and preferences for screening mode (interviewer or computer). Qualitative data analysis organized the participants’ feedback into major themes. Results Participants overwhelmingly reported being comfortable with the ACASI ASSIST. Mean administration time was 5.2 minutes (range 1.6 – 14.8). The major themes from the qualitative interviews were 1) ACASI ASSIST is feasible and acceptable to patients, 2) Social stigma around substance use is a barrier to patient disclosure, and 3) ACASI screening should not preclude personal interaction with providers. Conclusions The ACASI ASSIST is an appropriate and feasible approach to substance use screening in primary care. Because of the highly sensitive nature of substance use, screening tools must explain the purpose of screening, assure patients that their privacy is protected, and inform patients of the opportunity to discuss their screening results with their provider. PMID:26158798

  4. Reliability and validity of the functional analysis screening tool.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Brian A; Deleon, Iser G; Roscoe, Eileen M

    2013-01-01

    The Functional Analysis Screening Tool (FAST) is a 16-item questionnaire about antecedent and consequent events that might be correlated with the occurrence of problem behavior. Items are organized into 4 functional categories based on contingencies that maintain problem behavior. We assessed interrater reliability of the FAST with 196 problem behaviors through independent administration to pairs of raters (Study 1). Mean item-by-item agreement between pairs of raters was 71.5%. Agreement for individual items ranged from 53.3% to 84.5%. Agreement on FAST outcomes, based on comparison of informants' highest totals, was 64.8%. We assessed the validity of the FAST by comparing its outcomes with results of 69 functional analyses (Study 2). The FAST score predicted the condition of the functional analysis in which the highest rate of problem behavior occurred in 44 cases (63.8%). Potential uses of the FAST in the context of a clinical interview, as well as limitations, are discussed.

  5. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in a College Student Health Center: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Schaus, James F.; Sole, Mary Lou; McCoy, Thomas P.; Mullett, Natalie; O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the effectiveness of brief primary care provider interventions delivered in a college student health center to a sample of college students who screened positive for high-risk drinking. Method: Between November 2005 and August 2006, 8,753 students who presented as new patients to the health service at a large public university were screened for high-risk drinking, and 2,484 students (28%) screened positive on the 5/4 gender-specific high-risk drinking question (i.e., five or more drinks per occasion for men and four or more for women). Students who screened positive for high-risk drinking and consented to participate (N = 363; 52% female) were randomly assigned either to a control group (n = 182) or to an experimental group (n = 181). Participants in the experimental group received two brief intervention sessions that were founded in motivational interviewing techniques and delivered by four specially trained providers within the student health center. Data on alcohol use and related harms were obtained from a Web-based Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire, 30-day Timeline Followback alcohol-use diaries, the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI), and eight items from the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-2L. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed that, compared with the control group (C), the intervention group (I) had significant reductions in typical estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (C = .071 vs I = .057 at 3 months; C = .073 vs I = .057 at 6 months), peak BAC (C = .142 vs I = .112 at 3 months; C = .145 vs I = .108 at 6 months), peak number of drinks per sitting (C = 8.03 vs I = 6.87 at 3 months; C = 7.98 vs I = 6.52 at 6 months), average number of drinks per week (C = 9.47 vs I = 7.33 at 3 months; C = 8.90 vs I = 6.16 at 6 months), number of drunk episodes in a typical week (C = 1.24 vs I = 0.85 at 3 months; C = 1.10 vs I = 0.71 at 6 months), number of times taken foolish risks (C = 2.24 vs I = 1.12 at 3 months), and RAPI

  6. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes.

  7. Brief Screening and Intervention for Alcohol and Drug Use in a College Student Health Clinic: Feasibility, Implementation, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Reed, Elizabeth; Rowe, Erin; Picci, Jennifer; Mantella, Philomena; Prado, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the Brief Alcohol Screen and Intervention in College Students (BASICS) in a university primary care setting. Participants/Methods: Undergraduates (N = 449) participated in BASICS and electronic surveys assessing frequency/quantity of alcohol and drug use, psychosocial and mental health outcomes, and demographic…

  8. Effectiveness of the Brief Alcohol and Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Program with a Mandated Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFulvio, Gloria T.; Linowski, Sally A.; Mazziotti, Janet S.; Puleo, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants: Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of…

  9. Brief Report: Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT): Development and Preliminary Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Coonrod, Elaine E.; Ousley, Opal Y.

    2000-01-01

    A study examined the validity of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) as a stage 2 screening instrument in a clinic-based sample of two-year-olds with autism (n=12) and with nonautistic developmental disorders (n=21). Results provide preliminary support for the utility of the STAT as an early screening of autism. (Contains…

  10. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST)

    PubMed Central

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sarıkaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire including the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (twice), 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Scale reliability was examined by test-retest. The 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria was used for comparison to determine criterion validity. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated according to 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find the confounding effect of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool to distinguish patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Results] The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool was similar to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria in defining patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool score was correlated with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria subscores. Each point increase in Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool global score meant 10 times greater odds of experiencing fibromyalgia syndrome. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool is reliable for identifying patients with fibromyalgia. PMID:28265170

  11. Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool (FiRST).

    PubMed

    Celiker, Reyhan; Altan, Lale; Rezvani, Aylin; Aktas, Ilknur; Tastekin, Nurettin; Dursun, Erbil; Dursun, Nigar; Sarıkaya, Selda; Ozdolap, Senay; Akgun, Kenan; Zateri, Coskun; Birtane, Murat

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] An easy-to-use, psychometrically validated screening tool for fibromyalgia is needed. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool by correlating it with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 269 Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation clinic outpatients. Patients completed a questionnaire including the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (twice), 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Scale reliability was examined by test-retest. The 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria was used for comparison to determine criterion validity. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated according to 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to find the confounding effect of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale on Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool to distinguish patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. [Results] The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool was similar to the 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria in defining patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool score was correlated with 2013 American College of Rheumatology alternative diagnostic criteria subscores. Each point increase in Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool global score meant 10 times greater odds of experiencing fibromyalgia syndrome. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool is reliable for identifying patients with fibromyalgia.

  12. Computer-Delivered Screening and Brief Intervention for Alcohol Use in Pregnancy: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ondersma, Steven J.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Svikis, Dace S.; Strickler, Ronald C.; Tzilos, Golfo K.; Chang, Grace; Divine, W.; Taylor, Andrew R.; Sokol, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use has demonstrated efficacy in some trials, its implementation has been limited. Technology-delivered approaches are a promising alternative, particularly during pregnancy when the importance of alcohol use is amplified. The present trial evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of an interactive, empathic, video-enhanced, and computer-delivered SBI (e-SBI) plus three separate tailored mailings, and estimated intervention effects. Methods We recruited 48 pregnant women who screened positive for alcohol risk at an urban prenatal care clinic. Participants were randomly assigned to the e-SBI plus mailings or to a control session on infant nutrition, and were reevaluated during their postpartum hospitalization. The primary outcome was 90-day period-prevalence abstinence as measured by timeline follow-back interview. Results Participants rated the intervention as easy to use and helpful (4.7-5.0 on a 5-point scale). Blinded follow-up evaluation at childbirth revealed medium-size intervention effects on 90-day period prevalence abstinence (OR = 3.4); similarly, intervention effects on a combined healthy pregnancy outcome variable (live birth, normal birthweight, and no NICU stay) were also of moderate magnitude in favor of e-SBI participants (OR=3.3). As expected in this intentionally under-powered pilot trial, these effects were non-significant (p = .19 and .09, respectively). Conclusions This pilot trial demonstrated the acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) plus tailored mailings for alcohol use in pregnancy. These findings mirror the promising results of other trials using a similar approach, and should be confirmed in a fully-powered trial. PMID:26010235

  13. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-01-01

    What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  14. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-09-01

    What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus.

  15. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome: the state of the art and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Memo, Luigi; Gnoato, Elisa; Caminiti, Stefania; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem which is increasing in the generation of young women. Gestational alcohol consumption causes fetal exposure to this teratogen and is associated with the onset of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FASD and FAS can lead to several physical, cognitive and behavioral disabilities, whose early diagnosis is of primary importance to perform primary prevention with total abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy and secondary prevention in newborns and children for a proper follow up to reduce risk of secondary consequences. In recent years significant efforts have been made to understand the underlying mechanisms of this disease and to identify objective biological and instrumental diagnostic tools, such as exposure biomarkers in neonatal meconium and advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, further studies are still needed to implement our knowledge on fetal effects of ethanol, and multidisciplinary actions are necessary to raise awareness among women of childbearing age about the danger of consuming even small amounts of ethanol during pregnancy.

  16. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels.

  17. Validated Screening Tools for Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Grace; De Silva, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of screening tools are available to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but few have been specifically developed for populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Cross-cultural application of a screening tool requires that its validity be assessed against a gold standard diagnostic interview. Validation studies of brief CMD screening tools have been conducted in several LMIC, but until now there has been no review of screening tools for all CMDs across all LMIC populations. Methods A systematic review with broad inclusion criteria was conducted, producing a comprehensive summary of brief CMD screening tools validated for use in LMIC populations. For each validation, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated as an easily comparable measure of screening tool validity. Average DOR results weighted by sample size were calculated for each screening tool, enabling us to make broad recommendations about best performing screening tools. Results 153 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Because many studies validated two or more screening tools, this corresponded to 273 separate validations against gold standard diagnostic criteria. We found that the validity of every screening tool tested in multiple settings and populations varied between studies, highlighting the importance of local validation. Many of the best performing tools were purposely developed for a specific population; however, as these tools have only been validated in one study, it is not possible to draw broader conclusions about their applicability in other contexts. Conclusions Of the tools that have been validated in multiple settings, the authors broadly recommend using the SRQ-20 to screen for general CMDs, the GHQ-12 for CMDs in populations with physical illness, the HADS-D for depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 for depressive disorders in populations with good literacy levels, the EPDS for perinatal depressive disorders, and the HADS-A for anxiety disorders

  18. Faculty buy-in to teach alcohol and drug use screening.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2014-09-01

    Educating nursing faculty about the use of an evidence-based practice to screen and intervene earlier along the continuum of alcohol and other drug use, misuse, and dependence is essential in today's health care arena. Misuse of alcohol and other drugs is a significant problem for both individual health and societal economic welfare. The purpose of this article is to describe nursing faculty buy-in for the implementation of an evidence-based addiction training program at a university-based school of nursing. Derived from an academic-community partnership, the training program results suggest implications for continuing education and curriculum innovation in schools of nursing and clinical practice. The training content presented can be used in continuing education for nursing faculty across all types of nursing school programs and professional nursing staff employed in multiple settings. The training program was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration.

  19. Intracellular calcium levels as screening tool for nanoparticle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Kueznik, Tatjana; Bösch, Martina; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    disruption, apoptosis, lysosome function, intracellular [Ca2+] levels and generation of oxidative stress. Small polystyrene particles and silica particles caused membrane damage and apoptosis with no preference of the surface charge. Increases in intracellular [Ca2+] levels could be used as a screening tool for cytotoxicity. PMID:25976553

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. PMID:24932865

  3. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910. PMID:23106916

  4. Missed Opportunities: Screening and Brief Intervention for Risky Alcohol Use in Women's Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Cockrell, Stephanie; Russo, Jennifer; Corder-Mabe, Joan; Yowell-Many, Alycia; Chisholm, Christian; Ingersoll, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Although women's health settings could provide access to women for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for risky alcohol use, little is known about rates of alcohol use or associated risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) among women's health patients, receipt of SBIRT services in these settings, or patient attitudes towards SBIRT services. Methods: This study reports the results of a self-administered survey to a convenience sample of women's health patients attending public clinics for family planning or sexually transmitted infection visits. Results: Surveys were analyzed for 199 reproductive-aged women who had visited the clinic within the past year. The rate of risky drinking among the sample was (44%) and risk for AEP was (17%). Despite this, many patients did not receive SBIRT services, with more than half of risky drinking patients reporting that they were not advised about safe drinking limits (59%) and similar rates of patients at risk for AEP reporting that their medical provider did not discuss risk factors of AEP (53%). Patient attitudes towards receipt of SBIRT services were favorable; more than 90% of women agreed or strongly agreed that if their drinking was affecting their health, their women's health provider should advise them to cut down. Conclusions: Women's health clinics may be an ideal setting to implement SBIRT and future research should address treatment efficacy in these settings. PMID:26230758

  5. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Workplace Settings and Social Services: A Comparison of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bernd; O’Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions takes place in this context. Methods: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service, and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in non-medical settings. Results: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest that a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required. Discussion: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions, and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance, and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organizational frameworks, and professionals. PMID:25339914

  6. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  7. The development and validation of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS): a 13-item screening instrument for alcohol and drug and mental health risk.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Carla M; Ober, Coralie; McCarthy, Molly M; Watson, Joanne D; Seinen, Anita

    2007-03-01

    The study aimed to assess the psychometric properties of the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS) as a screening instrument for determining (i) the presence of alcohol and drug and mental health risk in Indigenous adult Australians and (ii) the cut-off scores that discriminate most effectively between the presence and absence of risk. A cross-sectional survey was used in clinical and non-clinical Indigenous and non-Indigenous services across Queensland Australia. A total of 175 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people from urban, rural, regional and remote locations in Queensland took part in the study. Measures included the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), the Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Leeds Dependence Questionnaire (LDQ). Additional Mental Health measures included the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Principle axis factoring analysis of the IRIS revealed two factors corresponding with (i) alcohol and drug and (ii) mental health. The IRIS alcohol and drug and mental health subscales demonstrated good convergent validity with other well-established screening instruments and both subscales showed high internal consistency. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to generate cut-offs for the two subscales and t-tests validated the utility of these cut-offs for determining risky levels of drinking. The study validated statistically the utility of the IRIS as a screen for alcohol and drug and mental health risk. The instrument is therefore recommended as a brief screening instrument for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

  8. Virtual screening methods as tools for drug lead discovery from large chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Ma, X H; Zhu, F; Liu, X; Shi, Z; Zhang, J X; Yang, S Y; Wei, Y Q; Chen, Y Z

    2012-01-01

    Virtual screening methods have been developed and explored as useful tools for searching drug lead compounds from chemical libraries, including large libraries that have become publically available. In this review, we discussed the new developments in exploring virtual screening methods for enhanced performance in searching large chemical libraries, their applications in screening libraries of ~ 1 million or more compounds in the last five years, the difficulties in their applications, and the strategies for further improving these methods.

  9. A Review of Cultural Adaptations of Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural…

  10. Alcohol, genetics and risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Catherine A; Reding, Douglas J; Commins, John; Williams, Craig; Yeager, Meredith; Burmester, James K; Schairer, Catherine; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Subjects were women aged 55-74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers, and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3, and CYP2E1. The study included 1,041 incident breast cancer cases and 1,070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR > 1.34 and all lower CI > 1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction.

  11. Alcohol, Genetics and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Catherine A.; Reding, Douglas J.; Commins, John; Williams, Craig; Yeager, Meredith; Burmester, James K.; Schairer, Catherine; Ziegler, Regina G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Methods Subjects were women aged 55–74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and CYP2E1. Results The study included 1041 incident breast cancer cases and 1070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake, (OR=2.01, 95% CL=1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR>1.34 and all lower CL >1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Conclusion Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Impact This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:22331481

  12. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Abhilasha; Miller, Kimberly; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20–25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection “e-Health” tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention. PMID:23304515

  13. e-Health Tools for Targeting and Improving Melanoma Screening: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Abhilasha; Miller, Kimberly; Cockburn, Myles

    2012-01-01

    The key to improved prognosis for melanoma is early detection and diagnosis, achieved by skin surveillance and secondary prevention (screening). However, adherence to screening guidelines is low, with population-based estimates of approximately 26% for physician-based skin cancer screening and 20-25% for skin self-examination. The recent proliferation of melanoma detection "e-Health" tools, digital resources that facilitate screening in patients often outside of the clinical setting, may offer new strategies to promote adherence and expand the proportion and range of individuals performing skin self-examination. The purpose of this paper is to catalog and categorize melanoma screening e-Health tools to aid in the determination of their efficacy and potential for adoption. The availability and accessibility of such tools, their costs, target audience, and, where possible, information on their efficacy, will be discussed with potential benefits and limitations considered. While e-Health tools targeting melanoma screening are widely available, little has been done to formally evaluate their efficacy and ability to aid in overcoming screening barriers. Future research needs to formally evaluate the potential role of e-Health tools in melanoma prevention.

  14. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    PubMed

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  15. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms and a new strategy for prevention and screening for cancer in the upper aerodigestive tract in East Asians.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Omori, Tai; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    The ethanol in alcoholic beverages and the acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption are Group 1 human carcinogens (WHO, International Agency for Research on Cancer). The combination of alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, the inactive heterozygous aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype (ALDH2*1/*2) and the less-active homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genotype (ADH1B*1/*1) increases the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) in a multiplicative fashion in East Asians. In addition to being exposed to locally high levels of ethanol, the UADT is exposed to a very high concentration of acetaldehyde from a variety of sources, including that as an ingredient of alcoholic beverages per se and that found in tobacco smoke; acetaldehyde is also produced by salivary microorganisms and mucosal enzymes and is present as blood acetaldehyde. The inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde by weakly expressed ALDH2 in the UADT may be cri! tical to the local accumulation of acetaldehyde, especially in ALDH2*1/*2 carriers. ADH1B*1/*1 carriers tend to experience less intense alcohol flushing and are highly susceptible to heavy drinking and alcoholism. Heavy drinking by persons with the less-active ADH1B*1/*1 leads to longer exposure of the UADT to salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde. The ALDH2*1/*2 genotype is a very strong predictor of synchronous and metachronous multiple SCCs in the UADT. High red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV), esophageal dysplasia, and melanosis in the UADT, all of which are frequently found in ALDH2*1/*2 drinkers, are useful for identifying high-risk individuals. We invented a simple flushing questionnaire that enables prediction of the ALDH2 phenotype. New health appraisal models that include ALDH2 genotype, the simple flushing questionnaire, or MCV are powerful tools for devising a new strategy for prevention and screening for UADT cancer in East Asians.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  17. Developing the Thai Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool and validating the Thai Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena; Wattanamongkolsil, Luksame; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Petcharat, Chonachan; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Katchamart, Wanruchada

    2016-10-01

    To validate the Thai language version of the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients Questionnaire (EARP), as well as also to develop a new tool for screening psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among psoriasis (Ps) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Ps patients visiting the psoriasis clinic at Siriraj Hospital were recruited. They completed the EARP and PEST. Full musculoskeletal history, examination, and radiography were evaluated. PsA was diagnosed by a rheumatologist's evaluation and fulfillment of the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performances of the tools. The Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool (SiPAT) contained questions most relevant to peripheral arthritis, axial inflammation, and enthesitis, selected from multivariate analysis. Of a total of 159 patients, the prevalence of PsA was 78.6 %. The ROC curve analyses of Thai EARP, PEST, and SiPAT were 0.90 (95 % CI 0.84, 0.96), 0.85 (0.78, 0.92), and 0.89 (0.83, 0.95), respectively. The sensitivities of SiPAT, Thai EARP, and PEST were 91.0, 83.0, and 72.0 %, respectively, while the specificities were 69.0, 79.3, and 89.7 %, respectively. All screening questionnaires showed good diagnostic performances. SiPAT could be considered as a screening tool with its desirable properties: higher sensitivity and taking less time. Thai PEST and EARP could possibly be sequentially administered for people with a positive test from SiPAT to reduce the number of false positives.

  18. Similarity based virtual screening: a tool for targeted library design.

    PubMed

    Alvesalo, Joni K O; Siiskonen, Antti; Vainio, Mikko J; Tammela, Päivi S M; Vuorela, Pia M

    2006-04-06

    High throughput screening drug discovery utilizes large and expensive compound libraries. As an alternative, a smaller targeted library can be constructed with the aid of the 3D structure of the target molecule. We used the X-ray crystal structure of a protein homologous to the selected target in creation of a small focused library and evaluated inhibition potential of this library against Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common pathogen recently linked to atherosclerosis and risk of myocardial infarction.

  19. mHealth Tool for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Latinos in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Abujarad, Fuad; Vaca, Federico E.

    2015-01-01

    Latino drinkers experience a disparate number of negative health and social consequences. Emergency Department Alcohol Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (ED-SBIRT) is viable and effective at reducing harmful and hazardous drinking. However, barriers (e.g. readily available language translators, provider time burden, resources) to broad implementation remain and account for a major lag in adherence to national guidelines. We describe our approach to the design of a patient-centered bilingual Web-based mobile health ED-SBIRT App that could be integrated into a clinically complex ED environment and used regularly to provide ED-SBIRT for Spanish speaking patients. PMID:26844234

  20. Screening potential intakes of colour additives used in non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David R

    2008-06-01

    The Union of European Beverages Associations (UNESDA) has undertaken a screening exercise to determine whether any of the colours used in non-alcoholic beverages has the potential for high consumers to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The organisation undertook a survey of its membership to identify current use levels in non-alcoholic beverages. Information about the consumption of beverages and other foods that can contain the colours was derived from UK survey data because UK consumers were shown to represent some of the highest in the EU. A methodology was developed which added the intake of high level consumers of beverages to average intakes from all other uses to estimate total high level intake. A hierarchical approach used maximum approved use levels (where available) at the first tier and, if intakes exceed the ADI or maximum use levels were not available, UNESDA usage survey data at the second tier. Of the 33 colours approved for use in beverages nine were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 1. A further 22 colours were eliminated from further consideration at Tier 2. Two colours (E101 riboflavins and E110 sunset yellow) required further evaluation but under practical use conditions neither of these colours had the potential to exceed its ADI. Some colours used in beverages are permitted quantum satis in other foods and so permitted use levels were not available. Further information is required about these uses to determine whether total intakes from all foods have the potential to exceed ADIs.

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  2. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  3. Assessing nutrition in the critically ill elderly patient: A comparison of two screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Swagata; Mishra, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Few malnutrition screening tests are validated in the elderly Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patient. Aim: Having previously established malnutrition as a cause of higher mortality in this population, we compared two screening tools in elderly patients. Subjects and Methods: For this prospective study, 111 consecutive patients admitted to the ICU and > 65 years underwent the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), and the Geriatric Nutrition Risk Index (GNRI) screening tests. Statistical Analysis: Standard definition of malnutrition risk was taken as the gold standard to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the tools. The k statistic was calculated to measure the agreement between the tools. The Shrout classification was used to interpret its values. Results: The mean age of the patients screened was 74.7 ± 8.4 (65–97 years). The standard definition, MUST and GNRI identified 52.2%, 65.4%, and 64.9% to be malnourished, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were 96.5% computed tomography (CI) (87.9–99.5%) and 72.3% CI (57.5–84.5%) for MUST and 89.5% CI (75.2–96.7%) and 55.0% CI (75.2–96.9%) for GNRI, respectively. Screening was not possible by GNRI and MUST tool in 31% versus 4% of patients, respectively. The agreement between the tools was moderate for Standard-MUST k = 0.65 and MUST-GNRI k = 0.60 and fair for Standard-GNRI k = 0.43. Conclusions: The risk of malnutrition is high among our patients as identified by all the tools. Both GNRI and MUST showed a high sensitivity with MUST showing a higher specificity and greater applicability. PMID:26430337

  4. Streptomyces: a screening tool for bacterial cell division inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jani, Charul; Tocheva, Elitza I; McAuley, Scott; Craney, Arryn; Jensen, Grant J; Nodwell, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Cell division is essential for spore formation but not for viability in the filamentous streptomycetes bacteria. Failure to complete cell division instead blocks spore formation, a phenotype that can be visualized by the absence of gray (in Streptomyces coelicolor) and green (in Streptomyces venezuelae) spore-associated pigmentation. Despite the lack of essentiality, the streptomycetes divisome is similar to that of other prokaryotes. Therefore, the chemical inhibitors of sporulation in model streptomycetes may interfere with the cell division in rod-shaped bacteria as well. To test this, we investigated 196 compounds that inhibit sporulation in S. coelicolor. We show that 19 of these compounds cause filamentous growth in Bacillus subtilis, consistent with impaired cell division. One of the compounds is a DNA-damaging agent and inhibits cell division by activating the SOS response. The remaining 18 act independently of known stress responses and may therefore act on the divisome or on divisome positioning and stability. Three of the compounds (Fil-1, Fil-2, and Fil-3) confer distinct cell division defects on B. subtilis. They also block B. subtilis sporulation, which is mechanistically unrelated to the sporulation pathway of streptomycetes but is also dependent on the divisome. We discuss ways in which these differing phenotypes can be used in screens for cell division inhibitors.

  5. Comparison of shape-matching and docking as virtual screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Paul C D; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Nicholls, Anthony

    2007-01-11

    Ligand docking is a widely used approach in virtual screening. In recent years a large number of publications have appeared in which docking tools are compared and evaluated for their effectiveness in virtual screening against a wide variety of protein targets. These studies have shown that the effectiveness of docking in virtual screening is highly variable due to a large number of possible confounding factors. Another class of method that has shown promise in virtual screening is the shape-based, ligand-centric approach. Several direct comparisons of docking with the shape-based tool ROCS have been conducted using data sets from some of these recent docking publications. The results show that a shape-based, ligand-centric approach is more consistent than, and often superior to, the protein-centric approach taken by docking.

  6. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups.

  7. Italian normative data for a stroke specific cognitive screening tool: the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS).

    PubMed

    Mancuso, M; Varalta, V; Sardella, L; Capitani, D; Zoccolotti, P; Antonucci, G

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive deficits occur in most stroke patients and cognitive impairment is an important predictor of adverse long term outcome. However, current screening measures, such as the Mini Mental State Examination or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, do not provide information tuned for evaluating the impact of cognitive impairment in the early phase after stroke. The Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS) represents an important new development in this regard. The OCS is now available for assessment of Italian individuals and the aim of this study is to standardize the OCS on a large sample of healthy Italian participants stratified for age, gender and education level. Results confirmed the influence of these factors in several of the OCS tasks. Age-, education- and gender-adjusted norms are provided for the ten sub-tests of the test. The availability of normative data represents an important prerequite for the reliable use of OCS with stroke patients.

  8. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  9. A participatory approach to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools.

  10. A Participatory Approach to Develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool and the Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, Deepan C.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rory A.

    2014-01-01

    The electric powered wheelchair (EPW) is an indispensable assistive device that increases participation among individuals with disabilities. However, due to lack of standardized assessment tools, developing evidence based training protocols for EPW users to improve driving skills has been a challenge. In this study, we adopt the principles of participatory research and employ qualitative methods to develop the Power Mobility Screening Tool (PMST) and Power Mobility Clinical Driving Assessment (PMCDA). Qualitative data from professional experts and expert EPW users who participated in a focus group and a discussion forum were used to establish content validity of the PMCDA and the PMST. These tools collectively could assess a user's current level of bodily function and their current EPW driving capacity. Further multicenter studies are necessary to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tests and develop EPW driving training protocols based on these assessment tools. PMID:25276796

  11. Public health tools for holding self-regulators accountable: lessons from the alcohol experience.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H

    2011-05-01

    Self-regulation is a common strategy used by industries to avoid or supplement statutory health and safety regulation of their products and practices. The public health experience with self-regulation in the alcohol industry provides methods and lessons relevant to health educators and advocates working in other public health fields. Methods for and examples and limitations of monitoring content and placement of marketing messages are described. The alcohol experience shows that, although self-regulation has many drawbacks in terms of protecting the health of the public, there are tools available for valid monitoring of self-regulated activities that, when combined with aggressive dissemination of results to media and policy makers, can make self-regulation more accountable and build an evidence base for effective measures to be taken.

  12. Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST): a report from the GRAPPA 2009 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Philip S

    2011-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis attending general practitioner and dermatology clinics may complain about their joints, but it may be difficult for the nonrheumatologist to distinguish psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from other forms of arthritis. A screening tool for PsA would therefore be useful to both general practitioners and dermatologists and help identify patients for further evaluation by a rheumatologist. Although several screening tools have been developed, the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) has the advantage of simplicity and ease of use. This new instrument consists of 5 simple questions supported by the addition of a manikin for patient markup. During development, the questionnaire has shown a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.78. Further validation of this and the other questionnaires is now required. A "head to head" study of the PEST, ToPAS (Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening questionnaire), and PASE (Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation) tools is planned in a secondary-care population with psoriasis. This study is important not only to confirm the comparative performance of the instruments, but also to confirm the high figures for sensitivity in a secondary-care population.

  13. VSViewer3D: a tool for interactive data mining of three-dimensional virtual screening data.

    PubMed

    Diller, Kyle I; Diller, David J

    2014-12-22

    The VSviewer3D is a simple Java tool for visual exploration of three-dimensional (3D) virtual screening data. The VSviewer3D brings together the ability to explore numerical data, such as calculated properties and virtual screening scores, structure depiction, interactive topological and 3D similarity searching, and 3D visualization. By doing so the user is better able to quickly identify outliers, assess tractability of large numbers of compounds, visualize hits of interest, annotate hits, and mix and match interesting scaffolds. We demonstrate the utility of the VSviewer3D by describing a use case in a docking based virtual screen.

  14. Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…

  15. Chemical microarray: a new tool for drug screening and discovery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haiching; Horiuchi, Kurumi Y

    2006-07-01

    HTS with microtiter plates has been the major tool used in the pharmaceutical industry to explore chemical diversity space and to identify active compounds and pharmacophores for specific biological targets. However, HTS faces a daunting challenge regarding the fast-growing numbers of drug targets arising from genomic and proteomic research, and large chemical libraries generated from high-throughput synthesis. There is an urgent need to find new ways to profile the activity of large numbers of chemicals against hundreds of biological targets in a fast, low-cost fashion. Chemical microarray can rise to this challenge because it has the capability of identifying and evaluating small molecules as potential therapeutic reagents. During the past few years, chemical microarray technology, with different surface chemistries and activation strategies, has generated many successes in the evaluation of chemical-protein interactions, enzyme activity inhibition, target identification, signal pathway elucidation and cell-based functional analysis. The success of chemical microarray technology will provide unprecedented possibilities and capabilities for parallel functional analysis of tremendous amounts of chemical compounds.

  16. Evaluation of Malnutrition Risk after Liver Transplantation Using the Nutritional Screening Tools.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively. Initially 33 patients enrolled as study subjects and finally 28 patients completed the study. Nutrients intake such as energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin C, and folate were insufficient at 12 months after transplantation. The rates of malnutrition before transplantation were very high, reported at 81.8% for the NRS 2002, 87.9% for the MUST, and 84.8% for the SGA. By 12 months after operation, malnutrition rates reported at NRS, MUST and SGA had decreased to 6.1%, 10.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. Sensitivity was 87.1% for the NRS 2002, 82.0% for the MUST, and 92.0% for the SGA. Of these screening tools the SGA was the highest sensitive tool that predict the risk of mortality in malnutrition patients who received transplantation. Further studies on nutritional status of patients and proper tools for nutrition intervention are needed to provide adequate nutritional care for patients.

  17. Evaluation of Malnutrition Risk after Liver Transplantation Using the Nutritional Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Kim, Hyung-Chul; Park, Yoon-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status by using nutritional screening tools [Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) 2002, Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA)] in patients before and after liver transplantation. We analyzed medical record, blood test, nutrient intake and malnutrition rate just before transplantation and at discharge, and at 3, 6, 12 months after transplantation respectively. Initially 33 patients enrolled as study subjects and finally 28 patients completed the study. Nutrients intake such as energy, fiber, calcium, potassium, vitamin C, and folate were insufficient at 12 months after transplantation. The rates of malnutrition before transplantation were very high, reported at 81.8% for the NRS 2002, 87.9% for the MUST, and 84.8% for the SGA. By 12 months after operation, malnutrition rates reported at NRS, MUST and SGA had decreased to 6.1%, 10.7%, and 10.7%, respectively. Sensitivity was 87.1% for the NRS 2002, 82.0% for the MUST, and 92.0% for the SGA. Of these screening tools the SGA was the highest sensitive tool that predict the risk of mortality in malnutrition patients who received transplantation. Further studies on nutritional status of patients and proper tools for nutrition intervention are needed to provide adequate nutritional care for patients. PMID:26566519

  18. Development of the Japanese version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool-Short.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Haruna, Megumi; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2017-03-01

    This study develops a Japanese version of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool, comprising two simple questions, to examine its accuracy and validity. A cohort study involving women in the third trimester of pregnancy and one month after childbirth was conducted in an antenatal clinic in a Tokyo suburb. The Japanese versions of the Index of Spouse Abuse and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to examine the cut-off point, accuracy, and validity of the Woman Abuse Screening Tool. Results showed that the tool demonstrated good accuracy (sensitivity 66.7-71.4%, specificity 89.7%), using an alternative cut-off point (i.e. responses of "some tension" or "some difficulty" [2 points] for one item and "a lot of tension" or "great difficulty" [1 point] for the other), and good concurrent, convergent, and predictive validity. The results indicated that the Woman Abuse Screening Tool could be useful in Japanese perinatal health settings, as an initial screening tool to detect intimate partner violence efficiently and effectively during pregnancy.

  19. Development of high alcohol tolerant organisms. I. Strain selection and screening. Annual report, 31 July 1981-1 August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, P.D.

    1982-12-01

    The principal objective of this study is the selection and development of an alcohol tolerant microorganism strain which will allow less water to be removed from the fermented beer, thus allowing the more energy efficient production of fuel alcohol. The program resulted in the selection of an outstanding strain of Zymomonas (B-10) for further evaluation in pilot scale fermentations and development by both mutagenesis and continuous selection. One culture strain of yeast and a number of mutant and variant strains of yeast await further evaluation for possible use as high alcohol tolerant strains in the production of power alcohol. Most important of all, the results of this investigation suggest a genetic basis, not a biochemical one, for strain differences in alcohol tolerance. It is our belief that a rational program of mass mutagenesis and screening will afford superior strains just as in the development of antibiotic yields. The automation and standardization of these mutagenic and selective regimes will allow larger samples to be screened and detect tolerance differences with greater sensitivity. Elimination of carbon diversion and increasing ethanol production rates and yields appear to be possible from the preliminary work conducted. Where several natural lines yield more tolerant strains by these procedures, genetic crossing, possibly using in vitro genetic chemical methods to circumvent natural barrier mechanisms, such as polyploidy, could result in derivatives with even greater tolerance.

  20. An EEG-based machine learning method to screen alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Wajid; Vuong, Pham Lam; Xia, Likun; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Rashid, Rusdi Bin Abd

    2017-04-01

    Screening alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients has been challenging due to the subjectivity involved in the process. Hence, robust and objective methods are needed to automate the screening of AUD patients. In this paper, a machine learning method is proposed that utilized resting-state electroencephalography (EEG)-derived features as input data to classify the AUD patients and healthy controls and to perform automatic screening of AUD patients. In this context, the EEG data were recorded during 5 min of eyes closed and 5 min of eyes open conditions. For this purpose, 30 AUD patients and 15 aged-matched healthy controls were recruited. After preprocessing the EEG data, EEG features such as inter-hemispheric coherences and spectral power for EEG delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands were computed involving 19 scalp locations. The selection of most discriminant features was performed with a rank-based feature selection method assigning a weight value to each feature according to a criterion, i.e., receiver operating characteristics curve. For example, a feature with large weight was considered more relevant to the target labels than a feature with less weight. Therefore, a reduced set of most discriminant features was identified and further be utilized during classification of AUD patients and healthy controls. As results, the inter-hemispheric coherences between the brain regions were found significantly different between the study groups and provided high classification efficiency (Accuracy = 80.8, sensitivity = 82.5, and specificity = 80, F-Measure = 0.78). In addition, the power computed in different EEG bands were found significant and provided an overall classification efficiency as (Accuracy = 86.6, sensitivity = 95, specificity = 82.5, and F-Measure = 0.88). Further, the integration of these EEG feature resulted into even higher results (Accuracy = 89.3 %, sensitivity = 88.5 %, specificity = 91 %, and F-Measure = 0.90). Based

  1. Validation of Synthetic CRISPR Reagents as a Tool for Arrayed Functional Genomic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jenille; Martin, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    To date, lentiviral-based CRISPR-Cas9 screens have largely been conducted in pooled format. However, numerous assays are not amenable to pooled approaches, and lentiviral screening in arrayed format presents many challenges. We sought to examine synthetic CRISPR reagents in the context of arrayed screening. Experiments were performed using aberrant DNA replication as an assay. Using synthetic CRISPR RNAs targeting the known control gene GMNN in HCT-116 cells stably expressing Cas9, we observed statistically significant phenotype among the majority of transfected cells within 72 hours. Additional studies revealed near complete loss of GMNN protein and editing of GMNN DNA. We next conducted a screen of synthetic CRISPR RNAs directed against 640 ubiquitin-related genes. Screening identified known and novel DNA replication regulators that were also supported by siRNA gene knockdown. Notably, CRISPR screening identified more statistically significant hits than corresponding siRNA screens run in parallel. These results highlight the possibility of using synthetic CRISPR reagents as an arrayed screening tool. PMID:28030641

  2. Association between Alcohol Screening Scores and Mortality in Black, Hispanic, and White Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Emily C.; Bradley, Katharine A.; Gupta, Shalini; Harris, Alex H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background AUDIT-C alcohol screening scores are associated with mortality, but whether or how associations vary across race/ethnicity is unknown. Methods Self-reported black (n=13,068), Hispanic (n=9,466), and white (n=182,688) male VA outpatients completed the AUDIT-C via mailed survey. Logistic regression models evaluated whether race/ethnicity modified the association between AUDIT-C scores (0, 1–4, 5–8, and 9–12) and mortality after 24 months, adjusting for demographics, smoking, and comorbidity. Results Adjusted mortality rates were 0.036, 0.033, and 0.054, for black, Hispanic, and white patients with AUDIT-C scores of 1–4, respectively. Race/ethnicity modified the association between AUDIT-C scores and mortality (p=0.0022). Hispanic and white patients with scores of 0, 5–8, and 9–12 had significantly increased risk of death compared to those with scores of 1–4; Hispanic ORs: 1.93, 95% CI 1.50–2.49; 1.57, 1.07–2.30; 1.82, 1.04–3.17, respectively; white ORs: 1.34, 95% CI 1.29–1.40; 1.12, 1.03–1.21; 1.81, 1.59–2.07, respectively. Black patients with scores of 0 and 5–8 had increased risk relative to scores of 1–4 (ORs 1.28, 1.06–1.56 and 1.50, 1.13–1.99), but there was no significant increased risk for scores of 9–12 (ORs 1.27, 0.77–2.09). Post-hoc exploratory analyses suggested an interaction between smoking and AUDIT-C scores might account for some of the observed differences across race/ethnicity. Conclusions Among male VA outpatients, associations between alcohol screening scores and mortality varied significantly depending on race/ethnicity. Findings could be integrated into systems with automated risk calculators to provide demographically-tailored feedback regarding medical consequences of drinking. PMID:22676340

  3. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  4. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  5. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  6. Comparing Two CBM Maze Selection Tools: Considering Scoring and Interpretive Metrics for Universal Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Jeremy W.; Missall, Kristen N.; Hosp, John L.; Kuhle, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in maze selection curriculum-based measurement have led to several published tools with technical information for interpretation (e.g., norms, benchmarks, cut-scores, classification accuracy) that have increased their usefulness for universal screening. A range of scoring practices have emerged for evaluating student performance on maze…

  7. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  8. Specificity and Sensitivity Ratios of the Pediatric Language Acquisition Screening Tool for Early Referral-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Tracy; Shulman, Brian B.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined test characteristics of the Pediatric Language Acquisition Screening Tool for Early Referral-Revised (PLASTER-R), a set of developmental questionnaires for children 3 to 60 months of age. The PLASTER-R was moderately to highly successful in identifying children within normal limits for language development. Test-retest…

  9. Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Davis, John L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Fogarty, Melissa Shea

    2014-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior…

  10. Capacity-to-Consent in Psychiatric Research: Development and Preliminary Testing of a Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayas, Luis H.; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Perez, M. Carmela

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Assuring research participants' capacity to provide informed consent has become increasingly important in health and mental health research, and each study faces unique capacity-assessment challenges, possibly requiring its own screening tool. This article describes the development and preliminary testing of a capacity-to-consent tool…

  11. A tailored curriculum of alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for nurses in inpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Broyles, Lauren M; Kraemer, Kevin L; Kengor, Caroline; Gordon, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    A package of clinical strategies known as alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is increasingly recommended for reducing unhealthy alcohol use, the spectrum of alcohol consumption from at-risk drinking (defined as consumption above recommended guidelines) to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. The United States' Joint Commission issued new SBIRT-related hospital accreditation measures for alcohol. Ongoing initiatives aim to promote, support, and sustain SBIRT implementation in hospital settings. In hospital settings, nurse-delivered SBIRT may be a particularly viable and efficient model for SBIRT implementation. However, like physicians, most nurses have not been trained in how to perform SBIRT, and few authors have described alcohol-related curricula specifically for nurses. In addition, historical differences in nurse and physician professional scopes of practice, role perceptions, and patterns of care delivery suggest the need for effective SBIRT initial and continuing education and training that are tailored to the nursing profession and inpatient environments. In this article, we provide an in-depth description of the registered nurse SBIRT curriculum and describe its development and contents as well as various nurse- and setting-specific adaptations. In addition, we describe how we engaged nursing stakeholders in the development and implementation of the curriculum and discuss potential implications for future SBIRT training and delivery by nurses. SBIRT continuing education and training for nurses represents one of the first steps in expanded SBIRT implementation. Comprehensive workforce and organizational development of inpatient and nurse-delivered SBIRT may provide the means to address the entire spectrum of unhealthy alcohol use across healthcare settings.

  12. A feasibility study of short message service text messaging as a surveillance tool for alcohol consumption and vehicle for interventions in university students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Practitioners who come into contact with the intoxicated, such as those in unscheduled care, often have limited resources to provide structured interventions. There is therefore a need for cost-effective alcohol interventions requiring minimal input. This study assesses the barriers, acceptability and validity of text messaging to collect daily alcohol consumption data and explores the feasibility of a text-delivered intervention in an exploratory randomised controlled trial. Methods Study I. Participants (n = 82) completed the initial online screening survey and those eligible were asked each day, for 157 days via text message, to reply with the number of alcohol units consumed the previous day. Analyses compared standard measures of hazardous consumption with self-report alcohol use. Attrition and sampling biases were examined. Study I included secondary exploratory analyses using data from 70 participants to determine associations between events (including Christmas and other celebratory occasions) and consumption. Study I further included the thematic analysis of semi-structured interview data and assessed the feasibility of and barriers to surveillance and interventions delivered through text messaging. Developing findings from Study I, Study II developed an exploratory randomised control trial that delivered a single message on monthly alcohol expenditure in order to assess effect size and test generalisability. Results Self-report alcohol consumption data was significantly associated with FAST and AUDIT scores. Attrition from the study was not associated with greater alcohol use. Greater alcohol use was observed on Fridays, Saturdays and Wednesdays as were notable celebratory events. Interview data indicated that text messaging was acceptable to participants and preferred over email and web-based methods. The exploratory randomised controlled trial suggested that a simple text delivered intervention might be effective in eliciting a reduction in

  13. The m/r SEBT: development of a functional screening tool for dance educators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Batson, Glenna

    2014-12-01

    Dance screenings provide direct and indirect data bearing on a dancer's readiness to undertake rigorous physical training. Rarely, however, are dance teachers able to translate results from these screenings into practical technical knowledge. In this article, an example of a preseason assessment tool is presented that translates scientific findings into useful information for dance teachers conducting auditions. Designed as a baseline assessment of the dancer during auditioning, the m/r SEBT tool helps teachers stratify technical levels, identify injury risk, and consequently assist with immediate and appropriate recommendations for supplemental training and//or follow-up with a medical professional. The tool evolved out of more than 3 years of collaborative, multisite research utilizing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as a dynamic test of balance. Modifications were made to render the test more dance-specific and to increase balance challenges. Within the 3-year period, more than 100 dancers were tested in four sites, two in the United States and two in the United Kingdom. Despite the relatively large collective sample size, neither the original SEBT nor its modifications (m/r SEBT) held robust face or content validity as balance screens. What did emerge, however, were qualitative criteria that the authors organized into a feasible assessment tool for preseason auditions. While this tool awaits further validation, its current evolution helps serve as a bridge between dance teachers' clinical and practical knowledge.

  14. Alcohol screening and brief intervention in primary care: Absence of evidence for efficacy in people with dependence or very heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    SAITZ, RICHARD

    2010-01-01

    Issues Although screening and brief intervention (BI) in the primary-care setting reduces unhealthy alcohol use, its efficacy among patients with dependence has not been established. This systematic review sought to determine whether evidence exists for BI efficacy among patients with alcohol dependence identified by screening in primary-care settings. Approach We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) extracted from eight systematic reviews and electronic-database searches published through September 2009. These RCTs compared outcomes among adults with unhealthy alcohol use identified by screening who received BI in a primary-care setting with those who received no intervention. Key Findings Sixteen RCTs including 6839 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 excluded some or all persons with very heavy alcohol use or dependence; one in which 35% of 175 patients had dependence found no difference in an alcohol severity score between groups; and one in which 58% of 24 female patients had dependence showed no efficacy. Conclusion and Implications Alcohol screening and BI has efficacy in primary care for patients with unhealthy alcohol use but, there is no evidence for efficacy among those with very heavy use or dependence. Since alcohol screening identifies both dependent and non-dependent unhealthy use, the absence of evidence for the efficacy of BI among primary-care patients with screening-identified alcohol dependence raises questions regarding the efficiency of screening and BI, particularly in settings where dependence is common. The finding also highlights the need to develop new approaches to help such patients, particularly if screening and BI are to be disseminated widely. PMID:20973848

  15. Alcohol Use at the Time of Traumatic Brain Injury: Screening and Brief Intervention in a Community Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Madeline M.; Renier, Colleen M.; Vogel, Linda E.; Conway, Pat G.; McCarty, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of screening and brief interventions (SBI) has been proposed to reduce future alcohol misuse and injury in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. As a result a SBI protocol for TBI patients was introduced with nursing training at a community hospital. In the 2 years following the implementation of a SBI protocol and nursing training, the number of patients with positive alcohol results decreased. The number of brief interventions increased to 83 (40.1%, 95% confidence limit [CL] = 33.4, 46.8), and CAGE questionnaire screenings decreased to 88 (42.5%, 95% CL = 35.8, 49.2), with 31 (35.2%) having positive results. These results highlight the need to assess processes and training in the emergency department to ensure that SBIs occur. PMID:28272186

  16. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression.

  17. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    PubMed

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening.

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' predicts mortality and length of hospital stay in acutely ill elderly.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Rebecca J; King, Claire L; Stroud, Mike A; Jackson, Alan A; Elia, Marinos

    2006-02-01

    Malnutrition and its impact on clinical outcome may be underestimated in hospitalised elderly as many screening procedures require measurements of weight and height that cannot often be undertaken in sick elderly patients. The 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST') has been developed to screen all adults, even if weight and/or height cannot be measured, enabling more complete information on malnutrition prevalence and its impact on clinical outcome to be obtained. In the present study, 150 consecutively admitted elderly patients (age 85 (sd 5.5) years) were recruited prospectively, screened with 'MUST' and clinical outcome recorded. Although only 56 % of patients could be weighed, all (n 150) could be screened with 'MUST'; 58 % were at malnutrition risk and these individuals had greater mortality (in-hospital and post-discharge, P<0.01) and longer hospital stays (P=0.02) than those at low risk. Both 'MUST' categorisation and component scores (BMI, weight loss, acute disease) were significantly related to mortality (P<0.03). Those patients with no measured or recalled weight ('MUST' subjective criteria used) had a greater risk of malnutrition (P=0.01) and a poorer clinical outcome (P<0.002) than those who could be weighed and, within both groups, clinical outcome was worse in those at risk of malnutrition. The present study suggests that 'MUST' predicts clinical outcome in hospitalised elderly, in whom malnutrition is common (58 %). In those who cannot be weighed, a higher prevalence of malnutrition and associated poorer clinical outcome supports the importance of routine screening with a tool, like 'MUST', that can be used to screen all patients.

  1. A self-assessment tool for screening young adults at risk of type 2 diabetes using Strong Heart Family Study data

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fengxia; Cha, EunSeok; Lee, Elisa T.; Mayberry, Robert M.; Wang, Wenyu; Umpierrez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to characterize risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes in young adults ages 18–29 in order to develop a non-invasive risk assessment tool for use with younger American populations. Methods The self-assessment tool was developed using the Strong Heart Family Study data. A total of 590 young American Indian adults aged 18–29 (males=242) with normoglycemia and not receiving diabetes treatment were included. Risk factors recommended by the American Diabetes Association were used to assess diabetes risk in these young adults. A logistic regression model was developed to calculate the predicted probability. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to evaluate the model. Results The final model showed that parental history of diabetes, obesity level, alcohol consumption, and high fasting glucose even within normal range were significantly associated with onset of prediabetes or diabetes in 5 years. The AUROC value was 0.68 with original and validated data, indicating the risk assessment tool had reasonably good discrimination ability. Conclusions This new non-invasive screening tool, based on data from American Indian young adults, has potential to screen young adults’ early-onset diabetes risk. Future studies are warranted to test this risk assessment tool in other racial/ethnic young adults. PMID:27480523

  2. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  3. Alcohol-tolerant mutants of cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 obtained by single-cell mutant screening system.

    PubMed

    Arai, Sayuri; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Kanamoto, Yuki; Shimizu, Kazunori; Hirokawa, Yasutaka; Hanai, Taizo; Murakami, Akio; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2017-04-12

    Enhancement of alcohol tolerance in microorganisms is an important strategy for improving bioalcohol productivity. Although cyanobacteria can be used as a promising biocatalyst to produce various alcohols directly from CO2 , low productivity and low tolerance against alcohols are the main issues to be resolved. Nevertheless, to date, a mutant with increasing alcohol tolerance has rarely been reported.n this study, we attempted to select isopropanol (IPA)-tolerant mutants of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 using UV-C-induced random mutagenesis, followed by enrichment of the tolerant candidates in medium containing 10 g/L IPA and screening of the cells with a high growth rate in the single cell culture system in liquid medium containing 10 g/L IPA. We successfully acquired the most tolerant strain, SY1043, which maintains the ability to grow in medium containing 30 g/L IPA. The photosynthetic oxygen-evolving activities of SY1043 were almost same in cells after 72-h incubation under light with or without 10 g/L IPA, while the activity of the wild-type was remarkably decreased after the incubation with IPA. SY1043 also showed higher tolerance to ethanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, and 1-pentanol than the wild type. These results suggest that SY1043 would be a promising candidate to improve alcohol production using cyanobacteria. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Study protocol for screening and diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among young people sentenced to detention in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Marriott, Rhonda; Pestell, Carmela; Zubrick, Stephen R; Rainsford, Candice; Walker, Noni; Fitzpatrick, James P; Freeman, Jacinta; Kippin, Natalie; Safe, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause lifelong disability, including physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Among individuals with FASD, engagement with justice services is common. Little is known about the prevalence of FASD among young people engaged with the Australian justice system. This study aims to establish FASD prevalence among sentenced young people in detention in Western Australia (WA), and use the findings to develop a screening tool for use among young people entering detention. Translation of these results will guide the management and support of young people in detention and will have significant implications on the lives of young people with FASD and the future of Australian youth justice services. Methods and analysis Any sentenced young person in WA aged 10–17 years 11 months is eligible to participate. Young people are assessed for FASD by a multidisciplinary team. Standardised assessment tools refined for the Australian context are used, acknowledging the language and social complexities involved. Australian diagnostic guidelines for FASD will be applied. Information is obtained from young people, responsible adults, teachers and custodial officers. Individualised results and management plans for each young person are communicated to the young person and responsible adult. Prevalence of FASD will be reported and multivariate methods used to identify variables most predictive of FASD and to optimise the predictive value of screening. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been granted by the WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee, University of WA Human Research Ethics Committee, Department of Corrective Services, and Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Anonymised findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, presentations and the media. Extensive consultation with stakeholders (including government agencies, detention centre staff

  5. Health on the Web: Randomised Controlled Trial of Online Screening and Brief Alcohol Intervention Delivered in a Workplace Setting

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Freemantle, Nick; Linke, Stuart; Hunter, Rachael; Murray, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion) annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. Methods and Findings This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees). 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39%) scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse) and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659), or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671). Participants were mostly male (75%), with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%). Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066) of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome) (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI −4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30)), AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm) and health utility (EQ-5D). Conclusions There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this organisation

  6. Screening, testing, and reporting for drug and alcohol use on labor and delivery: a survey of Maryland birthing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Catherine; Lanham, Amy; Welsh, Christopher; Ramanadhan, Shaalini; Terplan, Mishka

    2014-01-01

    Recent amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act tie the receipt of federal block grants to mandatory reporting of substance-exposed newborns. To determine rates of screening, testing, and reporting of drug and alcohol use at the time of delivery, we administered a telephone survey of nursing managers and perinatal social workers at Maryland birthing hospitals. Of the 34 hospitals, 31 responded (response rate 91%). Although 97% of hospitals reported universal screening, only 6% used a validated instrument. Testing was reported by 94% with 45% reporting universal maternal testing and 7% universal newborn testing. Only 32% reported obtaining maternal consent prior to testing. There is significant heterogeneity in screening and testing for substance use in birthing hospitals. Given federal reporting mandates, state-level practices need to be standardized.

  7. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  8. Transfected cell lines as tools for high throughput screening: a call for standards.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, L; Praestegaard, M

    2001-06-01

    During 1999, Journal of Biomolecular Screening presented a series of Point-Counterpoint articles that addressed a question posed by editor Bill Janzen: "What is the future of HTS?" These articles discussed many of the global issues involved in HTS, such as target identification and library size, as well as the scientific and technical challenges facing the field. In this perspective we address a related, but very focused, issue that is increasingly important for many of us in the HTS community: the use of stably transfected cell lines as an integral part of screening strategies. Transfected cell lines provide powerful tools for assay design, but at the same time they introduce complex variables into the screening system. Although it is difficult to develop precise definitions and standards for biologicals such as cell lines, we propose that the development of guidelines for the nomenclature and use of transfected cell lines is essential for their use in HTS.

  9. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    PubMed

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life <28 days in (1) all three test systems, (2) only in the MITI test and in the WSST, (3) only in the SST, and (4) none of the test systems. The observed differences between the MITI results and the WSST and SST biodegradation rates of the compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301.

  10. Development of a screening tool for children prior to school entrance.

    PubMed

    Thomaidis, Loretta; Mantoudis, Stelios; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Janikian, Mari; Konstantopoulos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the development, application and validation of the Α' TEST, a screening tool administered individually to kindergarten children to determine their school preparedness. The A' TEST evaluates six cognitive domains (abstract thinking, critical reasoning, language skills, visual perception, visual motor skills and organizational skills). It was administered to 2002 preschool children, and validated through comparison with well-established classification systems. Also, in order to examine the predictive value of the A' TEST, 201 of the examined children were reevaluated by their teachers two years after initial assessment. Analysis provided evidence of structure, convergent, concurrent and discriminant validity and reliability, as well as predictive validity. Overall, the Α' TEST predicted that 9.1% of the children were not school-ready, giving a 98.5% correct prediction when compared with the teachers' evaluations two years later. In conclusion, the Α' TEST is a valid and appropriate screening tool for school readiness.

  11. Quantitative posturagraphy as an alternative noninvasive tool for alcohol/drug/chemical testing--preliminary thoughts.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, A

    1999-02-01

    This article provides preliminary ideas regarding how the quantitative posturagraphy technique can be used as an alternative noninvasive tool to currently available blood/urine test for alcohol/drug/chemical exposure. It is argued that the urine or blood level of any chemical is highly dependent on the individual's metabolism without providing any insight into individual's task performance abilities under exposure to neurotoxic chemicals. On the other hand, the quantitative posturagraphy if carried out as proposed in this article will provide quantitative data regarding individual's ability to maintain "safe" upright balance while carrying out certain tasks. The proposed evaluation method is simple, portable, quick, and noninvasive and has been found to be sensitive to detecting low level solvent induced modifications in postural stability.

  12. The Musculoskeletal Readiness Screening Tool-Injury Predictor for United States Military Academy Preparatory Cadets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    predict injury and tasks unique to 86 military personnel. Tests include the weight bearing forward lunge, modified deep 87 squat, closed kinetic chain...weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion was associated with 176 lower extremity injury.10,11,13,17 Lack of weight- bearing dorsiflexion may impair, 177...Readiness Screening Tool (MRST). The components of the MRST 256 include the weight bearing forward lunge, the modified deep squat, the Closed 257

  13. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  14. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within one or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed, assessing AEs by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC), and/or psychometric evaluation. Building upon the strengths of existing measures, we employed conceptual and statistical advances in measurement development to create the novel, psychometrically-sound Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS). Unique to this study, pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive sampling of effects that varied in valence (positive/negative) and arousal (low/high) and were identified as plausible outcomes of drinking. The AEAS specified the number of drinks individuals imagined consuming (adjusted for sex) and the hypothetical drinking episode length (2 hours). AEs were also assessed separately by BAC limb. For validation purposes, the AEAS was included in several survey studies of young adults (ages 18-30). The validity argument for the proposed interpretation of AEAS test scores was based upon the following: 1) exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (N=546) identified a 22-item, 4-factor internal structure, categorizing alcohol effects into quadrants (high/low arousal crossed with positive/negative valence); 2) scalar measurement invariance was established for BAC limb, sex, and binge drinking status; 3) convergence/divergence was observed with alternative AEs measures and mood; and 4) test-criterion relationships were observed with several alcohol-related outcomes. The reliability argument was based on test-retest and internal consistency coefficients. PMID:22708572

  15. Improving Alcohol Screening for College Students: Screening for Alcohol Misuse amongst College Students with a Simple Modification to the CAGE Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Purcell; El-Sabawi, Taleed; Cangin, Causenge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To improve the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener) questionnaire's predictive accuracy in screening college students. Participants: The sample consisted of 219 midwestern university students who self-administered a confidential survey. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, receiver operating…

  16. Primary cells and stem cells in drug discovery: emerging tools for high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Eglen, Richard; Reisine, Terry

    2011-04-01

    Many drug discovery screening programs employ immortalized cells, recombinantly engineered to express a defined molecular target. Several technologies are now emerging that render it feasible to employ more physiologically, and clinically relevant, cell phenotypes. Consequently, numerous approaches use primary cells, which retain many functions seen in vivo, as well as endogenously expressing the target of interest. Furthermore, stem cells, of either embryonic or adult origin, as well as those derived from differentiated cells, are now finding a place in drug discovery. Collectively, these cells are expanding the utility of authentic human cells, either as screening tools or as therapeutics, as well as providing cells derived directly from patients. Nonetheless, the growing use of phenotypically relevant cells (including primary cells or stem cells) is not without technical difficulties, particularly when their envisioned use lies in high-throughput screening (HTS) protocols. In particular, the limited availability of homogeneous primary or stem cell populations for HTS mandates that novel technologies be developed to accelerate their adoption. These technologies include detection of responses with very few cells as well as protocols to generate cell lines in abundant, homogeneous populations. In parallel, the growing use of changes in cell phenotype as the assay readout is driving greater use of high-throughput imaging techniques in screening. Taken together, the greater availability of novel primary and stem cell phenotypes as well as new detection technologies is heralding a new era of cellular screening. This convergence offers unique opportunities to identify drug candidates for disorders at which few therapeutics are presently available.

  17. Development of a liquefaction hazard screening tool for caltrans bridge sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Bott, J.D.J.; Woods, M.O.; McGuire, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a liquefaction hazard screening tool for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that is being used to evaluate the liquefaction hazard to approximately 13,000 bridge sites in California. Because of the large number of bridge sites to be evaluated, we developed a tool that makes use of parameters not typically considered in site-specific liquefaction investigations. We assessed geologic, topographic, seismic hazard, and subsurface conditions at about 100 sites of past liquefaction in California. Among the parameters we found common to many of these sites are: (a) low elevations, (b) proximity to a water body, and (c) presence of geologically youthful deposits or artificial fill materials. The nature of the study necessitated the use of readily available data, preferably datasets that are consistent across the state. The screening tool we provided to Caltrans makes use of the following parameters: (1) proximity to a water body, (2) whether the bridge crosses a water body, (3) the age of site geologic materials and the environment in which the materials were deposited, as discerned from available digital geologic maps, (4) probabilistic shaking estimates, (5) the site elevation, (6) information from available liquefaction hazard maps [covering the 9-county San Francisco Bay Area and Ventura County] and California Geological Survey (CGS) Zones of Required Investigation. For bridge sites at which subsurface boring data were available (from CGS' existing database), we calculated Displacement Potential Index values using a methodology developed by Allison Faris and Jiaer Wu. Caltrans' staff will use this hazard-screening tool, along with other tools focused on bridges and foundations, to prioritize site-specific investigations. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  18. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  19. Prognostic value of nutritional screening tools for patients scheduled for cardiac surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V.; Efremov, Sergey M.; Boboshko, Vladimir A.; Nikolaev, Dmitry A.; Vedernikov, Pavel E.; Deryagin, Mihail N.; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N.; Karaskov, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of different nutritional screening tools in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, with regard to adverse clinical outcome. METHODS This prospective cohort study analysed 1193 adult patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were screened using five nutritional screening tools: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay in intensive care unit and length of hospitalization were analysed. Multivariate backward logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictive value of the studied screening tools. RESULTS In accordance with univariate analysis, malnutrition detected by SNAQ, MUST, NRS-2002 and MNA was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3–2.4; OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9 and OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6). Malnutrition detected by MUST, NRS-2002, MNA and SGA was associated with intensive care unit stay >2 days (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.7; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.6). Prolonged hospitalization (>20 days) was predicted by SNAQ, MUST and MNA (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1–1.9; OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2). In accordance with multivariate analysis, only MUST and MNA independently predicted postoperative complications (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2). Other independent factors influencing postoperative complications were well-known logistic EuroSCORE (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1–1.1) and the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in minutes (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.01). CONCLUSIONS MUST and MNA both have independent predictive values with regard to postoperative

  20. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  1. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  2. A high-throughput thermoelectric power-factor screening tool for rapid construction of thermoelectric property diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Lowhorn, N. D.; Schenck, P. K.; Wong-Ng, W.; Green, M. L.; Itaka, K.; Koinuma, H.

    2007-09-01

    The authors have developed a high-throughput screening tool that maps out thermoelectric power factors of combinatorial composition-spread film libraries. The screening tool allows one to measure the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of over 1000 sample points within 6h. Seebeck coefficients of standard films measured with the screening tool are in good agreement with those measured by traditional thermoelectric measurement apparatus. The rapid construction of thermoelectric property diagrams is illustrated for two systems: (Zn, Al)-O binary composition-spread film on Al2O3 (0001) and (Ca,Sr,La)3Co4O9 ternary composition-spread film on Si (100).

  3. A Nurse-Driven Screening Tool for the Early Identification of Sepsis in an Intermediate Care Unit Setting

    PubMed Central

    Gyang, Elsie; Shieh, Lisa; Forsey, Lynn; Maggio, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of a screening tool as a decision support mechanism for early detection of sepsis has been widely advocated, yet studies validating tool performance are scarce, especially in non–intensive care unit settings. METHODS For this pilot study we prospectively screened consecutive patients admitted to a medical/surgical intermediate care unit at an academic medical center over a 1-month period and retrospectively analyzed their clinical data. Patients were screened with a 3-tiered, paper-based, nurse-driven sepsis assessment tool every 8 hours. For patients screening positive for sepsis or severe sepsis, the primary treatment team was notified and the team’s clinical actions were recorded. Results of the screening test were then compared to patient International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock identified during the study time period, and performance of the screening test was assessed. RESULTS A total of 2143 screening tests were completed in 245 patients (169 surgical, 76 medical). ICD-9 codes confirmed sepsis incidence was 9%. Of the 39 patients who screened positive, 51% were positive for sepsis, and 49% screened positive for severe sepsis. Screening tool sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 92%, respectively. Negative predictive value was 99% and positive predictive value was 54%. Overall test accuracy was 92%. There was no statistically significant difference in tool performance between medical and surgical patients. CONCLUSIONS A simple screening tool for sepsis utilized as part of nursing assessment may be a useful way of identifying early sepsis in both medical and surgical patients in an intermediate care unit setting. PMID:25425449

  4. Comparing the predictive utility of two screening tools for mental disorder among probationers.

    PubMed

    Eno Louden, Jennifer; Skeem, Jennifer L; Blevins, Alishia

    2013-06-01

    To increase the likelihood that probationers with serious mental disorder can be identified by probation agencies, we tested the utility of two promising mental health screening tools, the K6 and the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), in identifying probationers with DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. In this study, 4,670 probationers completed the screening tools as part of routine intake procedures at a probation agency. We interviewed a subset of 149 probationers using a structured clinical interview to determine whether they met criteria for an Axis I anxiety, mood, or psychotic disorder at any point during their lifetimes. The BJMHS correctly identified 77% of probationers with mental disorder overall, and contrary to our hypotheses, the measure was as sensitive with women as it was with men. Adding items assessing posttraumatic stress disorder provided some incremental utility to the measure. The K6 demonstrated similar levels of sensitivity to the BJMHS when using a lower cutoff score informed by prior research with offenders. Contrary to prior research, we found that the BJMHS was sensitive to mental disorder among female probationers. We suggest that probation agencies implement either the BJMHS or the K6 as part of their intake procedures to identify probationers with serious mental disorder so the complex needs of this group can be better addressed.

  5. A composite screening tool for medication reviews of outpatients: general issues with specific examples.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Peter A G M; Denneboom, Wilma; Kramers, Cees; Grol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Regular performance of medication reviews is prominent among methods that have been advocated to reduce the extent and seriousness of drug-related problems, such as adverse drug reactions, drug-disease interactions, drug-drug interactions, drug ineffectiveness and cost ineffectiveness. Several screening tools have been developed to guide practising healthcare professionals and researchers in reviewing the medication patterns of elderly patients; however, each of these tools has its own limitations. This review discusses a wide range of general prescription-, treatment- and patient-related issues that should be taken into account when reviewing medication patterns by implicit screening. These include generic and therapeutic substitution; potentially superfluous or inappropriate medications; potentially inappropriate dosages or duration of treatment; drug-disease and drug-drug interactions; under-treatment; making use of laboratory test results; patient adherence, experiences and habits; appropriate dosage forms and packaging. A broad selection of specific examples and references that can be used as a basis for explicit screening of medication patterns in outpatients is also offered.

  6. A screening tool for delineating subregions of steady recharge within groundwater models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Bakker, Mark; Crompton, Becky

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a screening method for simplifying groundwater models by delineating areas within the domain that can be represented using steady-state groundwater recharge. The screening method is based on an analytical solution for the damping of sinusoidal infiltration variations in homogeneous soils in the vadose zone. The damping depth is defined as the depth at which the flux variation damps to 5% of the variation at the land surface. Groundwater recharge may be considered steady where the damping depth is above the depth of the water table. The analytical solution approximates the vadose zone diffusivity as constant, and we evaluated when this approximation is reasonable. We evaluated the analytical solution through comparison of the damping depth computed by the analytic solution with the damping depth simulated by a numerical model that allows variable diffusivity. This comparison showed that the screening method conservatively identifies areas of steady recharge and is more accurate when water content and diffusivity are nearly constant. Nomograms of the damping factor (the ratio of the flux amplitude at any depth to the amplitude at the land surface) and the damping depth were constructed for clay and sand for periodic variations between 1 and 365 d and flux means and amplitudes from nearly 0 to 1 × 10−3 m d−1. We applied the screening tool to Central Valley, California, to identify areas of steady recharge. A MATLAB script was developed to compute the damping factor for any soil and any sinusoidal flux variation.

  7. Barriers and Facilitators in Implementing “Prevention for Positives” Alcohol Reduction Support: The Perspectives of Directors and Providers in Hospital-Based HIV Care Centers

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Tiburcio, Nelson J.; Gwadz, Marya

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected patients have considerable need for alcohol reduction support, and HIV care providers are strategically placed to implement a “prevention for positives” alcohol reduction approach through alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs). To facilitate this approach, we provided alcohol SBI education and training to HIV care providers in four hospital-based, New York City HIV Care Centers in 2007. Interviews with the medical directors and 14 of the HIV care providers who attended the training identified barriers to implementing alcohol SBIs. These included limited time for alcohol screening, patients’ incomplete disclosure of alcohol use, providers’ perceptions that alcohol use is not a major problem for their patients, and provider specialization that assigns patients with problematic alcohol use to specifically designated providers. Identified facilitators for alcohol SBI implementation included adequate time to conduct the SBI; availability of information, tools, and key points to emphasize with HIV-infected patients; and use of a brief alcohol screening tool. PMID:21570321

  8. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction.

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Hauser, S; Rodd, Z A; Liang, T; Sari, Y; McClintick, J; Rahman, S; Engleman, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein, we sought to place the P rat's behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this chapter discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general.

  9. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  10. Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for military spouses experiencing alcohol and substance use disorders: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Halima; Green, Scott L

    2011-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of alcohol and substance use issues in military spouses, and explore how the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model may enable health care providers to identify individuals at risk for developing substance use related disorders. The information presented is based on a broad literature scan relating to the characteristics of the military lifestyle, health infrastructure, screening and intervention processes, and the uses of SBIRT in military and civilian settings. Current literature suggests that military spouses, and families, tend to be at different points in their life course than civilian families of similar ages. Marrying earlier and having children sooner coupled with military lifestyle stressors place them at increased risk for developing adverse coping mechanisms, particularly during deployment. SBIRT has been recognized as an effective method among civilian patients although there is limited research on the efficacy of SBIRT for military spouses at risk of or experiencing substance use problems.

  11. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  12. Developing a Web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Joanne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L'abbé, Mary R; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-03-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet.

  13. Bacillus subtilis as a tool for screening soil metagenomic libraries for antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Biver, Sophie; Steels, Sébastien; Portetelle, Daniel; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2013-06-28

    Finding new antimicrobial activities by functional metagenomics has been shown to depend on the heterologous host used to express the foreign DNA. Therefore, efforts are devoted to developing new tools for constructing metagenomic libraries in shuttle vectors replicatable in phylogenetically distinct hosts. Here we evaluated the use of the Escherichia coli-Bacillus subtilis shuttle vector pHT01 to construct a forest-soil metagenomic library. This library was screened in both hosts for antimicrobial activities against four opportunistic bacteria: Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Micrococcus luteus. A new antibacterial activity against B. cereus was found upon screening in B. subtilis. The new antimicrobial agent, sensitive to proteinase K, was not active when the corresponding DNA fragment was expressed in E. coli. Our results validate the use of pHT01 as a shuttle vector and B. subtilis as a host to isolate new activities by functional metagenomics.

  14. Evaluation of brief screening tools for neurocognitive impairment in HIV/AIDS: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zipursky, Amy R.; Gogolishvili, David; Rueda, Sergio; Brunetta, Jason; Carvalhal, Adriana; McCombe, Jennifer A.; Gill, M. John; Rachlis, Anita; Rosenes, Ron; Arbess, Gordon; Marcotte, Thomas; Rourke, Sean B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): To systematically review literature on brief screening tools used to detect and differentiate between normal cognition and neurocognitive impairment and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) in adult populations of persons with HIV. Design: A formal systematic review. Methods: We searched six electronic databases in 2011 and contacted experts to identify relevant studies published through May 2012. We selected empirical studies that focused on evaluating brief screening tools (<20 min) for neurocognitive impairment in persons with HIV. Two reviewers independently reviewed retrieved literature for potential relevance and methodological quality. Meta-analyses were completed on screening tools that had sufficient data. Results: Fifty-one studies met inclusion criteria; we focused on 31 studies that compared brief screening tools with reference tests. Within these 31 studies, 39 tools were evaluated and 67% used a comprehensive neuropsychological battery as a reference. The majority of these studies evaluated HIV-associated dementia (HAD). Meta-analyses demonstrated that the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) has poor pooled sensitivity (0.48) and the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has moderate pooled sensitivity (0.62) in detecting a range of cognitive impairment. Five newer screening tools had relatively good sensitivities (>0.70); however, none of the tools differentiated HAND conditions well enough to suggest broader use. There were significant methodological shortcomings noted in most studies. Conclusion: HDS and IHDS perform well to screen for HAD but poorly for milder HAND conditions. Further investigation, with improved methodology, is required to understand the utility of newer screening tools for HAND; further tools may need to be developed for milder HAND conditions. PMID:23751261

  15. User's Guide to the Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST): A Tool for Assessing Available Water Resources in Relation to Aquatic-Resource Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Kiesler, James L.

    2008-01-01

    A water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, to provide an initial screening of areas in the state where potential problems may exist related to the availability of water resources to meet current and future water-use demands. The tool compares water-use information to an initial screening criteria of the 7-day, 10-year low-flow statistic (7Q10) resulting in a screening indicator for influences of net withdrawals (withdrawals minus discharges) on aquatic-resource uses. This report is intended to serve as a guide for using the screening tool. The WAST can display general basin characteristics, water-use information, and screening-indicator information for over 10,000 watersheds in the state. The tool includes 12 primary functions that allow the user to display watershed information, edit water-use and water-supply information, observe effects downstream from edited water-use information, reset edited values to baseline, load new water-use information, save and retrieve scenarios, and save output as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

  16. Validation of the French version of the alcohol, smoking and substance involvement screening test (ASSIST) in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders seem to be an under considered health problem amongst the elderly. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), was developed by the World Health Organization to detect substance use disorders. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the French version of ASSIST in a sample of elderly people attending geriatric outpatient facilities (primary care or psychiatric facilities). Methods One hundred persons older than 65 years were recruited from clients attending a geriatric policlinic day care centre and from geriatric psychiatric facilities. Measures included ASSIST, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-Plus), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Revised Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire-Smoking (RTQ) and MiniMental State(MMS). Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between ASSIST scores, scores from ASI, AUDIT, RTQ, and significantly higher ASSIST scores for patients with a MINI-Plus diagnosis of abuse or dependence. The ASSIST questionnaire was found to have high internal consistency for the total substance involvement along with specific substance involvement as assessed by Cronbach’s α, ranging from 0.66, to 0.89 . Conclusions The findings demonstrate that ASSIST is a valid screening test for identifying substance use disorders in elderly. PMID:22538114

  17. Developing a postal screening tool for frailty in primary care: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis (SDA) was to review a subset of quantitative and qualitative paired data sets from a returned postal screening tool (PST) completed by patients and compare them to the clinical letters composed by elderly care community nurses (ECCN) following patient assessment to ascertain the tool's reliability and validity. The aim was to understand to what extent the problems identified by patients in PSTs aligned with actual or potential problems identified by the ECCNs. The researcher examined this connection to establish whether the PST was a valid, reliable approach to proactive care. The findings of this SDA indicated that patients did understand the PST. Many appropriate referrals were made as a result of the ECCN visit that would not have occurred if the PST had not been sent. This article focuses specifically upon the physiotherapy section as this was the area where the most red flags were identified.

  18. Using assessment tools to screen for, diagnose, and treat major depressive disorder in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Gelenberg, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Depression remains underrecognized and undertreated worldwide, although it is a leading cause of disease burden. Many instruments are available to enhance the assessment of major depressive disorder (MDD) at 3 levels: screening, diagnosing, and monitoring treatment. This article reviews a variety of tools that can be used at each level of assessment as part of a measurement-based care approach to MDD. Measurement-based care for MDD is feasible in clinical practice. Patient self-reports can be used instead of clinician-rated scales to save time, whether in paper, computerized, or interactive voice response formats. Assessment tools are available in many languages. Treatment algorithms can rationalize decision making, and collaborative care can speed and enhance treatment results.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of an audit and feedback reporting tool on screening participation: The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR).

    PubMed

    Jonah, Leigh; Pefoyo, Anna Kone; Lee, Alex; Hader, Joanne; Strasberg, Suzanne; Kupets, Rachel; Chiarelli, Anna M; Tinmouth, Jill

    2017-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening is critical to its effectiveness in reducing the burden of cancer. The Primary Care Screening Activity Report (PCSAR), an electronic report, was developed as an innovative audit and feedback tool to increase screening participation in Ontario's cancer screening programs. This study aims to assess its impact on patient screening participation. This study used a retrospective cohort design to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2014 PCSAR on screening participation in Ontario's three screening programs (breast, cervix and colorectal). The 3 cohorts comprised all participants eligible for each of the programs enrolled with a primary care physician in Ontario. Two exposures were evaluated for each cohort: enrollment with a physician who was registered to receive the PCSAR and enrollment with a registered physician who also logged into the PCSAR. Logistic regression modelling was used to assess the magnitude of the effect of PCSAR on participation, adjusting for participant and physician characteristics. Across all three screening programs, 63% of eligible physicians registered to receive the PCSAR and 38% of those registered logged-in to view it. Patients of physicians who registered were significantly more likely to participate in screening, with odds ratios ranging from 1.06 [1.04;1.09] to 1.15 [1.12;1.19]. The adjusted odds ratios associated with PCSAR log-in were 1.07 [1.03;1.12] to 1.18 [1.14;1.22] across all screening programs. Implementation of the PCSAR was associated with a small increase in screening participation. The PCSAR appears to be modestly effective in assisting primary care physicians in optimizing cancer screening participation among their patients.

  20. Screening Patients in Busy Hospital-Based HIV Care Centers for Hazardous and Harmful Drinking Patterns: The Identification of an Optimal Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Shiela M.; Rindskopf, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Because many HIV care providers fail to detect patients’ hazardous drinking, we examined the potential use of the AUDIT-C, the first three of the 10 items comprising the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to efficiently screen patients for alcohol abuse. To perform this examination, we used Item Response Theory involving individual AUDIT items and AUDIT instruments completed by patients (N=400) at a Designated AIDS Center in New York City. At various AUDIT-C cutoff scores, specificities and sensitivities were then examined using the AUDIT as a “gold standard.” For cutoff scores on the AUDIT from 4–8, cutoff scores on the AUDIT-C of 3 and 4, respectively, resulted in sensitivities between .94–.98, and .81–.89, respectively, and in specificities between .82–.91, and .91–1.0, respectively. In busy HIV care centers, the AUDIT-C with cutoff scores of 3 or 4 is a reasonable alternative to the full AUDIT as an alcohol screening instrument. PMID:19850861

  1. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  2. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  3. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  4. MED-SuMoLig: a new ligand-based screening tool for efficient scaffold hopping.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Olivier; Andrieu, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Vo, Minh-Quang; Souaille, Marc; Delfaud, François; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2007-01-01

    The identification of small molecules with selective bioactivity, whether intended as potential therapeutics or as tools for experimental research, is central to progress in medicine and in the life sciences. To facilitate such study, we have developed a ligand-based program well-suited for effective screening of large compound collections. This package, MED-SuMoLig, combines a SMARTS-driven substructure search aiming at 3D pharmacophore profiling and computation of the local atomic density of the compared molecules. The screening utility was then investigated using 52 diverse active molecules (against CDK2, Factor Xa, HIV-1 protease, neuraminidase, ribonuclease A, and thymidine kinase) merged to a library of about 40,000 putative inactive (druglike) compounds. In all cases, the program recovered more than half of the actives in the top 3% of the screened library. We also compared the performance of MED-SuMoLig with that of ChemMine or of ROCS and found that MED-SuMoLig outperformed both methods for CDK2 and Factor Xa in terms of enrichment rates or performed equally well for the other targets.

  5. High-content screening as a universal tool for fingerprinting of cytotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jan, Edward; Byrne, Stephen J; Cuddihy, Meghan; Davies, Anthony M; Volkov, Yuri; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-05-01

    Recent advances and progress in nanobiotechnology have demonstrated many nanoparticles (NPs) as potential and novel drug delivery vehicles, therapeutic agents, and contrast agents and luminescent biological labels for bioimaging. The emergence of new biomedical applications based on NPs signifies the need to understand, compare, and manage their cytotoxicity. In this study, we demonstrated the use of high-content screening assay (HCA) as a universal tool to probe the cytotoxicity of NPs and specifically cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and gold NPs (Au NPs) in NG108-15 murine neuroblastoma cells and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Neural cells represent special interest for NP-induced cytotoxicity because the optical and electrical functionalities of materials necessary for neural imaging and interfacing are matched well with the properties of many NPs. In addition, the cellular morphology of neurons is particularly suitable for automated high content screening. HepG2 cells represent a good model for high content screening studies since they are commonly used as a surrogate for human hepatocytes in pharmaceutical studies. We found the CdTe QDs to induce primarily apoptotic response in a time- and dosage-dependent manner and produce different toxicological profiles and responses in undifferentiated and differentiated neural cells. Au NPs were found to inhibit the proliferation and intracellular calcium release of HepG2 cells.

  6. Culturally adapted pictorial screening tool for autism spectrum disorder: A new approach

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Hemamali; Jeewandara, Kamal Chandima; Seneviratne, Sudarshi; Guruge, Chandima

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the performance of a newly designed, culturally adapted screening tool for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS Items for the screening tool were modeled from already documented checklists and diagnostic criteria for ASD. Each item in text was paired with a photograph that illustrated the written content, which was in the 2 main local languages. The final product had 21 items and was named the pictorial autism assessment schedule (PAAS). Performance of PAAS was tested on a clinical sample of 18-48 mo old children, diagnosis naïve, presenting with developmental deficits. Mothers completed PAAS checklist. Based on clinical diagnosis, which was taken as the gold standard, children were later grouped into ASD (Group 1) and non-ASD developmental disorders (Group 2). Mothers of a control sample of typically developing children also completed PAAS (Group 3). RESULTS A total of 105 children (Group 1-45, Group 2-30, Group 3-30) participated in the study. Mean age of Group 1 and Group 2 were 36 and 40 mo respectively. Majority were male in all 3 groups. Performance of PAAS in discriminating between ASD and non-ASD developmental disorders was sensitivity 88.8%, specificity 60.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 78.4%, negative predictive value (NPV) 77.2%, likelihood ratio (LR+) 2.26, and LR- 0.18. Performance of PAAS in discriminating between ASD and typical development was sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 93.3%, PPV 95.2%, NPV 84.0%, LR+ 13.3 and LR- 0.12. The results indicated that that a positive result from PAAS was 2.26 times more likely to be found in a child with ASD than in a child with non-ASD developmental disorder. A positive result from PAAS was 13.3 times more likely to be found in a child with ASD than in a child with typical development. CONCLUSION PAAS is an effective tool in screening for ASD. Further study is indicated to evaluate the feasibility of using this instrument for community screening for ASD. PMID:28224095

  7. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for Unhealthy Alcohol Use with %Carbohydrate Deficient Transferrin: Results From a Literature-Based Decision Analytic Computer Model

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Alok; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Mark S.; Saitz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The %carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) test offers objective evidence of unhealthy alcohol use but its cost-effectiveness in primary care conditions is unknown. Methods Using a decision tree and Markov model, we performed a literature-based cost-effectiveness analysis of 4 strategies for detecting unhealthy alcohol use in adult primary care patients: (i) Questionnaire Only, using a validated 3-item alcohol questionnaire; (ii) %CDT Only; (iii) Questionnaire followed by %CDT (Questionnaire-%CDT) if the questionnaire is negative; and (iv) No Screening. For those patients screening positive, clinicians performed more detailed assessment to characterize unhealthy use and determine therapy. We estimated costs using Medicare reimbursement and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We determined sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of disease, and mortality from the medical literature. In the base case, we calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in 2006 dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY) for a 50-year-old cohort. Results In the base case, the ICER for the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy was $15,500/QALY compared with the Questionnaire Only strategy. Other strategies were dominated. When the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use exceeded 15% and screening age was <60 years, the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy costs less than $50,000/QALY compared to the Questionnaire Only strategy. Conclusions Adding %CDT to questionnaire-based screening for unhealthy alcohol use was cost-effective in our literature-based decision analytic model set in typical primary care conditions. Screening with %CDT should be considered for adults up to the age of 60 when the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use is 15% or more and screening questionnaires are negative. PMID:19426168

  9. Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Use in College Health Centers: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seigers, Danielle K. L.; Carey, Kate B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a critical review of the efficacy of brief interventions for alcohol use in college health centers. Methods: Studies were included if (a) they examined brief intervention trials that were conducted in college- or university-based student health centers or emergency departments, and (b) they provided pre-post data to estimate…

  10. A RCT of three training and support strategies to encourage implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention by general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, E F; Lock, C A; McAvoy, B R; Heather, N; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Providing doctors with new research findings or clinical guidelines is rarely sufficient to promote changes in clinical practice. An implementation strategy is required to provide clinicians with the skills and encouragement needed to alter established routines. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different training and support strategies in promoting implementation of screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) by general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Subjects were 128 GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority, who agreed to use the 'Drink-Less' SBI programme in an earlier dissemination trial. GPs were stratified by previous marketing conditions and randomly allocated to three intensities of training and support: controls (n = 43) received the programme with written guidelines only, trained GPs (n = 43) received the programme plus practice-based training in programme usage, trained and supported GPs (n = 42) received the programme plus practice-based training and a support telephone call every two weeks. GPs were requested to use the programme for three months. Outcome measures included proportions of GPs implementing the programme and numbers of patients screened and intervened with. RESULTS: Seventy-three (57%) GPs implemented the programme and screened 11,007 patients for risk drinking. Trained and supported GPs were significantly more likely to implement the programme (71%) than controls (44%) or trained GPs (56%); they also screened, and intervened with, significantly more patients. Costs per patient screened were: trained and supported GPs, 1.05 Pounds; trained GPs, 1.08 Pounds; and controls, 1.47 Pounds. Costs per patient intervened with were: trained and supported GPs, 5.43 Pounds; trained GPs, 6.02 Pounds; and controls, 8.19 Pounds. CONCLUSION: Practice-based training plus support telephone calls was the most effective and cost-effective strategy to encourage

  11. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  12. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... powered with fuel cell sensors. (4) PAS Systems International, Inc. submitted the Alcovisor MARS screening.... Fredericksburg, Virginia. Alcovisor MARS. Q3 Innovations, Inc., Independence, AlcoHAWK Precision. Iowa....

  13. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  14. Prehospital recognition of severe sepsis: development and validation of a novel EMS screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Polito, Carmen C.; Isakov, Alex; Yancey, Arthur H.; Wilson, Duncan K.; Anderson, Blake A.; Bloom, Ingrid; Martin, Greg S.; Sevransky, Jonathan E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To derive and validate a predictive model and novel Emergency Medical Services (EMS) screening tool for severe sepsis (SS). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting A single EMS system and an urban, public hospital. Patients Sequential adult, non-trauma, non-arrest, at-risk, EMS-transported patients between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. At-risk patients were defined as having all 3 of the following criteria present in the EMS setting: heart rate >90bpm, 2) respiratory rate >20bpm, and 3) systolic blood pressure <110mmHg. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Among 66,439 EMS encounters, 555 met criteria for analysis. Fourteen percent (n=75) of patients had SS, of which 19% (n=14) were identified by EMS clinical judgment. In-hospital mortality for patients with SS was 31% (n=23). Six EMS characteristics were found to be predictors of SS: older age, transport from nursing home, Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD) 9-1-1 chief complaint category of “Sick Person”, hot tactile temperature assessment, low systolic blood pressure, and low oxygen saturation. The final predictive model showed good discrimination in derivation and validation subgroups (AUC 0.843 and 0.820, respectively). Sensitivity of the final model was 91% in the derivation group and 78% in the validation group. At a pre-defined threshold of 2 or more points, prehospital severe sepsis (PRESS) score sensitivity was 86%. Conclusions The PRESS score is a novel EMS screening tool for SS that demonstrates a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 47%. Additional validation is needed before this tool can be recommended for widespread clinical use. PMID:26070235

  15. An improved method for rapidly quantifying fatty acid ethyl esters in meconium suitable for prenatal alcohol screening.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Rao, Chitra; Fulga, Netta; Aleksa, Katarina; Koren, Gideon

    2011-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, and elevated levels of FAEE in meconium are a useful biomarker for heavy prenatal alcohol exposure. FAEE in meconium has been recommended as useful and cost-effective for universal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure. To support an efficient universal screening program, an analytical method to detect and quantify FAEE in meconium needs to be accurate, inexpensive, and rapid. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical method that would satisfy these criteria and to validate this method using established laboratory guidelines. A method was developed and validated to detect and quantify four FAEEs (ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate) from 0.5 g of meconium using d(5)-ethyl esters as internal standards. The sample undergoes liquid-liquid extraction with heptane:acetone, the heptane layer is isolated and evaporated, and then, the resulting residue undergoes headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detection limits of the four FAEEs ranged from 0.020 to 0.042 nmol/g and are 6- to 25-fold lower than the individual FAEE threshold concentrations (0.5 nmol/g). This method also has good precision with the coefficient of variation ranging from 2.6 to 19.4% for concentrations of individual FAEE between 0.5 and 2.62 nmol/g meconium (n=4). Calculated concentrations of FAEE that underwent extraction from meconium were 100-101% of the expected concentration, demonstrating the accuracy of the method. The peak shape and retention time of each FAEE were unaffected by the presence of the matrix, and there is no carryover at clinically relevant concentrations. This method was also able to produce clean chromatograms from meconium samples that could not be quantified using a previous method because of high chromatographic background. This method provides an optimal approach to detecting and quantifying FAEE in

  16. Label free fragment screening using surface plasmon resonance as a tool for fragment finding - analyzing parkin, a difficult CNS target.

    PubMed

    Regnström, Karin; Yan, Jiangli; Nguyen, Lan; Callaway, Kari; Yang, Yanli; Diep, Linnea; Xing, Weimei; Adhikari, Anirban; Beroza, Paul; Hom, Roy K; Riley, Brigit; Rudolph, Don; Jobling, Michael F; Baker, Jeanne; Johnston, Jennifer; Konradi, Andrei; Bova, Michael P; Artis, Dean R; Artis, Rick D

    2013-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is rarely used as a primary High-throughput Screening (HTS) tool in fragment-based approaches. With SPR instruments becoming increasingly high-throughput it is now possible to use SPR as a primary tool for fragment finding. SPR becomes, therefore, a valuable tool in the screening of difficult targets such as the ubiquitin E3 ligase Parkin. As a prerequisite for the screen, a large number of SPR tests were performed to characterize and validate the active form of Parkin. A set of compounds was designed and used to define optimal SPR assay conditions for this fragment screen. Using these conditions, more than 5000 pre-selected fragments from our in-house library were screened for binding to Parkin. Additionally, all fragments were simultaneously screened for binding to two off target proteins to exclude promiscuous binding compounds. A low hit rate was observed that is in line with hit rates usually obtained by other HTS screening assays. All hits were further tested in dose responses on the target protein by SPR for confirmation before channeling the hits into Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and other hit-confirmation assays.

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...

  18. Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Urban Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudron, Linda H.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Tang, Wan; Anson, Elizabeth; Talbot, Nancy L.; Wadkins, Holly I.M.; Tu, Xin; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in low-income, urban mothers attending well childcare (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Design/Methods Mothers (N=198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivity and specificity of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and sub-samples (representing early, middle and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cut-points were calculated. Results At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months postpartum, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as a continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of ≥ 0.8). With traditional cut-points, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for the BDI-II (≥14 for MDD, ≥11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (≥9 for MDD, ≥7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cut-point was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (≥80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (≥ 77). Conclusions Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression but cutoff points may need to be altered to more accurately identify depression in urban, low-income mothers. PMID:20156899

  19. Validation of Microtox as a first screening tool for waste classification.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2014-12-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD; 2008/98/EG) describes how waste materials are to be classified as hazardous or not. For complex waste materials chemical analyses are often not conclusive and the WFD provides the possibility to assess the hazardous properties by testing on the waste materials directly. As a methodology WFD refers to the protocols described in the CLP regulation (regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of chemicals) but the toxicity tests on mammals are not acceptable for waste materials. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the suitability of alternative toxicity tests that are already in use in pharmaceutical applications, for the toxicological hazard assessment of complex waste materials. Results indicated that Microtox was a good candidate as a first screening test in a tiered approached hazard assessment. This is now further validated in the present study. The toxic responses measured in Microtox were compared to biological responses in other bioassays for both organic and inorganic fractions of the wastes. Both fractions contribute to the toxic load of waste samples. Results show that the Microtox test is indeed a good and practical screening tool for the organic fraction. A screening threshold (ST) of 5 geq/l as the EC50 value in Microtox is proposed as this ST allows to recognize highly toxic samples in the screening test. The data presented here show that the Microtox toxicity response at this ST is not only predictive for acute toxicity in other organisms but also for sub lethal toxic effects of the organic fraction. This limit value has to be further validated. For the inorganic fraction no specific biotest can be recommended as a screening test, but the use of direct toxicity assessment is also preferable for this fraction as metal speciation is an important issue to define the toxic load of elutriate fractions. A battery of 3 tests (Microtox, Daphnia and Algae) for direct toxicity assessment of this

  20. Anthropometric indicators of obesity as screening tools for high blood pressure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leal Neto, João de Souza; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Freitas, Roberta Souza; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Oliveira, Daniela Sousa; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    The study objectives were to investigate the indicators of obesity most associated with high blood pressure in community-dwelling elderly and identify among these which one best discriminates high blood pressure. This is an epidemiological, population, cross-sectional and home-based study of elderly people (≥ 60 years, n = 316) residing in northeastern Brazil. The results showed that the body mass index and the body adiposity index were the indicators more closely associated with high blood pressure in both sexes. Both in female and male genders, body mass index showed high values of specificity and low sensitivity values for discriminating high blood pressure, whereas the body adiposity index showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity values. In clinical practice and health surveillance, it is suggested that both indicators be used as screening tools for hypertension in the elderly.

  1. Identifying preschool children at risk of later reading difficulties: evaluation of two emergent literacy screening tools.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shauna B; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that, at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children's overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills.

  2. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs.

  3. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (p<.01) and was not different between the DE and VH groups. The peak CG-CP moment arm occurred at the end of single stance phase in all groups. As a screening test, the peak moment arm has greater than 50% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the HE group from the DE and VH groups with peak CG-CP moment arm cutoff points between 16 and 18 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Examining dynamic balance through the use of the CG-CP moment arm during single stance in gait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  4. Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Eita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, the pre-delivery detection of low birthweight is clinically advantageous. This study was performed to determine whether ultrasound is suitable for use in primary screening to detect low birthweight newborns. Methods: The primary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns. Ten databases, including PubMed, were searched. All English language studies that provided true- and false-positive and true- and false-negative results regarding the pre-delivery ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis was performed and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Results: Studies of relatively good quality were included in the analysis to evaluate crown–rump length (n = 12); femur length (n = 5); formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard (n = 9); and uterine artery blood flow (n = 7). All showed low sensitivity (=0.24–0.58) regardless of specificity (=0.60–0.96). The formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard were usable for a confirmation strategy only (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 14.8 and 0.44, respectively), but crown–rump or femur length, and uterine artery blood flow were not usable for an exclusion or confirmation strategy (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 1.4–2.8 and 0.71–0.85, respectively). Conclusions: Primary screening does not have to confirm low birthweight, but should almost always categorize low birthweight as a positive result and exclude normal birthweight. Therefore, ultrasound is not suitable as a primary screening tool to detect low birthweight newborns. PMID

  5. Screen and clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn

    2010-04-01

    Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher-dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high-dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24.

  6. Screen and Clean: a tool for identifying interactions in genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jing; Devlin, Bernie; Ringquist, Steven; Trucco, Massimo; Roeder, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Epistasis could be an important source of risk for disease. How interacting loci might be discovered is an open question for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most researchers limit their statistical analyses to testing individual pairwise interactions (i.e., marginal tests for association). A more effective means of identifying important predictors is to fit models that include many predictors simultaneously (i.e., higher dimensional models). We explore a procedure called screen and clean (SC) for identifying liability loci, including interactions, by using the lasso procedure, which is a model selection tool for high dimensional regression. We approach the problem by using a varying dictionary consisting of terms to include in the model. In the first step the lasso dictionary includes only main effects. The most promising SNPs are identified using a screening procedure. Next the lasso dictionary is adjusted to include these main effects and the corresponding interaction terms. Again, promising terms are identified using lasso screening. Then significant terms are identified through the cleaning process. Implementation of SC for GWAS requires algorithms to explore the complex model space induced by the many SNPs genotyped and their interactions. We propose and explore a set of algorithms and find that SC successfully controls Type I error while yielding good power to identify risk loci and their interactions. When the method is applied to data obtained from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study of Type 1 Diabetes it uncovers evidence supporting interaction within the HLA class II region as well as within Chromosome 12q24. PMID:20088021

  7. ChemScreener: A Distributed Computing Tool for Scaffold based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present ChemScreener, a Java-based application to perform virtual library generation combined with virtual screening in a platform-independent distributed computing environment. ChemScreener comprises a scaffold identifier, a distinct scaffold extractor, an interactive virtual library generator as well as a virtual screening module for subsequently selecting putative bioactive molecules. The virtual libraries are annotated with chemophore-, pharmacophore- and toxicophore-based information for compound prioritization. The hits selected can then be further processed using QSAR, docking and other in silico approaches which can all be interfaced within the ChemScreener framework. As a sample application, in this work scaffold selectivity, diversity, connectivity and promiscuity towards six important therapeutic classes have been studied. In order to illustrate the computational power of the application, 55 scaffolds extracted from 161 anti-psychotic compounds were enumerated to produce a virtual library comprising 118 million compounds (17 GB) and annotated with chemophore, pharmacophore and toxicophore based features in a single step which would be non-trivial to perform with many standard software tools today on libraries of this size.

  8. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P.

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  9. Quantitative methylene blue decolourisation assays as rapid screening tools for assessing the efficiency of catalytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Kruid, Jan; Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice Leigh

    2017-05-01

    Identifying the most efficient oxidation process to achieve maximum removal of a target pollutant compound forms the subject of much research. There exists a need to develop rapid screening tools to support research in this area. In this work we report on the development of a quantitative assay as a means for identifying catalysts capable of decolourising methylene blue through the generation of oxidising species from hydrogen peroxide. Here, a previously described methylene blue test strip method was repurposed as a quantitative, aqueous-based spectrophotometric assay. From amongst a selection of metal salts and metallophthalocyanine complexes, monitoring of the decolourisation of the cationic dye methylene blue (via Fenton-like and non-Fenton oxidation reactions) by the assay identified the following to be suitable oxidation catalysts: CuSO4 (a Fenton-like catalyst), iron(II)phthalocyanine (a non-Fenton oxidation catalyst), as well as manganese(II) phthalocyanine. The applicability of the method was examined for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), as measured by HPLC, during parallel oxidation experiments. The order of catalytic activity was identified as FePc > MnPc > CuSO4 for both BPA and MB. The quantitative MB decolourisation assay may offer a rapid method for screening a wide range of potential catalysts for oxidation processes.

  10. Terrestrial Eco-Toxicological Tests as Screening Tool to Assess Soil Contamination in Krompachy Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'ga, Šestinová; Findoráková, Lenka; Hančuľák, Jozef; Fedorová, Erika; Tomislav, Špaldon

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we present screening tool of heavy metal inputs to agricultural and permanent grass vegetation of the soils in Krompachy. This study is devoted to Ecotoxicity tests, Terrestrial Plant Test (modification of OECD 208, Phytotoxkit microbiotest on Sinapis Alba) and chronic tests of Earthworm (Dendrobaena veneta, modification of OECD Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 317, Bioaccumulation in Terrestrial Oligochaetes) as practical and sensitive screening method for assessing the effects of heavy metals in Krompachy soils. The total Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Hg concentrations and eco-toxicological tests of soils from the Krompachy area were determined of 4 sampling sites in 2015. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the copper smeltery on the absolutely concentrations of metals were recorded for copper, lead, zinc, arsenic and mercury. The highest concentrations of these metals were detected on the sampling sites up to 3 km from the copper smeltery. The samples of soil were used to assess of phytotoxic effect. Total mortality was established at earthworms using chronic toxicity test after 7 exposure days. The results of our study confirmed that no mortality was observed in any of the study soils. Based on the phytotoxicity testing, phytotoxic effects of the metals contaminated soils from the samples 3KR (7-9) S.alba seeds was observed.

  11. Performance index: An expeditious tool to screen for improved drought resistance in the Lathyrus genus.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Susana; Araújo, Susana de Sousa; Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota; Marques da Silva, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    Some species of the Lathyrus genus are among the most promising crops for marginal lands, with high resilience to drought, flood, and fungal diseases, combined with high yields and seed nutritional value. However, lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying its outstanding performance and methodologies to identify elite genotypes has hampered its proper use in breeding. Chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transient (JIP test), was used to evaluate water deficit (WD) resistance in Lathyrus genus. Our results reveal unaltered photochemical values for all studied genotypes showing resistance to mild WD. Under severe WD, two Lathyrus sativus genotypes showed remarkable resilience maintaining the photochemical efficiency, contrary to other genotypes studied. Performance index (PIABS) is the best parameter to screen genotypes with improved performance and grain production under WD. Moreover, we found that JIP indices are good indicators of genotypic grain production under WD. Quantum yield of electron transport (ϕEo) and efficiency with which trapped excitons can move electrons further than QA (ψ0) revealed as important traits related to improved photosynthetic performance and should be exploited in future Lathyrus germplasm improvements. The JIP test herein described showed to be an expeditious tool to screen and to identify elite genotypes with improved drought resistance.

  12. Can Screening Tools for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Predict Postoperative Complications? A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Lilia; Macavei, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common, underdiagnosed condition that is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the perioperative setting. Increasing evidence suggests that the utility of preoperative screening tools may go beyond identification of OSA, to the prediction of perioperative complications. The primary objective of this study was to systematically review the literature on all studies assessing whether high risk scores on the STOP-Bang questionnaire, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) checklist, and the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) are associated with higher rates of postoperative complications. Methods: A systematic review of English language records was performed using Medline, EMBASE, and PsychInfo with additional studies identified by manual search through reference lists. Only studies that evaluated the ability of the STOP-Bang, the BQ, and ASA checklist to predict postoperative complications in adults were included. Results: Twelve studies were included in the final review. Eight studies looked at STOP-Bang, 3 at the Berlin Questionnaire, and 2 at the ASA Checklist. Significant differences across study characteristics prevented a meta-analysis and the studies were evaluated qualitatively. Conclusions: The ASA checklist, Berlin Questionnaire, and STOP-Bang questionnaire may be able to risk stratify patients for perioperative and postoperative complications. Further research is required, with a particular focus on specific surgery types and adjustment of potentially confounding factors in the analysis. Citation: Dimitrov L, Macavei V. Can screening tools for obstructive sleep apnea predict postoperative complications? A systematic review of the literature. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(9):1293–1300. PMID:27448417

  13. Right Ventricular Apical Flattening as an Echocardiographic Screening Tool for Right Ventricular Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Buddhe, Sujatha; Ferguson, Mark; Arya, Bhawna; Soriano, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Right ventricular dilation is a common complication after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Traditional echocardiographic assessments are imprecise due to the RV's location and complex geometry. We propose a novel echocardiographic measurement: RV apical flattening (RVAF) as a screening tool to help identify subjects with severe RV dilation. Patients with repaired TOF who had both echocardiograms and CMR's within 6-month interval at our institution were included in the study. The RVAF was measured in the four-chamber echocardiographic view as the minor length of RV cavity at the level of RV apical endocardium. Subjects were divided into two groups (group I: RVEDVi ≥ 150 ml/m(2) and group II; RVEDVi < 150 ml/m(2)). Echocardiogram and CMR data were compared between groups. A total of 75 subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 12.8 ± 3.6 years. Group I had 36 subjects, and group II had 39 subjects. The mean RVAF was significantly higher in group I (2.7 ± 0.5 cm) compared with group II (1.7 ± 0.4 cm; p < 0.001). There was significant correlation between RVAF and RVEDVi (r = 0.81; p < 0.001). By ROC analysis, an RVAF cutoff value of 2.0 cm had 94 % sensitivity and 77 % specificity in identifying severe RV dilation (area under the curve 0.95). RVAF is a simple and effective echocardiographic screening tool to help identify severe RV dilation. In conjunction with other 2D echocardiographic parameters, this technique would help further refine echocardiography-guided patient selection for timing of CMR and pulmonary valve replacement.

  14. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS.

  15. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. Methods This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Results Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850–0.915) and 0.862 (0.824–0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934–0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. Conclusion The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers. PMID:26885318

  16. Reply: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Kara A.; McShane, Dan

    2013-02-01

    A large storm event in southwest Washington State triggered over 2500 landslides and provided an opportunity to assess two slope stability screening tools. The statistical analysis conducted demonstrated that both screening tools are effective at predicting where landslides were likely to take place (Whittaker and McShane, 2012). Here we reply to two discussions of this article related to the development of the slope stability screening tools and the accuracy and scale of the spatial data used. Neither of the discussions address our statistical analysis or results. We provide greater detail on our sampling criteria and also elaborate on the policy and management implications of our findings and how they complement those of a separate investigation of landslides resulting from the same storm. The conclusions made in Whittaker and McShane (2012) stand as originally published unless future analysis indicates otherwise.

  17. siMacro: A Fast and Easy Data Processing Tool for Cell-Based Genomewide siRNA Screens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Seo, Bo Yeun; Vidyasagar, Mathukumalli; White, Michael A; Kim, Hyun Seok

    2013-03-01

    Growing numbers of studies employ cell line-based systematic short interfering RNA (siRNA) screens to study gene functions and to identify drug targets. As multiple sources of variations that are unique to siRNA screens exist, there is a growing demand for a computational tool that generates normalized values and standardized scores. However, only a few tools have been available so far with limited usability. Here, we present siMacro, a fast and easy-to-use Microsoft Office Excel-based tool with a graphic user interface, designed to process single-condition or two-condition synthetic screen datasets. siMacro normalizes position and batch effects, censors outlier samples, and calculates Z-scores and robust Z-scores, with a spreadsheet output of >120,000 samples in under 1 minute.

  18. Adaptation of Alcohol and Drug Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to a Department of Intercollegiate Athletics: The COMPASS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agley, Jon; Walker, Barbara B.; Gassman, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and implement an intervention for problem alcohol and substance use among student athletes at a large Midwestern department of intercollegiate athletics in the USA, by use of screening, a brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) and motivational interviewing (MI). This paper outlines the development of the protocol,…

  19. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents: Evaluation of a Pediatric Residency Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheryl A.; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L.; Fiellin, David A.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the…

  20. Skills-Based Residency Training in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: Results from the Georgia-Texas "Improving Brief Intervention" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Velasquez, Mary M.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Shellenberger, Sylvia; von Sternberg, Kirk; Dodrill, Carrie; Boltri, John M.; Takei, Roy; Clark, Denice; Grace, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is recommended for all primary care patients but is underutilized. This project trained 111 residents and faculty in 8 family medicine residencies to conduct SBI and implement SBI protocols in residency clinics, then assessed changes in self-reported importance and confidence in performing SBI and…

  1. Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Kara A.; McShane, Dan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare the ability of two slope instability screening tools developed by the Washington State Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) to assess landslide risks associated with forestry activities. HAZONE is based on a semi-quantitative method that incorporates the landslide frequency rate and landslide area rate for delivery of mapped landforms. SLPSTAB is a GIS-based model of inherent landform characteristics that utilizes slope geometry derived from DEMs and climatic data. Utilization of slope instability screening tools by geologists, land managers, and regulatory agencies can reduce the frequency and magnitude of landslides. Aquatic habitats are negatively impacted by elevated rates and magnitudes of landslides associated with forest management practices due to high sediment loads and alteration of stream channels and morphology. In 2007 a large storm with heavy rainfall impacted southwestern Washington State trigging over 2500 landslides. This storm event and accompanying landslides provides an opportunity to assess the slope stability screening tools developed by WDNR. Landslide density (up to 6.5 landslides per km2) from the storm was highest in the areas designated by the screening tools as high hazard areas, and both of the screening tools were equal in their ability to predict landslide locations. Landslides that initiated in low hazard areas may have resulted from a variety of site-specific factors that deviated from assumed model values, from the inadequate identification of potentially unstable landforms due to low resolution DEMs, or from the inadequate implementation of the state Forest Practices Rules. We suggest that slope instability screening tools can be better utilized by forest management planners and regulators to meet policy goals regarding minimizing landslide rates and impacts to sensitive aquatic species.

  2. Is carpal tunnel syndrome present in acute stroke patients? An investigative study using clinical and imaging screening tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chen; Loochtan, Aaron I; Dresser, Brian; Chang, Jianhong; Farjat, Alfredo E; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Hobson-Webb, Lisa D

    2017-05-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is known to develop post-stroke. Median nerve ultrasound (US) is an inexpensive, effective means of screening. In this prospective feasibility study, we compared the ability of the physical exam, the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ) and median nerve US to screen for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) within 72hours of stroke onset. We enrolled 24 consecutive patients. Using US, 19 (79%, p=0.0386) of the 24 patients screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 20 (83%, p=0.0042) on the nonparetic side. With clinical examination, only 11 out of 24 (46%) screened positive for CTS on the paretic side and 8 (33%) on the nonparetic side. The BCTQ did not predict CTS. US can be an effective screening tool post-stroke. Further research is needed to determine specificity and efficacy compared to electrodiagnostic testing in this population.

  3. Drug Literacy in Iran: the Experience of Using "The Single Item Health Literacy Screening (SILS) Tool".

    PubMed

    Peiravian, Farzad; Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Jahani Hashemi, Hasan; Mohammadi, Navid; Jafari, Nahid; Fardi, Kianoosh

    2014-01-01

    Drug and health literacy is a key determinant of health outcomes. There are several tools to assess drug and health literacy. The objective of this article is to determine drug literacy level and its relationships with other factors using a single item screening tool. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1104 people in Qazvin province, Iran. Based on the proportional-to-size method, participants over 15 years old with ability to read were recruited randomly from 6 counties in Qazvin province and were interviewed directly. To determine drug literacy relationship with other variables, Chi-Square and t-test were used. Also, logistic regression model was used to adjust the relationship between drug literacy and other relevant variables. Response rate in clusters was 100%. Findings showed that inadequate drug literacy in Qazvin province is 30.3% and it was in association with (1) age (p = .000), (2) marital status (p = .000), (3) educational attainment (p = .000), (4) home county (p = .000), (5) residing area (p = .000), (6) type of basic health insurance (p = .000), (7) complementary health insurance status (p = .000), and (8) family socioeconomic status (p = .000). After adjusting for these variables using logistic regression model, the association between (1), (3), (4), (5) and (8) with drug literacy level was confirmed. The analysis also showed that this method can also be used in other health care settings in Iran for drug and health literacy rapid assessment.

  4. Validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration screening tool in community-dwelling and institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-03-02

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n=29) and community-dwelling (n=74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale's dimensionality and Cronbach's alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct's validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named "Hydration Score" and "Pain Score", and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The "Hydration Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the "Pain Score" was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people.

  5. Calibration of FI-ISK, an invasiveness screening tool for nonnative freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Elena; Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Gherardi, Francesca; Copp, Gordon H

    2010-02-01

    The Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FI-ISK) is proposed as a screening tool for identifying potentially invasive freshwater invertebrates. FI-ISK was adapted from the Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) of Copp, Garthwaite, and Gozlan, which is an adapted form of the Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) of Pheloung, Williams, and Halloy. Initial assessments using FI-ISK, which include confidence (certainty/uncertainty) rankings by the assessor to each response, were calibrated to determine the most appropriate score thresholds for classifying nonnative species into low-, medium-, and high-risk categories, using both the original medium-to-high risk threshold scores for the WRA (i.e., > or = 6) and for FISK (i.e., > or = 19). Patterns of the assessor's confidence, when making the responses during the FI-ISK assessments, were also examined. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, FI-ISK was shown to distinguish accurately (and with statistical confidence) between potentially invasive and noninvasive species of nonnative crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, Parastacidae), with the statistically appropriate threshold score for high-risk species scores being > or = 16. FI-ISK represents a useful and viable tool to aid decision- and policymakers in assessing and classifying freshwater invertebrates according to their potential invasiveness.

  6. Mechanism-based categorization of aromatase inhibitors: a potential discovery and screening tool.

    PubMed

    Petkov, P I; Temelkov, S; Villeneuve, D L; Ankley, G T; Mekenyan, O G

    2009-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key steroidogenic enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. There is much interest in aromatase inhibitors (AIs) both because of their use as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancers, and because a number of environmental contaminants can act as AIs, thereby disrupting endocrine function in humans and wildlife through suppression of circulating estrogen levels. The goal of the current work was to develop a mechanism-based structure-activity relationship (SAR) categorization framework highlighting the most important chemical structural features responsible for inhibition of aromatase activity. Two main interaction mechanisms were discerned: steroidal and non-steroidal. The steroid scaffold is most prominent when the structure of the target chemical is similar to the natural substrates of aromatase - androstenedione and testosterone. Chemicals acting by non-steroidal mechanism(s) possess a heteroatom (N, O, S) able to coordinate the heme iron of the cytochrome P450, and thus interfere with steroid hydroxylation. The specific structural boundaries controlling AI for both analyzed mechanisms were defined, and a software tool was developed that allowed a decision tree (profile) to be built discriminating AIs by mechanism and potency. An input chemical follows a profiling path and the structure is examined at each step to decide whether it conforms with the structural boundaries implemented in the decision tree node. Such a system would aid drug discovery efforts, as well as provide a screening tool to detect environmental contaminants that could act as AIs.

  7. Screening, Molecular Cloning, and Biochemical Characterization of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pichia pastoris Useful for the Kinetic Resolution of a Racemic β-Hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl Ketone.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Dalia; Duangdee, Nongnaphat; Gröger, Harald; Berkessel, Albrecht; Hummel, Werner

    2016-07-15

    The stereoselective synthesis of chiral 1,3-diols with the aid of biocatalysts is an attractive tool in organic chemistry. Besides the reduction of diketones, an alternative approach consists of the stereoselective reduction of β-hydroxy ketones (aldols). Thus, we screened for an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that would selectively reduce a β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone. One potential starting material for this process is readily available by aldol addition of acetone to 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone. Over 200 strains were screened, and only a few yeast strains showed stereoselective reduction activities. The enzyme responsible for the reduction of the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone was identified after purification and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis. As a result, a new NADP(+) -dependent ADH from Pichia pastoris (PPADH) was identified and confirmed to be capable of stereospecific and diastereoselective reduction of the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone to its corresponding 1,3-diol. The gene encoding PPADH was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). To determine the influence of an N- or C-terminal His-tag fusion, three different recombinant plasmids were constructed. Interestingly, the variant with the N-terminal His-tag showed the highest activity; consequently, this variant was purified and characterized. Kinetic parameters and the dependency of activity on pH and temperature were determined. PPADH shows a substrate preference for the reduction of linear and branched aliphatic aldehydes. Surprisingly, the enzyme shows no comparable activity towards ketones other than the β-hydroxy-β-trifluoromethyl ketone.

  8. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  9. Development of the Water-Analysis Screening Tool Used in the Initial Screening for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan Update of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning Act, Act 220 of 2002, requires the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) to update the State Water Plan by 2008. As part of this update, a water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the PaDEP, to provide assistance to the state in the identification of critical water-planning areas. The WAST has two primary inputs: net withdrawals and the initial screening criteria. A comprehensive water-use database that includes data from registration, estimation, discharge monitoring reports, mining data, and other sources was developed as input into the WAST. Water use in the following categories was estimated using water-use factors: residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, and golf courses. A percentage of the 7-day, 10-year low flow is used for the initial screenings using the WAST to identify potential critical water-planning areas. This quantity, or initial screening criteria, is 50 percent of the 7-day, 10-year low flow for most streams. Using a basic water-balance equation, a screening indicator is calculated that indicates the potential influences of net withdrawals on aquatic-resource uses for watersheds generally larger than 15 square miles. Points representing outlets of these watersheds are colored-coded within the WAST to show the screening criteria for each watershed.

  10. Comparison of Nursing Records and the Catholic Medical Center Nutritional Risk Screening as a Nutrition Screening Tool for Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Jin; Hong, Jeong Im

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to compare the results from nutritional risk screening based on nursing records with those using the Catholic Medical Center Nutritional Risk Screening (CMCNRS) tool. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 91 patients aged ≥ 18 years from an intensive care unit. We collected general characteristics of the patients and nutrition screening was conducted for each patient by using computerized hospital program for the nursing records as well as the CMCNRS conducted by clinical dietitians. The subjects were aged 64.0 ± 17.5 years, and 52 (57.1%) patients had a NPO (nothing by mouth) status. Neurological disease was the most common diagnosis (25.3%). Compared with the CMCNRS results from the clinical dietitians, the results for the nursing records had a sensitivity of 40.5% (95% CI 32.0-40.5) and a specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.8-100.0). The agreement was fair between the CMCNRS results obtained by clinical dietitians and the nursing records (k = 0.423). Analysis of the errors from the screening using the nursing records revealed significant differences for all subjective indicators (p < 0.001), compared with the CMCNRS by the clinical dietitians. Thus, after assessing the methods used for nutrition screening and the differences in the search results regarding malnourished status, we noted that the nursing records had a lower sensitivity than the screening by the CMCNRS. PMID:25713793

  11. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; van der Heever, Hendry; Skaal, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. PMID:23698697

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of nutritional screening tools to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Myoung-Ha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Malnutrition in the elderly is a serious problem, prevalent in both hospitals and care homes. Due to the absence of a gold standard for malnutrition, herein we evaluate the efficacy of five nutritional screening tools developed or used for the elderly. SUBJECTS/METHODS Elected medical records of 141 elderly patients (86 men and 55 women, aged 73.5 ± 5.2 years) hospitalized at a geriatric care hospital were analyzed. Nutritional screening was performed using the following tools: Mini Nutrition Assessment (MNA), Mini Nutrition Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002). A combined index for malnutrition was also calculated as a reference tool. Each patient evaluated as malnourished to any degree or at risk of malnutrition according to at least four out of five of the aforementioned tools was categorized as malnourished in the combined index classification. RESULTS According to the combined index, 44.0% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition to some degree. While the nutritional risk and/or malnutrition varied greatly depending on the tool applied, ranging from 36.2% (MUST) to 72.3% (MNA-SF). MUST showed good validity (sensitivity 80.6%, specificity 98.7%) and almost perfect agreement (k = 0.81) with the combined index. In contrast, MNA-SF showed poor validity (sensitivity 100%, specificity 49.4%) and only moderate agreement (k = 0.46) with the combined index. CONCLUSIONS MNA-SF was found to overestimate the nutritional risk in the elderly. MUST appeared to be the most valid and useful screening tool to predict malnutrition in the elderly at a geriatric care hospital. PMID:26634053

  13. A newborn screening method for cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis using bile alcohol glucuronides and metabolite ratios.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Frédéric M; Bootsma, Albert H; Kulik, Willem; Verrips, Aad; Wevers, Ron A; Schielen, Peter C; DeBarber, Andrea E; Huidekoper, Hidde H

    2017-03-17

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a treatable neurodegenerative metabolic disorder of bile acid synthesis where symptoms can be prevented if treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation is initiated early in life, making CTX an excellent candidate for newborn screening. We developed a new dried blood spot screening assay for this disorder based on different ratios between the accumulating cholestanetetrol glucuronide (tetrol) and specific bile acids/bile acid intermediates, without the need for derivatization. A quarter-inch dried blood spot punch was extracted with methanol, internal standards were added and after concentration the extract was injected into the tandem mass spectrometer using a 2 minute flow injection analysis where specific transitions were measured for cholestanetetrol glucuronide, tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (t-CDCA) and tauro-trihydroxycholestanoic acid (t-THCA). A proof of principle experiment was performed using 216 Guthrie cards from healthy term/preterm newborns, CTX patients and Zellweger patients. Using two calculated biomarkers, tetrol/t-CDCA and t-THCA/tetrol, this straightforward method achieved an excellent separation between dried blood spots of CTX patients and those of controls, Zellweger patients and newborns with cholestasis. The results of this small pilot study indicate that the tetrol/t-CDCA ratio is an excellent derived biomarker for CTX that has the potential to be used in neonatal screening programs.

  14. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  15. Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS): an efficient tool for depression screening in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Neitzer, Andrea; Sun, Sumi; Doss, Sheila; Moran, John; Schiller, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Depression is common in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Various screening tools for depression in ESRD patients are available. This study aimed to validate the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as depression screening tool in conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients. One hundred sixty two CHD patients were studied with both screening questionnaires. We used the Pearson Correlation Coefficient to measure the agreement between BDI-II and BDI-FS scores from 134 patients who responded to both questionnaires. Receiver operating characteristics curve and area under the curve were constructed to determine a valid BDI-FS cutoff score to identify ESRD patients at risk for depression. BDI-II and BDI-FS scores strongly correlated (Pearson r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). At a BDI-II cutoff ≥16, receiver operating characteristics showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for the BDI-FS cutoff value of ≥4 with a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.5%, 99.9%) and a specificity of 91.8% (95% CI: 84.5%, 96.4%). When applying the above cutoff scores, prevalence of depressive symptoms in all completed questionnaires was found to be 28.7% (BDI-II) and 30.1% (BDI-FS), respectively. The BDI-FS was found to be an efficient and effective tool for depression screening in ESRD patients which can be easily implemented in routine dialysis care.

  16. Neuropathic pain in breast cancer survivors: using the ID pain as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Gibby, Cielito; Morrow, Phuong Khanh; Bennett, Michael I; Jensen, Mark P; Shete, Sanjay

    2010-05-01

    Neuropathic pain (NP) is a debilitating symptom experienced by a number of patients with cancer. We evaluated the validity of ID Pain as a screening tool for NP in breast cancer survivors using the Self-Report Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS) and a reported diagnosis of NP as criterion measures. Two hundred forty breast cancer survivors with a mean age of 58 years (standard deviation=16) participated in this survey. Forty-five percent of the sample reported having pain in the past week. Of those reporting pain, 33% reported that they had been diagnosed by their health care provider with NP, 39% had a positive ID Pain (> or = 2) score, and 19% had a positive S-LANSS score. The most commonly endorsed ID Pain item was "hot/burning" (n=48) followed by feeling "numb" (n=47) and "pins and needles" (n=45). Total ID Pain score was significantly associated with a clinical diagnosis of NP (r=0.41; P<0.001) and the S-LANSS total score (r=0.54; P<0.001). Receiver operating curve analysis demonstrated that ID Pain has a predictive validity of 0.72 and 0.70 for diagnosis of NP as made by clinicians and the S-LANSS, respectively. We also found that an ID Pain score greater than or equal to 2 corresponded with the likelihood of NP in this sample, consistent with the original ID Pain development study. This study provides evidence for ID Pain as a valid screening measure for NP in breast cancer survivors.

  17. Waist-to-height ratio as a screening tool for obesity and cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), calculated by dividing the waist circumference (WC) by height, has recently gained attention as an anthropometric index for central adiposity. It is an easy-to-use and less age-dependent index to identify individuals with increased cardiometabolic risk. A WHtR cutoff of 0.5 can be used in different sex and ethnic groups and is generally accepted as a universal cutoff for central obesity in children (aged ≥6 years) and adults. However, the WHtR has not been validated in preschool children, and the routine use of WHtR in children under age 6 is not recommended. Prospective studies and meta-analysis in adults revealed that the WHtR is equivalent to or slightly better than WC and superior to body mass index (BMI) in predicting higher cardiometabolic risk. In children and adolescents, studies have shown that the WHtR is similar to both BMI and WC in identifying those at an increased cardiometabolic risk. Additional use of WHtR with BMI or WC may be helpful because WHtR considers both height and central obesity. WHtR may be preferred because of its simplicity and because it does not require sex- and age-dependent cutoffs; additionally, the simple message 'keep your WC to less than half your height' may be particularly useful. This review article summarizes recent publications on the usefulness of using WHtR especially when compared to BMI and WC as a screening tool for obesity and related cardiometabolic risks, and recommends the use of WHtR in clinical practice for obesity screening in children and adolescents. PMID:27895689

  18. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH. PMID:27651998

  19. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  20. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone density) Cardiovascular disease screenings Cardiovascular disease (behavioral therapy) Cervical & ...

  1. A brief patient self-administered substance use screening tool for primary care: two-site validation study of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS)

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M; Saitz, Richard; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use screening is widely encouraged in healthcare settings, but the lack of a screening approach that fits easily into clinical workflows has restricted its broad implementation. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify unhealthy use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. We evaluated the validity and test-retest reliability of the SUBS in adult primary care patients. Methods Adults age 18-65 were enrolled from urban safety net primary care clinics to self-administer the SUBS using touch-screen tablet computers for a test-retest reliability study (n=54) and a two-site validation study (n=586). In the test-retest reliability study, the SUBS was administered twice within a 2-week period. In the validation study, the SUBS was compared to reference standard measures, including self-reported measures and saliva drug tests. We measured test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS for detection of unhealthy use and substance use disorder for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (illicit and prescription drug misuse). Results Test-retest reliability was good or excellent for each substance class. For detection of unhealthy use, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI 93.7 to 99.5) and 95.7% (95% CI 92.4 to 97.8), respectively, for tobacco; and 85.2% (95% CI 79.3 to 89.9) and 77.0% (95% CI 72.6 to 81.1) for alcohol. For unhealthy use of illicit or prescription drugs, sensitivity was 82.5% (95% CI 75.7 to 88.0) and specificity 91.1% (95% CI 87.9 to 93.6). With respect to identifying a substance use disorder, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.7 to 100.0) and 72.1% (95% CI 67.1 to 76.8) for tobacco; 93.5% (95% CI 85.5 to 97.9) and 64.6% (95% CI 60.2 to 68.7) for alcohol; and 85.7% (95% CI 77.2 to 92.0) and 82.0% (95% CI 78.2 to 85.3) for drugs. Analyses of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated good

  2. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  3. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Four-Year-Olds: Construct Validation of a Language Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…

  4. Discussion: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Susan

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this discussion paper is to identify major technical errors made by Whittaker and McShane (2012) regarding the development and use of SLPSTAB (Shaw and Vaugeois, 1999; Vaugeois, 2000). SLPSTAB is a GIS-based data layer currently utilized as a regulatory tool for preliminarily screening slope stability potential on nonfederal, commercial timberlands in Washington State.

  5. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  6. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  7. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infection among active injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dawn K.; Pan, Yi; Rose, Charles E.; Pals, Sherri L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To incorporate preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical or intensive behavioral interventions into the care of injection drug users, healthcare providers need validated, rapid, risk screening tools for identifying persons at highest risk of incident HIV infection. Methods To develop and validate a brief screening tool for assessing the risk of contracting HIV (ARCH), we included behavioral and HIV test data from 1904 initially HIV-uninfected men and women enrolled and followed in the ALIVE prospective cohort study between 1988 and 2008. Using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we identified significant predictors of incident HIV infection, then rescaled and summed their regression coefficients to create a risk score. Results The final logistic regression model included age, engagement in a methadone maintenance program, and a composite injection risk score obtained by counting the number of the following five behaviors reported during the past six months: injection of heroin, injection of cocaine, sharing a cooker, sharing needles, or visiting a shooting gallery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.720, possible scores on index ranged from 0 to 100 and a score ≥46 had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 42.5%, appropriate for a screening tool. Discussion We developed an easy to administer 7-question screening tool with a cutoff that is predictive of incident HIV infection in a large prospective cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore. The ARCH-IDU screening tool can be used to prioritize persons who are injecting illicit drugs for consideration of PrEP and other intensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25961495

  8. Using a nutritional screening tool to evaluate the nutritional status of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tu, Mei-Yu; Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting

    2012-01-01

    We assessed which nutrition evaluation method [subjective global assessment (SGA); malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST); nutritional risk index (NRI)] provided the most efficacious combination of high validity, low cost, and ease of use to examine and improve the status of malnutrition for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. The SGA, MUST, and NRI scales were used to analyze the preoperative status of malnutrition for 45 CRC patients in a medical center in Taiwan. Differences in the reliability of the 3 methods were compared using the kappa (κ) coefficient of agreement. Lengths of hospital stays were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test to examine the effect of malnutrition in CRC patients. The SGA κ coefficient was higher with the MUST than with the NRI. Preoperative and postoperative weight losses were significantly different on the NRI, and the longer the length of the hospital stay, the greater was the weight loss. Although the SGA had a higher validity and lower cost than the NRI, we recommend using the MUST method for a routine nutrition evaluation because it is easier to use and is less expensive than the SGA and the NRI.

  9. STR melting curve analysis as a genetic screening tool for crime scene samples.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Quang; McKinney, Jason; Johnson, Donald J; Roberts, Katherine A; Hardy, Winters R

    2012-07-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, high-resolution melt curve (HRMC) analysis was investigated as a postquantification screening tool to discriminate human CSF1PO and THO1 genotypes amplified with mini-STR primers in the presence of SYBR Green or LCGreen Plus dyes. A total of 12 CSF1PO and 11 HUMTHO1 genotypes were analyzed on the LightScanner HR96 and LS-32 systems and were correctly differentiated based upon their respective melt profiles. Short STR amplicon melt curves were affected by repeat number, and single-source and mixed DNA samples were additionally differentiated by the formation of heteroduplexes. Melting curves were shown to be unique and reproducible from DNA quantities ranging from 20 to 0.4 ng and distinguished identical from nonidentical genotypes from DNA derived from different biological fluids and compromised samples. Thus, a method is described which can assess both the quantity and the possible probative value of samples without full genotyping.

  10. Use of electronic data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Carl A; Pendharkar, Sachin R; Ronksley, Paul E; Tsai, Willis H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the ability of electronic health data and existing screening tools to identify clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), as defined by symptomatic or severe OSA. METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study of 1041 patients referred for sleep diagnostic testing was undertaken at a tertiary sleep centre in Calgary, Alberta. A diagnosis of clinically significant OSA or an alternative sleep diagnosis was assigned to each patient through blinded independent chart review by two sleep physicians. Predictive variables were identified from online questionnaire data, and diagnostic algorithms were developed. The performance of electronically derived algorithms for identifying patients with clinically significant OSA was determined. Diagnostic performance of these algorithms was compared with versions of the STOP-Bang questionnaire and adjusted neck circumference score (ANC) derived from electronic data. RESULTS: Electronic questionnaire data were highly sensitive (>95%) at identifying clinically significant OSA, but not specific. Sleep diagnostic testing-determined respiratory disturbance index was very specific (specificity ≥95%) for clinically relevant disease, but not sensitive (<35%). Derived algorithms had similar accuracy to the STOP-Bang or ANC, but required fewer questions and calculations. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that a two-step process using a small number of clinical variables (maximizing sensitivity) and objective diagnostic testing (maximizing specificity) is required to identify clinically significant OSA. When used in an online setting, simple algorithms can identify clinically relevant OSA with similar performance to existing decision rules such as the STOP-Bang or ANC. PMID:26083542

  11. Vitamin D: a poor screening tool for biochemical and radiological rickets.

    PubMed

    Foley, Giles T; Yates, Edward W; Wadia, Farokh; Paton, Robin W

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study aims to determine if a relationship exists between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and the diagnosis of biochemical or radiological rickets in children with bone and joint pain, muscle fatigue or varus/valgus knees. A retrospective biochemistry database and case note study was undertaken on 115 new patients referred to the senior authors' elective Paediatric Orthopaedic Clinic in 2010. Their mean age was 10.95 years (95% CI 10.24-11.68). Mean serum vitamin D was 18.27 mcg/l (95% CI 16.13-20.41), while 30 mcg/l is the normal threshold. One hundred and three children (88%) had vitamin D levels below normal. Winter/springtime blood samples were more likely to be deficient and this was statistically significant. Three Asian females (2.61%) were diagnosed with radiological rickets. Vitamin D levels below normal are common in children presenting with vague limb or back pain, but this rarely presents with biochemical or radiological rickets. Serum vitamin D level is not a suitable screening tool for biochemical or radiological rickets. Vitamin D requirement in children is unclear and requires further study.

  12. MSH-6: extending the reliability of immunohistochemistry as a screening tool in Muir-Torre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chhibber, Vishes; Dresser, Karen; Mahalingam, Meera

    2008-02-01

    The subtype of Muir-Torre syndrome, allelic to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is typically associated with germline mutations in the mismatch repair proteins MSH-2 and/or MLH-1. More recently, mutation in an additional mismatch repair protein MSH-6 has been documented in a patient with Muir-Torre syndrome. Given this, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the frequency of the same in unselected sebaceous gland neoplasms. Overall, we found that 59% of sebaceous neoplasms exhibited a mutation in at least one mismatch repair protein gene -- a prevalence rate similar to that reported previously by others. Of interest, we found MSH-6 to be the mismatch repair protein most commonly lost 17/41 (41%), followed by MSH-2 14/41 (34%) and MLH-18/41 (20%) and the positive predictive value of each were as follows: MLH-1 88%, MSH-6 67% and MSH-2 55%. The frequency of a MSH-6 germline mutation in our cohort indicates that it is not a rare finding. Evidence indicating microsatellite stability in three of 17 patients with a clinical history indicative of Muir-Torre syndrome and a mutation in only MSH-6 suggests that the phenotype of a germline MSH-6 mutation differs from that of MLH-1 and MSH-2 mutations and further supports the use of immunohistochemistry as a screening tool in patients with Muir-Torre syndrome with an extended panel that includes MSH-6.

  13. BioBloom tools: fast, accurate and memory-efficient host species sequence screening using bloom filters

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Justin; Sadeghi, Sara; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D.; Nip, Ka Ming; Mar, Richard; Mohamadi, Hamid; Butterfield, Yaron S.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Birol, Inanç

    2014-01-01

    Large datasets can be screened for sequences from a specific organism, quickly and with low memory requirements, by a data structure that supports time- and memory-efficient set membership queries. Bloom filters offer such queries but require that false positives be controlled. We present BioBloom Tools, a Bloom filter-based sequence-screening tool that is faster than BWA, Bowtie 2 (popular alignment algorithms) and FACS (a membership query algorithm). It delivers accuracies comparable with these tools, controls false positives and has low memory requirements. Availability and implementaion: www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/biobloomtools Contact: cjustin@bcgsc.ca or ibirol@bcgsc.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25143290

  14. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information.

  15. Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution: A Powerful Tool for the Preparation of Enantiomerically Pure Alcohols and Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) constitutes a convenient and efficient method to access enantiomerically pure alcohol and amine derivatives. This Perspective highlights the work carried out within this field during the past two decades and pinpoints important avenues for future research. First, the Perspective will summarize the more developed area of alcohol DKR, by delineating the way from the earliest proof-of-concept protocols to the current state-of-the-art systems that allows for the highly efficient and selective preparation of a wide range of enantiomerically pure alcohol derivatives. Thereafter, the Perspective will focus on the more challenging DKR of amines, by presenting the currently available homogeneous and heterogeneous methods and their respective limitations. In these two parts, significant attention will be dedicated to the design of efficient racemization methods as an important means of developing milder DKR protocols. In the final part of the Perspective, a brief overview of the research that has been devoted toward improving enzymes as biocatalysts is presented. PMID:25730714

  16. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution: a powerful tool for the preparation of enantiomerically pure alcohols and amines.

    PubMed

    Verho, Oscar; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-04-01

    Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) constitutes a convenient and efficient method to access enantiomerically pure alcohol and amine derivatives. This Perspective highlights the work carried out within this field during the past two decades and pinpoints important avenues for future research. First, the Perspective will summarize the more developed area of alcohol DKR, by delineating the way from the earliest proof-of-concept protocols to the current state-of-the-art systems that allows for the highly efficient and selective preparation of a wide range of enantiomerically pure alcohol derivatives. Thereafter, the Perspective will focus on the more challenging DKR of amines, by presenting the currently available homogeneous and heterogeneous methods and their respective limitations. In these two parts, significant attention will be dedicated to the design of efficient racemization methods as an important means of developing milder DKR protocols. In the final part of the Perspective, a brief overview of the research that has been devoted toward improving enzymes as biocatalysts is presented.

  17. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools.

    PubMed

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-09-11

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population.

  18. Identifying Malnutrition in an Elderly Ambulatory Rehabilitation Population: Agreement between Mini Nutritional Assessment and Validated Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Yaxley, Alison; Crotty, Maria; Miller, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in older adults and often goes unrecognised and untreated. Australian evidence-based guidelines for the management of malnutrition indicate that only the Mini Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-sf) and Rapid Screen are recommended for use as malnutrition screening tools in the rehabilitation setting. The aim of this secondary analysis was to assess the validity and reliability of two malnutrition screening tools, validated in other adult sub-groups, in a rehabilitation population aged ≥60 years. The Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ), were completed by 185 ambulatory rehabilitation patients (48% male; median age 78 years) and results compared to the full MNA as a reference technique. Prevalence of risk of malnutrition was 63% according to the MNA. For identification of risk of malnutrition the CNAQ had sensitivity of 54%, specificity 81%, positive predictive value 83% and negative predictive value 51%, compared to 28%, 94%, 89% and 44%, respectively, using SNAQ. Assessment of reliability indicated significant slight to fair agreement between MNA with CNAQ (κ = 0.309, p < 0.001) and SNAQ (κ = 0.176, p < 0.001). Neither the CNAQ nor the SNAQ have a high level of validity or reliability in this elderly population and are therefore not recommended for use in the ambulatory rehabilitation setting. Further work is necessary to assess the validity and reliability of other malnutrition screening tools to establish their usefulness in this population. PMID:27417799

  19. The impact of a short depression and anxiety screening tool in epilepsy care in primary health care settings in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-11-01

    Up to 60% of the 50 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide have depression and anxiety and 80% of PWE live in low-income regions. Common psychiatric comorbidities are often unrecognized and undertreated. We developed and validated a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety at primary healthcare clinics in Zambia in which the baseline detection rate among PWE was 1%. We trained primary care clinic workers in selected clinics to use this screening tool. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 120 consecutive PWE who received care one month after training. Detection improved from 1% to 49%, and treatment was frequently initiated. Of the 120 screened, 59 (49.2%) scored above cutoff point of 18. Of these persons, 43 (73.0%) were positive for depression, 16 (23.0%) were positive for anxiety, 38 (64.4%) received counseling, 18 (30.5%) received antidepressants, and 3 (5.1%) were referred to a psychiatrist. Use of this screening tool resulted in improved mental health care for PWE.

  20. Comparisons of Different Screening Tools for Identifying Fracture/Osteoporosis Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older People

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Chen, Yi-Ju; Cheng, Chui-Hsuan; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age Bulk One or Never Estrogens (ABONE), body weight criterion (BWC), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Garvan fracture risk calculator (GARVAN), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), among older men and women in Taiwan. Using the femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-score as an external criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each tool were calculated. The ability of these tools to predict injurious falls was examined. A principal component analysis was applied to understand whether these tools were measuring the same underlying construct. The FRAX, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in men, while the GARVAN, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in women. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE tools in both men and women were 100%, ≥90%, and 0.0, respectively; the specificity and positive predictive value and likelihood ratio were far from satisfactory. The GARVAN displayed the best predictive ability of a fall in both men (AUCs, 0.653–0.686) and women (AUCs, 0.560–0.567), despite being smaller in women. The 9 screening tools and 2 central DXA measurements assessed 5 different factors, while the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE measured the same one. Simple self-assessment tools can serve as initial screening instruments to rule out persons who have osteoporosis; however, these tools may measure a different construct

  1. [Efficacy and effectiveness of different nutritional screening tools in a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Calleja Fernández, Alicia; Vidal Casariego, Alfonso; Cano Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros Pomar, María D

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de desnutrición en el medio hospitalario y sus repercusiones hacen necesario el empleo de herramientas de cribado nutricional para su detección, diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz. Objetivo: Evaluar la herramienta de cribado nutricional más adecuada para el paciente hospitalizado en un hospital de tercer nivel, a nivel global y por servicios de hospitalización. Metodología: Estudio transversal realizado en condiciones de práctica clínica habitual. Se evaluaron 4 métodos de cribado nutricional: Valoración Subjetiva Global (VSG), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) y Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002). Los servicios de hospitalización se agruparon en: servicios médicos, Cirugía General, Traumatología, otros servicios quirúrgicos y Oncología-Hematología. Se realizó un análisis estadístico de sensibilidad (S) y especificidad (Sp) y fueron comparados mediante curva COR. Resultados: Fueron valorados 201 pacientes con mediana de edad de 71,6 (RIC 21,4) años y el 51,2% fueron mujeres. La prevalencia de riesgo nutricional (RN) y desnutrición (DN) detectada fue: VSG 62,1%, MNA 68,6%, MUST 53,7% y NRS-2002 35,8%. Con todas las herramientas de cribado nutricional, excepto el MNA, se detectó una mayor prevalencia de RN y DN en los servicios médicos y quirúrgicos. En el análisis global el MNA obtuvo una S =93,3%, una Sp = 71,6% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,825; el MUST obtuvo una S = 82,4%, una Sp = 93,4% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,879; el NRS-2002 obtuvo una S = 56,0%, una Sp = 97,4% y un área bajo la curva COR de 0,766. Estos resultados fueron similares en el análisis por servicios de hospitalización. Conclusión: La herramienta de cribado nutricional recomendada en un centro hospitalario de tercer nivel y población envejecida sería el MUST por los adecuados resultados de sensibilidad y especificidad y la facilidad en su realización.

  2. Formaldehyde in Alcoholic Beverages: Large Chemical Survey Using Purpald Screening Followed by Chromotropic Acid Spectrophotometry with Multivariate Curve Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jendral, Julien A.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing formaldehyde in beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol was developed, and 508 samples from worldwide origin were analyzed. In the first step, samples are qualitatively screened using a simple colorimetric test with the purpald reagent, which is extremely sensitive for formaldehyde (detection limit 0.1 mg/L). 210 samples (41%) gave a positive purpald reaction. In the second step, formaldehyde in positive samples is confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometry of the chromotropic acid-formaldehyde derivative combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Calculation of UV-VIS and 13C NMR spectra confirmed the monocationic dibenzoxanthylium structure as the product of the reaction and disproved the widely cited para,para-quinoidal structure. Method validation for the spectrophotometric procedure showed a detection limit of 0.09 mg/L and a precision of 4.2–8.2% CV. In total, 132 samples (26%) contained formaldehyde with an average of 0.27 mg/L (range 0–14.4 mg/L). The highest incidence occurred in tequila (83%), Asian spirits (59%), grape marc (54%), and brandy (50%). Our survey showed that only 9 samples (1.8%) had formaldehyde levels above the WHO IPCS tolerable concentration of 2.6 mg/L. PMID:21760790

  3. Formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: large chemical survey using purpald screening followed by chromotropic Acid spectrophotometry with multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Jendral, Julien A; Monakhova, Yulia B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing formaldehyde in beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol was developed, and 508 samples from worldwide origin were analyzed. In the first step, samples are qualitatively screened using a simple colorimetric test with the purpald reagent, which is extremely sensitive for formaldehyde (detection limit 0.1 mg/L). 210 samples (41%) gave a positive purpald reaction. In the second step, formaldehyde in positive samples is confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometry of the chromotropic acid-formaldehyde derivative combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Calculation of UV-VIS and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed the monocationic dibenzoxanthylium structure as the product of the reaction and disproved the widely cited para,para-quinoidal structure. Method validation for the spectrophotometric procedure showed a detection limit of 0.09 mg/L and a precision of 4.2-8.2% CV. In total, 132 samples (26%) contained formaldehyde with an average of 0.27 mg/L (range 0-14.4 mg/L). The highest incidence occurred in tequila (83%), Asian spirits (59%), grape marc (54%), and brandy (50%). Our survey showed that only 9 samples (1.8%) had formaldehyde levels above the WHO IPCS tolerable concentration of 2.6 mg/L.

  4. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  5. Development of a short form and scoring algorithm from the validated actionable bladder symptom screening tool

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients develop some form of lower urinary tract dysfunction, usually as a result of neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). Patients identify urinary incontinence as one of the worst aspects of this disease. Despite the high prevalence of NDO, urological evaluation and treatment are significantly under-accessed in this population. The objectives of this study were: 1) to adapt the previously validated Actionable Bladder Symptom Screening Tool (ABSST) to a short form for ease and brevity of application in a clinical setting that is clinically meaningful; and 2) to develop a scoring algorithm that would be interpretable in terms of referring/considering precise diagnosis and treatment. Methods A US-based, non-randomized, multi-center, stand-alone observational study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of the ABSST among patients who have MS with and without NDO. Mixed psychometric methods (e.g., classical statistics (Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill; 1994) and item response methods (Applying the Rasch Model: Fundamental Measurement in the Human Sciences. New Jersey: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates; 2001)) were used to evaluate the predictive and clinical validity of the shortened form. The latter included clinicians flagging clinically meaningful items and associated response options which would indicate the need for further evaluation or treatment. Results A total of 151 patients, all with MS and with and without NDO, were recruited by 28 clinicians in various US geographical locations. Approximately 41% of patients reported a history of or currently having urinary incontinence and/or urinary urgency. The prediction model across the entire range of classification thresholds was evaluated, plotting the true positive identification rate against the false positive rate (1-Specificity) for various cut scores. In this study, the cut-point or total score of greater than or equal to 6 had

  6. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    PubMed

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed.

  7. Evaluation of a novel electronic genetic screening and clinical decision support tool in prenatal clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Emily A; Lin, Bruce K; Doksum, Teresa; Drohan, Brian; Edelson, Vaughn; Dolan, Siobhan M; Hughes, Kevin; O'Leary, James; Vasquez, Lisa; Copeland, Sara; Galvin, Shelley L; DeGroat, Nicole; Pardanani, Setul; Gregory Feero, W; Adams, Claire; Jones, Renee; Scott, Joan

    2014-07-01

    "The Pregnancy and Health Profile" (PHP) is a free prenatal genetic screening and clinical decision support (CDS) software tool for prenatal providers. PHP collects family health history (FHH) during intake and provides point-of-care risk assessment for providers and education for patients. This pilot study evaluated patient and provider responses to PHP and effects of using PHP in practice. PHP was implemented in four clinics. Surveys assessed provider confidence and knowledge and patient and provider satisfaction with PHP. Data on the implementation process were obtained through semi-structured interviews with administrators. Quantitative survey data were analyzed using Chi square test, Fisher's exact test, paired t tests, and multivariate logistic regression. Open-ended survey questions and interviews were analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis. Of the 83% (513/618) of patients that provided feedback, 97% felt PHP was easy to use and 98% easy to understand. Thirty percent (21/71) of participating physicians completed both pre- and post-implementation feedback surveys [13 obstetricians (OBs) and 8 family medicine physicians (FPs)]. Confidence in managing genetic risks significantly improved for OBs on 2/6 measures (p values ≤0.001) but not for FPs. Physician knowledge did not significantly change. Providers reported value in added patient engagement and reported mixed feedback about the CDS report. We identified key steps, resources, and staff support required to implement PHP in a clinical setting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the integration of patient-completed, electronically captured and CDS-enabled FHH software into primary prenatal practice. PHP is acceptable to patients and providers. Key to successful implementation in the future will be customization options and interoperability with electronic health records.

  8. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment.

  9. Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Dispersion Interactions in Camphor-Alcohol Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatima, Mariyam; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie

    2016-06-01

    Many biological processes such as chemical recognition and protein folding are mainly controlled by the interplay between hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces. Broadband rotational spectroscopy studies of weakly bound complexes are able to accurately reveal the structures and internal dynamics of molecular clusters isolated in the gas phase. To investigate the influence of the interplay between different types of weak intermolecular interactions and how it controls the preferred active sites of an amphiphilic molecule, we are using camphor (C10H16O, 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2-one) with different aliphatic alcohol systems. Camphor is a conformationally rigid bicyclic molecule endowed with considerable steric hindrance and has a single polar group (-C=O). The rotational spectrum of camphor and its structure has been previously reported [1] as well as multiple clusters with water [2]. In order to determine the structure of the camphor-alcohol complexes, we targeted low energy rotational transitions in the 2-8 GHz range under the isolated conditions of a molecular jet in the gas phase. The data obtained suggests that camphor forms one complex with methanol and two with ethanol, with differences in the intermolecular interaction in both complexes. With these results, we aim to study the shift in intermolecular interaction from hydrogen bonding to dispersion with the increase in the size of the aliphatic alcohol. [1] Z. Kisiel, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 5 (2003), 820-826. [2] C. Pérez, et al, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 7 (2016), 154-160.

  10. Screening, brief interventions, referral to treatment (SBIRT) for illicit drug and alcohol use at multiple healthcare sites: Comparison at intake and six months

    PubMed Central

    Madras, Bertha K.; Compton, Wilson M.; Avula, Deepa; Stegbauer, Tom; Stein, Jack B.; Clark, H. Westley

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol screening and brief interventions in medical settings can significantly reduce alcohol use. Corresponding data for illicit drug use is sparse. A Federally funded Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) service program, the largest of its kind to date, was initiated by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in a wide variety of medical settings. We compared illicit drug use at intake and six months after drug screening and interventions were administered. Design SBIRT services were implemented in a range of medical settings across six states. A diverse patient population (Alaska Natives, American Indians, African-Americans, Caucasians, Hispanics), was screened and offered score-based progressive levels of intervention (brief intervention, brief treatment, referral to specialty treatment). In this secondary analysis of the SBIRT service program, drug use data was compared at intake and at a six month follow-up, in a sample of a randomly selected population (10%) that screened positive at baseline. Results Of 459,599 patients screened, 22.7% screened positive for a spectrum of use (risky/problematic, abuse/addiction). The majority were recommended for a brief intervention (15.9%), with a smaller percentage recommended for brief treatment (3.2%) or referral to specialty treatment (3.7%). Among those reporting baseline illicit drug use, rates of drug use at 6 month follow-up (4 of 6 sites), were 67.7% lower (p < 0.001) and heavy alcohol use was 38.6% lower (p < 0.001), with comparable findings across sites, gender, race/ethnic, age subgroups. Among persons recommended for brief treatment or referral to specialty treatment, self-reported improvements in general health (p < 0.001), mental health (p < 0.001), employment (p < 0.001), housing status (p < 0.001), and criminal behavior (p < 0.001) were found. Conclusions SBIRT was feasible to implement and the self-reported patient status at six months

  11. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    SciTech Connect

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  12. A Comparison of Systematic Screening Tools for Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Lambert, E. Warren; Crnobori, Mary; Bruhn, Allison Leigh

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine the psychometric properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS), including evaluating the concurrent validity of the SRSS to predict results from the Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) when used to detect school children with externalizing or internalizing behavior concerns at three…

  13. The design of a pre-encounter clinical trial screening tool: ASAP.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jing; Erdal, Selnur; Borlawsky, Tara; Liu, Jianhua; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna; Kamal, Jyoti; Payne, Philip R O

    2008-11-06

    Manually screening patients for clinical trials eligibility prior to their clinical encounters is labor-intensive and time-consuming. In order to increase the efficiency of such processes, we have developed a web-based system, called Advanced Screening for Active Protocols (ASAP).

  14. "Pepsi": A Screening and Programming Tool for Understanding the Whole Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, J'Anne

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses using "PEPSI", a screening and programming method that evaluates the physical, emotional, philosophical, social, and intellectual levels of development in children with disabilities. The steps in the PEPSI screening process are described and a case study is provided. A chart depicting indicators in teaching respect for self…

  15. Vertebrate embryos as tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening and function.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Shaunna L; Diamond, Alexandra J; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Figg, William D; Vargesson, Neil

    2016-11-22

    The development of new angiogenic inhibitors highlights a need for robust screening assays that adequately capture the complexity of vessel formation, and allow for the quantitative evaluation of the teratogenicity of new anti-angiogenic agents. This review discusses the use of screening assays in vertebrate embryos, specifically focusing upon chicken and zebrafish embryos, for the detection of anti-angiogenic agents.

  16. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  17. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Damian J; Wählby, Carolina; Puigvert, Jordi Carreras; Sintorn, Ida-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s) for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler-a new software tool that reduces per-cell measurements to population statistics. The software imports measurements from a simple text file, visualizes population distributions in a compact and comprehensive way, and can create gates for subpopulation classes based on control samples. We validate the tool by showing how PopulationProfiler can be used to analyze the effect of drugs that disturb the cell cycle, and compare the results to those obtained with flow cytometry.

  18. Nursing assessment of obstructive sleep apnea in hospitalised adults: a review of risk factors and screening tools.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Alison; Belan, Ingrid; Neill, Jane; Rowland, Sharn

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 2-4% of the general population and may be more prevalent in obese adults. However, sleep apnea remains consistently under-diagnosed in the general population as well as in hospital wards. Nurse awareness of OSA during routine monitoring could allow specific observations of hospitalised adults to identify those at high risk and ensure appropriate referral. This integrative literature review analysed major risk factors for OSA and identified screening tools that nurses could utilise in hospital wards. The most important risk factors relevant to nursing practice in hospital settings were obesity, hypertension and sleep position. The most suitable screening tool was the Berlin Questionnaire, while there was some evidence to support measuring waist circumference. A nursing assessment flow chart was developed based on the literature reviewed. This paper highlights a role for nurses in recognising patients at risk of OSA and minimising complications in hospitalised adults.

  19. Probable medications overuse headaches: validation of a brief easy-to-use screening tool in a headache centre

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To validate a rapid questionnaire as a screening tool, because application of the diagnostic revised criteria of the ICHD-II for medication overuse headache (MOH) requires experience for the physician and is time-consuming. Methods ICHD-II criteria for probable MOH (pMOH) were transformed in questions formulated in such a way that they could be self-administered, easily understood, and quickly filled out. We compared this questionnaire to the gold standard: the diagnosis made by headache specialists, based on the the ICHD-II criteria. Patients who were consulting for pMOH or migraine for the first time were consecutively included. As validity indicators, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the items. Results Seventy-nine patients were screened, 77 included, 2 female patients excluded. Forty-two patients have been considered as suffering from pMOH, 35 patients suffered from migraine without medication overuse. The association of the question “do you take a treatment for attacks more than 10 days per month” and the question “is this intake on a regular basis?” had a sensitivity of 95.2% and a specificity of 80%. Conclusion This screening tool can detect pMOH with a sensitivity that could be of interest to screen patients in clinical practice and to pre-include patients for research as epidemiological studies. PMID:24088386

  20. Discussion: Comparison of slope instability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingley, Leslie; Slaughter, Stephen L.; Sarikhan, Isabelle Y.; Norman, David K.

    2013-02-01

    This discussion is in response to the article entitled "Comparison of slope stability screening tools following a large storm event and application to forest management and policy" by Kara Whittaker and Dan McShane (Geomorphology 145-146 (2012) 115-122). The discussion is coauthored by several geologists at the Washington Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) including those from the research and policy sections of the state agency.

  1. Glycine and GABA(A) ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors as novel tools for alcohol and brain research.

    PubMed

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R; Homanics, Gregg E; Perkins, Daya I; Davies, Daryl L; Alkana, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABA(A)Rs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  2. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: development and psychometric evaluation of a novel assessment tool for measuring subjective response to alcohol.

    PubMed

    Morean, Meghan E; Corbin, William R; Treat, Teresa A

    2013-09-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a 2-site, placebo-controlled, alcohol administration study (N = 215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (a) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition; (b) good internal consistency; (c) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use; and (d) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal.

  3. A randomized trial of three marketing strategies to disseminate a screening and brief alcohol intervention programme to general practitioners.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, C A; Kaner, E F; Heather, N; McAvoy, B R; Gilvarry, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research findings are of little benefit to patients or society if they do not reach the audience they are intended to influence. A dissemination strategy is needed to target new findings at its user group and encourage a process of consideration and adoption or rejection. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different marketing strategies for the dissemination of a screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) programme to general practitioners (GPs). METHOD: Seven hundred and twenty-nine GPs, one per practice, from the former Northern and Yorkshire Regional Health Authority were randomly assigned to one of three marketing strategies: postal marketing (mailing a promotional brochure to GPs), telemarketing (following a script to market the programme over the telephone), and personal marketing (following the same script during face-to-face marketing at GPs' practices). GPs who took up the programme were asked if they would agree to use it. Outcome measures included the proportions of GPs who took up the programme and agreement to use it. RESULTS: Of the 614 GPs eligible for the study, 321 (52%) took the programme. There was a significant difference in the proportions of GPs from the three marketing strategies who took the programme (82% telemarketing, 68% personal marketing, and 22% postal marketing). Of the 315 GPs who took the programme and were eligible to use it, 128 (41%) agreed to use the programme for three months. GPs in the postal marketing group were more likely to agree to use the programme (55% postal marketing, 44% personal marketing, and 34% telemarketing). Personal marketing was the most effective overall dissemination strategy; however, economic analysis revealed that telemarketing was the most cost-effective strategy. Costs for dissemination per GP were: 13 Pounds telemarketing, 15 Pounds postal marketing, and 88 Pounds personal marketing. CONCLUSION: Telemarketing appeared to be the most cost-effective strategy

  4. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes.

  5. The BDI and the SF36: which tool to use to screen for depression?

    PubMed

    Troidle, Laura; Wuerth, Diane; Finkelstein, Susan; Kliger, Alan; Finkelstein, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested a relationship between depression--as assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)--and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A recent study from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) indicated an association between mortality in a large cohort of hemodialysis patients and the patients' responses in the preceding 4 weeks to two questions on the Kidney Disease Quality of Life, Short Form (KDQOL-SF36): "Have you felt downhearted and blue?" and "Have you felt so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you?" A BDI score > or = 11 and a score < or = 3 for the two questions on the SF36 were considered to suggest the presence of depressive symptoms; both scores have been associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to examine the relationship of the two SF36 questions with depressive symptoms as assessed by the BDI. All patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) therapy and daily hemodialysis therapy in our units between June 2000 and January 2002 were asked to complete a BDI and an SF36. We recorded 135 tests in 80 CPD patients, and 76 tests in 17 daily hemodialysis patients. Correlation coefficients (r2 values) of the responses to the two questions on the SF36 and the BDI scores demonstrated a significant relationship between the scores. The r2 values for the CPD patients' two SF36 responses and the BDI scores were -0.622 and -0.506; the r2 values for the daily hemodialysis patients were -0.363 and -0.317. The sensitivity and specificity for each SF36 response to be < or = 3 when the BDI was > or = 11 were 82.4% and 68.6% for the "downhearted and blue" question and 65% and 67% for the "down in the dumps" question. Whether the two questions on the SF36 that suggest depression can replace the BDI as a screening tool requires further study. Furthermore, it is unclear if the two questions on the SF36 are predictive of mortality because of their association with clinical

  6. The use of cable television as a tool in health education of the elderly: screening.

    PubMed

    Salzer, J E; Marshall, C L; Glazer, E R

    1977-01-01

    A cable television channel was used to inform residents in a housing project for the elderly about a series of preventive health services. Screening and referral services for common health problems were offered to this group. The televised communications included a series of brief, informal advertising-style and direct teaching-style messages developed for each of five screening areas. An evaluation found that the televised messages had both direct and indirect effects on participation in the screening programs; overall attendance was about 8% of the estimated potential attendance. Knowledge and health attitude effects of the messages were also assessed.

  7. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  8. Cancer screening of upper aerodigestive tract in Japanese alcoholics with reference to drinking and smoking habits and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Ohmori, T; Muramatsu, T; Higuchi, S; Yokoyama, T; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, M; Maruyama, K; Hayashida, M; Ishii, H

    1996-11-04

    In this study, 1,000 Japanese male alcoholics were consecutively screened by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with esophageal iodine staining. Associations among cancer-detection rates, drinking and smoking habits, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) genotypes were evaluated. A total of 53 patients (5.3%) had histologically confirmed cancer. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed in 36, gastric cancer in 17, and oropharyngolaryngeal cancer in 9 patients: 8 of the esophageal-cancer patients were multiple-cancer patients, with additional cancer(s) in the stomach and/or oropharyngolaryngeal region. Multiple logistic regression revealed that use of stronger alcoholic beverages (whisky or shochu) in contrast with lighter beverages (sake or beer) and smoking of 50 pack-years or more increased the risks for esophageal (odds ratio 3.2 and 2.8 respectively), oropharyngolaryngeal (4.8 and 5.1 respectively) and multiple cancer (10.5 and 11.8 respectively). The inactive form of ALDH2, encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2 prevalent in Orientals, exposes them to higher blood levels of acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, after drinking. This inactive ALDH2 was detected in 19/36 (52.8%) patients with esophageal cancer, in 5/9 (55.6%) patients with oropharyngolaryngeal cancer, and in 7/8 (87.5%) patients with multiple cancer. All of these gene frequencies far exceeded that in a large alcoholic cohort (80/655, 12.2%). The triple combination of the risk factors of the inactive ALDH2, stronger alcoholic beverages and heavy smoking was more commonly associated with multiple-cancer patients than with patients with esophageal cancer alone (62.5% vs. 7.1%). These results show that the 3 risk factors are important for the development of upper-aerodigestive-tract cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For these high-risk drinkers, regimented screening appears to be indicated.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  10. Efficient PCR-Based Amplification of Diverse Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes from Metagenomes for Improving Biocatalysis: Screening of Gene-Specific Amplicons from Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Satomi; Kurokawa, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Screening of gene-specific amplicons from metagenomes (S-GAM) has tremendous biotechnological potential. We used this approach to isolate alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes from metagenomes based on the Leifsonia species adh gene (lsadh), the enzyme product of which can produce various chiral alcohols. A primer combination was synthesized by reference to homologs of lsadh, and PCR was used to amplify nearly full-length adh genes from metagenomic DNAs. All adh preparations were fused with lsadh at the terminal region and used to construct Escherichia coli plasmid libraries. Of the approximately 2,000 colonies obtained, 1,200 clones were identified as adh positive (∼60%). Finally, 40 adh genes, Hladh-001 to Hladh-040 (for homologous Leifsonia adh), were identified from 223 clones with high efficiency, which were randomly sequenced from the 1,200 clones. The Hladh genes obtained via this approach encoded a wide variety of amino acid sequences (8 to 99%). After screening, the enzymes obtained (HLADH-012 and HLADH-021) were confirmed to be superior to LSADH in some respects for the production of anti-Prelog chiral alcohols. PMID:25085492

  11. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Reilly, Timothy J; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  12. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  13. The Feasibility of Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Risk in Early Intervention Settings: A Pilot Study of Systems Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Enid; Finkelstein, Norma; Gurewich, Deborah; Morse, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which can include physical and neurobehavioral disorders, including cognitive, social, language, and motor impairments that can persist throughout life. In order for children with FASD to receive the full benefit of services, recognition of their disability needs to…

  14. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  15. Assessing risk factors as potential screening tests: a simple assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Wald, Nicholas J; Morris, Joan K

    2011-02-28

    Many risk factors for disease are suggested as screening tests when there is little prospect that they could be useful in predicting disease. To avoid this, it is useful to know the relationship between the relative risk of a disease or disorder in people with high and low values of a risk factor, and the equivalent screening performance in terms of the detection rate (sensitivity) for a specified false-positive rate. We describe an interactive Risk-Screening Converter, accessible from the Internet (http://www.wolfson.qmul.ac.uk/rsc/), that transforms an odds ratio into the equivalent estimates of detection and false-positive rates. The converter is intended for general clinicians, for people engaged in research into risk factors and disease, and for those who give advice on applying such research findings into medical practice. It should help to distinguish effective screening methods from ineffective ones, and so improve clinical guidelines relating to screening and the prediction and prevention of disease.

  16. Non-Invasive Screening Tools for Down’s Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, Kelly A.; Madgett, Tracey E.; Roberts, Llinos A.; Overton, Timothy G.; Avent, Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Down’s syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births, and is the predominant reason why women choose to undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. However, as invasive tests are associated with around a 1% risk of miscarriage new non-invasive tests have been long sought after. Recently, the most promising approach for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD) has been provided by the introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. The clinical application of NIPD for DS detection is not yet applicable, as large scale validation studies in low-risk pregnancies need to be completed. Currently, prenatal screening is still the first line test for the detection of fetal aneuploidy. Screening cannot diagnose DS, but developing a more advanced screening program can help to improve detection rates, and therefore reduce the number of women offered invasive tests. This article describes how the prenatal screening program has developed since the introduction of maternal age as the original “screening” test, and subsequently discusses recent advances in detecting new screening markers with reference to both proteomic and bioinformatic techniques. PMID:26835682

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator trial may be used as a screening tool prior to spinal cord stimulator implantation.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Leena; Winfree, Christopher; Miller-Saultz, Debra; Sonty, Nomita

    2010-08-01

    This is a prospective pilot study looking at the utility of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS) trial as a screening tool prior to spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implant to identify patients who may fail a SCS trial. The accepted screening test prior to a permanent SCS implant is a SCS trial. Patients may fail the SCS trial due to several causes of which one is the inability to tolerate stimulation induced paresthesias. Twenty five patients scheduled for a SCS trial for the treatment of refractory pain secondary to Failed Back surgery syndrome underwent a TENS trial and psychological evaluation by personnel uninvolved in the SCS trial. Data was collected by personnel not involved in the SCS trial or permanent placement. Twenty patients completed the study. Data collected included area of coverage, paresthesia tolerance, pain and anxiety measured on a VAS scale. Comparability between the groups were analyzed using Pearson's correlation, Fisher Exact test and simple regression analysis. We noted a significant correlation between ability to tolerate TENS and SCS induced paresthesias. Statistically significant correlation was also noted between pre SCS trial anxiety score and high pain score during SCS trial. We conclude that there is potential applicability of a TENS trial as a non invasive screening tool which may promote cost effectiveness and decrease unnecessary procedural risks to the patient by avoiding SCS trial in select patients.

  18. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds.

  19. Electronic tongue as a screening tool for rapid analysis of beer.

    PubMed

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitriy; Legin, Andrey; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R; Nicolaï, Bart M; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2010-04-15

    An electronic tongue (ET) comprising 18 potentiometric chemical sensors was applied to the quantitative analysis of beer. Fifty Belgian and Dutch beers of different types were measured using the ET. The same samples were analyzed using conventional analytical techniques with respect to the main physicochemical parameters. Only non-correlated physicochemical parameters were retained for further analysis, which were real extract, real fermentation degree, alcohol content, pH, bitterness, color, polyphenol and CO(2) content. Relationship between the ET and physicochemical datasets was studied using Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Four significant canonical variates were extracted using CCA. Correlation was observed between 6 physicochemical variables (real extract and fermentation degree, bitterness, pH, alcohol and polyphenols' content) and 14 sensors of the ET. The feasibility of the ET for the quantification of bitterness in beer was evaluated in the aqueous solutions of isomerized hop extract and in the set of 11 beers with bitterness varying between 14 and 38 EBU (European Bitterness Units). Sensors displayed good sensitivity to isomerized hop extract and good prediction of the bitterness in beer was obtained. Calibration models with respect to the physicochemical parameters using ET measurements in 50 Belgian and Dutch beer samples were calculated by Partial Least Square regression. The ET was capable of predicting such parameters as real extract, alcohol and polyphenol content and bitterness, the latter with Root Mean Square Error of Prediction (RMSEP) of 2.5.

  20. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based risk screening tool for groundwater affected by landfills is presented. • Domenico solute transport equations are used to estimate downgradient contaminant concentrations. • Landfills are categorized as presenting high, moderate or low risks. • Analysis of parameter sensitivity and examples of the method’s application are given. • The method has value to regulators and those considering redeveloping closed landfills. - Abstract: A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically

  1. Field screening at petroleum contaminated sites: A tool to save time, money

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.M.; Pucel, P.G.; Allee, P.

    1998-01-01

    The most expensive part of an environmental assessment is often lab services. Control of these costs while still collecting adequate data to assess a site is sometimes the difference between solvency and bankruptcy, especially for small companies. Fortunately, the use of field screening techniques can significantly reduce the quantity of samples going to the laboratory for analysis, thus controlling overall project costs. Chemical and Environmental Consultants, Inc. (CEC) has been field evaluating a rapid, widely applicable method for field screening petroleum contaminated soils and wastes for SVOCs. The method is similar in application to US EPA Method 418.1 and allows for the field screening of soil and waste samples in about 10 minutes. The method uses fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of a solvent extract of the soil or waste sample.

  2. Virtual screening: an in silico tool for interlacing the chemical universe with the proteome.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Yvonne; Barril, Xavier; Scapozza, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    In silico screening both in the forward (traditional virtual screening) and reverse sense (inverse virtual screening (IVS)) are helpful techniques for interlacing the chemical universe of small molecules with the proteome. The former, which is using a protein structure and a large chemical database, is well-known by the scientific community. We have chosen here to provide an overview on the latter, focusing on validation and target prioritization strategies. By comparing it to complementary or alternative wet-lab approaches, we put IVS in the broader context of chemical genomics, target discovery and drug design. By giving examples from the literature and an own example on how to validate the approach, we provide guidance on the issues related to IVS.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  4. Screen Twice, Cut Once: Assessing the Predictive Validity of Teacher Selection Tools. Working Paper 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Huntington-Klein, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teacher hiring in public schools is ad hoc and often fails to result in good selection among applicants. Some districts use structured selection instruments in the hiring process, but we know little about the efficacy of such tools. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of applicant selection tools used by the Spokane…

  5. Application of LC-high-resolution MS with 'intelligent' data mining tools for screening reactive drug metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuguang; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2012-03-01

    Biotransformation of chemically stable compounds to reactive metabolites that can bind covalently to macromolecules (such as proteins and DNA) is considered an undesirable property of drug candidates. Due to the possible link, which has not yet been conclusively demonstrated, between reactive metabolites and adverse drug reactions, screening for metabolic activation of lead compounds through in vitro chemical trapping experiments has become an integral part of the drug discovery process in many laboratories. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in the application of high-resolution MS. These advances facilitated the development of accurate-mass-based data mining tools for high-throughput screening of reactive drug metabolites in drug discovery.

  6. Comparative study of machine-learning and chemometric tools for analysis of in-vivo high-throughput screening data.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Kirk; Kinney, John; Owens, Aaron; Kleier, Dan; Bloch, Karen; Argentar, Dave; Walsh, Alicia; Vaidyanathan, Ganesh

    2008-08-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) has become a central tool of many pharmaceutical and crop-protection discovery operations. If HTS screening is carried out at the level of the intact organism, as is commonly done in crop protection, this strategy has the potential of uncovering a completely new mechanism of actions. The challenge in running a cost-effective HTS operation is to identify ways in which to improve the overall success rate in discovering new biologically active compounds. To this end, we describe our efforts directed at making full use of the data stream arising from HTS. This paper describes a comparative study in which several machine learning and chemometric methodologies were used to develop classifiers on the same data sets derived from in vivo HTS campaigns and their predictive performances compared in terms of false negative and false positive error profiles.

  7. The PHQ-PD as a Screening Tool for Panic Disorder in the Primary Care Setting in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Cristina Mae; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Tomás-Tomás, Patricia; Gracia-Gracia, Irene; Dongil-Collado, Esperanza; Iruarrizaga, M. Iciar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Panic disorder is a common anxiety disorder and is highly prevalent in Spanish primary care centres. The use of validated tools can improve the detection of panic disorder in primary care populations, thus enabling referral for specialized treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-Panic Disorder (PHQ-PD) as a screening and diagnostic tool for panic disorder in Spanish primary care centres. Method We compared the psychometric properties of the PHQ-PD to the reference standard, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. General practitioners referred 178 patients who completed the entire PHQ test, including the PHQ-PD, to undergo the SCID-I. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the PHQ-PD were assessed. Results The operating characteristics of the PHQ-PD are moderate. The best cut-off score was 5 (sensitivity .77, specificity .72). Modifications to the questionnaire's algorithms improved test characteristics (sensitivity .77, specificity .72) compared to the original algorithm. The screening question alone yielded the highest sensitivity score (.83). Conclusion Although the modified algorithm of the PHQ-PD only yielded moderate results as a diagnostic test for panic disorder, it was better than the original. Using only the first question of the PHQ-PD showed the best psychometric properties (sensitivity). Based on these findings, we suggest the use of the screening questions for screening purposes and the modified algorithm for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27525977

  8. MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment as a nutritional screening tool for hospitalized older adults; rationales and feasibility.

    PubMed

    Calvo, I; Olivar, J; Martínez, E; Rico, A; Díaz, J; Gimena, M

    2012-01-01

    The high prevalence of malnutrition in the growing population of older adults makes malnutrition screening critical, especially in hospitalized elderly patients. The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of the MNA® Mini Nutritional Assessment in hospitalized older adults for rapid evaluation of nutritional risk. A prospective cohort study was made of 106 patients 65 years old or older admitted to an internal medicine ward of a tertiary-care teaching hospital to evaluate the use of the short form, or screening phase, of the MNA-SF. In the first 48 hours of admission, the full MNA questionnaire was administered and laboratory tests and a dermatologic evaluation were made. The MNA score showed that 77% of the patients were at risk of malnutrition or were frankly malnourished. Low blood levels of albumin, cholesterol and vitamins A and D showed a statistically significant association with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Separate evaluation of the MNA-SF showed that it was accurate, sensitive and had predictive value for the screening process. Routine use of the MNA-SF questionnaire by admission nurses to screen patients is recommended. Patients with MNA-SF scores of 11 or lower should be specifically assessed by the nutritional intervention team.

  9. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  10. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a compar...

  11. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    PubMed Central

    Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate, and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed. PMID:27313539

  12. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    PubMed

    Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate, and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed.

  13. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  14. Risk Assessment Tools for Osteoporosis Screening in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Crandall, Carolyn J

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are common in postmenopausal women. Tools are available to estimate the risk of low bone mineral density (BMD) or fracture. This systematic review retrieved articles that evaluated osteoporosis risk assessment tools among postmenopausal women in North America. For identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5, most studies of the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation tool (SCORE) and Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) reported sensitivity ≥90 %. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was usually <0.75 for SCORE and ≥0.75 for ORAI. Among women 50-64 years old, a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) threshold ≥9.3 % had a sensitivity of 33 % for identifying BMD T-score ≤-2.5 and 26 % for predicting major osteoporotic fracture (MOF). For predicting MOF, sensitivity was higher for SCORE and Osteoporosis Self-assessment Tool equation (OST), and higher in women ≥65 years old. For predicting BMD T-score ≤-2.5 in women ≥65 years old, the sensitivities of SCORE; ORAI; and Age, Body Size, No Estrogen (ABONE) were very high. No optimal osteoporosis risk assessment tool is available for identifying low BMD and MOF risk.

  15. A Comparison of African-American versus Caucasian Men Screened for an Alcohol Administration Laboratory Study: Recruitment and Representation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ogle, Richard L.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A.; Sims, Calvin M.

    2011-01-01

    African-Americans are under-represented in alcohol research, especially alcohol administration laboratory studies. Specific recruitment of African-Americans into laboratory studies, however, may also inadvertently affect the generalizability of the findings. In the current study, we compared all African-American young adult men (n = 53) who volunteered and met criteria for an alcohol administration study to a sample (n = 50) of Caucasian men recruited for the same study. Groups were compared on variables including demographics, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption and other substance use, consequences of use and psychopathology. Compared to their Caucasian counterparts, African-American men reported less drinking frequency and quantity, less use of other substances and fewer negative consequences, but their alcohol and drug use was more likely to be associated with various measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that even when recruiting participants using criteria that should minimize differences (i.e. all participants were “social drinkers”), differences on key variables were evident. These differences may have important implications for alcohol research. PMID:21277094

  16. Temperature-controlled micro-TLC: a versatile green chemistry and fast analytical tool for separation and preliminary screening of steroids fraction from biological and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zarzycki, Paweł K; Slączka, Magdalena M; Zarzycka, Magdalena B; Bartoszuk, Małgorzata A; Włodarczyk, Elżbieta; Baran, Michał J

    2011-11-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous research focusing on development of micro-TLC methodology under temperature-controlled conditions. The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple analytical protocols without multi-steps sample pre-purification. One of the advantages of planar chromatography over its column counterpart is that each TLC run can be performed using non-previously used stationary phase. Therefore, it is possible to fractionate or separate complex samples characterized by heavy biological matrix loading. In present studies components of interest, mainly steroids, were isolated from biological samples like fish bile using single pre-treatment steps involving direct organic liquid extraction and/or deproteinization by freeze-drying method. Low-molecular mass compounds with polarity ranging from estetrol to progesterone derived from the environmental samples (lake water, untreated and treated sewage waters) were concentrated using optimized solid-phase extraction (SPE). Specific bands patterns for samples derived from surface water of the Middle Pomerania in northern part of Poland can be easily observed on obtained micro-TLC chromatograms. This approach can be useful as simple and non-expensive complementary method for fast control and screening of treated sewage water discharged by the municipal wastewater treatment plants. Moreover, our experimental results show the potential of micro-TLC as an efficient tool for retention measurements of a wide range of steroids under reversed-phase (RP) chromatographic conditions. These data can be used for further optimalization of SPE or HPLC systems working under RP conditions. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that micro-TLC based analytical approach can be applied as an effective method for the internal standard (IS) substance search. Generally, described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of the

  17. Multidimensional Reaction Screening for Photochemical Transformations as a Tool for Discovering New Chemotypes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an automated photochemical microfluidics platform that integrates a 1 kW high-pressure Hg vapor lamp and allows for analytical pulse flow or preparative continuous flow reactions. Herein, we will discuss the use of this platform toward the discovery of new chemotypes through multidimensional reaction screening. We will highlight the ability to discretely control wavelengths with optical filters, allowing for control of reaction outcomes. PMID:24697145

  18. Broad target chemical screening approach used as tool for rapid assessment of groundwater quality.

    PubMed

    ter Laak, Thomas L; Puijker, Leo M; van Leerdam, Jan A; Raat, Klaasjan J; Kolkman, Annemieke; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2012-06-15

    The chemical water quality is often assessed by screening for a limited set of target chemicals. This 'conventional' target analysis approach inevitably misses chemicals present in the samples. In this study a 'broad' target screening approach for water quality assessment using high resolution and accurate mass spectrometry (HR MS) was applied to detect a wide variety of organic chemicals in 42 groundwater samples. In this approach, both known and unidentified chemicals observed in previous samples define the training set for the analysis of future samples and, additionally, new samples can be used to extend the training set. Nearly 400 chemicals were observed in the samples, of which 82 were known and more than 313 are of unknown identity. The obtained results were interpreted in relation to the source characteristics and land use. Groundwater that was affected by landfills showed the highest total MS response (ion counts) and most individual chemicals and was therefore considered most contaminated. Furthermore, river bank filtrated water was generally more contaminated than phreatic groundwater and groundwater from (semi)confined aquifers was most pristine. Additionally, industrial chemicals were more frequently observed in river bank filtrated water and pesticides were more frequently observed in water originating from rural areas. The 'broad' target screening approach for both known and unidentified chemicals does provide more information on the over-all water quality than 'conventional' target analysis.

  19. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  20. Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: the Taiwan National Birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary.

  1. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain.

  2. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-09-22

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients.

  3. Fluorescence-based assay as a new screening tool for toxic chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Mirkes, Evgeny M.; Cáceres, César; Gorban, Alexander N.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Our study involves development of fluorescent cell-based diagnostic assay as a new approach in high-throughput screening method. This highly sensitive optical assay operates similarly to e-noses and e-tongues which combine semi-specific sensors and multivariate data analysis for monitoring biochemical processes. The optical assay consists of a mixture of environmental-sensitive fluorescent dyes and human skin cells that generate fluorescence spectra patterns distinctive for particular physico-chemical and physiological conditions. Using chemometric techniques the optical signal is processed providing qualitative information about analytical characteristics of the samples. This integrated approach has been successfully applied (with sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97%) in assessing whether particular chemical agents are irritating or not for human skin. It has several advantages compared with traditional biochemical or biological assays and can impact the new way of high-throughput screening and understanding cell activity. It also can provide reliable and reproducible method for assessing a risk of exposing people to different harmful substances, identification active compounds in toxicity screening and safety assessment of drugs, cosmetic or their specific ingredients. PMID:27653274

  4. Chemiluminescence analyzer of NOx as a high-throughput screening tool in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2011-01-01

    A chemiluminescence-based analyzer of NOx gas species has been applied for high-throughput screening of a library of catalytic materials. The applicability of the commercial NOx analyzer as a rapid screening tool was evaluated using selective catalytic reduction of NO gas. A library of 60 binary alloys composed of Pt and Co, Zr, La, Ce, Fe or W on Al2O3 substrate was tested for the efficiency of NOx removal using a home-built 64-channel parallel and sequential tubular reactor. The NOx concentrations measured by the NOx analyzer agreed well with the results obtained using micro gas chromatography for a reference catalyst consisting of 1 wt% Pt on γ-Al2O3. Most alloys showed high efficiency at 275 °C, which is typical of Pt-based catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO. The screening with NOx analyzer allowed to select Pt-Ce(X) (X=1–3) and Pt–Fe(2) as the optimal catalysts for NOx removal: 73% NOx conversion was achieved with the Pt–Fe(2) alloy, which was much better than the results for the reference catalyst and the other library alloys. This study demonstrates a sequential high-throughput method of practical evaluation of catalysts for the selective reduction of NO. PMID:27877438

  5. A Novel Geriatric Screening Tool in Older Patients with Cancer: The Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric assessment (GA) is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.95) in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89) within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90), and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention.

  6. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  7. Evaluation of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a screening tool for the identification of emotional and psychosocial problems

    PubMed Central

    Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Cat, Mônica Nunes L.; dos Santos, Lúcia Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the Brazilian version of Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a screening tool to identify psychosocial and emotional problems in schoolchildren from six to 12 years old. METHODS Diagnostic test conducted in a public school of Curitiba, Paraná (Southern Brazil), to evaluate the PSC accuracy and consistency, considering the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the gold standard. Among 415 parents invited for the study, 145 responded to both PSC and CBCL. The results of the two instruments were compared. PSC and CBCL were considered positive if scores ≥28 and >70 respectively. RESULTS Among the 145 cases, 49 (33.8%) were positive for both PSC and CBCL. The ROC curve showed the PSC score of 21 as the best cutoff point for screening psychosocial and emotional problems, with a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 86.7%. Regarding the reference cutoff (score ≥28 points), the sensitivity was 64.5% and the specificity, 100.0%, similar to those found in the original version of the tool. CONCLUSIONS The Portuguese version of PSC was effective for early identification of emotional and/or psychosocial problems in a schoolchildren group and may be useful for pediatricians. PMID:24142319

  8. Development of a Brief Pre-Implementation Screening Tool to Identify Teachers Who Are at Risk for Not Implementing Intervention Curriculum and High-Implementing Teachers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Lunn, Sonja; Patel, Pooja; Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette

    2017-02-01

    Few questionnaires have been developed to screen for potentially poor implementers of school-based interventions. This study combines teacher characteristics, perceptions, and teaching/training experiences to develop a short screening tool that can identify potential "low-performing" or "high-performing" teachers pre-implementation. Data were gathered from 208 teachers and 4,411 students who participated in the national implementation of an evidence-based HIV intervention in The Bahamas. Sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for the detection of "low-performing" and "high-performing" teachers. The validity of the screening tool was assessed using receiver operating characteristics analysis. The School Pre-implementation Screening Tool consists of seven predictive factors: duration as teacher, working site, attendance at training workshops, training in interactive teaching, perceived importance of the intervention, comfort in teaching the curriculum, and program priority. The sensitivity and specificity were 74% and 57% in identifying "low-performing" teachers and 81% and 65% with "high-performing" teachers. The screening tool demonstrated an acceptable/good validity (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.68 for "low-performing teachers" and 0.78 for "high-performing" teachers). Our brief screening tool can facilitate teacher training and recruitment of engaged teachers in implementation of school-based interventions.

  9. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  10. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD.

  11. EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    P2P is a computer-based tool that supports the comparison of process and product alternatives in terms of environmental impacts. This tool provides screening-level information for use in process design and in product LCA. Twenty one impact categories and data for approximately ...

  12. Electronic screening for mental health in rural primary care: feasibility and user testing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; Zerull, Lisa M; Mahone, Irma H; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John

    2009-01-01

    Despite attention to prevention and screening for depression and alcohol use, Healthy People 2010 objectives continue to include goals to increase the detection of depression and decrease the rates of alcohol abuse. These problems remain significant. The overall goal of this study was to develop a computer-based electronic screening (eScreening) tool and determine the feasibility of implementing computer-based eScreening technology for rural visitors to a primary care clinic. The study called specifically for an electronic touch screen with voice prompts. This tool, called the eScreening tool, screens for alcohol abuse and depression among rural patients in a primary care setting. The screening was offered to rural adults who are not in acute distress and not at end of life, regardless of their stated reason for seeking medical care. Phase 1 of the pilot was used to determine the perceptions of nurses, other providers, and consumers regarding the acceptability and perceived usefulness of an eScreening tool. Phase 2 involved user testing of the eScreening tool. The longer term goals of the research program are to work with rural nurses to improve patient outcomes and develop interventions and for educational, consultation, and/or direct clinical care.

  13. Evaluation of the annual killifish Nothobranchius guentheri as a tool for rapid acute toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Shedd, T.R.; Widder, M.W.; Toussaint, M.W.; Sunkel, M.C.; Hull, E.

    1999-10-01

    This study evaluated the use of Nothobranchius guentheri as a novel organism for rapid acute toxicity screening. A major advantage of the species is that there is no need to maintain a continuous culture to have organisms immediately available for testing. Rather, the embryos are viable under long-term storage conditions and can be hatched within a few hours. The tests require only 24 h with standard laboratory equipment. Sensitivity levels for 11 representative toxicants were comparable to those reported for five of the standard US Environmental Protection Agency test species requiring continuous culture.

  14. Evaluation of conjunctival swab as a mass-screening tool for molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, Rodrigo Souza; Souza, Natalia Alves; Barbosa, Amanda Duarte; Ferreira, Aline Leandra Carvalho; de Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is an important step of visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil once the dog is the main reservoir host of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conjunctival swab (CS) as a mass-screening tool for CVL molecular diagnosis in an endemic area classified as priority for the Brazilian Ministry of Healthy for surveillance action. A total of 1350 domiciled dogs were screened. The animals were evaluated by serological tests (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as screening and immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for confirmation) and by CS associated to real-time PCR, using primers addressed to kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles and SYBR Green. Canine β-globin gene amplification was used to evaluate the sample DNA integrity. A subgroup of 484 animals was also submitted to clinical evaluation. Among the 1350 dogs screened, 369 (27.3%) were positive by CS real-time PCR and 126 (9.3%) tested positive by ELISA. Thirty-one percent (39/126) of the ELISA-positive dogs were confirmed by IFAT. CS real-time PCR was able to detect infection in dogs independently of the symptomatology degree (p > 0.05), while ELISA was more sensitive in the group of dogs that present three or more clinical signs related to CVL. The results demonstrated that CS real-time PCR was able to detect a higher number of infected dogs than ELISA and that the prevalence of canine infections has been underestimated by the serological assays. The use of sensitive molecular diagnostic methods like CS real-time PCR, mainly in endemic areas, could greatly contribute to disease control.

  15. SWAT Check: A screening tool to assist users in the identification of potential model application problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a basin scale hydrologic model developed by the US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. SWAT's broad applicability, user friendly model interfaces, and automatic calibration software have led to a rapid increase in the number of new u...

  16. Exposure Assessment Tools by Tiers and Types - Screening-Level and Refined

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  17. Evaluation of amylase testing as a tool for saliva screening of crime scene trace swabs.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Dalin, Erik; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Ansell, Ricky

    2011-06-01

    Amylase testing has been used as a presumptive test for crime scene saliva for over three decades, mainly to locate saliva stains on surfaces. We have developed a saliva screening application for crime scene trace swabs, utilising an amylase sensitive paper (Phadebas(®) Forensic Press test). Positive results were obtained for all tested dried saliva stains (0.5-32 μL) with high or intermediate amylase activity (840 and 290 kU/L). Results were typically obtained within 5 min, and all samples that produced DNA profiles were positive. However, salivary amylase activities, as well as DNA concentrations, vary significantly between individuals. We show that there is no correlation between amylase activity and amount of DNA in fresh saliva. Even so, a positive amylase result indicates presence of saliva, and thereby presence of DNA. Amylase testing may be useful for screening in investigations where the number of DNA analyses is limited due to cost, e.g., in volume crime.

  18. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays.

  19. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  20. Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening: benchmark dataset and prediction tools evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pingping; Chen, Wenhan; Huang, Yanxin; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Zhiqiang; Lv, Yinghua

    2011-06-16

    Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has become a focus as a promising method in immunoinformatics research. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed in recent years and have succeeded in given test cases. However, since the number of available mimotopes with the relevant structure of template-target complex is limited, a systematic evaluation of these methods is still absent. In this study, a new benchmark dataset was defined. Using this benchmark dataset and a representative dataset, five examples of the most popular epitope prediction software products which are based on random peptide library screening have been evaluated. Using the benchmark dataset, in no method did performance exceed a 0.42 precision and 0.37 sensitivity, and the MCC scores suggest that the epitope prediction results of these software programs are greater than random prediction about 0.09-0.13; while using the representative dataset, most of the values of these performance measures are slightly improved, but the overall performance is still not satisfactory. Many test cases in the benchmark dataset cannot be applied to these pieces of software due to software limitations. Moreover chances are that these software products are overfitted to the small dataset and will fail in other cases. Therefore finding the correlation between mimotopes and genuine epitope residues is still far from resolved and much larger dataset for mimotope-based epitope prediction is desirable.

  1. Alcoholism & depression.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mellisa

    2012-10-01

    One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.

  2. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  3. Novel cell-free high-throughput screening method for pharmacological tools targeting K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhenwei; Brown, Emily C.; Wang, Weiwei; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    K+ channels, a superfamily of ∼80 members, control cell excitability, ion homeostasis, and many forms of cell signaling. Their malfunctions cause numerous diseases including neuronal disorders, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, and asthma. Here we present a novel liposome flux assay (LFA) that is applicable to most K+ channels. It is robust, low cost, and high throughput. Using LFA, we performed small molecule screens on three different K+ channels and identified new activators and inhibitors for biological research on channel function and for medicinal development. We further engineered a hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channel, which, when used in LFA, provides a highly sensitive (zero false negatives on 50 hERG-sensitive drugs) and highly specific (zero false positives on 50 hERG-insensitive drugs), low-cost hERG safety assay. PMID:27091997

  4. Accuracy study of the main screening tools for temporomandibular disorder in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    de Santis, Tatiana Oliveira; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; de Godoy, Camila Haddad Leal; Alfaya, Thays Almeida; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the degree of sensitivity and specificity of the screening questionnaire recommended by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain (AAOP) and the patient-history index proposed by Helkimo (modified by Fonseca) and correlate the findings with a clinical exam. All participants answered the questionnaires and were submitted to a clinical exam by a dentist who had undergone calibration training. Both the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index achieved low degrees of sensitivity for the detection of temporomandibular disorder (TMD), but exhibited a high degree of specificity. With regard to concordance, the AAOP questionnaire and Helkimo index both achieved low levels of agreement with the clinical exam. The different instruments available in the literature for the assessment of TMD and examined herein exhibit low sensitivity and high specificity when administered to children and adolescents stemming from difficulties in comprehension due to the age group studied and the language used in the self-explanatory questions.

  5. Evaluation of a New Self-Reported Tool for Periodontitis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kottmann, Tanja; Schwarzenberger, Fabian; Jentsch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is still highly prevalent in industrial population whereas at the same time appropriate screening programs are missing. Aim To evaluate, a self-reported questionnaire about periodontal risk factors in combination with the Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) to identify an existing need for periodontal treatment combined with the early recognition of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods Total 200 patients took part in the questionnaire based study and were examined using the PSI. Thereafter the participants were divided into two groups, subjects with periodontitis (Group 1; PSI 0-2) and subjects without periodontitis (Group 2; PSI 3-4). The answers were evaluated using a point system ranging from 0 to 8, based on known periodontal risk factors and their assumed degree of influence. Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were applied to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity, specificity and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease scale. Results There was a significant difference between Group 1 and 2 concerning the majority of the inquired items (12 of 16, p<0.05). The distribution of the individual total score exhibited a high statistical significance (p<0.001) of robustness in terms of differing definitions of periodontitis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was 0.912 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 76%. Conclusion The questionnaire produced a reliable assessment of the individual risk (total score) and the need for periodontal treatment as well as the differentiation between gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinical relevance Patient-based data (clinical variables and periodontal risk factors of periodontitis) were adequate to make a preliminary assessment of a possible need for periodontal treatment. PMID:27504399

  6. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  7. Sex chromosomal abnormalities associated with equine infertility: validation of a simple molecular screening tool in the Purebred Spanish Horse.

    PubMed

    Anaya, G; Molina, A; Valera, M; Moreno-Millán, M; Azor, P; Peral-García, P; Demyda-Peyrás, S

    2017-02-22

    Chromosomal abnormalities in the sex chromosome pair (ECAX and ECAY) are widely associated with reproductive problems in horses. However, a large proportion of these abnormalities remains undiagnosed due to the lack of an affordable diagnostic tool that allows for avoiding karyotyping tests. Hereby, we developed an STR (single-tandem-repeat)-based molecular method to determine the presence of the main sex chromosomal abnormalities in horses in a fast, cheap and reliable way. The frequency of five ECAX-linked (LEX026, LEX003, TKY38, TKY270 and UCDEQ502) and two ECAY-linked (EcaYH12 and SRY) markers was characterized in 261 Purebred Spanish Horses to determine the efficiency of the methodology developed to be used as a chromosomal diagnostic tool. All the microsatellites analyzed were highly polymorphic, with a sizeable number of alleles (polymorphic information content > 0.5). Based on this variability, the methodology showed 100% sensitivity and 99.82% specificity to detect the most important sex chromosomal abnormalities reported in horses (chimerism, Turner's syndrome and sex reversal syndromes). The method was also validated with 100% efficiency in 10 individuals previously diagnosed as chromosomally aberrant. This STR screening panel is an efficient and reliable molecular-cytogenetic tool for the early detection of sex chromosomal abnormalities in equines that could be included in breeding programs to save money, effort and time of veterinary practitioners and breeders.

  8. Professional perceptions about home safety: cross-national validation of the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST).

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Byles, Julie; Higginbotham, Nick

    2002-01-01

    The Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool (HOME FAST) was developed to measure the risk of older people falling within their home environment. If this tool is to be effective, the underlying dimensions perceived by potential raters when using the HOME FAST need to be consistent with the purpose of the tool. The content validation process undertaken to evaluate the HOME FAST and a method to develop a home safety score are described. Experts in home safety assessment were recruited from the British Association of Occupational Therapy, the Chartered Society of Physiotherapists, and the Royal College of Nursing in the United Kingdom. Participants rated each HOME FAST item using a Thurstone technique format. Each item was weighted according to the level of perceived falls risk each expert attributed to the home safety item. Principal components factor analysis identified a two-factor structure interpreted as environment and function underlying the HOME FAST. Results indicated that no item should be deleted from the checklist. Weights were calculated for each item to generate an overall hazard score. Some differences in responses to the degree of risk associated with home safety items were noted between the professional groups. The HOME FAST has captured highly relevant home safety items considered by an expert panel and measures a domain applicable to home safety and falls risk.

  9. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts.

    PubMed

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; Nilsen, P; Anderson, P; van de Mheen, D

    2016-08-01

    Despite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare professionals and addiction prevention experts. A three-round online Delphi study was carried out in the Netherlands. The first-round questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions to generate ideas about strategies to overcome barriers. In the second round, participants were asked to indicate how applicable they found each strategy. Items without consensus were systematically fed back with group median ratings and interquartile range (IQR) scores in the third-round questionnaire. In total, 39 out of 69 (57 %) invited participants enrolled in the first round, 214 participants completed the second round, and 144 of these (67 %) completed the third-round questionnaire. Results show that participants reached consensus on 59 of 81 strategies, such as the following: (1) use of E-learning technology, (2) symptom-specific screening by general practitioners (GPs) and/or universal screening by practice nurses, (3) reimbursement incentives, (4) supportive materials, (5) clear guidelines, (6) service provision of addiction care centers, and (7) more publicity in the media. This exploratory study identified a broad set of strategies that could potentially be used for overcoming barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice and paves the way for future research to experimentally test the identified implementation strategies using multifaceted approaches.

  10. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Stein, Dan J.; Mtukushe, Bulelwa; Sorsdahl, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI) for alcohol and other drug (AOD) use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305) met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225) were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83%) found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel. PMID:23198159

  11. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  12. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Sohee

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics.

  13. Evaluation of spontaneous propulsive movement as a screening tool to detect rescue of Parkinsonism phenotypes in zebrafish models.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Thomas C; Cario, Clinton L; Milanese, Chiara; Vogt, Andreas; Jeong, Jong-Hyeon; Burton, Edward A

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish models of human neuropsychiatric diseases offer opportunities to identify novel therapeutic targets and treatments through phenotype-based genetic or chemical modifier screens. In order to develop an assay to detect rescue of zebrafish models of Parkinsonism, we characterized spontaneous zebrafish larval motor behavior from 3 to 9 days post fertilization in a microtiter plate format suitable for screening, and clarified the role of dopaminergic signaling in its regulation. The proportion of time that larvae spent moving increased progressively between 3 and 9 dpf, whereas their active velocity decreased between 5 and 6 dpf as sporadic burst movements gave way to a more mature beat-and-glide pattern. Spontaneous movement varied between larvae and during the course of recordings as a result of intrinsic larval factors including genetic background. Variability decreased with age, such that small differences between groups of larvae exposed to different experimental conditions could be detected robustly by 6 to 7 dpf. Suppression of endogenous dopaminergic signaling by exposure to MPP(+), haloperidol or chlorpromazine reduced mean velocity by decreasing the frequency with which spontaneous movements were initiated, but did not alter active velocity. The variability of mean velocity assays could be reduced by analyzing groups of larvae for each data point, yielding acceptable screening window coefficients; the sample size required in each group was determined by the magnitude of the motor phenotype in different models. For chlorpromazine exposure, samples of four larvae allowed robust separation of treated and untreated data points (Z=0.42), whereas the milder impairment provoked by MPP(+) necessitated groups of eight larvae in order to provide a useful discovery assay (Z=0.13). Quantification of spontaneous larval movement offers a simple method to determine functional integrity of motor systems, and may be a useful tool to isolate novel molecular modulators

  14. In Silico Screening Based on Predictive Algorithms as a Design Tool for Exon Skipping Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense ‘splice-switching’ oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2’O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R2 0.89) and 53 (R2 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each

  15. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  16. The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability *

    PubMed Central

    Pilz, Bruna; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A.; Marcondes, Freddy B.; Lodovichi, Samuel S.; Mello, Wilson; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factors are not routinely identified in physical therapy assessments, although they can influence the prognosis of patients with low back pain. The "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) questionnaire aids in screening such patients for poor prognosis in the primary care setting and classifies them as high, medium, or low risk based on physical and psychosocial factors. Objectives: This study sought to translate and cross-culturally adapt the SBST to the Brazilian Portuguese language and test the reliability of the Brazilian version. Method: The first stage of the study consisted of the translation, synthesis, and back-translation of the original version of the STSB, including revision by the Translation Group, pretest of the translated version, and assessment by an expert panel. The pre-final Brazilian version was applied to 2 samples comprising 52 patients with low back pain; these patients were of both genders and older than 18 years of age. To assess the instrument's reliability, an additional sample comprising 50 patients was subjected to 2 interviews, and the results were assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa value. The instrument's internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (n=105), and the standard error of measurement was also calculated (n=50). Results: Translation and back-translation attained consensus, and only item 6 required changes; the reformulated version was applied to an additional sample comprising 52 individuals who did not report any doubts related to this item. The reliability of the SBST-Brazil was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95), the internal consistency was 0.74 for the total score and 0.72 for the psychosocial subscale, and the standard error of measurement was 1.9%. Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors. PMID:25372008

  17. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  18. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  19. Zebrafish obesogenic test: a tool for screening molecules that target adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Ouadah, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary and xenobiotic compounds may alter endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis, thus inducing obesity. We describe a short-term assay method, the zebrafish obesogenic (ZO) test, for examining the effects of diet, drugs, and environmental contaminants, singly or in combination, on white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamics in live larvae. The ZO test is an intermediate step in obesity research, between in vitro and rodent assays, and may be also used to study the effect of environmental toxicants on the adiposity of aquatic species. The procedure, using Nile Red (NR) fluorescent probe to reveal adipocyte lipid droplets, is suitable for pharmaceutical or toxicological screening. Larvae treated at an environmentally-relevant concentration of tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental obesogen, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity, irrespective of the lipid composition of the background diet. Exogenous compounds, e.g., rosiglitazone or TBT, known to increase adiposity in the fasting state, were classified as obesogenic. Anti-obesogenic compounds favored a decrease in adiposity in the fasting state. The ZO test, using adipocyte lipid droplet size and adiposity as its endpoints, is a whole-organism alternative testing assay for obesogenic and anti-obesogenic compounds and mixtures and provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments. PMID:21724975

  20. New Tools for Embryo Selection: Comprehensive Chromosome Screening by Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Ana Cristina; Milán, Miguel; Al-Asmar, Nasser; García-Herrero, Sandra; Mir, Pere; Simón, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). The study included 1420 CCS cycles for recurrent miscarriage (n = 203); repetitive implantation failure (n = 188); severe male factor (n = 116); previous trisomic pregnancy (n = 33); and advanced maternal age (n = 880). CCS was performed in cycles with fresh oocytes and embryos (n = 774); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified oocytes (n = 320); mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-2 embryos (n = 235); and mixed cycles with fresh and vitrified day-3 embryos (n = 91). Day-3 embryo biopsy was performed and analyzed by aCGH followed by day-5 embryo transfer. Consistent implantation (range: 40.5–54.2%) and pregnancy rates per transfer (range: 46.0–62.9%) were obtained for all the indications and independently of the origin of the oocytes or embryos. However, a lower delivery rate per cycle was achieved in women aged over 40 years (18.1%) due to the higher percentage of aneuploid embryos (85.3%) and lower number of cycles with at least one euploid embryo available per transfer (40.3%). We concluded that aneuploidy is one of the major factors which affect embryo implantation. PMID:24877108

  1. Development and validation of a screening tool for the identification of inappropriate transthoracic echocardiograms

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Ricardo; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought whether simple clinical markers could be used in a questionnaire for recognition of inappropriate (or rarely appropriate, RA) tests at point-of-service. Most applications of appropriateness criteria (AC) for transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) have been at the point of order, but a simple means of identifying RA tests in an audit process would be of value. Design, setting and participants The study was performed in 2 major hospitals in Tasmania. 2 reviewers created a questionnaire based on 4 questions most commonly associated with RA (suspected endocarditis with no positive blood cultures or new murmur, lack of cardiovascular symptoms or no change in clinical status or cardiac examination, routine surveillance and previous TTE within a year) in a derivation cohort of 814 patients. This was prospectively applied to 499 TTEs to calculate sensitivity and specificity for prediction of RA, and validated in the external group (n=880). Results Of 499 prospective TTEs, the questionnaire selected 18% requests as being potentially RA. As 7.4% were actually RA (κ 89%), the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 84% and 87%, respectively. In the external validation cohort, the model found 11% requests needed to be screened for appropriateness with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 95%. Conclusions A questionnaire based on 4 questions detects a high proportion of RA TTE, and could be used for audit. PMID:27707833

  2. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial.

  3. Is the MDS-UPDRS a Good Screening Tool for Detecting Sleep Problems and Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed

    Horváth, Krisztina; Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Acs, Péter; Bosnyák, Edit; Deli, Gabriella; Pál, Endre; Janszky, József; Faludi, Béla; Késmárki, Ildikó; Komoly, Sámuel; Bokor, Magdolna; Rigó, Eszter; Lajtos, Júlia; Klivényi, Péter; Dibó, György; Vécsei, László; Takáts, Annamária; Tóth, Adrián; Imre, Piroska; Nagy, Ferenc; Herceg, Mihály; Kamondi, Anita; Hidasi, Eszter; Kovács, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has separate items for measuring sleep problems (item 1.7) and daytime sleepiness (1.8). The aim of our study was to evaluate the screening sensitivity and specificity of these items to the PD Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In this nationwide, cross-sectional study 460 PD patients were enrolled. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the individual items, domains, and the total score of PDSS-2 and item 1.7 of MDS-UPDRS. Similarly, the items and the total score of ESS were contrasted to item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. After developing generalized ordinal logistic regression models, the transformed and observed scores were compared by Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient. Only item 3 difficulties staying asleep and the "disturbed sleep" domain of PDSS-2 showed high correlation with "sleep problems" item 1.7 of the MDS-UPDRS. Total score of PDSS-2 had moderate correlation with this MDS-UPRDS item. The total score of ESS showed the strongest, but still moderate, correlation with "daytime sleepiness" item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. As intended, the MDS-UPDRS serves as an effective screening tool for both sleep problems and daytime sleepiness and identifies subjects whose disabilities need further investigation.

  4. Tools for building a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening under real biological conditions: The Computational Titration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Glen E; Fornabaio, Micaela; Chen, Deliang L; Abraham, Donald J; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Computational tools utilizing a unique empirical modeling system based on the hydrophobic effect and the measurement of logP(o/w) (the partition coefficient for solvent transfer between 1-octanol and water) are described. The associated force field, Hydropathic INTeractions (HINT), contains much rich information about non-covalent interactions in the biological environment because of its basis in an experiment that measures interactions in solution. HINT is shown to be the core of an evolving virtual screening system that is capable of taking into account a number of factors often ignored such as entropy, effects of solvent molecules at the active site, and the ionization states of acidic and basic residues and ligand functional groups. The outline of a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening that incorporates these features is described. In addition, a detailed description of the Computational Titration algorithm is provided. As an example, three complexes of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are analyzed with our system and these results are compared with the experimental free energies of binding.

  5. HPV Testing from Dried Urine Spots as a Tool for Cervical Cancer Screening in Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Frati, Elena Rosanna; Martinelli, Marianna; Fasoli, Ester; Colzani, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Binda, Sandro; Olivani, Pierfranco; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, several screening strategies are available to prevent cervical cancer, but inadequate resources, sociocultural barriers, and sampling issues impede their success in low-income countries. To overcome these issues, this study aimed to evaluate the performance of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing from dried urine spots (DUS). Eighty-eight urine samples (including 56 HPV DNA positive specimens) were spotted on filter paper, dried, and stored in paper-bags. HPV DNA was detected from the DUS after 1 week and 4 weeks of storage using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the DUS-based HPV test were evaluated by comparing the results with those of HPV testing on fresh urine samples as the gold standard. The sensitivity of the test was 98.21% (95% CI: 90.56-99.68) for DUS stored for 1 week and 96.42% (95% CI: 87.88-99.01) for DUS stored for 4 weeks. The specificity was 100% (95% CI: 89.28-100) at both time points. The concordance between DUS and fresh urine HPV testing was "almost perfect" using the κ statistic. These preliminary data suggest that a DUS-based assay could bypass sociocultural barriers and sampling issues and therefore could be a suitable, effective tool for epidemiological surveillance and screening programs, especially in low-income countries.

  6. A Prospective Comparison of Informant- and Performance-Based Dementia Screening Tools to Predict In-hospital Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lily; Josephson, S. Andrew; Fukuda, Keiko A.; Neuhaus, John; Douglas, Vanja C.

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium, but the optimal strategy for incorporating cognitive impairment into delirium risk assessment at the time of hospital admission is unknown. We compared two informant-based screening tools for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (AD8 and D=(MC)2) to the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Mini-cog in predicting hospital-acquired delirium. This prospective cohort study at an academic medical center consisted of 162 medical inpatients over age 50 without delirium upon admission. Each participant was evaluated using the MMSE, Mini-cog, AD8, and D=(MC)2 upon admission and was assessed daily for delirium. An MMSE ≤ 24 carried a 5.5 (95% CI 2.7 – 11.1) relative risk for delirium, whereas cognitive impairment detected by the Mini-cog, D=(MC)2 or AD8 carried a 2-fold risk. Adding the D=(MC)2 to the MMSE increased the sensitivity for predicting delirium from 52% (32 – 73) for the MMSE alone to 65% (46 – 85) if either test was positive. If both were positive, specificity was maximized at 97% (94 – 100) but sensitivity was 17% (2 – 33). The MMSE and Mini-cog identify a large proportion of patients at risk for hospital-acquired delirium, but the combination of performance- and an informant-based screens may maximize specificity and sensitivity. PMID:25350550

  7. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment

    PubMed Central

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  8. STOP-BANG questionnaire as a screening tool for diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea by unattended portable monitoring sleep study.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Viral; Walia, Reuben; Jones, Kellie; Aston, Christopher E; Awab, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The Snoring, Tiredness, Observed apnea, high blood Pressure (STOP)-Body mass index (BMI), Age, Neck circumference, and Gender (BANG) questionnaire is a well validated screening tool for diagnosis of Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by an in- lab sleep study. However, performance of STOP-BANG as a screening tool for diagnosis of OSA in patients undergoing portable monitoring (PM) sleep study has not been well validated. We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients older than 18 years who had unattended portable monitoring sleep study done at a VA medical center between June 2012 and October 2014. STOP-BANG questionnaire and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) were routinely done prior to study. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) various STOP-BANG score thresholds were calculated for diagnosis of OSA defined by Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥5. Out of 502 unattended portable monitoring sleep studies, there were 465 males and 37 females. STOP-BANG thresholds of ≥2 and 3 have high sensitivity of 99.8 and 98.9 %, respectively, but very low specificity. Higher score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 have high specificity of 95 and 98.3 %, and PPV of 98.1 and 98.5 %, respectively, but very low sensitivity. A threshold of ≥7 in patients with BMI ≥30 was 100 % specific. The false negative rate for unattended portable monitoring sleep study compared to in-lab study was 80 %. STOP-BANG score thresholds of ≥7 and 8 are highly specific and have high PPV and therefore can potentially reduce need of diagnostic sleep studies in selected patients. Score thresholds of ≤2 or 3 are highly sensitive for AHI ≥5 by unattended portable monitoring sleep study but have high false negative rates. Therefore, in-lab sleep study should be performed to rule out OSA.

  9. HbA1c as a Screening tool for Ketosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Bu, Le; Zhang, Manna; Gusdon, Aaron M.; Zheng, Liang; Rampersad, Sharvan; Li, Jue; Qu, Shen

    2016-01-01

    Ketosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is overlooked due to atypical symptoms. The objective of this study is to evaluate the value of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for ketosis in T2DM patients. This retrospective study consisted of 253 T2DM patients with ketosis at Shanghai 10th People’s Hospital during a period from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2015. A control group consisted of 221 T2DM patients without ketosis randomly selected from inpatients during the same period. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis was used to examine the sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c as an indicator for ketosis. Higher HbA1c levels were correlated with ketosis. In patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.832, with 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.754–0.911. The optimal threshold was 10.1% (87 mmol/mol). In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the AUC was 0.811 (95% CI: 0.767–0.856), with an optimal threshold of 8.6% (70 mmol/mol). HbA1c is a potential screening tool for ketosis in patients with T2DM. Ketosis is much more likely with HbA1c values at ≥10.1% in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM and HbA1c values at ≥8.6% in patients with previously diagnosed T2DM. PMID:28009017

  10. Validity and cost-effectiveness of cone adaptation test as a screening tool to detect retinitis pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Rahul; Save, Prajakta; Deshpande, Madan; Shegunashi, Mahadev; Chougule, Marium; Khandekar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cone adaptation test is to detect retinitis pigmentosa (RP) cases confirmed by electroretinogram (ERG). We present the validity and cost-effectiveness of cone adaptation test as a screening tool for detecting RP. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2013 and December 2013. All RP cases diagnosed by ophthalmologists of H. V. Desai Eye Hospital in the last 5 years were participated in this study. The cone adaptation test was done in photopic and scotopic illumination. Failed test means 10 s or more to complete the test under scotopic illumination. A technician who was masked for cone adaptation test finding carried out ERG. Demographics, symptoms, and history of treatment were inquired. Those with flat ERG wave in scotopic condition and corresponding clinical findings were defined as having RP. Sensitivity, specificity, and false-positive and false-negative parameters of validity were estimated. The unit cost of performing test and ERG was calculated. Results: All 32 RP patients (28 male, age median 23.5 ± 14.5 years) had a vision more than 6/60 and flat wave in ERG under mesopic/scotopic illumination. Thirty-one participants failed cone adaptation test. The sensitivity was 31/32 × 100 = 97%. The specificity was 100%. There was no false-positive case. Consanguinity rate among parents was 43%. The cost of testing one child using “cone adaptation test kit” was 2.5 US $. The unit cost of diagnosing RP using ERG was 10 US $. Conclusion: Cone adaptation is a valid and cost-effective screening tool test for RP. The consanguinity rate among parents of an RP patient was high. PMID:27843226

  11. Evaluation of AUSDRISK as a screening tool for lifestyle modification programs: international implications for policy and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Jonathan A; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward D; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Coates, Michael J; Dunbar, James A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current use of Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK) as a screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes for entry into lifestyle modification programs. Research Design and Methods AUSDRISK scores were calculated from participants aged 40–74 years in the Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study, a cross-sectional population survey in 3 regions of Southwest Victoria, Australia, 2004–2006. Biomedical profiles of AUSDRISK risk categories were determined along with estimates of the Victorian population included at various cut-off scores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristics were calculated for AUSDRISK in determining fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥6.1 mmol/L. Results Increasing AUSDRISK scores were associated with an increase in weight, body mass index, FPG, and metabolic syndrome. Increasing the minimum cut-off score also increased the proportion of individuals who were obese and centrally obese, had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and metabolic syndrome. An AUSDRISK score of ≥12 was estimated to include 39.5% of the Victorian population aged 40–74 (916 000), while a score of ≥20 would include only 5.2% of the same population (120 000). At AUSDRISK≥20, the PPV for detecting FPG≥6.1 mmol/L was 28.4%. Conclusions AUSDRISK is powered to predict those with IFG and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, but its effectiveness as the sole determinant for entry into a lifestyle modification program is questionable given the large proportion of the population screened-in using the current minimum cut-off of ≥12. AUSDRISK should be used in conjunction with oral glucose tolerance testing, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin to identify those individuals at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes, who should be the primary targets for lifestyle modification. PMID:26468399

  12. Estimated risk for chronic pain determined using the generic STarT Back 5-item screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Hiroyuki; Matsudaira, Ko; Fujii, Tomoko; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Kawamata, Kayo; Tonosu, Juichi; Sumitani, Masahiko; Kasahara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    Objective The generic STarT Back 5-item screening tool (STarT-G) is used to manage chronic pain in the lower back and elsewhere. This study evaluated the validity of the Japanese version of this generic screening tool. Materials and methods Japanese participants between the ages of 20 and 64 years completed online surveys regarding pain. Survey reliability was assessed with internal consistency, as calculated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Spearman’s correlation coefficients were used to evaluate concurrent validity between the STarT-G score and standard reference questionnaires. Associations between STarT-G scores and the presence of a disability due to chronic pain (DCP) were analyzed using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. Results Analyses ultimately included data obtained from 52,842 Japanese participants (54.4% male) with a mean (standard deviation) age of 47.7 (9.4) years. Approximately 1.5% of participants had DCP, and the mean STarT-G score was 1.2 (1.4). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.71, indicating an acceptable reliability. The STarT-G score moderately correlated with the pain numerical rating scale (NRS) score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient: r = 0.34). When the STarT-G threshold was set at 4, the sensitivity and specificity of the DCP predictive model were 65.8% and 82.4%, respectively, and the area under the ROC was 0.808. Conclusion The STarT-G was internally consistent and was able to distinguish between subjects with and without a DCP. Therefore, the STarT-G can reliably be used in the Japanese population to identify patients with DCP. PMID:28280380

  13. Revised Hazard Ranking System: An improved tool for screening Superfund sites. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The Fact Sheet discusses the revised HRS which retains the same cutoff score and basic approach as the original HRS, while incorporating SARA requirements as well as improvements identified as necessary by EPA and the public. The revised HRS retains the ground water, surface water, and air pathways, drops the direct contact and fire/explosion pathways, and adds a fourth pathway, soil exposure. Several key provisions of the revised HRS make it more comprehensive. Other provisions make the revised HRS more accurate. The complexity and scope of the issues involved in revising the HRS required EPA to get widespread input. The majority of the commenters believed that the revised HRS represented an improvement over the original HRS. The result is a revised HRS that is a practical and effective tool in identifying the nation's worst hazardous waste sites.

  14. Predicting Structures of Ru-Centered Dyes: A Computational Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Fredin, Lisa A; Allison, Thomas C

    2016-04-07

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a means for harvesting solar energy to produce electrical power. Though a number of light harvesting dyes are in use, the search continues for more efficient and effective compounds to make commercially viable DSCs a reality. Computational methods have been increasingly applied to understand the dyes currently in use and to aid in the search for improved light harvesting compounds. Semiempirical quantum chemistry methods have a well-deserved reputation for giving good quality results in a very short amount of computer time. The most recent semiempirical models such as PM6 and PM7 are parametrized for a wide variety of molecule types, including organometallic complexes similar to DSC chromophores. In this article, the performance of PM6 is tested against a set of 20 molecules whose geometries were optimized using a density functional theory (DFT) method. It is found that PM6 gives geometries that are in good agreement with the optimized DFT structures. In order to reduce the differences between geometries optimized using PM6 and geometries optimized using DFT, the PM6 basis set parameters have been optimized for a subset of the molecules. It is found that it is sufficient to optimize the basis set for Ru alone to improve the agreement between the PM6 results and the DFT results. When this optimized Ru basis set is used, the mean unsigned error in Ru-ligand bond lengths is reduced from 0.043 to 0.017 Å in the set of 20 test molecules. Though the magnitude of these differences is small, the effect on the calculated UV/vis spectra is significant. These results clearly demonstrate the value of using PM6 to screen DSC chromophores as well as the value of optimizing PM6 basis set parameters for a specific set of molecules.

  15. Passive sampling - a tool for targeted screening of emerging pollutants in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, Vit; Grabic, Roman

    2016-04-01

    A screening of more than 300 pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants, antibiotics, beta blockers), PCPs (UV blockers, musk's, repellents), illicit drugs, pesticides, perfluorinated compounds and their metabolites at 22 monitoring sites throughout the Czech Republic was conducted in 2013. POCIS samplers were used in this study. Two types of passive samplers (pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS) were deployed for 14 days in May and in October, 88 samples were collected in total. In total 265 and 310 target compounds were analyzed in pharmaceutical and pesticide samplers respectively. The chemicals of interest were extracted from the passive samplers according to standardized procedures. LC -MS/MS and LC-MS/HRMS methods were applied for analyses of extracts. 150 of 310 (48%) and 127 of 265 (48%) analyzed substances had been found in pesticide and pharmaceutical samplers respectively. 27 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides, caffeine, nicotine metabolite cotinine) occurred at all sampled sites, additional 39 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides) occurred at more than 17 (75%) sites. One of perfluorinated compounds (PFOA) occurred at 68% of sites, whilst one of illicit drugs (Methamphetamine) was found at 61% of sites. The highest number of contaminants found in one POCIS at a single monitoring site was 111. The concentrations varied from nanograms to thousands of nanograms per sampler. Emerging contaminants occurring in highest concentrations (> 1000 ng/sampler) were BP-4 and PBSA (UV blockers), caffeine, DEET (insect repellent), imidacloprid (insecticide), telmisartan (hypertension drug) and tramadol (analgesic). Monitoring in the Czech Republic has demonstrated that many target compounds enter river waters and a number of these compounds reach high concentrations.

  16. Occurrence and risk screening of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants in three U.S. river sediments associated with wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; van Compernolle, Remi; Dyer, Scott D; Price, Bradford B; Nielsen, Allen M; Selby, Martin; Ferrer, Darci; Stanton, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are high production volume (HPV) chemicals globally used in detergent and personal care products and are truly a work-horse for the household and personal care industries. Commercial AE generally consist of a mixture of several homologues of varying carbon chain length and degree of ethoxylation. Homologues that are not ethoxylated are also known as aliphatic alcohols or simply fatty alcohols (FA). This group of homologues represents a special interest in the context of environmental risk, as these are also abundant and ubiquitous naturally occurring compounds (e.g. animal fats and in human feces). Hence, in a risk assessment one needs to distinguish between the natural (background) concentrations and the added contribution from anthropogenic activities. We conducted a weight-of-evidence risk assessment in three streams, documenting the exposure and predicted risk, and compared these to the habitat and in situ biota. We found that the parameters (e.g., habitat quality and total perturbations hereunder total suspended solids (TSS) and other abiotic and biotic stressors) contributed to the abundance of biota rather than the predicted risk from AE and FA. Moreover, the documented natural de novo synthesis and rapid degradation of FA highlight the need to carefully consider the procedures for environmental risk assessment of naturally occurring compounds such as FA, e.g. in line with the added risk concept known from metal risk assessment.

  17. A Blood-Based Screening Tool for Alzheimer's Disease That Spans Serum and Plasma: Findings from TARC and ADNI

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Robert; Huebinger, Ryan; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Edwards, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Neill; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Context There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the population level. Objective To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. Design, Setting, Participants Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC) with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine), and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status) data. Major Outcome Measures Alzheimer's disease. Results 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF) biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set) yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set) (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN) = 0.54 and specificity (SP) = 0.78), which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92). However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91). The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+) = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49–14.47), the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR−) = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22–5.71), and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR) = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86–69.47). Conclusions It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses. PMID:22163278

  18. Identifying Niemann-Pick type C in early-onset ataxia: two quick clinical screening tools.

    PubMed

    Synofzik, Matthis; Fleszar, Zofia; Schöls, Ludger; Just, Jennifer; Bauer, Peter; Torres Martin, Juan V; Kolb, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare multisystemic lysosomal disorder which, albeit treatable, is still starkly underdiagnosed. As NP-C features early onset ataxia (EOA) in 85-90 % of cases, EOA presents a promising target group for undiagnosed NP-C patients. Here, we assessed the ability of the previously established NP-C suspicion index (SI) and a novel abbreviated '2/3 SI' tool for rapid appraisal of suspected NP-C in unexplained EOA. This was a retrospective observational study comparing 'NP-C EOA' cases (EOA patients with confirmed NP-C) with non-NP-C EOA controls (EOA patients negative for NP-C gene mutations). NP-C risk prediction scores (RPS) from both the original and 2/3 SIs were calculated and their discriminatory performance evaluated. Among 133 patients (47 NP-C EOA cases; 86 non-NP-C EOA controls), moderate (40-69 points) and high (≥70 points) RPS were common based on original SI assessments in non-NP-C EOA controls [16 (19 %) and 8 (9 %), respectively], but scores ≥70 points were far more frequent [46 (98 %)] among NP-C EOA cases. RPS cut-off values provided 98 % sensitivity and 91 % specificity for NP-C at 70-point cut-off, and ROC analysis revealed an AUC of 0.982. Using the 2/3 SI, 90 % of NP-C EOA cases had scores of 2 or 3, and RPS analysis showed an AUC of 0.961. In conclusion, the NP-C SI and the new, quick-to-apply 2/3 SI distinguished well between NP-C and non-NP-C patients, even in EOA populations with high background levels of broadly NPC-compatible multisystemic disease features. While the original SI showed the greatest sensitivity, both tools reliably aided identification of patients with unexplained EOA who warranted further investigation for NP-C.

  19. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    PubMed Central

    Castanho, Teresa C.; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment. PMID:24611046

  20. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  1. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and multivariate analysis as a screening tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V.; Marsal, Lluís F.; Callao, M. Pilar; Ruisánchez, Itziar

    2012-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated as a tool for detecting Sudan I dye in culinary spices. Three Raman modalities were studied: normal Raman, FT-Raman and SERS. The results show that SERS is the most appropriate modality capable of providing a proper Raman signal when a complex matrix is analyzed. To get rid of the spectral noise and background, Savitzky-Golay smoothing with polynomial baseline correction and wavelet transform were applied. Finally, to check whether unadulterated samples can be differentiated from samples adulterated with Sudan I dye, an exploratory analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to raw data and data processed with the two mentioned strategies. The results obtained by PCA show that Raman spectra need to be properly treated if useful information is to be obtained and both spectra treatments are appropriate for processing the Raman signal. The proposed methodology shows that SERS combined with appropriate spectra treatment can be used as a practical screening tool to distinguish samples suspicious to be adulterated with Sudan I dye.

  2. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments.

    PubMed

    Castanho, Teresa C; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C

    2014-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  3. Developmental Risk Signals as a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Sensory Processing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Cristina; Gomez, M Marlene; Ramos, Gregorio; Rios Del Rio, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine if the indicators of risk included in the Indicators of Developmental Risk Signals (INDIPCD-R) could differentiate between children at risk of sensory processing disorders (SPDs) from those with normal development and if the SPD indicators correlated with a delay or altered development. A retrospective, descriptive, correlational design was used with a sample of 51 children, 36 referred because of clinical sensory processing indicators and 15 with non-clinical indicators. Participants were assessed with a developmental scale Revised Profile of Developmental Behaviors (PCD-R), the Sensory Profile, play and clinical observations. The INDIPCD-R showed a high correlation with developmental areas of PCD-R and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, when compared with the Sensory Profile. T-test results for independent samples showed significant differences at p ≤ 0.01 level between the children with SPD indicators and those with no clinical signs in the PCD-R. The Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted for unpaired samples, to verify if there were significant differences between children with apparent SPD indicators and children with no apparent difficulties. The Spearman's rho was used to identify the correlations between the INDIPCD-R, with different areas of development. This study supports the use of the INDIPCD-R as a screening instrument that could be used by occupational therapists to discriminate children with and without indicators of SPD. The limitation of this study was that it did not cover all the ages of the INDIPCD-R. Additional studies are required to determine the utility of this instrument for outcome studies and whether it is valid and reliable to identify children at risk of different pathologies. The INDIPCD-R is a low-cost instrument that allows the occupational therapist to make a quick review of the different components that could be involved in SPD and therefore guide the more in

  4. Exome sequencing is an efficient tool for genetic screening of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byung-Ok; Koo, Soo Kyung; Park, Mi-Hyun; Rhee, Hwanseok; Yang, Song-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Gyu; Jung, Sung-Chul; Kim, Han Su; Hyun, Young Se; Nakhro, Khriezhanuo; Lee, Hye Jin; Woo, Hae-Mi; Chung, Ki Wha

    2012-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neuropathies and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder with variable inheritance modes. As several molecules have been reported to have therapeutic effects on CMT, depending on the underlying genetic causes, exact genetic diagnostics have become very important for executing personalized therapy. Whole-exome sequencing has recently been introduced as an available method to identify rare or novel genetic defects from genetic disorders. Particularly, CMT is a model disease to apply exome sequencing because more than 50 genes (loci) are involved in its development with weak genotype-phenotype correlation. This study performed the exome sequencing in 25 unrelated CMT patients who revealed neither 17p12 duplication/deletion nor several major CMT genes. This study identified eight causative heterozygous mutations (32%). This detection rate seems rather high because each sample was tested before the study for major genetic causes. Therefore, this study suggests that the exome sequencing can be a highly exact, rapid, and economical molecular diagnostic tool for CMT patients who are tested for major genetic causes.

  5. Screening risk assessment tools for assessing the environmental impact in an abandoned pyritic mine in Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo; García-Gómez, Concepción; Oropesa, Ana Lourdes; Esteban, Elvira; Haro, Amparo; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón; Tarazona, Jose Vicente; Peñalosa, Jesus Manuel; Fernández, María Dolores

    2011-01-15

    This paper describes a new methodology for assessing site-specific environmental impact of contaminants. The proposed method integrates traditional risk assessment approaches with real and variable environmental characteristics at a local scale. Environmental impact on selected receptors was classified for each environmental compartment into 5 categories derived from the whole (chronic and acute) risk assessment using 8 risk levels. Risk levels were established according to three hazard quotients (HQs) which represented the ratio of exposure to acute and chronic toxicity values. This tool allowed integrating in only one impact category all the elements involved in the standard risk assessment. The methodology was applied to an abandoned metal mine in Spain, where high levels of As, Cd, Zn and Cu were detected. Risk affecting potential receptors such as aquatic and soil organisms and terrestrial vertebrates were assessed. Whole results showed that impact to the ecosystem is likely high and further investigation or remedial actions are necessary. Some proposals to refine the risk assessment for a more realistic diagnostic are included.

  6. The Impact of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral for Treatment in Emergency Department Patients’ Alcohol Use: A 3-, 6- and 12-month Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral for Treatment (SBIRT) in reducing alcohol consumption in emergency department (ED) patients at 3, 6, and 12 months following exposure to the intervention. Methods: Patients drinking above the low-risk limits (at-risk to dependence), as defined by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), were recruited from 14 sites nationwide from April to August 2004. A quasi-experimental comparison group design included sequential recruitment of intervention and control patients at each site. Control patients received a written handout. The Intervention group received the handout and participated in a brief negotiated interview with direct referral for treatment if indicated. Follow-up surveys were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months by telephone using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. Results: Of the 1132 eligible patients consented and enrolled (581 control, 551 intervention), 699 (63%), 575 (52%) and 433 (38%) completed follow-up surveys via IVR at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. Regression analysis adjusting for the clustered sampling design and using multiple imputation procedures to account for subject attrition revealed that those receiving SBIRT reported roughly three drinks less per week than controls (B = −3.00, SE = 1.06, P < 0.05) and the level of maximum drinks per occasion was approximately three-fourths of a drink less than controls (B = -0.76, SE = 0.29, P < 0.05) at 3 months. At 6 and 12 months post-intervention, these effects had weakened considerably and were no longer statistically or substantively significant. Conclusion: SBIRT delivered by ED providers appears to have short-term effectiveness in reducing at-risk drinking, but multi-contact interventions or booster programs may be necessary to maintain long-term reductions in risky drinking. PMID:20876217

  7. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  8. Factors influencing the implementation of a brief alcohol screening and educational intervention in social settings not specializing in addiction services

    PubMed Central

    Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A. Patterson

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol use continues to be a major problem, when high-risk users enter social services, they are not provided with empirically supported treatments (ESTs). This study investigates predictors of successful implementation in agencies not specializing in addiction services. Fifty-four frontline workers in six organizations were enrolled in the study. After completing self-administered surveys of organizational culture and climate and attitudes toward ESTs, workers were trained to implement a brief intervention. The results indicate that organizational factors and attitudes may not be related to implementation. Although high implementers had similar traits, further research is needed to characterize successful EST implementers. PMID:25905766

  9. Stroke vision, aphasia, neglect (VAN) assessment—a novel emergent large vessel occlusion screening tool: pilot study and comparison with current clinical severity indices

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Mohamed S; Ver Hage, Anna; Carter, Jaqueline; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; McTaggart, Ryan A

    2017-01-01

    Background Identification of emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) stroke has become increasingly important with the recent publications of favorable acute stroke thrombectomy trials. Multiple screening tools exist but the length of the examination and the false positive rate range from good to adequate. A screening tool was designed and tested in the emergency department using nurse responders without a scoring system. Methods The vision, aphasia, and neglect (VAN) screening tool was designed to quickly assess functional neurovascular anatomy. While objective, there is no need to calculate or score with VAN. After training participating nurses to use it, VAN was used as an ELVO screen for all stroke patients on arrival to our emergency room before physician evaluation and CT scan. Results There were 62 consecutive code stroke activations during the pilot study. 19 (31%) of the patients were VAN positive and 24 (39%) had a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≥6. All 14 patients with ELVO were either VAN positive or assigned a NIHSS score ≥6. While both clinical severity thresholds had 100% sensitivity, VAN was more specific (90% vs 74% for NIHSS ≥6). Similarly, while VAN and NIHSS ≥6 had 100% negative predictive value, VAN had a 74% positive predictive value while NIHSS ≥6 had only a 58% positive predictive value. Conclusions The VAN screening tool accurately identified ELVO patients and outperformed a NIHSS ≥6 severity threshold and may best allow clinical teams to expedite care and mobilize resources for ELVO patients. A larger study to both validate this screening tool and compare with others is warranted. PMID:26891627

  10. VALIDATION OF AN AUDIO COMPUTER ASSISTED SELF INTERVIEW (ACASI) VERSION OF THE ALCOHOL, SMOKING AND SUBSTANCE INVOLVEMENT SCREENING TEST (ASSIST) IN PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M.; Rotrosen, John; Ramautar, Arianne; Gourevitch, Marc N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To address barriers to implementing the “Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST)” in medical settings, we adapted the traditional interviewer-administered (IA) ASSIST to an audio-guided computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) format. This study sought to validate the ACASI ASSIST by estimating the concordance, correlation, and agreement of scores generated using the ACASI versus the reference standard IA ASSIST. Secondary aims were to assess feasibility and compare ASSIST self-report to drug testing results. Design Participants completed the ACASI and IA ASSIST in a randomly assigned order, followed by drug testing. Setting Urban safety-net primary care clinic. Participants A total of 393 adult patients. Measurements Scores generated by the ACASI and IA ASSIST; drug testing results from saliva and hair samples. Findings Concordance between the ACASI and IA ASSIST in identifying moderate-high risk use was 92–99% for each substance class. Correlation was excellent for global scores (ICC=0.94, CI 0.92–0.95) and for substance-specific scores for tobacco (ICC=0.93, CI 0.91–0.94), alcohol (ICC=0.91, CI 0.89–0.93) and illicit drugs (ICC=0.85, CI 0.85–0.90), and good for prescription drugs (ICC=0.68, CI 0.61–0.73). Ninety-four percent of differences in global scores fell within anticipated limits of agreement. Among participants with a positive saliva test, 74% self-reported use on the ACASI ASSIST. The ACASI ASSIST required a median time of 3.7 minutes (range 0.7–15.4), and 21 (5.3%) participants requested assistance. Conclusions The computer self-administered Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test appears to be a valid alternative to the interviewer-administered approach for identifying substance use in primary care patients. PMID:26360315

  11. Screening and brief intervention in prenatal care settings.

    PubMed

    Chang, Grace

    Pregnant women continue to drink despite evidence that prenatal alcohol consumption can negatively affect fetal growth and development. Because no universally safe level of prenatal alcohol use has been established, it is beneficial to identify and modify a woman's prenatal alcohol use early in her pregnancy, particularly as her past drinking habits can predict her drinking levels during pregnancy. Some women may voluntarily disclose the extent of their prenatal alcohol consumption. If not, the T-ACE, a four-item screening questionnaire based on the CAGE assessment tool, has been demonstrated to be a valuable and efficient method for identifying a range of alcohol use. Studies have shown that combined with brief interventions, early identification of a woman's prenatal alcohol use could avert its more severe adverse consequences and may be the logical first-line approach.

  12. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J

    2014-12-01

    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  13. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels

    PubMed Central

    CORSTJENS, PAUL L. A. M.; DE DOOD, CLAUDIA J.; KORNELIS, DIEUWKE; FAT, ELISA M. TJON KON; WILSON, R. ALAN; KARIUKI, THOMAS M.; NYAKUNDI, RUTH K.; LOVERDE, PHILIP T.; ABRAMS, WILLIAM R.; TANKE, HANS J.; VAN LIESHOUT, LISETTE; DEELDER, ANDRÉ M.; VAN DAM, GOVERT J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring. PMID:24932595

  14. Development of a tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL)

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Hillman, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a screening tool to identify elderly patients at the end of life and quantify the risk of death in hospital or soon after discharge for to minimise prognostic uncertainty and avoid potentially harmful and futile treatments. Design Narrative literature review of definitions, tools and measurements that could be combined into a screening tool based on routinely available or obtainable data at the point of care to identify elderly patients who are unavoidably dying at the time of admission or at risk of dying during hospitalisation. Main measurements Variables and thresholds proposed for the Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL screening tool) were adopted from existing scales and published research findings showing association with either in-hospital, 30-day or 3-month mortality. Results Eighteen predictor instruments and their variants were examined. The final items for the new CriSTAL screening tool included: age ≥65; meeting ≥2 deterioration criteria; an index of frailty with ≥2 criteria; early warning score >4; presence of ≥1 selected comorbidities; nursing home placement; evidence of cognitive impairment; prior emergency hospitalisation or intensive care unit readmission in the past year; abnormal ECG; and proteinuria. Conclusions An unambiguous checklist may assist clinicians in reducing uncertainty patients who are likely to die within the next 3 months and help initiate transparent conversations with families and patients about end-of-life care. Retrospective chart review and prospective validation will be undertaken to optimise the number of prognostic items for easy administration and enhanced generalisability. Development of an evidence-based tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: CriSTAL. PMID:25613983

  15. Reducing Risky Alcohol Use: What Health Care Systems Can Do.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Amity E; Brolin, Mary; Stewart, Maureen T; Evans, Brooke; Horgan, Constance

    2016-04-27

    Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al., 2015; Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, & Gerberding, 2004; Rehm et al., 2009). Excessive alcohol use is one of the top causes of death, and over 240 alcohol-related deaths occur daily in the US (Mokdad et al., 2004; Stahre, Roeber, Kanny, Brewer, & Zhang, 2014). In comparison, 78 people die from an opioid overdose each day (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Excessive drinking is estimated to cost over $249 billion annually in the US and $5.6 billion in the Commonwealth (Sacks, Gonzales, Bouchery, Tomedi, & Brewer, 2015). This issue brief describes the scope of the risky drinking problem in the US and associated costs and consequences. The brief then examines the evidence base for tools to address risky drinking and outlines policy strategies that health care system stakeholders may employ to address further this critical public health issue. Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is an evidence-based, cost-effective practice to address risky alcohol use, typically using a short validated screening tool followed by a brief counseling session if a patient screens positive. Research shows SBI conducted in primary care outpatient settings significantly reduces alcohol use (Bertholet, Daeppen, Wietlisbach, Fleming, & Burnand, 2005b; Bien, Miller, & Tonigan, 1993; Kaner et al., 2009; Saitz, 2010a), hospitalizations (Fleming, Barry, Manwell, Johnson, & London, 1997b

  16. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  17. The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems Applied to Children (STEP-CHILD): Psychometric Characteristics and Associations with Child and Parent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M.; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the 23-item Screening Tool for Feeding Problems (STEP; Matson & Kuhn, 2001) with a sample of children referred to a hospital-based feeding clinic to examine the scale's psychometric characteristics and then demonstrate how a children's revision of the STEP, the STEP-CHILD is associated with child and parent variables.…

  18. Validation of the Chinese version of the NUCOG cognitive screening tool in patients with epilepsy, dementia and other neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lan; Li, Shu-Chuen; Xia, Li; Pan, Songqing; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2014-06-01

    We aimed to develop and validate a Chinese version of the Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (NUCOG) for use in Chinese-speaking subjects internationally. Patients and healthy controls were recruited from two hospitals between July and October 2012. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were utilized to test criterion validity. Convergent validity was assessed via correlations between NUCOG and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Reliability was measured by internal consistency (Cronbach's α). Patients with epilepsy (n=144), neurological diseases (n=81), dementia (n=44), and controls (n=260) completed the NUCOG and the MMSE. Overall, both NUCOG and MMSE scores differed significantly across the four groups with the highest scores in the control group and the lowest in the dementia group (p<0.0001). The NUCOG scores could differentiate between patients with certain seizure types, stroke and transient ischemic attack. Compared to the MMSE, the NUCOG exhibited a higher area under the ROC curve. The convergent validity was substantially correlated, and internal consistency was very high (0.922). The Chinese version of NUCOG was demonstrated to be a sensitive and reliable screening tool for cognitive impairment in a Chinese-speaking population not only in China, but also in countries where there is a sizeable population of ethnic Chinese. Additionally, our study also showed the NUCOG could better differentiate cognitive function in patients with certain seizure types, stroke and transient ischemic attack than the MMSE. This potentially expands the clinical usefulness of NUCOG, enabling clinicians to measure the cognitive profile of patients with epilepsy and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases.

  19. MACCS : Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening tool for high-frequency revisit data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Huc, M.; Feuvrier, T.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.; Lonjou, V.; Desjardins, C.

    2015-10-01

    For the production of Level2A products during Sentinel-2 commissioning in the Technical Expertise Center Sentinel-2 in CNES, CESBIO proposed to adapt the Venus Level-2 , taking advantage of the similarities between the two missions: image acquisition at a high frequency (2 days for Venus, 5 days with the two Sentinel-2), high resolution (5m for Venus, 10, 20 and 60m for Sentinel-2), images acquisition under constant viewing conditions. The Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening (MACCS) tool was born: based on CNES Orfeo Toolbox Library, Venμs processor which was already able to process Formosat2 and VENμS data, was adapted to process Sentinel-2 and Landsat5-7 data; since then, a great effort has been made reviewing MACCS software architecture in order to ease the add-on of new missions that have also the peculiarity of acquiring images at high resolution, high revisit and under constant viewing angles, such as Spot4/Take5 and Landsat8. The recursive and multi-temporal algorithm is implemented in a core that is the same for all the sensors and that combines several processing steps: estimation of cloud cover, cloud shadow, water, snow and shadows masks, of water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric correction. This core is accessed via a number of plug-ins where the specificity of the sensor and of the user project are taken into account: products format, algorithmic processing chaining and parameters. After a presentation of MACCS architecture and functionalities, the paper will give an overview of the production facilities integrating MACCS and the associated specificities: the interest for this tool has grown worldwide and MACCS will be used for extensive production within the THEIA land data center and Agri-S2 project. Finally the paper will zoom on the use of MACCS during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Test phase showing the first Level-2A products.

  20. Creation of Novel Protein Variants with CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis: Turning a Screening By-Product into a Discovery Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vaimberg, Emma W.; Johannessen, Cory M.; Root, David E.; Doench, John G.

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 screening has proven to be a versatile tool for genomics research. Based on unexpected results from a genome-wide screen, we developed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated approach to mutagenesis, exploiting the allelic diversity generated by error-prone non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) to identify novel gain-of-function and drug resistant alleles of the MAPK signaling pathway genes MEK1 and BRAF. We define the parameters of a scalable technique to easily generate cell populations containing thousands of endogenous allelic variants to map gene functions. Further, these results highlight an unexpected but important phenomenon, that Cas9-induced gain-of-function alleles are an inherent by-product of normal Cas9 loss-of-function screens and should be investigated during analysis of data from large-scale positive selection screens. PMID:28118392

  1. Evaluation of visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol's iodine as cervical cancer screening tools in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Sabuhi; Das, Vinta; Zahra, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    In view of the failure of cytology screening programmes for cervical cancer in developing countries, the World Health Organization suggested unaided visual inspection of the cervix after an application of acetic acid (VIA) and Lugol's iodine (VILI) as alternative screening methods. Our study evaluates the effectiveness of VIA and VILI compared to Pap smear as screening methods for carcinoma of the cervix in a low-resource setting. Three hundred and twenty-eight women were subjected to a Pap smear test, VIA, VILI and colposcopy. The results were as follows: Pap smear test (20.83%, specificity 98.38%), VIA (55.5%, 71.39%) and VILI (86.84%, 48.93%). Although VIA and VILI are less specific in comparison to the Pap smear test, they are more sensitive in detecting pre-invasive lesions. Hence VIA and VILI can be used as cervical cancer screening tools in low-resource settings.

  2. High-performance mass spectrometry as a drug discovery tool: a high-throughput screening assay to identify RNA-binding ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A.; Drader, Jared J.; Griffey, Richard H.; Hofstadler, Steven A.

    2001-04-01

    Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is increasingly being used as a drug discovery tool. We describe the development of a parallel high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy to identify small molecules that bind RNA targets using FTMS as an alternative to classical high-throughput biological screening methods for combinatorial libraries. The Multitarget Affinity/Specificity Screening (MASS) assay takes advantage of the "intrinsic mass" label of each compound and target RNA by employing high resolution, high precision mass measurements. The ability to analyze complex mixtures allows large compound libraries to be screened in the presence of multiple RNA targets simultaneously. The identity of the small molecule(s) which bind, the RNA target to which it binds, the compound-specific binding affinity and the location of the binding site on the RNA can be determined in one set of rapid experiments. The MASS technology detects complexes with dissociation constants of < 5 mM, with high sensitivity.

  3. ReCLAIM v2.0: a spreadsheet tool for calculating doses and soil/water radionuclide screening levels for assessment of radioactively contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Willans, S M; Galais, N C M; Lennon, C P; Trivedi, D P

    2007-03-01

    This note describes an electronic spreadsheet tool called ReCLAIM v2.0, developed by Nexia Solutions Ltd. The tool calculates doses to exposure groups for assessment of radioactively contaminated land including UK Nuclear Licensed sites on an individual exposure pathway basis and on a multiple exposure pathway basis constituting various specifiable scenarios. It also calculates soil/water screening levels of individual radionuclides with reference to selected exposure pathways and a dose target, and considers radionuclide additivity. Subject to agreement with a ReCLAIM disclaimer, the tool, with accompanying documentation (User Guide and Verification Report), can be downloaded without cost from the website (www.nexiasolutions.com/reclaim).

  4. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm. PMID:27127598

  5. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m(2), Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m(2) and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m(2) and 36 cm.

  6. Cardiolipin fingerprinting of leukocytes by MALDI-TOF/MS as a screening tool for Barth syndrome[S

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Gorgoglione, Ruggiero; Bowron, Ann; Steward, Colin G.; Corcelli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked disease associated with cardioskeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and organic aciduria, is characterized by abnormalities of card­iolipin (CL) species in mitochondria. Diagnosis of the disease is often compromised by lack of rapid and widely available diagnostic laboratory tests. The present study describes a new method for BTHS screening based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of leukocyte lipids. This generates a “CL fingerprint” and allows quick and simple assay of the relative levels of CL and monolysocardiolipin species in leukocyte total lipid profiles. To validate the method, we used vector algebra to analyze the difference in lipid composition between controls (24 healthy donors) and patients (8 boys affected by BTHS) in the high-mass phospholipid range. The method of lipid analysis described represents an important additional tool for the diagnosis of BTHS and potentially enables therapeutic monitoring of drug targets, which have been shown to ameliorate abnormal CL profiles in cells. PMID:26144817

  7. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  8. Exploring the Potential of Venom from Nasonia vitripennis as Therapeutic Agent with High-Throughput Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Formesyn, Ellen M.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    The venom from the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) contains at least 80 different proteins and possibly even more peptides or other small chemical compounds, demonstrating its appealing therapeutic application. To better understand the dynamics of the venom in mammalian cells, two high-throughput screening tools were performed. The venom induced pathways related to an early stress response and activated reporters that suggest the involvement of steroids. Whether these steroids reside from the venom itself or show an induced release/production caused by the venom, still remains unsolved. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was found to be down-regulated after venom and LPS co-treatment, confirming the anti-inflammatory action of N. vitripennis venom. When analyzing the expression levels of the NF-κB target genes, potentially not only the canonical but also the alternative NF-κB pathway can be affected, possibly explaining some counterintuitive results. It is proposed that next to an NF-κB binding site, the promoter of the genes tested by the PCR array may also contain binding sites for other transcription factors, resulting in a complex puzzle to connect the induced target gene with its respective transcription factor. Interestingly, Nasonia venom altered the expression of some drug targets, presenting the venom with an exciting therapeutical potential. PMID:26046700

  9. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  10. Kindergarten Screens as Tools for the Early Identification of Children at Risk for Remediation or Grade Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenner, George

    1995-01-01

    Compares the capability of three kindergarten screening instruments to correctly predict which children (n=95) would be recommended for referral to remedial programs or for retention: a Piagetian-based instrument, a general screening test, and a language-specific screen. Although the Piagetian-based test had poor predictive qualities, both the…

  11. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  12. Psychometric properties of alcohol screening tests in the emergency department in Argentina, Mexico and the United States.

    PubMed

    Cremonte, Mariana; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Borges, Guilherme

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this article is to report psychometric characteristics of the AUDIT, CAGE, RAPS4, and TWEAK and to compare them across three countries: Argentina, Mexico, and the United States which used a similar protocol and methodology. Probability samples of patients 18 years and older were drawn from emergency departments in Mar del Plata, Argentina (n=780), Pachuca, Mexico (n=1624) and Santa Clara, U.S. (n=1220). Concurrent validity was assessed by comparing their performance against a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (DSM-IV) obtained through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and for the briefer measures, also by their correlation with the AUDIT. The internal consistency of the CAGE, RAPS4, and TWEAK scores was estimated by the KR-20 formula and by Cronbach's Alpha for the AUDIT. Corrected item-total correlation and D-values were used as item discrimination measures. In Argentina and Mexico the AUDIT and the RAPS4 showed the highest validity. Reliability of all instruments was higher in the US than in Argentina or Mexico. In all three countries, reliability of the TWEAK was lowest, while the AUDIT was highest. With a few exceptions, all items showed good discrimination powers.

  13. Screening of microorganisms producing cold-active oxidoreductases to be applied in enantioselective alcohol oxidation. An Antarctic survey.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Lidiane S; Kagohara, Edna; Garcia, Thaís P; Pellizari, Vivian H; Andrade, Leandro H

    2011-01-01

    Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S)-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS)-1-(4-methyl-phenyl)ethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph.

  14. Assessment of risk factors and test performance on malnutrition prevalence at admission using four different screening tools.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Josefina; Ayala, Luis; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Muñiz, Ma José; Gamundí, Antoni; Martínez-Indart, Lorea; Masmiquel L, Lluis

    2014-03-01

    Antecedentes y objetivos: La desnutrición es muy frecuente en los pacientes que ingresan en el hospital. El objetivo de nuestro estudio es a) determinar la prevalencia de desnutrición al ingreso en un hospital de tercer nivel e identificar los factores de riesgo para desnutrición. b) Estudiar la sensibilidad y especifidad de diferentes test de cribado de desnutrición comparados con las valoración global subjetiva (VGS). Material y métodos: Realizamos un estudio prospectivo a las 24 h del ingreso hospitalario a individuos (56.4% hombres con una edad media de 61,3 ± 17 años) utilizando 4 test de cribado diferentes: mininutritional assessment short form (MNA-SF), nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002), malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) y VGS. Además, se recogieron medidas antropométricas y comorbilidades. Resultados: La prevalencia global de desnutrición fue de 47.3%. Las tasas específicas fueron 54,2% para > 65 años, 40,7% en < 65 años (p = 0,002), 63,4% en las áreas médicas, 34,0% áreas quirúrgicas (p < 0,001). Los factores que influían en la presencia de desnutrición al ingreso fueron: cardiopatía (OR 1,74 IC 95% 1,16-2,60 p = 0,007) en el MNA-SF (AUC 0,62); hepatopatía (OR 4,45 IC 95% 1.9410,22 p < 0,001), > 65años (OR 2,10 IC 95% 1,19-3,93 p = 0,011), áreas médicas (OR 3,58 IC 95% 1,93-6,62 p < 0,001) en la VGS (AUC 0,96); neumopatía (OR 3,34 IC 95% 1,45-7,73 p = 0,005), áreas médicas (OR 2,55 IC 95% 1,09-5,98 p = 0,032) en el NRS 2002 (AUC 0,97). La pérdida de peso involuntaria fue común a todos los test. Conclusiones: La desnutrición es frecuente al ingreso hospitalario. La presencia de comorbilidades puede influir en la presencia de desnutrición al ingreso, sin embargo, podemos utilizar cualquiera de los tests propuestos para su detección en nuestro hospital.

  15. Focused Decision Support: a Data Mining Tool to Query the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Dataset and Guide Screening Management for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Hostetter, Jason; Morrison, James; Wang, Kenneth; Siegel, Eliot

    2016-04-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial enrolled ~155,000 participants to determine whether certain screening exams reduced mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Repurposing the data provides an unparalleled resource for matching patients with the outcomes of demographically or diagnostically comparable patients. A web-based application was developed to query this subset of patient information against a given patient's demographics and risk factors. Analysis of the matched data yields outcome information which can then be used to guide management decisions and imaging software. Prognostic information is also estimated via the proportion of matched patients that progress to cancer. The US Preventative Services Task Force provides screening recommendations for cancers of the breast, colorectal tract, and lungs. There is wide variability in adherence of clinicians to these guidelines and others published by the Fleischner Society and various cancer organizations. Data mining the PLCO dataset for clinical decision support can optimize the use of limited healthcare resources, focusing screening on patients for whom the benefit to risk ratio is the greatest and most efficacious. A data driven, personalized approach to cancer screening maximizes the economic and clinical efficacy and enables early identification of patients in which the course of disease can be improved. Our dynamic decision support system utilizes a subset of the PLCO dataset as a reference model to determine imaging and testing appropriateness while offering prognostic information for various cancers.

  16. The Effectiveness of Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention for Reducing Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Robert; Phillips, Thomas; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, but its effectiveness over time has not been subject to meta-analysis. Objective The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the effectiveness of eSBI over time in nontreatment-seeking hazardous/harmful drinkers. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified through searching the electronic databases PsychINFO, Medline, and EMBASE in May 2013. Two members of the study team independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. Studies reporting data that could be transformed into grams of ethanol per week were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in grams of ethanol per week between eSBI and control groups was weighted using the random-effects method based on the inverse-variance approach to control for differences in sample size between studies. Results There was a statistically significant mean difference in grams of ethanol consumed per week between those receiving an eSBI versus controls at up to 3 months (mean difference –32.74, 95% CI –56.80 to –8.68, z=2.67, P=.01), 3 to less than 6 months (mean difference –17.33, 95% CI –31.82 to –2.84, z=2.34, P=.02), and from 6 months to less than 12 months follow-up (mean difference –14.91, 95% CI –25.56 to –4.26, z=2.74, P=.01). No statistically significant difference was found at a follow-up period of 12 months or greater (mean difference –7.46, 95% CI –25.34 to 10.43, z=0.82, P=.41). Conclusions A significant reduction in weekly alcohol consumption between intervention and control conditions was demonstrated between 3 months and less than 12 months follow-up indicating eSBI is an effective intervention. PMID:24892426

  17. Screening for Drug and Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Association with HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ludford, Kaysia T.; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Peinado, Jesus; Gonzales, Pedro; Leiva, Rene; Pun, Monica; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peru's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). The contribution of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) to known high-risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission in this context has not been well characterized. Methods Between June and October 2011, 5,148 sexually active MSM were recruited using convenience sampling in five cities to participate in a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey. Five high-risk sexual criteria previously associated with incident HIV infection in this setting were selected a priori as the dependent outcomes. Screening for AUDs used the validated Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDS were stratified by severity. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were computed to establish the independent correlates of the five dependent outcomes. Results The majority (62.8%) of participants met screening criteria for having an AUD, which were independently correlated with each of the following high-risk sexual risk behaviors in the previous 6 months: 1) >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.76; (1.54–2.02)]; 2) sex with an HIV-infected partner [AOR = 1.29; (1.03–1.62)]; 3) having a sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 1.38; (1.13–1.68)]; 4) being a sex worker [AOR = 1.61; (1.40–1.87)]; and 5) unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.22; (1.09–1.38)]. Recent drug use was also correlated with having >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.42 (1.19–1.71)], sex work [AOR = 1.97 (1.63–2.39)] and unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.31 (1.11–1.54)]. For each dependent variable, the association with AUDs significantly increased with increasing AUD severity. Conclusions AUDs are highly prevalent among MSM in Peru and are associated with increased HIV risk-taking behaviors that are associated with HIV transmission. Strategies that target problematic drinking such as medication-assisted therapy, behavioral counseling and structural interventions could potentially

  18. Screening of Functional Rhizopus stolonifer for Alcohol Fermentation and Production of High Quality Korean Traditional Rice Wine.

    PubMed

    Song, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2010-06-01

    Different strains of mold were screened for the production of high quality Korean traditional rice wine with anti-hypertension and good acceptability. We isolated 867 nuruk mold strains and selected 24 for further study based on measurement of amylase activity. Among them, mold No. 17 showed high ethanol production upon fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as anti-hypertensive properties. The No. 17 strain was therefore selected as the functional mold and later identified as Rhizopus stolonifer based on molecular biological characteristics. Optimal fermentation conditions for the brewing of anti-hypertensive traditional rice wine comprised the addition of R. stolonifer No. 17 koji at a concentration of 35 sp/g and a fermentation period of 10 days at 25℃ using S. cerevisiae.

  19. Screening of Functional Rhizopus stolonifer for Alcohol Fermentation and Production of High Quality Korean Traditional Rice Wine

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Different strains of mold were screened for the production of high quality Korean traditional rice wine with anti-hypertension and good acceptability. We isolated 867 nuruk mold strains and selected 24 for further study based on measurement of amylase activity. Among them, mold No. 17 showed high ethanol production upon fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as anti-hypertensive properties. The No. 17 strain was therefore selected as the functional mold and later identified as Rhizopus stolonifer based on molecular biological characteristics. Optimal fermentation conditions for the brewing of anti-hypertensive traditional rice wine comprised the addition of R. stolonifer No. 17 koji at a concentration of 35 sp/g and a fermentation period of 10 days at 25℃ using S. cerevisiae. PMID:23956639

  20. Mammographically screen-detected asymmetric densities with architectural distortion and normal ultrasound at assessment: Value of MRI as a problem-solving tool.

    PubMed

    Price, Jeremy; Chen, Suet Wan

    2015-06-01

    Four cases are presented in which asymptomatic clients from an Australian mammography screening programme (BreastScreen ACT) were recalled for assessment of an asymmetric density with possible architectural distortion. In all four women, mammographic work-up was equivocal and ultrasound showed no suspicious correlate for biopsy. It was then doubtful as to whether any significant lesion was present. In all four cases, MRI revealed the presence of malignancy. Breast MRI can be a useful problem-solving tool in the work-up of such cases.

  1. Concurrent Validity of a Computer-Based Cognitive Screening Tool for Use in Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Mary Amanda; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Morrow, Lisa; Saxton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As the incidence of HIV-associated dementia has decreased, the survival of HIV-infected individuals with milder forms of cognitive impairment has increased. Detecting this milder impairment in its earliest stages has great clinical and research importance. We report here the results of an initial evaluation of the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI®), a computerized screening tool designed to assess abnormal cognitive decline with reduced respondent and test administrator burden. Fifty-nine volunteers (29 HIV infected; age=50.9 years; education=14.9 years; 36/59 males) completed the CAMCI® and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The CAMCI was repeated 12 and 24 weeks later. The results from the CAMCI were compared to Global and Domain Impairment scores derived from the full neuropsychological test battery. The CAMCI detected mild impairment (compared with normal and borderline test performance) with a sensitivity of 0.72, specificity of 0.97, positive predictive rate of 0.93, and a negative predictive rate of 0.89. Median stability over 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up was 0.32 and 0.46, respectively. These rates did not differ as a function of serostatus. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90% of the subjects with respect to their overall Global Impairment Rating from six of the CAMCI scores. This preliminary study demonstrates that the CAMCI is sensitive to mild forms of cognitive impairment, and is stable over 24 weeks of follow-up. A larger trial to obtain risk-group appropriate normative data will be necessary to make the instrument useful in both clinical practice and research (e.g., clinical trials). PMID:21545295

  2. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. Results The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. Conclusion We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and

  3. Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ): A Screening Tool for Identifying Injured Workers at Risk for a Complicated Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Abegglen, Sandra; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Schade, Volker; Znoj, Hans-Jörg

    2016-07-08

    Purpose Unintentional injuries occur frequently and many of the accident survivors suffer from temporary or permanent disabilities. Although most accident victims recover quickly, a significant fraction of them shows a complicated recovery process and accounts for the majority of disability costs. Thus, early identification of vulnerable persons may be beneficial for compensation schemes, government bodies, as well as for the worker themselves. Here we present the Work and Health Questionnaire (WHQ), a screening tool that is already implemented in the case management process of the Swiss Accident Insurance Fund (Suva). Moreover, we demonstrate its prognostic value for identifying workers at risk of a complicated recovery process. Methods A total of 1963 injured workers answered the WHQ within the first 3 months after their accident. All of them had minor to moderate accidental injuries; severely injured workers were excluded from the analyses. The anonymized individual-level data were extracted from insurance databases. We examined construct validity by factorial analyses, and prognostic validity by hierarchical multiple regression analyses on days of work disability. Further, we evaluated well-being and job satisfaction 18 months post-injury in a subsample of 192 injured workers (9.8 %) Results Factor analyses supported five underlying factors (Job Design, Work Support, Job Strain, Somatic Condition/Pain, and Anxiety/Worries). These subscales were moderately correlated, thus indicating that different subscales measured different aspects of work and health-related risk factors of injured workers. Item analysis and reliability analysis showed accurate psychometric properties. Each subscale was predictive at least for one of the evaluated outcomes 18 months post-injury. Conclusion The WHQ shows good psychometric qualities with high clinical utility to identify injured persons with multiple psychosocial risk factors. Thus, the questionnaire appears to be suitable

  4. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester reliability weighted kappa (wΚ) score ranging from 0.50 (0.21–0.71) to 0.57 (0.24–0.82) for observer 1 and a fair to moderate intratester reliability wΚ score ranging from 0.27 (0.09–0.43) to 0.52 (0.15–0.86) for observer 2 across the four exercises was observed. For intertester reliability moderate to substantial mean wΚ scores were found between the two observers, slightly improving from round one to round two ranging from 0.40 (0.20–0.59) to 0.68 (0.45–0.91) in round one to 0.52 (0.20–0.80) to 0.69 (0.39–0.86) in round two. The exercise error assessment demonstrated fair to substantial intratester and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in “some deviation” and “substantial deviation” to either side in a single plane is a viable and inexpensive solution when assessing for errors during exercise. PMID:24738079

  5. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Health Care Utilization Outcomes in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Trials

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Jeremy; Cowell, Alex; Hinde, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the effect of screening and brief intervention (SBI) on outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient health care utilization outcomes. Much of the current literature speculates that SBI provides cost savings through reduced health care utilization, but no systematic review or meta-analysis examines this assertion. Method Publications were abstracted from online journal collections and targeted Web searches. The systematic review included any publications that examined the association between SBI and health care utilization. Each publication was rated independently by two study authors and assigned a consensus methodological score. The meta-analysis focused on those studies examined in the systematic review, but it excluded publications that had incomplete data, low methodological quality, or a cluster randomized design. Results Systematic review results suggest that SBI has little to no effect on inpatient or outpatient health care utilization, but it may have a small, negative effect on ED utilization. A random effects meta-analysis using the Hedges method confirms the ED result for SBI delivered across settings (SMD = −.06, I-squared = 13.9%) but does not achieve statistical significance (CI: −0.15, 0.03). Conclusions SBI may reduce overall health care costs, but more studies are needed. Current evidence is inconclusive for SBI delivered in ED and non-ED hospital settings. Future studies of SBI and health care utilization should report the estimated effects and variance, regardless of the effect size or statistical significance. PMID:21263359

  6. Electronic screening for mental health in rural primary care: implementation.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; Mahone, Irma H; Zerull, Lisa M; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John

    2009-03-01

    The goals of this study were to develop a computer-based electronic screening tool (eScreening) and determine the feasibility of implementing eScreening for rural users of primary care. This descriptive pilot adapted existing screening measures for depression and alcohol abuse to a portable computer-based format and examined the feasibility of its adoption and use. This was a three-step design using convenience samples for (1) a focus group with providers, (2) usability testing with selected rural patients using the computerized touch screen, and (3) implementing the touch screen platform with a small sample in primary care to determine feasibility. This paper reports on Phase III, which assessed consumer response to eScreening.

  7. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Sebastian; Klee, Dirk; Kircheis, Gerald; Friedt, Michael; Schaper, Joerg; Häussinger, Dieter; Mayatepek, Ertan; Meissner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The liver is intensely involved in glucose metabolism and is thereby closely related to diabetes pathophysiology. Adult patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at an increased risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we studied the prevalence of NAFLD in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 DM in a tertiary care paediatric diabetes centre in Germany. We screened 93 children and adolescents with type 1 DM using ultrasound, laboratory investigations, and liver stiffness measurements (Fibroscan® [FS] and acoustic radiation force imaging [ARFI]). Of these, 82 (88.1%) had completely normal results in all examined aspects. Only one patient (1.1%) fulfilled the criteria as potential NAFLD with ALT > twice the upper limit of normal. Ten of the 93 patients (10.8%) showed any mild abnormality in at least one examined category including ALT, conventional ultrasounds and liver stiffness measurements. However, none of these ten fulfilled the NAFLD case definition criteria. Therefore, these slightly abnormal results were judged to be unspecific or at least of unknown significance in terms of NAFLD indication.

  8. The use of administrative data as a substitute for individual screening scores in observational studies related to problematic alcohol or drug use.

    PubMed

    Sears, Jeanne M; Krupski, Antoinette; Joesch, Jutta M; Estee, Sharon L; He, Lijian; Shah, Melissa Ford; Huber, Alice; Dunn, Chris; Ries, Richard; Roy-Byrne, Peter P

    2010-09-01

    Administrative data provide a rich resource for improving our understanding of individuals with substance use disorders. The validation of administrative proxies for moderate or high risk alcohol or drug (AOD) use could enhance the ability to carry out rigorous observational research (for example, for use in the construction of comparison groups). This study used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve techniques to assess how well AOD-related administrative indicators predicted self-reported AOD use obtained from AUDIT/DAST screening scores. An administrative AOD indicator, derived from a combination of medical encounter and billing data, arrest records, and publicly funded AOD-related services data, demonstrated discrimination in the acceptable range (AUC: 0.72-0.78) for identifying self-reported AOD use consistent with potential need for either (1) any AOD-related intervention, or (2) intensive AOD-related intervention or treatment. These findings held up in two distinct samples: a statewide Medicaid-only sample and a single-site mixed-payer sample that included the uninsured. Our findings suggest that indicators of AOD-related problems derived from administrative data can be useful for identifying moderate or high risk AOD use in a research context. The findings further suggest that proxies for substance use disorders, such as those evaluated here, can enhance future observational studies intended to improve health care for this population.

  9. Screening the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor gene in 131 schizophrenics and eight alcoholics: Identification of polymorphisms but lack of functionally significant sequence changes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiang; Sommer, S.S.; Sobell, J.L.

    1995-04-24

    To determine whether mutations in the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor (D{sub 1}DR) gene are associated with schizophrenia, the coding sequence was examined in 106 Caucasian, 11 African-American, 8 Asian, and 6 Native American patients. Approximately 350 kb of genomic sequence was screened by dideoxy fingerprinting, a method related to single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis that detects virtually 100% of sequence changes. One polymorphism was identified in Asians and one in Caucasians, but neither altered 421 the amino acid sequence (Leu{sup 66}, and Ser{sup 421}, respectively). In addition, a previously reported polymorphism in the 5{prime} untranslated region of exon 2 at bp -48 was found to be common, with an allele frequency of approximately 40% in Caucasians of Western European descent. Based on the fact that no sequence changes of likely functional significance were identified, these data suggest that mutations affecting the structure of the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor protein are uncommon and are unlikely to contribute significantly to the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. The D{sub 1}DR gene also was examined in eight alcoholics, including 3 African-Americans and 1 Native American, but no sequence changes were identified. 35 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  10. A novel useful tool of computerized touch panel-type screening test for evaluating cognitive function of chronic ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Kentaro; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Shoko; Morimoto, Nobutoshi; Kurata, Tomoko; Ikeda, Yoshio; Abe, Koji

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive and affective impairments are important non-motor features of ischemic stroke (IS) related to white-matter hyperintensity, including periventricular hyperintensity (PVH). To confirm the usefulness of a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated cognitive and affective functioning among 142 IS patients and 105 age-and gender-matched normal control subjects. Assessment using the mini-mental state examination, Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised, and frontal assessment battery revealed reduced cognitive function in IS patients, with the most severe reduction exhibited by cardiogenic embolism patients, followed by lacunar infarction patients, and atherothrombotic infarction patients. Our novel touch panel screening test revealed a similar pattern of results. In addition, PVH grading, classified using Fazekas' magnetic resonance imaging method, was also correlated with cognitive decline and touch panel screening test performance. In contrast, affective function, assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale, vitality index, and apathy scale, was not significantly decreased in IS, and did not correlate with touch panel screening test results or PVH, although the number of microbleeds was correlated with apathy scale results. The present findings revealed that IS and PVH grading were significantly correlated with decline in general cognitive status (mini-mental state examination and Hasegawa Dementia Scale-Revised) and frontal lobe function (frontal assessment battery). Performance on all touch panel screening tests was correlated with IS and PVH grading, but was largely independent of depression or apathy. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction, due to visually clear images and simple methods not involving detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests may provide a useful tool for the early screening of cognitive

  11. Teaching Tools to Engage Anishinaabek First Nations Women in Cervical Cancer Screening: Report of an Educational Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design: Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key…

  12. Development and validation of a scale of attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.

  13. Sensitivity and specificity of waist circumference as a single screening tool for identification of overweight and obesity among Malaysian adults.

    PubMed

    Kee, C C; Jamaiyah, H; Geeta, A; Ali, Z Ahmad; Safiza, M N Noor; Suzana, S; Khor, G L; Rahmah, R; Jamalludin, A R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H; Faudzi, Y Ahmad; Amal, N M

    2011-12-01

    Generalised obesity and central obesity are risk factors for Type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Waist circumference (WC) has been suggested as a single screening tool for identification of overweight or obese subjects in lieu of the body mass index (BMI) for weight management in public health program. Currently, the recommended waist circumference cut-off points of > or = 94cm for men and > or =80cm for women (waist action level 1) and > or = 102cm for men and > or = 88cm for women (waist action level 2) used for identification of overweight and obesity are based on studies in Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended waist action levels, and to determine optimal WC cut-off points for identification of overweight or obesity with central fat distribution based on BMI for Malaysian adults. Data from 32,773 subjects (14,982 men and 17,791 women) aged 18 and above who participated in the Third National Health Morbidity Survey in 2006 were analysed. Sensitivity and specificity of WC at waist action level 1 were 48.3% and 97.5% for men; and 84.2% and 80.6% for women when compared to the cut-off points based on BMI > or = 25kg/m2. At waist action level 2, sensitivity and specificity were 52.4% and 98.0% for men, and 79.2% and 85.4% for women when compared with the cut-off points based on BMI (> or = 30 kg/m2). Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the appropriatescreening cut-off points for WC to identify subjects with overweight (> or = 25kg/m2) was 86.0cm (sensitivity=83.6%, specificity=82.5%) for men, and 79.1cm (sensitivity=85.0%, specificity=79.5%) for women. Waist circumference cut-off points to identify obese subjects (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was 93.2cm (sensitivity=86.5%, specificity=85.7%) for men and 85.2cm (sensitivity=77.9%, specificity=78.0%) for women. Our findings demonstrated that the current recommended waist circumference cut-off points have low

  14. Ebola Outbreak Response; Experience and Development of Screening Tools for Viral Haemorrhagic Fever (VHF) in a HIV Center of Excellence Near to VHF Epicentres

    PubMed Central

    Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind; Elbireer, Ali; Mbambu, Betty; Mayanja, Faridah; Coutinho, Alex; Merry, Concepta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There have been 3 outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) in Uganda in the last 2 years. VHF often starts with non-specific symptoms prior to the onset of haemorrhagic signs. HIV clinics in VHF outbreak countries such as Uganda see large numbers of patients with HIV 1/2 infection presenting with non-specific symptoms every day. Whilst there are good screening tools for general health care facilities expecting VHF suspects, we were unable to find tools for use in HIV or other non-acute clinics. Methods We designed tools to help with communication to staff, infection control and screening of HIV patients with non-specific symptoms in a large HIV clinic during the outbreaks in Uganda. We describe our experiences in using these tools in 2 Ebola Virus Disease outbreaks in Uganda. Results During the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, enhanced infection control and communication procedures were implemented within 24 hours of the WHO/Ministry of Health announcement of the outbreaks. During course of these outbreaks the clinic saw 12,544 patients with HIV 1/2 infection, of whom 3,713 attended without an appointment, suggesting new symptoms. Of these 4 were considered at risk of EVD and seen with full infection procedures; 3 were sent home after further investigation. One patient was referred to the National Referral Hospital VHF unit, but discharged on the same day. One additional VHF suspect was identified outside of a VHF outbreak; he was transferred to the National Referral Hospital and placed in isolation within 2 hours of arriving at the HIV clinic. Discussion Use of simple screening tools can be helpful in managing large numbers of symptomatic patients attending for routine and non-routine medical care (including HIV care) within a country experiencing a VHF outbreak, and can raise medical staff awareness of VHF outside of the epidemics. PMID:25007269

  15. Validation of the International HIV Dementia Scale as a Screening Tool for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in a German-Speaking HIV Outpatient Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Ute; Jessen, Arne B.; Hahn, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are widely present among people living with HIV. Especially its milder forms, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) and mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), remain highly prevalent worldwide. Diagnosing these conditions is subject to a time and resource consuming neuropsychological assessment. Selecting patients at a higher risk of cognitive impairment by using a simple but effective screening tool helps to organise access to further neuropsychological diagnosis. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) has until now been a well-established screening tool in African and American countries, however these populations’ demographics defer significantly from ours, so using the same parameters could be ineffective. Objectives To calculate the prevalence of this condition among people attending an HIV outpatient clinic in Berlin and to validate the use of the IHDS as a screening tool for HAND in a German-speaking population. Methods We screened 480 HIV-infected patients using the IHDS, 89% of them were on a stable antiretroviral treatment. Ninety of them completed a standardised neuropsychological battery of tests and a specific cognitive complaints questionnaire. The same procedure was applied to a control group of 30 HIV-negative participants. HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria. Results The overall prevalence of HAND in our cohort was 43% (20% ANI, 17% MND and 6% HIV-associated dementia). The optimal cut-off on the IHDS for detecting HAND cases was set at 11 and achieved both a sensitivity and a specificity of 80%. When specifically screening for the more severe form of HAND, HIV-associated dementia, a cut-off value of 10 offered an increase in both sensitivity (94%) and specificity (86%). The Youden Index for diagnostic accuracy was 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of HAND was comparable to the reported by recent studies performed in countries with a

  16. Early readmissions to the department of medicine as a screening tool for monitoring quality of care problems.

    PubMed

    Balla, Uri; Malnick, Stephen; Schattner, Ami

    2008-09-01

    disregarding a significant laboratory result (12%). In many patients more than 1 pitfall was identified (mean, 1.5 per patient). Risk factors for preventable readmission include older age and living in an institution (p < 0.05). Almost two-thirds of the readmitted patients with QOC problems were discharged after spending 2 days or fewer at the hospital. In conclusion, unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge are frequent, more prevalent in sicker patients, and possibly associated with increased mortality. In a third of readmitted patients a QOC problem can be identified, and these problems are preventable. Thus, readmission may be used as a screening tool for potential QOC problems in the department of medicine. Routine monitoring of all readmissions may provide a simple cost-effective means of identifying and addressing medical mistakes.

  17. The utility of yeast as a tool for cell-based, target-directed high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Norcliffe, J L; Alvarez-Ruiz, E; Martin-Plaza, J J; Steel, P G; Denny, P W

    2014-01-01

    Many Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) have recently been subject of increased focus, particularly with relation to high-throughput screening (HTS) initiatives. These vital endeavours largely rely of two approaches, in vitro target-directed screening using biochemical assays or cell-based screening which takes no account of the target or targets being hit. Despite their successes both of these approaches have limitations; for example, the production of soluble protein and a lack of cellular context or the problems and expense of parasite cell culture. In addition, both can be challenging to miniaturize for ultra (u)HTS and expensive to utilize. Yeast-based systems offer a cost-effective approach to study and screen protein targets in a direct-directed manner within a eukaryotic cellular context. In this review, we examine the utility and limitations of yeast cell-based, target-directed screening. In particular we focus on the currently under-explored possibility of using such formats in uHTS screening campaigns for NTDs.

  18. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  19. Optimizing the G8 Screening Tool for Older Patients With Cancer: Diagnostic Performance and Validation of a Six-Item Version

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Tapia, Claudia; Canoui-Poitrine, Florence; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Soubeyran, Pierre; Mathoulin-Pelissier, Simone; Tournigand, Christophe; Paillaud, Elena; Laurent, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background. A multidimensional geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended in older cancer patients to inventory health problems and tailor treatment decisions accordingly but requires considerable time and human resources. The G8 is among the most sensitive screening tools for selecting patients warranting a full GA but has limited specificity. We sought to develop and validate an optimized version of the G8. Patients and Methods. We used a prospective cohort of cancer patients aged ≥70 years referred to geriatricians for GA (2007–2012: n = 729 [training set]; 2012–2014: n = 414 [validation set]). Abnormal GA was defined as at least one impaired domain across seven validated tests. Multiple correspondence analysis, multivariate logistic regression, and bootstrapped internal validation were performed sequentially. Results. The final model included six independent predictors for abnormal GA: weight loss, cognition/mood, performance status, self-rated health status, polypharmacy (≥6 medications per day), and history of heart failure/coronary heart disease. For the original G8, sensitivity was 87.2% (95% confidence interval, 84.3–89.7), specificity 57.7% (47.3–67.7), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) 86.5% (83.5–89.6). The modified G8 had corresponding values of 89.2% (86.5–91.5), 79.0% (69.4–86.6), and 91.6% (89.3; 93.9), with higher AUROC values for all tumor sites and stable properties on the validation set. Conclusion. A modified G8 screening tool exhibited better diagnostic performance with greater uniformity across cancer sites and required only six items. If these features are confirmed in other settings, the modified tool may facilitate selection for a full GA in older patients with cancer. Implications for Practice: Several screening tools have been developed to identify older patients with cancer likely to benefit from a complete geriatric assessment, but none combines appropriate sensitivity and specificity

  20. Teaching tools to engage Anishinaabek First Nations women in cervical cancer screening: Report of an educational workshop

    PubMed Central

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key factor to promote cervical cancer screening. Setting To obtain feedback from workshop informants, a 1-day educational workshop was held to identify appropriate educational intervention strategies, which would be applied in a forthcoming randomised controlled cervical screening trial. Methods Common discussion and discussion groups, which were facilitated by a First Nations workshop moderator and a note taker. Results This workshop helped to strengthen the ethical space dialogue with the First Nations communities with whom the study team had established research partnerships. The workshop atmosphere was relaxed and the invited informants decided that an educational health promotion event for community women needed to be held prior to inviting them to the cervical screening trial. Such an event would provide an opportunity to communicate the importance of attending regular cervical screening allowing women to make informed decisions about screening participation. Complementary promotional items, including an eye-catching pamphlet and storytelling, were also suggested. Conclusion The key messages from the events and promotional items can help to destigmatise women who develop a type of cancer that is caused by a sexually transmitted virus that affects both men and women. Developing and implementing positive health education that respectfully depicts female bodies, sexuality and health behaviours through a First Nations lens is strongly warranted. PMID:27867211

  1. Vaginal self-sampling for HPV infection as a primary cervical cancer screening tool in a Haitian population

    PubMed Central

    Boggan, Joel C.; Walmer, David K.; Henderson, Gregory; Chakhtoura, Nahida; McCarthy, Schatzi H.; Beauvais, Harry J.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as primary cervical cancer screening has not been studied in Caribbean women. We tested vaginal self-collection versus physician cervical sampling in a population of Haitian women. Methods Participants were screened for high-risk HPV with self-performed vaginal and clinician-collected cervical samples using Hybrid Capture 2 assays (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, Maryland). Women positive by either method then underwent colposcopy with biopsy of all visible lesions. Sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for each sample method compared to biopsy results, with kappa statistics performed for agreement. McNemar’s tests were performed for differences in sensitivity at ≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)-I and ≥ CIN-II. Results Of 1845 women screened, 446 (24.3%) were HPV-positive by either method, including 105 (5.7%) only by vaginal swab and 53 (2.9%) only by cervical swab. Vaginal and cervical samples were 91.4% concordant (κ= 0.73 [95% CI: 0.69 – 0.77], p < 0.001). Overall, 133 HPV-positive women (29.9%) had CIN-I, while 32 (7.2%) had ≥ CIN-II. The sensitivity of vaginal swabs was similar to cervical swabs for detecting ≥ CIN-I (89.1% vs 87.9%, respectively, p=0.75) lesions and ≥ CIN-II disease (87.5% vs 96.9%, p=0.18). Eighteen of 19 cases of CIN-III and invasive cancer were found by both methods. Conclusions HPV screening via self-collected vaginal swabs or physician-collected cervical swabs are feasible options in this Haitian population. The agreement between cervical and vaginal samples was high, suggesting vaginal sample-only algorithms for screening could be effective for improving screening rates in this under-screened population. PMID:26462192

  2. VA eScreening program: Technology to improve care for post-9/11 veterans.

    PubMed

    Pittman, James O E; Floto, Elizabeth; Lindamer, Laurie; Baker, Dewleen G; Lohr, James B; Afari, Niloofar

    2017-02-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides health care services to a growing number of veterans. There is ample support for the use of technology-based self-screening to support health care delivery. We developed the VA eScreening program for veterans to directly provide self-report mental and physical health information through a veteran-facing portal that communicates with the electronic medical records system. A total of 1,372 newly enrolling veterans in 2 cohorts participated in a study to assess veteran satisfaction, determine accessibility and clinical processes, measure screening differences, and examine connection to care between eScreening and paper screening. Veterans who completed eScreening were slightly more satisfied with screening than those who completed paper screening. Accessibility, rate of screening completion, and clinical processes were significantly better with eScreening than paper screening. Except for higher alcohol use in the paper-based cohort, veterans who completed paper and eScreening were similar in the rates of positive health screens. Connection to VA services, rate and speed of vesting in the health care system, and time to document required suicide risk assessments were better with the VA eScreening program than paper screening. The VA eScreening program is a unique and promising tool that may leverage limited resources to improve screening and care for veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Do Two Screening Tools for Chikungunya Virus Infection that were Developed among Younger Population Work Equally as Well in Patients Aged over 65 Years?

    PubMed Central

    Najioullah, Fatiha; Bousquet, Lionel; Malmontet, Thomas; Fournet, Benoît; Césaire, Raymond; Fanon, Jean-Luc; Dramé, Moustapha

    2017-01-01

    Background Chikungunya is an endemo-epidemic infection, which is still considered as an emerging public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a 65+ population, the accuracy of two chikungunya screening scores that were developed in younger people. Methods It was performed in the Martinique University Hospitals from retrospective cases. Patients were 65+, admitted to acute care units, for suspected Chikungunya virus infection (CVI) in 2014, with biological testing using Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction. Mayotte tool and Reunion Island tool were also computed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and Youden’s statistic were calculated. Results In all, 687 patients were included, 68% with confirmed CVI, and 32% with laboratory-unconfirmed CVI. Fever (73.1%) and arthralgia (51.4%) were the most frequent symptoms. Sensitivity ranged from 6% (fever+headache) to 49% (fever+polyarthralgia); and Youden’s index ranged from 1% (fever + headache) to 30% (fever+polyarthralgia). PPV and NPV ranged from 70% to 95%, and from 32% to 43%, respectively. Conclusion Performances were very poor for both tools, although specificity was good to excellent. Our results suggest that screening scores developed in young population are not accurate in identifying CVI in older people. PMID:28056031

  4. A Novel Frizzled-Based Screening Tool Identifies Genetic Modifiers of Planar Cell Polarity in Drosophila Wings

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Mulero-Navarro, Sonia; Smith, Michael; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Most mutant alleles in the Fz-PCP pathway genes were discovered in classic Drosophila screens looking for recessive loss-of-function (LOF) mutations. Nonetheless, although Fz-PCP signaling is sensitive to increased doses of PCP gene products, not many screens have been performed in the wing under genetically engineered Fz overexpression conditions, mostly because the Fz phenotypes were strong and/or not easy to score and quantify. Here, we present a screen based on an unexpected mild Frizzled gain-of-function (GOF) phenotype. The leakiness of a chimeric Frizzled protein designed to be accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) generated a reproducible Frizzled GOF phenotype in Drosophila wings. Using this genotype, we first screened a genome-wide collection of large deficiencies and found 16 strongly interacting genomic regions. Next, we narrowed down seven of those regions to finally test 116 candidate genes. We were, thus, able to identify eight new loci with a potential function in the PCP context. We further analyzed and confirmed krasavietz and its interactor short-stop as new genes acting during planar cell polarity establishment with a function related to actin and microtubule dynamics. PMID:27729438

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale: An Effective Tool for Use in Diverse Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Wilder, Kaitlin S.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Powers, Lisa; Yokoyama, Lynn T. K.; O'Hare, Mary Ellen; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the "Student Risk Screening Scale", as used in three ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse urban midwestern elementary schools. The results suggest strong internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.81-0.82) and test-retest stability (r = 0.86). Initial ratings of risk as measured by…

  6. Global epigenetic screening technologies: a novel tool to address cancer health disparities in high-risk population groups.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2008-12-01

    Racial, ethnic and class disparities in cancer incidence and mortality have been well documented. Disparities in the utilization of preventive, curative and treatment services among ethnic minorities have been reported. Screening can be effective at detecting cancer at treatable stages, but a large proportion of people at risk have not been screened or are not regularly screened, as recommended by the American Cancer Society's national guidelines. Early detection technologies have the potential of both influencing mortality from cancer, as well as enhancing primary prevention through detection and removal of lesions that could potentially develop into cancer. Cancer is an epigenetic disease characterized by the breakdown of DNA methylation and histones modification patterns. Epigenetic approaches may contribute to a reduction in cancer health disparities impacting early detection and increasing cancer treatment options. Epigenetic events represent important mechanism(s) by which gene function is selectively activated or inactivated, through genetic and non-genetic manifestations. Emerging evidence indicates that various epigenetic alterations, such as global histones modifications and DNA hypomethylation, common to most types of cancer, are modified by environmental exposures throughout the life course. A simple, easily explained and easy to understand non-invasive test, such as the DNA methylation index, that may screen for several cancer sites at once, may remove some of the existing barriers to cancer screening utilization, and contribute to the reduction of cancer disparities. Epigenetic approaches may also prove to be useful in identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that contribute to the prevalence of other chronic conditions in high risk populations, such as Puerto Rican populations in the United States and Puerto Rico.

  7. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  9. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...

  10. [Assessment of problematic alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Rumpf, H-J; Bischof, G; Freyer-Adam, J; Coder, B

    2009-11-01

    An overview with respect to the identification of patients with risky drinking, alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence is given. As a first step, a simple screening questionnaire should be used. Self-statements in standardized questionnaires are more valid than standard laboratory markers. A useful instrument is for example BASIC. In screening positive patients, an in-depth diagnosis is necessary and helps to distinguish between different forms of problematic alcohol use. Depending on the severity of the alcohol problem, brochures, internet-programs, counselling or referral to treatment services is helpful.

  11. Learning algebra on screen and on paper: The effect of using a digital tool on students' understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2016-02-01

    The use of digital tools in algebra education is expected to not only contribute to master skill, but also to acquire conceptual understanding. The question is how digital tools affect students" thinking and understanding. This paper presents an analysis of data of one group of three grade seventh students (12-13 year-old) on the use of a digital tool for algebra, the Cover-up applet for solving equations in particular. This case study was part of a larger teaching experiment on initial algebra enriched with digital technology which aimed to improve students" conceptual understanding and skills in solving equations in one variable. The qualitative analysis of a video observation, digital and written work showed that the use of the applet affects student thinking in terms of strategies used by students while dealing with the equations. We conclude that the effects of the use of the digital tool can be traced from student problem solving strategies on paper-and-pencil environment which are similar to strategies while working with the digital tool. In future research, we recommend to use specific theoretical lenses, such as the theory of instrumental genesis and the onto-semiotic approach, to reveal more explicit relationships between students" conceptual understanding and the use of a digital tool.

  12. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction.

  13. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions.

  14. Validity of nutrition risk index as a malnutrition screening tool compared with subjective global assessment in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.; Sinha, A.; Gupta, A.; Bhadauria, D.; Manjunath, R.; Kaul, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We undertook this study to compare subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutrition risk index (NRI) as malnutrition screening tools in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutrition status of the patients was categorized into low, moderate and high risk of malnutrition based on both NRI and SGA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of NRI were compared with SGA, an already validated tool of nutrition status assessment in PD patients. Two hundred and eighty-three end-stage renal disease patients (age 50.02 ± 13.76 years; 204 males, 150 diabetic) were included. Based on SGA, 71/283 (25.08%) had normal nutrition, 192/283 (67.84%) mild–moderate and 20/283 (7.07%) severe malnutrition. Based on NRI, 38/283 (13.43%) patients had normal nutritional status, 193/283 (68.20%) mild-moderate and 52/283 (18.37%) severe malnutrition. Twenty-three of 283 (8.1%) were correctly classified as normal by NRI (true negative) and 197/283 (69.6%) as malnourished (true positive), 15/283 (5.3%) as false negative, 48/283 (16.96%) were misclassified as malnourished (false positive). NRI has sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 32.39%. Positive predictive value and Negative predictive values (NPVs) of NRI are 80.41% and 60.53%, respectively. Accuracy of the test is 78%. The receiver operating characteristic curve of NRI is 0.63. To conclude, NRI carries high sensitivity but low specificity as compared to SGA. It can be used as screening tool but not as a diagnostic tool for assessment of nutritional status in PD patients because of its low specificity and NPV. PMID:26937075