Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol screening tools

  1. A Screening Tool for Assessing Alcohol Use Risk among Medically Vulnerable Youth

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Sharon; Dedeoglu, Fatma; Gaffin, Jonathan M.; Garvey, Katharine C.; Harstad, Elizabeth; MacGinnitie, Andrew; Rufo, Paul A.; Huang, Qian; Ziemnik, Rosemary E.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Weitzman, Elissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks. Method To validate the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool in a population of YCMC, we performed a cross-sectional validation study with a sample of 388 youth ages 9–18 years presenting for routine subspecialty care at a large children’s hospital for type 1 diabetes, persistent asthma, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Participants self-administered the NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children as a criterion standard measure of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Receiver operating curve analysis was used to determine cut points for identifying youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD. Results Nearly one third of participants (n = 118; 30.4%) reported alcohol use in the past year; 86.4% (106) of past year drinkers did not endorse any AUD criteria, 6.8% (n = 8) of drinkers endorsed a single criterion, and 6.8% of drinkers met criteria for an AUD. Using the NIAAA tool, optimal cut points found to identify youth at moderate and highest risk for an AUD were ≥ 6 and ≥12 drinking days in the past year, respectively. Conclusions The NIAAA Youth Alcohol Screening Tool is highly efficient for detecting alcohol use and discriminating disordered use among YCMC. This brief screen appears feasible for use in specialty care to ascertain alcohol-related risk that may impact adversely on health status and disease management. PMID:27227975

  2. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    PubMed

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians. PMID:25102143

  3. Examining a Brief Suicide Screening Tool in Older Adults Engaging in Risky Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jessica D.; Braithwaite, Scott R.; Pfaff, Jon J.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol misuse increases risk of suicidal behavior in older adults. The Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS; Metalsky & Joiner, 1997) and its relation to suicide attempt history was examined to see if it differed for older adults as a function of their alcohol use. Structural equation modeling was used in a sample (N = 1,061)…

  4. Screening for Alcohol Problems among 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants: Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods: An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that…

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Screening and Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Alcohol Screening and Counseling An effective but underused health ... for alcohol screening and counseling. Key points on alcohol consumption from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines for ...

  6. Screening For Alcohol-Producing Microbes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.

    1988-01-01

    Dye reaction rapidly identifies alcohol-producing microbial colonies. Method visually detects alcohol-producing micro-organisms, and distinguishes them from other microbial colonies that do not produce alcohol. Method useful for screening mixed microbial populations in environmental samples.

  7. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  8. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  9. Implementing a perinatal substance abuse screening tool.

    PubMed

    Wallman, Carol M; Smith, Pat Bohling; Moore, Karen

    2011-08-01

    Newborns exposed to illicit drugs or alcohol in utero can face physical, social, and emotional obstacles. Outcomes for children with fetal alcohol syndrome disorders are well documented in the literature. Data exist on the effects of maternal illicit drug use. Identifying perinatal substance abuse can increase positive outcomes for newborns and create the opportunity for mothers to access assistance through referrals to community resources.This article provides insight on how hospitals can implement an effective screening tool through patient surveying and testing, nurse education, and collaboration with community agencies in a multidisciplinary advisory committee setting.This discussed method of universal perinatal screening results in increased positive screens and increased referrals for care and support. Emphasis is placed on universal screening and testing methods. Nurses are trained in motivational interview techniques that convey empathy, listening, and objectivity. Community agencies partner with hospital staff through onsite meetings with families that determine the best discharge plan for the newborn. The multidisciplinary advisory committee meets continually to discuss future enhancements. PMID:22123347

  10. SBIRT goes to college: interdisciplinary screening for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Naegle, Madeline; Himmel, Joy; Ellis, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Although risky/harmful drinking, in the form of binge drinking, remains a national problem, only recently have health services in universities systematically screened for drinking, drug use, and smoking. This article recounts "lessons learned" in two nurse-directed, interdisciplinary health services, which adapted the National College Depression Partnership model to include screening and brief intervention (SBIRT) for risky/harmful alcohol use in the form of binge drinking. Using a planned change model, nurse leaders worked with university administrators, providers, and health service staff to screen all students seeking health services for risky drinking. The outcomes suggest that this process may increase staff and student awareness of the importance of alcohol consumption to health, show the ease of using SBIRT screening along with standard screening tools, and yield information on the normalization of high-risk drinking in collegiate settings. Project findings indicate that common perceptions in college students minimize negative outcomes and stress the importance of additional quality assurance initiatives that review the efficacy of combinations of standardized screening tools. PMID:24622529

  11. Early childhood caries screening tools

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Richard K.; Smaldone, Arlene M.; Edelstein, Burton L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is prevalent and consequential. Risk assessment tools have been proposed that can be used to identify children who require intensive interventions. In this study, the authors compare four approaches for identifying children needing early and intensive intervention to prevent or minimize caries experience for their accuracy and clinical usefulness. Methods The authors screened 229 predominantly low-income Hispanic children younger than 3 years with ECC and 242 without ECC by using the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry’s Caries-risk Assessment Tool (CAT) and the optional screening measure of culturing Streptococcus mutans. The authors compared four approaches (CAT, CAT minus socioeconomic status, CAT minus socioeconomic status plus mutans streptococci [MS] and MS alone) for accuracy and clinical usefulness. Results The results of the CAT demonstrated high sensitivity (100.0 percent) and negative predictive value (NPV) (100.0 percent) but low specificity (2.9 percent) and positive predictive value (PPV) (49.4 percent). The MS culture alone had the highest combination of accuracy and clinical usefulness (sensitivity, 86.5 percent; specificity, 93.4 percent; PPV, 92.5 percent; NPV, 87.9 percent). When we removed the socioeconomic status element, the CAT’s performance improved. Conclusions Salivary culture of MS alone in a population of young, low-income Hispanic children outperformed the CAT and variations on the CAT for test accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and clinical usefulness (predictive values). Clinical Implications Screening for ECC by using salivary MS cultures and variations on the CAT are promising approaches for identifying children who need early and intensive intervention to prevent or minimize caries experience. PMID:22751977

  12. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    PubMed

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  13. Using online tools to treat alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Mark; Jones, Hugo

    Many people with alcohol problems find it difficult to access traditional services, due to stigma or practical difficulties. Online tools offer the option to avoid face-to-face consultations and can be made available at convenient times, overcoming some of these issues. This article reports on two services that have increased access to alcohol services and attracted users who are less likely to access traditional services. PMID:27337787

  14. Optimizing the Use of the AUDIT for Alcohol Screening in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Carey, Kate B.

    2012-01-01

    The screening and brief intervention modality of treatment for at-risk college drinking is becoming increasingly popular. A key to effective implementation is use of validated screening tools. Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been validated in adult samples and is often used with college students, research has not…

  15. Screening for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gareri, Joey; Chan, Daphne; Klein, Julia; Koren, Gideon

    2005-01-01

    QUESTION I have several patients whom I suspect are drinking during pregnancy. How can I find out for sure if they are? ANSWER You can use one of the validated tools to screen for problem drinking. Motherisk uses the TWEAK test, but others are just as good. Following birth, you can test infants’ meconium for metabolites of ethanol to detect whether they were exposed in utero to excessive drinking. PMID:15732218

  16. Screening and brief intervention for alcohol and other abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sion Kim; Louis-Jacques, Jennifer; Knight, John R

    2014-04-01

    Substance use is the most common health risk behavior among adolescents and is one of the greatest threats to their current and future health. Universal screening of adolescents in general medical settings can be instrumental in identifying substance use early, before further problems develop and when BIs are more likely to be effective. Screening in and of itself may have some therapeutic effect. Brief screening tools feasible for use by busy medical offices to quickly and reliably assess adolescent risk for a substance use disorder now are available. A recent study found that a physician-conducted CRAFFT screen interview required an average of 74 seconds to complete, whereas a computer self-administered version took an average of 49 seconds. The CRAFFT and AUDIT tools currently have the most evidence for validity among adolescents, whereas the validity of other widely used tools such as DAST-10, NIDA-modified ASSIST (Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test), and ultra-brief screens (AUDIT-C, single-item screens) has yet to be established for adolescents. Studies are needed to identify effective strategies to promote universal adolescent screening and the use of valid screening tools in general medical settings. One statewide (Massachusetts) study found that although most (86%) primary care physicians seeing adolescents reported screening adolescents for substance use annually, only 1 in 3 reported using a validated tool (the CRAFFT). The remaining physicians reporting using informal screening procedures, their own questionnaire, or the CAGE. Computerization of screening and integration into the electronic health record appear to be promising strategies to promote universal screening and standardized use of valid screening tools. Increasing adolescent screening rates necessitates supporting physicians' ability to respond effectively to the screen results. To that end, recent evidence-informed practice guides from the AAP and NIAAA provide a

  17. Screening and diagnosis of alcoholism in the primary care setting.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, K. A.

    1992-01-01

    As many as 20% of patients seeing their primary physicians may suffer from alcohol abuse and dependence. Often the problem goes unrecognized. In this article I summarize what is known regarding the natural history, risk factors, and available screening techniques for alcoholism. Ultimately, a diagnosis of alcoholism is based on a patient's history, and there are various approaches to obtaining a thorough alcohol history and overcoming patient denial regarding an alcohol problem. Primary physicians have an important role in educating patients about alcoholism. PMID:1536066

  18. Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (Mffrst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST) is a user-friendly pc-based computer tool which allows an individual to evaluate the potential exposures and health risks to workers and nearby residents from emissions from individual metal finishing facilities. Emission...

  19. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  20. AOD Screening Tools for College Students. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), the goal of screening in student health or other college settings is to reduce alcohol-related harm. NIAAA points out that identifying those students at greatest risk for alcohol problems is the first step in prevention. Colleges and universities have used a number of…

  1. Score Reliability of Adolescent Alcohol Screening Measures: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Campfield, Delia C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Howell, Ryan T.; Wallace, Kimberly; Weiss, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the reliability reporting practices in empirical studies using eight adolescent alcohol screening tools and characterizes and explores variability in internal consistency estimates across samples. Of 119 observed administrations of these instruments, 40 (34%) reported usable reliability information. The Personal Experience…

  2. Correlates of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Six Countries: Development of an International Screening and Assessment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasland, Olaf Gjerlow; and Others

    The aim of this study was to develop tools for screening and assessment of socio-medical effects of alcohol use which are simple and inexpensive enough to be used in any primary health care setting. A test protocol was prepared by a group of investigators from Australia, Bulgaria, Kenya, Mexico, Norway, and the United States. Based on a number of…

  3. Toxicology screen

    MedlinePlus

    Barbiturates - screen; Benzodiazepines - screen; Amphetamines - screen; Analgesics - screen; Antidepressants - screen; Narcotics - screen; Phenothiazines - screen; Drug abuse screen; Blood alcohol test

  4. Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders by Nonmedical Community Workers

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Mary J.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tomlinson, Mark; Bill, Claudine; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Background South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) in the world yet many women have no access to clinic care or to physicians in their communities. The shortage of physicians trained in the diagnosis of FASD is even more severe. Thus there is a need to train community workers to assist in the delivery of health care. Objectives This study reports on the effectiveness of training community workers to screen for a possible diagnosis of a FASD. Methods Community workers in Cape Town, South Africa were trained to screen for FASD in 139, 18-month-old toddlers with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Children were assessed according to the salient characteristics of individuals with PAE using height, weight, head circumference (OFC), philtrum, and lip measurements according to criteria set forth by the Institute of Medicine. Screen-positive children were referred for diagnostic assessment to a pediatrician reliably trained in the diagnosis of FASD. Results Of the screen-positive children, 93% received an FASD diagnosis suggesting that the screening procedure was highly sensitive. Diagnoses included 15% with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 23% with Partial FAS, and 62% with Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND, provisional). Conclusion The use of community workers to screen for FASD represents a promising approach to effective diagnosis of children affected by PAE in areas lacking adequate medical resources. PMID:25658901

  5. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin...

  6. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is...

  7. Results of National Alcohol Screening Day: College Demographics, Clinical Characteristics, and Comparison with Online Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenstein, Gene V.; Pigeon, Sharon; Kopans, Barbara; Jacobs, Douglas G.; Aseltine, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The authors evaluated the efficacy of the 2002 college-based National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) by determining: (1) the demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants that were screened and (2) the degree to which those scoring at hazardous drinking levels received clinical intervention or were referred for…

  8. Consensus statements for screening and assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Michel; Dickerson, Anne E

    2014-04-01

    Occupational therapists, both generalists and specialists, have a critical role in providing services to senior drivers. These services include evaluating fitness-to-drive, developing interventions to support community mobility, and facilitating the transition from driving to non-driving when necessary for personal and community safety. The evaluation component and decision-making process about fitness-to-drive are highly dependent on the use of screening and assessment tools. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present the rationale and context for 12 consensus statements about the usefulness and appropriateness of screening and assessment tools to determine fitness-to-drive, within the occupational therapy clinical setting, and their implications on community mobility. PMID:24754760

  9. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  10. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  11. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  12. Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.

    PubMed

    Kline, Emily; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Bussell, Kristin; Reeves, Gloria; Schiffman, Jason

    2015-07-01

    The development of widely used interview tools has helped to standardize the criteria for a "clinical high risk" syndrome, thus enabling advances in efforts to develop interventions for this phase of illness. These assessments, however, are burdensome to administer and not likely to be adopted for widespread use. Scalable early intervention depends on the availability of brief, low-cost assessment tools that can serve to screen populations of interest or triage treatment-seekers toward specialized care. The current study examines the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive strength of three self-report measures (Prime Screen-Revised, Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief, and Youth Psychosis at Risk Questionnaire-Brief) with regard to psychosis onset and symptom persistence over six months of follow-up within an indicated sample of 54 adolescents and young adults ages 12-22. Within this sample, all three measures demonstrated excellent sensitivity to emerging psychosis and strong agreement with clinician evaluations of attenuated psychosis symptoms. Additionally, all screeners obtained negative predictive values of 1.00 with regard to psychosis onset, indicating that an individual scoring below the recommended threshold score would be extremely unlikely to develop psychosis over the following six months. The longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools constitutes an important step toward establishing a standard of care for early identification and monitoring in this vulnerable population. PMID:25975827

  13. Vital Signs Screening for Alcohol Misuse in a Rural Primary Care Clinic: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Guyinn, Monique R.; Matthews, Michael; Okosun, Ike; Dent, M. Marie

    2008-01-01

    Context: Alcohol misuse is more common in rural areas, and rural problem drinkers are less likely to seek alcohol treatment services. Rural clinics face unique challenges to implementing routine alcohol screening and intervention. Purpose: To assess the feasibility of using the single alcohol screening question (SASQ) during routine nursing vital…

  14. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  15. Development and Evaluation of Algorithms for Breath Alcohol Screening.

    PubMed

    Ljungblad, Jonas; Hök, Bertil; Ekström, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Breath alcohol screening is important for traffic safety, access control and other areas of health promotion. A family of sensor devices useful for these purposes is being developed and evaluated. This paper is focusing on algorithms for the determination of breath alcohol concentration in diluted breath samples using carbon dioxide to compensate for the dilution. The examined algorithms make use of signal averaging, weighting and personalization to reduce estimation errors. Evaluation has been performed by using data from a previously conducted human study. It is concluded that these features in combination will significantly reduce the random error compared to the signal averaging algorithm taken alone. PMID:27043576

  16. Designing a Pediatric Severe Sepsis Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Sepanski, Robert J.; Godambe, Sandip A.; Mangum, Christopher D.; Bovat, Christine S.; Zaritsky, Arno L.; Shah, Samir H.

    2014-01-01

    We sought to create a screening tool with improved predictive value for pediatric severe sepsis (SS) and septic shock that can be incorporated into the electronic medical record and actively screen all patients arriving at a pediatric emergency department (ED). “Gold standard” SS cases were identified using a combination of coded discharge diagnosis and physician chart review from 7,402 children who visited a pediatric ED over 2 months. The tool’s identification of SS was initially based on International Consensus Conference on Pediatric Sepsis (ICCPS) parameters that were refined by an iterative, virtual process that allowed us to propose successive changes in sepsis detection parameters in order to optimize the tool’s predictive value based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC). Age-specific normal and abnormal values for heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were empirically derived from 143,603 children seen in a second pediatric ED over 3 years. Univariate analyses were performed for each measure in the tool to assess its association with SS and to characterize it as an “early” or “late” indicator of SS. A split-sample was used to validate the final, optimized tool. The final tool incorporated age-specific thresholds for abnormal HR and RR and employed a linear temperature correction for each category. The final tool’s positive predictive value was 48.7%, a significant, nearly threefold improvement over the original ICCPS tool. False positive systemic inflammatory response syndrome identifications were nearly sixfold lower. PMID:24982852

  17. Screening and Treatment for Alcohol, Tobacco and Opioid Use Disorders: A Survey of Family Physicians across Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Loheswaran, Genane; Soklaridis, Sophie; Selby, Peter; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a primary point of contact within the health care system, family physicians are able to play a vital role in identifying individuals with substance use disorders and connecting them to the appropriate treatment. However, there is very little data available on whether family physicians are actively screening for and treating substance use disorders. The objective of the current survey was to assess whether family physicians in Ontario are screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco use disorders, using validated tools and providing treatment. Methods An online survey consisting of a series of 38 primarily close-ended questions was circulated to family physicians in Ontario. Rates of screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco dependence, use of validated tools for screening, providing treatment for dependent individuals and the current barriers to the prescription of pharmacotherapies for these drug dependences were assessed. Results The use of validated screening tools was limited for all three substances. Screening by family physicians for the substance use disorders among adolescents was much lower than screening among adults. Pharmacotherapy was more commonly used as an intervention for tobacco dependence than for alcohol and opioid dependence. This was explained by the lack of knowledge among family physicians on the pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid dependence. Conclusions Findings from the current study suggest there is a need for family physicians to integrate screening for substance use disorders using validated tools into their standard medical practice. Furthermore, there is a need for increased knowledge on pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid use disorders. It is important to note that the low response rate is a major limitation to this study. One possible reason for this low response rate may be a lack of interest and awareness among family physicians on the importance of screening and treatment of substance use disorders in

  18. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  19. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments.

    PubMed

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-04-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  20. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments

    PubMed Central

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  1. Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention. PMID:24753528

  2. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst

  3. Development of Screening Questionnaire for Detection of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Ashish; Giri, Om Prakash; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dependence (AD) is a major reason for morbidity and visits to emergency medical settings. However, the detection of AD is often difficult or overlooked. This study aimed to develop a brief screening questionnaire in Hindi language for detection of AD in an emergency medical setting. Materials and Methods The authors in consultation devised a set of questions related to AD in the Hindi language requiring binary yes/no type of response. These questions were guided by clinical experience, nosological criteria and previously published screening questionnaires. After initial piloting, these questions were administered by the treating doctors to 100 consenting adult patients presenting with possible AD in the emergency medical services of a tertiary care hospital in North India. A diagnosis of AD was arrived at by administering Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview separately. Identification of the most discriminant combinations of items for the detection of AD were based on the chi-square test and binary logistic regression analyses. The final version of the questionnaire was then externally validated on another cohort of patients. Results Based on the analyses, we retained 5 items in the final version of the questionnaire. Sensitivity and specificity values for cut-off scores were calculated. Subsequent external validation revealed satisfactory psychometric properties of the questionnaire. Conclusion The questionnaire represents a simple and brief clinician-administered instrument for screening of AD in an emergency medical setting. PMID:26500989

  4. A National Survey of Alcohol Screening and Referral in College Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Jeffrey; Wilkens, Carrie; Vavagiakis, Peter

    2004-01-01

    To determine the extent and nature of alcohol screening and referral services provided by college health centers, the authors conducted a state-stratified, random sampling of 25% of 327 4-year accredited US colleges and universities with health centers. Of the 249 survey respondents, 32% routinely screened students for alcohol use. Urban, public,…

  5. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  6. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  7. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  8. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  9. Drinking Game Participation among Undergraduate Students Attending National Alcohol Screening Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer M.; Heidelberg, Natalie; Simmons, Lisa; Lyle, Sarah B.; Mitra-Varma, Kathakali; Correia, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives, Participants, Methods: Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated drinking game participation among 133 undergraduates attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) in April of 2007.…

  10. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  11. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  12. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  13. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  14. Mental health screening tools in correctional institutions: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified poor rates of detection of mental illness among inmates. Consequently, mental health screening is a common feature to various correctional mental health strategies and best practice guidelines. However, there is little guidance to support the selection of an appropriate tool. This systematic review compared the sensitivity and specificity of mental health screening tools among adult jail or prison populations. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE and PsycINFO up to 2011, with additional studies identified from a search of reference lists. Only studies involving adult jail or prison populations, with an independent measure of mental illness, were included. Studies in forensic settings to determine fitness to stand trial or criminal responsibility were excluded. Twenty-four studies met all inclusion and exclusion criteria for the review. All articles were coded by two independent authors. Study quality was coded by the lead author. Results Twenty-two screening tools were identified. Only six tools have replication studies: the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), the Correctional Mental Health Screen for Men (CMHS-M), the Correctional Mental Health Screen for Women (CMHS-W), the England Mental Health Screen (EMHS), the Jail Screening Assessment Tool (JSAT), and the Referral Decision Scale (RDS). A descriptive summary is provided in lieu of use of meta-analytic techniques due to the lack of replication studies and methodological variations across studies. Conclusions The BJMHS, CMHS-M, CMHS-W, EMHS and JSAT appear to be the most promising tools. Future research should consider important contextual factors in the implementation of a screening tool that have received little attention. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials are recommended to evaluate the effectiveness of screening to improve the detection of mental illness compared to standard practices. PMID:24168162

  15. Hyphenated spectroscopy as a polymorph screening tool.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Strachan, Clare J; Pöllänen, Kati; Yliruusi, Jouko; Rantanen, Jukka

    2007-06-28

    Polymorph screening of a model compound (nitrofurantoin) was performed. Nitrofurantoin was crystallized from acetone-water mixtures with varying process parameters. Two anhydrate forms (alpha and beta) and one monohydrate form (II) were crystallized in the polymorph screen. The solid forms were analyzed with three complementary spectroscopic techniques: near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS), and the results of the solid phase analysis were verified with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). NIR and Raman spectroscopy were coupled to achieve a rapid and comprehensive method of solid phase analysis. The hyphenated NIR/Raman spectroscopic data were analyzed with a multivariate method, principal component analysis (PCA). The combination was found effective in screening solid forms due to the complementary characteristics of the methods. NIR spectroscopy is powerful in differentiating between anhydrate and hydrate forms and intermolecular features, whereas Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to intramolecular alterations in the molecular backbone. PMID:17367979

  16. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: RAPID OPTICAL SCREEN TOOL (ROST™) - LORAL CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Loral Rapid Optical Screen Tool (ROST™) is a tunable dye laser system used for the detection of petroleum, semi-volatile, and some volatile organic compounds in soils. The technology is used in conjunction with a cone penetrometer (CP).

  17. Screen Recording: An Essential Classroom Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, April; Christianson, Jenn; Schafer, Raye; Whitney, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Technology has opened up avenues for deaf and hard of hearing students that were previously inaccessible. No longer dependent on such equipment as chalkboards and filmstrip projectors, tools such as Smart Boards, computers, and even iPads have become part of the standard educational experience for many children. For teachers at the Washington…

  18. Screening for Intimate Partner Violence in Orthopedic Patients: A Comparison of Three Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Sheila; Madden, Kim; Dosanjh, Sonia; Petrisor, Brad; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Bhandari, Mohit

    2012-01-01

    Accurately identifying victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) can be a challenge for clinicians and clinical researchers. Multiple instruments have been developed and validated to identify IPV in patients presenting to health care practitioners, including the Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) and the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). The purpose…

  19. Neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: assessment of voluntary maternal participation in an open meconium screening program.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Koren, Gideon

    2012-05-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are validated biomarkers of fetal alcohol exposure. Meconium FAEE testing can potentially be used as a screen by health-care professionals to identify neonates at-risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, thereby permitting diagnostic follow-up of these children and early intervention in those who develop disabilities. The purpose of this study was to assess whether women would willingly partake in a screening program of this nature. This was determined by launching a pilot screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure in a high-risk obstetric unit previously shown to have a high prevalence of FAEE-positive meconium via anonymous meconium testing. The program involved voluntary testing of meconium for FAEEs and long-term developmental follow-up of positive cases through an existing public health program. The participation rate in the screening program was significantly lower than when testing was conducted anonymously (78% vs. 95%, respectively; p < 0.05), and the positivity rate was 3% in contrast to 30% observed under anonymous conditions (p < 0.001). These low rates suggest that the majority of mothers who consumed alcohol in pregnancy refused to participate. We conclude that despite the potential benefits of such screening programs, maternal unwillingness to consent, likely due to fear, embarrassment, and guilt, may limit the effectiveness of meconium testing for population-based open screening, highlighting the need for public education and social marketing efforts for such programs to be of benefit. PMID:22440689

  20. Development of a computerized alcohol screening instrument for the university community.

    PubMed

    Rathbun, J

    1993-07-01

    An anonymous, self-administered alcohol screening instrument, suitable for faculty, students, and staff, combines two already existing alcohol screening questionnaires, the CAGE and the AUDIT. The composite instrument, Alcohol Screening Instrument for Self-Assessment (ASISA) was developed at the University of Michigan with the university's extensive computer networking capabilities in mind. It was designed as a "frontline" self-identification screening questionnaire to help individuals determine whether or not their current drinking practices are problematic or if they have the potential for becoming problematic. The ASISA is not a replacement for an in-depth alcohol evaluation; its aim is to encourage members of the university community to take a closer look at their drinking patterns and seek a comprehensive clinical assessment if indicated by the scores received on the ASISA. PMID:8376677

  1. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document. PMID:25548139

  2. Using National Alcohol Screening Day to Deliver Personalized Feedback: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henslee, Amber M.; Irons, Jessica G.; Day, Jennifer M.; Butler, Leon; Benson, Trisha A.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The current study tested the effectiveness of using National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) to deliver personalized feedback via mail. At-risk NASD participants were assigned to either personalized or generic feedback conditions and attended a 4-week follow-up. Results failed to find any group differences on alcohol-related variables. However,…

  3. Integrating Mailed Personalized Feedback and Alcohol Screening Events: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Trisha A.; Ambrose, Carrie; Mulfinger, Amanda M. M.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2004-01-01

    This study characterized a sample of college students attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD), and tested the feasibility of using NASD as a platform for initiating the delivery of mailed personalized feedback forms. Participants (N = 153, 65% female) attended NASD and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT [1]). A…

  4. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  5. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Eileen; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Myles, Judy; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Background There have been many randomized controlled trials of screening and brief alcohol intervention in primary care. Most trials have reported positive effects of brief intervention, in terms of reduced alcohol consumption in excessive drinkers. Despite this considerable evidence-base, key questions remain unanswered including: the applicability of the evidence to routine practice; the most efficient strategy for screening patients; and the required intensity of brief intervention in primary care. This pragmatic factorial trial, with cluster randomization of practices, will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in primary care and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in primary care patients. Methods and design GPs and nurses from 24 practices across the North East (n = 12), London and South East (n = 12) of England will be recruited. Practices will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a leaflet-only control group (n = 8); brief structured advice (n = 8); and brief lifestyle counselling (n = 8). To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all practices will also be randomised to either a universal or targeted screening approach and to use either a modified single item (M-SASQ) or FAST screening tool. Screening randomisation will incorporate stratification by geographical area and intervention condition. During the intervention stage of the trial, practices in each of the three arms will recruit at least 31 hazardous or harmful drinkers who will receive a short baseline assessment followed by brief intervention. Thus there will be a minimum of 744 patients recruited into the trial. Discussion The trial will evaluate the impact of screening and brief alcohol intervention in routine practice; thus its findings will be highly relevant to clinicians working in primary care in the UK. There will

  6. Participatory design and an eligibility screening tool.

    PubMed Central

    Gennari, J. H.; Reddy, M.

    2000-01-01

    For most medical informatics software products, insufficient effort is spent on the design phase of production. However, poor design often leads to systems that are either not well accepted, or far less effective than they could be. In this paper, we describe the ideas of participatory design and discuss why these ideas are especially applicable to medical informatics systems. In particular, we present a case study in the area of clinical trial protocol management. We designed and developed a tool aimed at increasing accrual to clinical trial protocols at an oncology center. However, the design evolved over time, and features of this design were only discovered through iterative development and interaction with the users within the context of the workplace. PMID:11079891

  7. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Olga V C A; Andrade, Paulo E; Capellini, Simone A

    2014-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI's implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting. PMID

  8. Collective screening tools for early identification of dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Olga V. C. A.; Andrade, Paulo E.; Capellini, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Current response to intervention models (RTIs) favor a three-tier system. In general, Tier 1 consists of evidence-based, effective reading instruction in the classroom and universal screening of all students at the beginning of the grade level to identify children for early intervention. Non-responders to Tier 1 receive small-group tutoring in Tier 2. Non-responders to Tier 2 are given still more intensive, individual intervention in Tier 3. Limited time, personnel and financial resources derail RTI’s implementation in Brazilian schools because this approach involves procedures that require extra time and extra personnel in all three tiers, including screening tools which normally consist of tasks administered individually. We explored the accuracy of collectively and easily administered screening tools for the early identification of second graders at risk for dyslexia in a two-stage screening model. A first-stage universal screening based on collectively administered curriculum-based measurements was used in 45 7 years old early Portuguese readers from 4 second-grade classrooms at the beginning of the school year and identified an at-risk group of 13 academic low-achievers. Collectively administered tasks based on phonological judgments by matching figures and figures to spoken words [alternative tools for educators (ATE)] and a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of collective and individual assessments were both administered to all children and constituted the second-stage screening. Low-achievement on ATE tasks and on collectively administered writing tasks (scores at the 25th percentile) showed good sensitivity (true positives) and specificity (true negatives) to poor literacy status defined as scores ≤1 SD below the mean on literacy abilities at the end of fifth grade. These results provide implications for the use of a collectively administered screening tool for the early identification of children at risk for dyslexia in a classroom setting

  9. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol

  10. Screening for Patients with Alcohol Problems: Severity of Patients Identified by the CAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lairson, David R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed CAGE (first letters of keywords in series of 4 questions about drinking: cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener), instrument in routine screening for alcohol problems among 687 patients of 2 primary care physicians. Results showed that CAGE instrument was useful screening device for identifying those with mild to moderate substance abuse…

  11. Characteristics of Low-income Racial/Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women Screening Positive for Alcohol Risk.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Mericle, Amy A; Cassey, Heather; Daubert, Angela M; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2016-08-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and characteristics associated with alcohol risk among low-income, predominantly racial/ethnic minority pregnant women in an urban area. We surveyed 225 pregnant women receiving nutritional care. Twenty-six percent screened positive for alcohol risk. Current smoking status (AOR 2.9, p = 0.018, 95 % CI [1.2, 7.0]) and a history of marijuana use (AOR 3.1, p = 0.001, 95 % CI [1.6, 6.2]) were the strongest predictors of alcohol risk status. This study underscores the need for screening for alcohol risk, smoking, and illicit drug use among low-income, racial/ethnic minority pregnant women and highlights the usefulness of the TWEAK in identifying alcohol risk in WIC settings. PMID:26187172

  12. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmetal ProtectionAgenccy's Metal Finishing
    Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D. , P.E. ; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, and Matthew Lorber

    The US Environmental Protection Agency completed the development of the first version of...

  13. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of an...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enhancement of the US Environmental Protection Agency's
    Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST)

    William M. Barrett Jr, Ph.D., P.E. , P.E.; Paul Harten, Ph.D.1, Matt Lorber , Charles Peck , and Steve Schwartz, P.E., Q.E.P.3

    Recently, the US Environ...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently the US EPA completed the development of the first version of the Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST) and has made this product available to the general public. MFFRST calculates the air emissions from a metal plating line and determines the risk to bot...

  16. Interrelationship of alcohol misuse, HIV sexual risk and HIV screening uptake among emergency department patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency department (ED) patients comprise a high-risk population for alcohol misuse and sexual risk for HIV. In order to design future interventions to increase HIV screening uptake, we examined the interrelationship among alcohol misuse, sexual risk for HIV and HIV screening uptake among these patients. Methods A random sample of 18-64-year-old English- or Spanish-speaking patients at two EDs during July-August 2009 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their alcohol use using the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the HIV Sexual Risk Questionnaire. Study participants were offered a rapid HIV test after completing the questionnaires. Binging (≥ five drinks/occasion for men, ≥ four drinks for women) was assessed and sex-specific alcohol misuse severity levels (low-risk, harmful, hazardous, dependence) were calculated using AUDIT scores. Analyses were limited to participants who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the associations between HIV screening uptake and (1) alcohol misuse, (2) sexual risk for HIV, and (3) the intersection of HIV sexual risk and alcohol misuse. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. All models were adjusted for patient demographic characteristics and separate models for men and women were constructed. Results Of 524 participants (55.0% female), 58.4% identified as white, non-Hispanic, and 72% reported previous HIV testing. Approximately 75% of participants reported drinking alcohol within the past 30 days and 74.5% of men and 59.6% of women reported binge drinking. A relationship was found between reported sexual risk for HIV and alcohol use among men (AOR 3.31 [CI 1.51-7.24]) and women (AOR 2.78 [CI 1.48-5.23]). Women who reported binge drinking were more likely to have higher reported sexual risk for HIV (AOR 2.55 [CI 1.40-4.64]) compared to women who do

  17. Clinical Screening Tools for Sarcopenia and Its Management

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Solomon C. Y.; Khow, Kareeann S. F.; Jadczak, Agathe D.; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in muscle mass and function, is affecting the older population worldwide. Sarcopenia is associated with poor health outcomes, such as falls, disability, loss of independence, and mortality; however it is potentially treatable if recognized and intervened early. Over the last two decades, there has been significant expansion of research in this area. Currently there is international recognition of a need to identify the condition early for intervention and prevention of the disastrous consequences of sarcopenia if left untreated. There are currently various screening tools proposed. As yet, there is no consensus on the best tool. Effective interventions of sarcopenia include physical exercise and nutrition supplementation. This review paper examined the screening tools and interventions for sarcopenia. PMID:26966433

  18. THE USEPA'S METAL FINISHING FACILITY RISK SCREENING TOOL (MFFRST) AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFP2T)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an overview of the USEPA's Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool, including a discussion of the models used and outputs. The tool is currently being expanded to include pollution prevention considerations as part of the model. The current st...

  19. Can a theoretical framework help to embed alcohol screening and brief interventions in an endoscopy day-unit?

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, G; Masson, S; Bewick, L; Doyle, J; McGovern, R; Stoker, E; Wright, H; Newbury-Birch, D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and aims The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence recommend that alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) should be routinely implemented in secondary care. This study used theoretical frameworks to understand how health professionals can be supported to adapt their behaviour and clinical practice. Design and methods Staff training and support was conducted using theoretical frameworks. A 12-week study, delivering ASBI was carried out as part of routine practice in an endoscopy day-unit. Anonymised patient data were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Tool (AUDIT) and whether patients received a brief intervention. Staff completed the Shortened Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perceptions Questionnaire at three time points and took part in a focus group both pre and post study. Results For staff, levels or role adequacy, role legitimacy, motivation to discuss alcohol, security in their role, job satisfaction and commitment to working with patients who drink increased during the time of the study. 1598 individual patients were seen in the department in the timeframe. Of these, 1180 patients were approached (74%); 18% (n=207) of patients were AUDIT positive. Discussion This study has shown that it is possible to reach a high number of patients in a busy hospital out-patient department and deliver ASBI by working with staff using theoretical frameworks for training. Embedding evidence-based public health interventions into routine clinical environments is complex. The social system in which professionals operate requires consideration alongside individual professionals’ real and perceived barriers and facilitators to change. PMID:26834957

  20. Prairie Voles as a Model to Screen Medications for the Treatment of Alcoholism and Addictions.

    PubMed

    Ryabinin, A E; Hostetler, C M

    2016-01-01

    Most preclinical studies of medications to treat addictions are performed in mice and rats. These two rodent species belong to one phylogenetic subfamily, which narrows the likelihood of identifying potential mechanisms regulating addictions in other species, ie, humans. Expanding the genetic diversity of organisms modeling alcohol and drug abuse enhances our ability to screen for medications to treat addiction. Recently, research laboratories adapted the prairie vole model to study mechanisms of alcohol and drugs of abuse. This development not only expanded the diversity of genotypes used to screen medications, but also enhanced capabilities of such screens. Prairie voles belong to 3-5% of mammalian species exhibiting social monogamy. This unusual trait is reflected in their ability to form lasting long-term affiliations between adult individuals. The prairie vole animal model has high predictive validity for mechanisms regulating human social behaviors. In addition, these animals exhibit high alcohol intake and preference. In laboratory settings, prairie voles are used to model social influences on drug reward and alcohol consumption as well as effects of addictive substances on social bonding. As a result, this species can be adapted to screen medications whose effectiveness could be (a) resistant to social influences promoting excessive drug taking, (b) dependent on the presence of social support, and (c) medications affecting harmful social consequences of alcohol and drug abuse. This report reviews the literature on studies of alcohol and psychostimulants in prairie voles and discusses capabilities of this animal model as a screen for novel medications to treat alcoholism and addictions. PMID:27055620

  1. [The addicted patient in anaesthesia -screening, diagnosis and treatment of alcohol use disorders].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Tim

    2015-06-01

    Patients consuming > 60g/d of alcohol (e.g. 1.5l of beer), are 2-5 times more likely to suffer post-operative complications such as infectious, bleeding or cardiac complications or an alcohol withdrawal syndrome. By screening and a systematic evaluation risk patients can be identified that may benefit from interventions such as counseling, brief interventions, abstinence, tailored anesthesia, prophylactic treatment of withdrawal symptoms, stress reduction, harm reduction, psychosocial therapy, addiction therapy, multidisciplinary treatment. PMID:26147412

  2. Integrating Diabetes Guidelines into a Telehealth Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Gervera, Kelly; Graves, Barbara Ann

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and contributes to long-term complications that are costly to healthcare systems. Twenty-five percent of all veterans in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) have diabetes. The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a quality improvement project to embed an evidence-based diabetes screening tool, based on Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense diabetes clinical practice guidelines, into the VHA electronic medical record. The objectives of the screening tool were threefold: to promote evidence-based care, to standardize care coordination, and to promote self-management and proper utilization of resources. Record reviews were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the screening tool. Results showed an 88 percent increase in the assessment of annual exams and/or labs, a 16.5 percent increase in disease management assessment and offering of services, and a 50 percent increase in goal-setting activity. PMID:26396557

  3. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Conclusions Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening

  4. Screening Tools to Estimate Mold Burdens in Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Sephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Bradham, Karen; Ashley, Peter; Cox, David F.; DeWalt, Gary; Lin, King-teh N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop screening tools that could be used to estimate the mold burden in a home which would indicate whether more detailed testing might be useful. Methods: Previously, in the American Healthy Home Survey, a DNA-based method of analysis called mold specific quantitative PCR was used to measure 36 molds in standard protocol dust samples. This resulted in a national index called the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index. In this current study, two possible screening methods were considered: use of the vacuum cleaner bag dust rather than the standard protocol dust samples and reducing the number of molds needed to be quantified resulting in the creation of a simpler mold burden scale. Results: Comparison of vacuum bag and standard dust samples from 157 of the same homes demonstrated that most molds had higher detection rates in vacuum bag dust compared to the standard dust samples but the ERMI values were still related to each other. The second approach to simplifying the screening for mold burdens produced a correlated (ρ=0.80) index to the ERMI called the American Relative Moldiness Index (ARMI) which requires the analysis of only 12 species. Conclusions: Vacuum bag dust sample ERMI values were predictive in placing a home into the lower or upper 50% of homes on the ERMI scale. If it is not possible to obtain the standard dust sample, the vacuum cleaner bag dust may be a useful screening tool for estimating mold burdens in homes. If the standard sample is available and a simpler screening test is sought to estimate the mold burden in homes, the ARMI scale might be useful.

  5. Evaluation of California's Alcohol and Drug Screening and Brief Intervention Project for Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; McCabe, Cameron T.; Clapp, John D.; Hohman, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Visits to settings such as emergency departments (EDs) may present a “teachable moment” in that a patient may be more open to feedback and suggestions regarding their risky alcohol and illicit drug-use behaviors. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is an 'opportunistic' public health approach that targets low-risk users, in addition to those already dependent on alcohol and/or drugs. SBIRT programs provide patients with comprehensive screening and assessments, and deliver interventions of appropriate intensity to reduce risks related to alcohol and drug use. Methods: This study used a single group pre-post test design to assess the effect of the California SBIRT service program (i.e., CASBIRT) on 6 substance-use outcomes (past-month prevalence and number of days of binge drinking, illegal drug use, and marijuana use). Trained bilingual/bicultural Health Educators attempted to screen all adult patients in 12 EDs/trauma centers (regardless of the reason for the patient's visit) using a short instrument, and then delivered a brief motivational intervention matched to the patient's risk level. A total of 2,436 randomly selected patients who screened positive for alcohol and/or drug use consented to be in a 6-month telephone follow-up interview. Because of the high loss to follow-up rate, we used an intention-to-treat approach for the data analysis. Results: Results of generalized linear mixed models showed modest reductions in all 6 drug-and alcohol-use outcomes. Men (versus women), those at relatively higher risk status (versus lower risk), and those with only one substance of misuse (versus both alcohol and illicit drug misuse) tended to show more positive change. Conclusion: These results suggest that SBIRT services provided in acute care settings are associated with modest changes in self-reported recent alcohol and illicit drug use. PMID:23687546

  6. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use. PMID:23415594

  7. Refinement of the Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi)

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, C; Dupuis, L L; Gibson, P; Johnston, D L; Baggott, C; Portwine, C; Spiegler, B; Kuczynski, S; Tomlinson, D; de Mol Van Otterloo, S; Tomlinson, G A; Sung, L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Objective was to evaluate and refine a new instrument for paediatric cancer symptom screening named the Symptom Screening in Pediatrics Tool (SSPedi). Methods: Respondents were children 8–18 years of age undergoing active cancer treatment and parents of eligible children. Respondents completed SSPedi once and then responded to semi-structured questions. They rated how easy or difficult SSPedi was to complete. For items containing two concepts, we asked respondents whether concepts should remain together or be separated into two questions. We also asked about each item's importance and whether items were missing. Cognitive probing was conducted in children to evaluate their understanding of items and the response scale. After each group of 10 children and 10 parents, responses were reviewed to determine whether modifications were required. Recruitment ceased with the first group of 10 children in which modifications were not required. Results: Thirty children and 20 parents were required to achieve a final version of SSPedi. Fifteen items remain in the final version; the score ranges from 0 to 60. Conclusions: Using opinions of children with cancer and parents of paediatric cancer patients, we successfully developed a symptom screening tool that is easy to complete, is understandable and demonstrates content validity. PMID:25101569

  8. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed

    Heather, Nick

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners' (GPs') advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service's National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  9. Can screening and brief intervention lead to population-level reductions in alcohol-related harm?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A distinction is made between the clinical and public health justifications for screening and brief intervention (SBI) against hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. Early claims for a public health benefit of SBI derived from research on general medical practitioners’ (GPs’) advice on smoking cessation, but these claims have not been realized, mainly because GPs have not incorporated SBI into their routine practice. A recent modeling exercise estimated that, if all GPs in England screened every patient at their next consultation, 96% of the general population would be screened over 10 years, with 70-79% of excessive drinkers receiving brief interventions (BI); assuming a 10% success rate, this would probably amount to a population-level effect of SBI. Thus, a public health benefit for SBI presupposes widespread screening; but recent government policy in England favors targeted versus universal screening, and in Scotland screening is based on new registrations and clinical presentation. A recent proposal for a national screening program was rejected by the UK National Health Service’s National Screening Committee because 1) there was no good evidence that SBI led to reductions in mortality or morbidity, and 2) a safe, simple, precise, and validated screening test was not available. Even in countries like Sweden and Finland, where expensive national programs to disseminate SBI have been implemented, only a minority of the population has been asked about drinking during health-care visits, and a minority of excessive drinkers has been advised to cut down. Although there has been research on the relationship between treatment for alcohol problems and population-level effects, there has been no such research for SBI, nor have there been experimental investigations of its relationship with population-level measures of alcohol-related harm. These are strongly recommended. In this article, conditions that would allow a population-level effect of SBI to occur are

  10. Interprofessional collaborative practice incorporating training for alcohol and drug use screening for healthcare providers in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Albrecht, Susan A; Frank, Linda R; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Lindsay, Dawn; Lee, Heeyoung; Fioravanti, Marie; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional collaborative practice expands resources in rural and underserved communities. This article explores the impact of an online education programme on the perceptions of healthcare providers about interprofessional care within alcohol and drug use screening for rural residents. Nurses, behavioural health counsellors, and public health professionals participated in an evidence-based practice (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment-SBIRT) model that targets individuals who use alcohol and other drugs in a risky manner. SBIRT is recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force as a universal, evidence-based screening tool. Online modules, case simulation practice, and interprofessional dialogues are used to deliver practice-based learning experiences. A quasi-experimental method with pre-tests and post-tests was utilised. Results indicate increased perceptions of professional competence, need for cooperation, actual cooperation, and role values pre-to-post training. Implications suggest that online interprofessional education is useful but the added component of professional dialogues regarding patient cases offers promise in promoting collaborative practice. PMID:27295396

  11. Project Integrate: Translating Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol Problems to a Community Hospital Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Michael J.; Baird, Janette; Nirenberg, Ted D.; Smith, Jennifer C.; Woolard, Robert H.; Dinwoodie, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems in the emergency department (ED) is effective. The objective of this study was to examine the translation of SBI into a busy community ED environment. The authors assessed key stakeholders views of SBI delivery model, then utilized feedback to adapt model. Adoption of SBI was recorded,…

  12. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...) published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66398) for instruments that conform to the... FR 16956). DATES: Effective Date: June 14, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical... for Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids (59 FR 39382). These...

  13. Circulating microRNA-based screening tool for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boukerroucha, Meriem; Fasquelle, Corinne; Thiry, Jérôme; Bovy, Nicolas; Struman, Ingrid; Geurts, Pierre; Collignon, Joëlle; Schroeder, Hélène; Kridelka, Frédéric; Lifrange, Eric; Jossa, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are increasingly recognized as powerful biomarkers in several pathologies, including breast cancer. Here, their plasmatic levels were measured to be used as an alternative screening procedure to mammography for breast cancer diagnosis. A plasma miRNA profile was determined by RT-qPCR in a cohort of 378 women. A diagnostic model was designed based on the expression of 8 miRNAs measured first in a profiling cohort composed of 41 primary breast cancers and 45 controls, and further validated in diverse cohorts composed of 108 primary breast cancers, 88 controls, 35 breast cancers in remission, 31 metastatic breast cancers and 30 gynecologic tumors. A receiver operating characteristic curve derived from the 8-miRNA random forest based diagnostic tool exhibited an area under the curve of 0.81. The accuracy of the diagnostic tool remained unchanged considering age and tumor stage. The miRNA signature correctly identified patients with metastatic breast cancer. The use of the classification model on cohorts of patients with breast cancers in remission and with gynecologic cancers yielded prediction distributions similar to that of the control group. Using a multivariate supervised learning method and a set of 8 circulating miRNAs, we designed an accurate, minimally invasive screening tool for breast cancer. PMID:26734993

  14. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of stay of 5.5 days in 2012/2013. Acceptability of screening tools was tested: Common screening tools (CEWA, AUDIT) were rejected by junior doctors due to the high number of questions as too cumbersome for routine practice. Compliance with usage in random samples over a three month period was persistently (n=10%. Testing of an abbreviated AUDIT questionnaire with only two questions and a specified threshold showed a AUROC of 1 (p<0.001 for correct identification). The screening tool was implemented in several PDSAs cycles. After the final cycle a random sample of 100 patients was reviewed for pathway compliance over a three months period. Eighty-six patients were screened with the two-question tool of these 18 were identified as possible risk. Of these 16 patients had the full AUDIT questionnaire, only eight with elevated values were started on DT. Overall compliance with the pathway increased to 84%. PMID:26734413

  15. Alcohol detoxification in Ysbyty Gwynedd: Two small sips or one big gulp? Two-step screening more reliable for identification of alcohol dependency syndrome at risk of delirium tremens for routine care

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Muhammad; Subbe, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with pathways for hospitalised patients with alcohol dependency syndrome is often poor. A pathway for recognition and treatment of alcohol dependency was redesigned as part of a 12 month service improvement project in the acute medical unit using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. A needs assessment was undertaken: Audit data from 2013 showed over-prescription of chlordiazepoxide for detoxification treatment (DT) leading to prolonged hospital admissions with an average length of stay of 5.5 days in 2012/2013. Acceptability of screening tools was tested: Common screening tools (CEWA, AUDIT) were rejected by junior doctors due to the high number of questions as too cumbersome for routine practice. Compliance with usage in random samples over a three month period was persistently (n=10%. Testing of an abbreviated AUDIT questionnaire with only two questions and a specified threshold showed a AUROC of 1 (p<0.001 for correct identification). The screening tool was implemented in several PDSAs cycles. After the final cycle a random sample of 100 patients was reviewed for pathway compliance over a three months period. Eighty-six patients were screened with the two-question tool of these 18 were identified as possible risk. Of these 16 patients had the full AUDIT questionnaire, only eight with elevated values were started on DT. Overall compliance with the pathway increased to 84%. PMID:26734413

  16. Beyond screening: tailoring physical activity options with the EASY tool.

    PubMed

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Resnick, Barbara; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-06-01

    The development and dissemination of the EASY tool provides a resource to facilitate access to information about physical activity for older adults, particularly with regard to specific physical activity recommendations for individuals with chronic medical conditions. Health care providers and older adults can use the EASY tool to provide a flexible, tailored approach to screening. This approach will better inform both older adults and their health care providers about safe physical activity programs with appropriate injury management strategies. The identification of a broad range of activities appropriate for different health circumstances and situations will enable a greater number of older adults to engage in physical activity/exercises that will improve their health and functioning. PMID:24073117

  17. Women’s perspectives on screening for alcohol and drug use in prenatal care

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Nuru-Jeter, Amani

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening for alcohol and drug use in prenatal care is widely promoted in the United States as a public health strategy for reducing alcohol and drug use during pregnancy. However, the published literature does not consider women’s perspectives or the potential negative ramifications of screening. Methods Twenty semi-structured interviews and two focus groups [n=38] were conducted with a racially/ethnically diverse sample of low-income pregnant and parenting women using alcohol and/or drugs in a northern California county. Results Most women were averse to having drug but not alcohol use identified and were mistrustful of providers’ often inconspicuous efforts to discover drug use. Women expected psychological, social, and legal consequences from being identified, including feelings of maternal failure, judgment by providers, and reports to Child Protective Services. Women did not trust providers to protect them from these consequences. Rather, they took steps to protect themselves. They avoided and emotionally disengaged from prenatal care, attempted to stop using substances that could be detected by urine tests prior to prenatal care visits, and shared strategies within social networks for getting the benefits of prenatal care while avoiding its negative consequences. Conclusions Considerations of the public health impact of screening for drug use in prenatal care should account for the implications of women’s physical avoidance of and emotional disengagement from prenatal care, specifically the direct effects of late, limited, and no prenatal care on pregnancy outcomes and missed opportunities for health promoting interventions. PMID:20457407

  18. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  19. Alcohol use among university students in Sweden measured by an electronic screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Agneta; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Ölvander, Christina; Ekman, Diana Stark; Bendtsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic-based alcohol screening and brief interventions for university students with problem drinking behaviours forms an important means by which to identify risky drinkers. Methods In this study an e-SBI project was implemented to assess drinking patterns, and to provide personalised feedback about alcohol consumption and related health problems, to students in a Swedish university. In this study, third semester university students (n = 2858) from all faculties (colleges) at the University were invited to participate in e-SBI screenings. This study employed a randomised controlled trial, with respondents having a equal chance of being assigned to a limited, or full-feedback response. Results The study shows that high risk drinkers tend to underestimate their own consumption compared to others, and that these high risk drinkers experience more negative consequences after alcohol intake, than other respondents. There was a strong belief, for both high- and low-risk drinkers, that alcohol helped celebrations be more festive. This study also confirms findings from other study locations that while males drank more than females in our study population; females reached the same peak alcohol blood concentrations as males. Conclusion Obtaining clear and current information on drinking patterns demonstrated by university students can help public health officials, university administration, and local health care providers develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19594906

  20. Virtual Reality Skills Training for Health Care Professionals in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Michael; Olsen, Dale; Stathes, Hilary; Boteler, Laura; Grossberg, Paul; Pfeifer, Judie; Schiro, Stephanie; Banning, Jane; Skochelak, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background Educating physicians and other health care professionals to identify and treat patients who drink above recommended limits is an ongoing challenge. Methods An educational Randomized Control Trial (RCT) was conducted to test the ability of a stand alone training simulation to improve the clinical skills of health care professionals in alcohol screening and intervention. The “virtual reality simulation” combines video, voice recognition and non branching logic to create an interactive environment that allows trainees to encounter complex social cues and realistic interpersonal exchanges. The simulation includes 707 questions and statements and 1207 simulated patient responses. Results A sample of 102 health care professionals (10 physicians; 30 physician assistants [PAs] or nurse practitioners [NPs]; 36 medical students; 26 pharmacy, PA or NP students) were randomly assigned to no training (n=51) or a computer based virtual reality intervention (n=51). Subjects in both groups had similar pre-test standardized patient alcohol screening skill scores – 53.2 (experimental) vs. 54.4 (controls), 52.2 vs. 53.7 alcohol brief intervention skills, and 42.9 vs. 43.5 alcohol referral skills. Following repeated practice with the simulation there were significant increases in the scores of the experimental group at 6 months post-randomization compared to the control group for the screening (67.7 vs. 58.1, p<.001) and brief intervention (58.3 vs. 51.6, p<.04) scenarios. Conclusions The technology tested in this trial is the first virtual reality simulation to demonstrate an increase in the alcohol screening and brief intervention skills of health care professionals. PMID:19587253

  1. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS): a new hospital screening tool for malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Roller, Regina E; Eglseer, Doris; Eisenberger, Anna; Wirnsberger, Gerhard H

    2016-02-28

    Despite the significant impact of malnutrition in hospitalised patients, it is often not identified by clinical staff in daily practice. To improve nutritional support in hospitals, standardised routine nutritional screening is essential. The Graz Malnutrition Screening (GMS) tool was developed for the purpose of malnutrition risk screening in a large hospital setting involving different departments. It was the aim of the present study to validate the GMS against Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS) and Mini Nutritional Assessment-short form (MNA-sf) in a randomised blinded manner. A total of 404 randomly selected patients admitted to the internal, surgical and orthopaedic wards of the University Hospital Graz were screened in a blinded manner by different raters. Concurrent validity was determined by comparing the GMS with the NRS and in older patients (70+ years) with the MNA-sf additionally. According to GMS, 31·9 or 28·5% of the admitted patients were categorised as at 'risk of malnutrition' (depending on the rater). According to the reference standard of NRS, 24·5% of the patients suffered from malnutrition. Pearson's r values of 0·78 compared with the NRS and 0·84 compared with the MNA showed strong positive correlations. Results of accuracy (0·85), sensitivity (0·94), specificity (0·77), positive predictive value (0·76) and negative predictive value (0·95) of GMS were also very high. Cohen's κ for internal consistency of the GMS was 0·82. GMS proves to be a valid and reliable instrument for the detection of malnutrition in adult patients in acute-care hospitals. PMID:26652856

  2. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5 min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial

  3. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention as Standard Practice: Working with the American Indian/Native Alaskan Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Duran, Bonnie; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Manning, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and the resulting problems associated with high-risk drinking in the American Indian/Native Alaskan (AI/NA) population are well-documented, as alcohol misuse has taken an incredible toll on many AI/NA communities. Presently, both overall health issues and alcohol use occur disproportionately within this population. This article provides an updated overview of the impact of alcohol use in the United States and within AI/NA communities specifically. It also provides recommendations for an alcohol-related screening and brief intervention instrument that social workers can begin using in their practice and can be utilized within the AI/NA community. PMID:25580074

  4. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  5. A Quick Drinking Screen for identifying women at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Linda Carter; Sobell, Mark B; Heinecke, Nicholas; Voluse, Andrew; Johnson, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Two previous studies comparing the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS) with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) found that these two instruments yielded similar reports of alcohol use for clinical and nonclinical populations of problem drinkers. The current study evaluated the correspondence between these two drinking measures with women at risk of an Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy (AEP). Participants were 355 women who voluntarily participated in a research study during 2005 through 2007 designed to prevent AEPs. All women were screened by phone for eligibility using the QDS and approximately 2 weeks later completed a 3-month TLFB by mail. Results of this study, analyzed in 2008, paralleled previous studies showing that the QDS and the TLFB, two very different drinking measures, collected similar aggregate drinking data for women who drink heavily and are at risk of an AEP. Correspondence between the two drinking measures met acceptable levels of reliability. The present study found that the QDS has demonstrated efficacy for screening women whose level of alcohol use puts them at risk for an AEP. Although the QDS does not yield detailed drinking information, it could be used when it is not possible or necessary to gather daily drinking data. PMID:19406583

  6. Electroantennographic bioassay as a screening tool for host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Light, Douglas M; Gee, Wai S

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant. When a host plant is an important agronomic commodity feeding damage by insect pests can inflict serious economic losses to growers. Accordingly, kairomones can be used as attractants to lure or confuse these insects and, thus, offer an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides for insect control. Unfortunately, plants can emit a vast number volatiles with varying compositions and ratios of emissions dependent upon the phenology of the commodity or the time of day. This makes identification of biologically active components or blends of volatile components an arduous process. To help identify the bioactive components of host plant volatile emissions we employ the laboratory-based screening bioassay electroantennography (EAG). EAG is an effective tool to evaluate and record electrophysiologically the olfactory responses of an insect via their antennal receptors. The EAG screening process can help reduce the number of volatiles tested to identify promising bioactive components. However, EAG bioassays only provide information about activation of receptors. It does not provide information about the type of insect behavior the compound elicits; which could be as an attractant, repellent or other type of behavioral response. Volatiles eliciting a significant response by EAG, relative to an appropriate positive control, are typically taken on to further testing of behavioral responses of the insect pest. The experimental design presented will detail the methodology employed to screen almond-based host plant volatiles by measurement of the electrophysiological antennal responses of an adult insect pest navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) to single components and simple blends of components via EAG bioassay. The method utilizes two excised antennae placed across a "fork" electrode holder. The protocol

  7. Development of TUA-WELLNESS screening tool for screening risk of mild cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vanoh, Divya; Shahar, Suzana; Rosdinom, Razali; Din, Normah Che; Yahya, Hanis Mastura; Omar, Azahadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Focus on screening for cognitive impairment has to be given particular importance because of the rising older adult population. Thus, this study aimed to develop and assess a brief screening tool consisting of ten items that can be self-administered by community dwelling older adults (TUA-WELLNESS). Methodology A total of 1,993 noninstitutionalized respondents aged 60 years and above were selected for this study. The dependent variable was mild cognitive impairment (MCI) assessed using neuropsychological test batteries. The items for the screening tool comprised a wide range of factors that were chosen mainly from the analysis of ordinal logistic regression (OLR) and based on past literature. A suitable cut-off point was developed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results A total of ten items were included in the screening tool. From the ten items, eight were found to be significant by ordinal logistic regression and the remaining two items were part of the tool because they showed strong association with cognitive impairment in previous studies. The area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity for cut-off 11 were 0.84%, 83.3%, and 73.4%, respectively. Conclusion TUA-WELLNESS screening tool has been used to screen for major risk factors of MCI among Malaysian older adults. This tool is only suitable for basic MCI risk screening purpose and should not be used for diagnostic purpose. PMID:27274208

  8. Ground-Water-Withdrawal Component of the Michigan Water-Withdrawal Screening Tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, Howard W.; Hamilton, David A.; Seelbach, Paul W.; Asher, A. Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    A water-withdrawal assessment process and Internet-based screening tool have been developed to evaluate proposed new or increased high-capacity water withdrawals in Michigan. Michigan legislation defines high capacity withdrawals as those capable of removing an average of 100,000 gallons per day for a consecutive 30-day period. This report describes the ground-water component of the screening tool, provides background information used to develop the screening tool, and documents how this component of the screening tool is implemented. The screening tool is based on application of an analytical model to estimate streamflow depletion by a proposed pumping well. The screening tool is designed to evaluate intermittent pumping, to account for the dynamics of stream-aquifer interaction, and to apportion streamflow depletion among neighboring streams. The tool is to be used for an initial screening of a proposed new or increased high-capacity withdrawal in order to identify withdrawals that may cause adverse resource impacts. The screening tool is not intended to be a site-specific design tool. Results of an example application of the screening tool in Kalamazoo County, Mich., are compared to streamflow depletion estimated by use of a regional ground-water-flow model to demonstrate its performance.

  9. The Basics of Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Winn, Diane

    2007-01-01

    Nearly eight million emergency department (ED) visits are attributed to alcohol every year in the United States. A substantial proportion is due to trauma. In 2005, 16,885 people were killed as a result of alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes. Patients with alcohol-use problems (AUPs) are not only more likely to drive after drinking but are also at greater risk for serious alcohol-related illness and injury. Emergency departments have an important and unique opportunity to identify these patients and intervene during the “teachable moment” of an ED visit. The American College of Emergency Physicians, Emergency Nurses Association, American College of Surgeons-Committee on Trauma, American Public Health Association, and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, have identified Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) as a pivotal injury- and illness-prevention strategy to improve the health and well-being of ED patients. We provide a general overview of the basis and need for integrating SBIRT into EDs. Models of SBIRT, as well as benefits and challenges to its implementation, are also discussed. PMID:19561690

  10. BFH-OST, a new predictive screening tool for identifying osteoporosis in postmenopausal Han Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhao; Yang, Yong; Lin, JiSheng; Zhang, XiaoDong; Meng, Qian; Wang, BingQiang; Fei, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a simple new clinical screening tool to identify primary osteoporosis by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in postmenopausal women and to compare its validity with the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in a Han Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted, enrolling 1,721 community-dwelling postmenopausal Han Chinese women. All the subjects completed a structured questionnaire and had their bone mineral density measured using DXA. Using logistic regression analysis, we assessed the ability of numerous potential risk factors examined in the questionnaire to identify women with osteoporosis. Based on this analysis, we build a new predictive model, the Beijing Friendship Hospital Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (BFH-OST). Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to compare the validity of the new model and OSTA in identifying postmenopausal women at increased risk of primary osteoporosis as defined according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results At screening, it was found that of the 1,721 subjects with DXA, 22.66% had osteoporosis and a further 47.36% had osteopenia. Of the items screened in the questionnaire, it was found that age, weight, height, body mass index, personal history of fracture after the age of 45 years, history of fragility fracture in either parent, current smoking, and consumption of three of more alcoholic drinks per day were all predictive of osteoporosis. However, age at menarche and menopause, years since menopause, and number of pregnancies and live births were irrelevant in this study. The logistic regression analysis and item reduction yielded a final tool (BFH-OST) based on age, body weight, height, and history of fracture after the age of 45 years. The BFH-OST index (cutoff =9.1), which performed better than OSTA, had a sensitivity of 73.6% and a specificity of 72.7% for identifying osteoporosis, with an area under the receiver operating

  11. Effectiveness of the Brief Alcohol and Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Program with a Mandated Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFulvio, Gloria T.; Linowski, Sally A.; Mazziotti, Janet S.; Puleo, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of a large-scale intervention designed to reduce alcohol abuse among adjudicated college students. Participants: Participants were college students mandated to attend a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) program and a randomly selected comparison group of…

  12. Brief Screening and Intervention for Alcohol and Drug Use in a College Student Health Clinic: Feasibility, Implementation, and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Reed, Elizabeth; Rowe, Erin; Picci, Jennifer; Mantella, Philomena; Prado, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the Brief Alcohol Screen and Intervention in College Students (BASICS) in a university primary care setting. Participants/Methods: Undergraduates (N = 449) participated in BASICS and electronic surveys assessing frequency/quantity of alcohol and drug use, psychosocial and mental health outcomes, and demographic…

  13. Universal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure: a progress report of a pilot study in the region of Grey Bruce, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Zelner, Irene; Shor, Sarit; Gareri, Joey; Lynn, Hazel; Roukema, Henry; Lum, Lisa; Eisinga, Kirsten; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical utility of meconium analysis for fatty acid ethyl esters as a universal screening tool intended for the detection of newborns at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. This will be accomplished by assessing the rate of voluntary participation in a nonanonymous neonatal screening program and by determining the logistics of implementing the necessary follow-up and interventions as part of routine care. Additionally, this study will determine the predictive value of fatty acid ethyl ester-positive meconium with regard to neurodevelopmental delays. This is an ongoing prospective cohort study. Written informed consent is sought from all Grey Bruce women delivering at participating birthing sites. Collected meconium samples are tested for fatty acid ethyl esters by headspace-solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Children with positive results are followed up through an existing public health program involving regular home visits and assessments of developmental milestones by a public health nurse. These children and matched control subjects also undergo neurodevelopmental testing at 3 and 18 months of age by a clinical psychologist using Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. If delays are detected, the child is referred to diagnostic services and appropriate intervention programs. This study has been granted ethics approval and enrollment began in November 2008 at St. Joseph's Health Care in London, Ontario. The first positive case has been identified and the follow-up is currently being conducted by the public health unit. The successful completing of this study will reveal the population's willingness to participate in a neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure and determine the costs, feasibility, and utility of implementing such programs in clinical practice. PMID:20445484

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  15. The Evaluation of a Screening Tool for Children with an Intellectual Disability: The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Karen; Paxton, Donna; Murray, George; Milanesi, Paula; Murray, Aja Louise

    2012-01-01

    The study outlines the evaluation of an intellectual disability screening tool, the "Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire" ("CAIDS-Q"), with two age groups. A number of aspects of the reliability and validity of the "CAIDS-Q" were assessed for these two groups, including inter-rater reliability, convergent and…

  16. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-09-01

    What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  17. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-01-01

    What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  18. Validation of screening tools to assess appetite among geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Hanisah, R; Suzana, S; Lee, F S

    2012-07-01

    Poor appetite is one of the main contributing factors of poor nutritional status among elderly individuals. Recognizing the importance of assessment of appetite, a cross sectional study was conducted to determine the validity of appetite screening tools namely, the Council on Nutrition Appetite questionnaire (CNAQ) and the simplified nutritional appetite questionnaire (SNAQ) against the appetite, hunger and sensory perception questionnaire (AHSPQ), measures of nutritional status and food intake among geriatric patients at the main general hospital in Malaysia. Nutritional status was assessed using the subjective global assessment (SGA) while food intake was measured using the dietary history questionnaire (DHQ). Anthropometric parameters included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), calf circumference (CC) and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC). A total of 145 subjects aged 60 to 86 years (68.3 ± 5.8 years) with 31.7% men and 68.3% women were recruited from outpatients (35 subjects) and inpatients (110 subjects) of Kuala Lumpur Hospital of Malaysia. As assessed by SGA, most subjects were classified as mild to moderately malnourished (50.4%), followed by normal (38.6%) and severely malnourished (11.0%). A total of 79.3% and 57.2% subjects were classified as having poor appetite according to CNAQ and SNAQ, respectively. CNAQ (80.9%) had a higher sensitivity than SNAQ (69.7%) when validated against nutritional status as assessed using SGA. However, the specificity of SNAQ (62.5%) was higher than CNAQ (23.2%). Positive predictive value for CNAQ and SNAQ were 62.6% and 74.7%, respectively. Cronbach's alpha for CNAQ and SNAQ were 0.546 and 0.578, respectively. History of weight loss over the past one year (Adjusted odds ratio 2.49) (p < 0.01) and thiamine intake less than the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) (Adjusted odds ratio 3.04) (p < 0.05) were risk factors for poor appetite among subjects. In conclusion, malnutrition and poor appetite were prevalent among the

  19. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  20. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population. PMID:25578000

  1. Rapid ester biosynthesis screening reveals a high activity alcohol-O-acyltransferase (AATase) from tomato fruit.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jyun-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Wheeldon, Ian

    2016-05-01

    Ethyl and acetate esters are naturally produced in various yeasts, plants, and bacteria. The biosynthetic pathways that produce these esters share a common reaction step, the condensation of acetyl/acyl-CoA with an alcohol by alcohol-O-acetyl/acyltransferase (AATase). Recent metabolic engineering efforts exploit AATase activity to produce fatty acid ethyl esters as potential diesel fuel replacements as well as short- and medium-chain volatile esters as fragrance and flavor compounds. These efforts have been limited by the lack of a rapid screen to quantify ester biosynthesis. Enzyme engineering efforts have also been limited by the lack of a high throughput screen for AATase activity. Here, we developed a high throughput assay for AATase activity and used this assay to discover a high activity AATase from tomato fruit, Solanum lycopersicum (Atf-S.l). Atf1-S.l exhibited broad specificity towards acyl-CoAs with chain length from C4 to C10 and was specific towards 1-pentanol. The AATase screen also revealed new acyl-CoA substrate specificities for Atf1, Atf2, Eht1, and Eeb1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Atf-C.m from melon fruit, Cucumis melo, thus increasing the pool of characterized AATases that can be used in ester biosynthesis of ester-based fragrance and flavor compounds as well as fatty acid ethyl ester biofuels. PMID:26814045

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  4. Development and validation of a composite score for excessive alcohol use screening.

    PubMed

    Tu, Wanzhu; Chu, Chenghao; Li, Shanshan; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2016-06-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a composite measure that combines the discriminant values of individual laboratory markers routinely used for excessive alcohol use (EAU) for an improved screening performance. The training sample consisted of 272 individuals with known history of EAU and 210 non-alcoholic individuals. The validation sample included 100 EAU and 75 controls. We used the estimated regression coefficients and the observed marker values to calculate the individual's composite screening score; this score was converted to a probability measure for excessive drinking in the given individual. A threshold value for the screening score based on an examination of the estimated sensitivity and specificity associated with different threshold values was proposed. Using regression coefficients estimated from the training sample, a composite score based on the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, per cent carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and mean corpuscular volume was calculated. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of the selected model was 0.87, indicating a strong discriminating power and the AUC was better than that of each individual test. The score >0.23 corresponded to a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of nearly 60%. The AUC value remained at a respectable level of 0.83 with the sensitivity and specificity at 91% and 49%, respectively, in the validation sample. We developed a novel composite score by using a combination of commonly used biomakers. However, the development of the mechanism-based biomarkers of EAU is needed to improve the screening and diagnosis of EAU in clinical practice. PMID:27001945

  5. Validated Screening Tools for Common Mental Disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Grace; De Silva, Mary J.

    2016-01-01

    Background A wide range of screening tools are available to detect common mental disorders (CMDs), but few have been specifically developed for populations in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Cross-cultural application of a screening tool requires that its validity be assessed against a gold standard diagnostic interview. Validation studies of brief CMD screening tools have been conducted in several LMIC, but until now there has been no review of screening tools for all CMDs across all LMIC populations. Methods A systematic review with broad inclusion criteria was conducted, producing a comprehensive summary of brief CMD screening tools validated for use in LMIC populations. For each validation, the diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) was calculated as an easily comparable measure of screening tool validity. Average DOR results weighted by sample size were calculated for each screening tool, enabling us to make broad recommendations about best performing screening tools. Results 153 studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Because many studies validated two or more screening tools, this corresponded to 273 separate validations against gold standard diagnostic criteria. We found that the validity of every screening tool tested in multiple settings and populations varied between studies, highlighting the importance of local validation. Many of the best performing tools were purposely developed for a specific population; however, as these tools have only been validated in one study, it is not possible to draw broader conclusions about their applicability in other contexts. Conclusions Of the tools that have been validated in multiple settings, the authors broadly recommend using the SRQ-20 to screen for general CMDs, the GHQ-12 for CMDs in populations with physical illness, the HADS-D for depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 for depressive disorders in populations with good literacy levels, the EPDS for perinatal depressive disorders, and the HADS-A for anxiety disorders

  6. Development of ultra-high-density screening tools for microbial "omics".

    PubMed

    Bean, Gordon J; Jaeger, Philipp A; Bahr, Sondra; Ideker, Trey

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput genetic screens in model microbial organisms are a primary means of interrogating biological systems. In numerous cases, such screens have identified the genes that underlie a particular phenotype or a set of gene-gene, gene-environment or protein-protein interactions, which are then used to construct highly informative network maps for biological research. However, the potential test space of genes, proteins, or interactions is typically much larger than current screening systems can address. To push the limits of screening technology, we developed an ultra-high-density, 6144-colony arraying system and analysis toolbox. Using budding yeast as a benchmark, we find that these tools boost genetic screening throughput 4-fold and yield significant cost and time reductions at quality levels equal to or better than current methods. Thus, the new ultra-high-density screening tools enable researchers to significantly increase the size and scope of their genetic screens. PMID:24465499

  7. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Workplace Settings and Social Services: A Comparison of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bernd; O’Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions takes place in this context. Methods: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service, and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in non-medical settings. Results: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest that a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required. Discussion: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions, and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance, and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organizational frameworks, and professionals. PMID:25339914

  8. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910. PMID:23106916

  9. Intracellular calcium levels as screening tool for nanoparticle toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Meindl, Claudia; Kueznik, Tatjana; Bösch, Martina; Roblegg, Eva; Fröhlich, Eleonore

    2015-01-01

    disruption, apoptosis, lysosome function, intracellular [Ca2+] levels and generation of oxidative stress. Small polystyrene particles and silica particles caused membrane damage and apoptosis with no preference of the surface charge. Increases in intracellular [Ca2+] levels could be used as a screening tool for cytotoxicity. PMID:25976553

  10. Alcohol, genetics and risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Catherine A; Reding, Douglas J; Commins, John; Williams, Craig; Yeager, Meredith; Burmester, James K; Schairer, Catherine; Ziegler, Regina G

    2012-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that genes involved in the alcohol oxidation pathway modify the association between alcohol intake and breast cancer. Subjects were women aged 55-74 at baseline from the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Incident breast cancers were identified through annual health surveys. Controls were frequency matched to cases by age and year of entry into the trial. A self-administered food frequency questionnaire queried frequency and usual serving size of beer, wine or wine coolers, and liquor. Three SNPs in genes in the alcohol metabolism pathway were genotyped: alcohol dehydrogenase 2, alcohol dehydrogenase 3, and CYP2E1. The study included 1,041 incident breast cancer cases and 1,070 controls. In comparison to non-drinkers, the intake of any alcohol significantly increased the risk of breast cancer, and this risk increased with each category of daily alcohol intake (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.14, 3.53) for women who drank three or more standard drinks per day. Stratification by genotype revealed significant gene/environment interactions. For the ADH1B gene, there were statistically significant associations between all levels of alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer (all OR > 1.34 and all lower CI > 1.01), while for women with the GA or AA genotype, there were no significant associations between alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. Alcohol intake, genes involved in alcohol metabolism and their interaction increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. This information could be useful for primary care providers to personalize information about breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:22331481

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  12. Post-deployment screening and referral for risky alcohol use and subsequent alcohol-related and injury diagnoses, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Lee

    2015-07-01

    Risky alcohol use among service members is a threat to both military readiness and the health of service members. This report describes an analysis using the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to identify all active component service members who returned from deployment and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) alcohol use screen as part of the Post Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA) and Post Deployment Health Reassessment (PDHRA) during 2008-2014. This analysis identified that 3.4% of PDHA forms and 4.8% of PDHRA forms completed indicated severe risk for alcohol abuse, defined as an AUDIT-C score of 8 or higher. Among those at severe risk on the PDHRA who were not already under care for alcohol abuse, only 37.7% received a referral for treatment: 21.7% to primary care, 13.4% to behavioral health in primary care, 7.5% to mental health specialty care, and 5.6% to a substance abuse program. Referrals for treatment for those at severe risk were lower than their respective counterparts among males, white non-Hispanics, members of the Air Force, junior officers, and pilots/air crew. There were significant trends of increasing frequencies of subsequent injury and alcohol-related conditions as alcohol use levels increased. PMID:26207410

  13. Internet Applications for Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol in Primary Care Settings – Implementation and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Paul; Bendtsen, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Screening and brief interventions head the list of effective evidence-based interventions for the prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders in healthcare settings. However, healthcare professionals have been reluctant to engage with this kind of activity both because of the sensitive nature of the subject and because delivery is potentially time-consuming. Digital technologies for behavioral change are becoming increasingly widespread and their low delivery costs make them highly attractive. Internet and mobile technologies have been shown to be effective for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and smoking cessation in healthcare settings, and have the potential to add substantial value to the delivery of brief intervention for alcohol. Online alcohol questionnaires have been shown to elicit reliable responses on alcohol consumption and compared with conventional prevention techniques, digital alcohol interventions delivered in various settings have been found to be as effective in preventing alcohol-related harms. The last decade has seen the emergence of a range of approaches to the implementation in health care settings of referral to Internet-based applications for screening and brief interventions (eSBI) for alcohol. Research in this area is in its infancy, but there is a small body of evidence providing early indications about implementation and sustainability, and a number of studies are currently underway. This paper examines some of the evidence emerging from these and other studies and assesses the implications for the future of eSBI delivery in primary care settings. PMID:25400593

  14. Molecular Screening Tools to Study Arabidopsis Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Nora; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, more than 2000 genes are estimated to encode transcription factors (TFs), which clearly emphasizes the importance of transcriptional control. Although genomic approaches have generated large TF open reading frame (ORF) collections, only a limited number of these genes is functionally characterized, yet. This review evaluates strategies and methods to identify TF functions. In particular, we focus on two recently developed TF screening platforms, which make use of publically available GATEWAY®-compatible ORF collections. (1) The Arabidopsis thaliana TF ORF over-Expression (AtTORF-Ex) library provides pooled collections of transgenic lines over-expressing HA-tagged TF genes, which are suited for screening approaches to define TF functions in stress defense and development. (2) A high-throughput microtiter plate based protoplast trans activation (PTA) system has been established to screen for TFs which are regulating a given promoter:Luciferase construct in planta. PMID:22645547

  15. Disposable Screen Printed Electrochemical Sensors: Tools for Environmental Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Akhtar; Marty, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    Screen printing technology is a widely used technique for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. This methodology is likely to underpin the progressive drive towards miniaturized, sensitive and portable devices, and has already established its route from “lab-to-market” for a plethora of sensors. The application of these sensors for analysis of environmental samples has been the major focus of research in this field. As a consequence, this work will focus on recent important advances in the design and fabrication of disposable screen printed sensors for the electrochemical detection of environmental contaminants. Special emphasis is given on sensor fabrication methodology, operating details and performance characteristics for environmental applications. PMID:24932865

  16. Fatty acid composition as a tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid (FA) composition was used as a screening tool for the selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated content for evaluation as biodiesel. The feedstocks were ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima), anise (Pimpinella anisum), arugula (Eruca vesicaria), camelina (Camelina sativa), coriander (Cori...

  17. A Review of Cultural Adaptations of Screening Tools for Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Sandra; Linas, Keri; Jacobstein, Diane; Biel, Matthew; Migdal, Talia; Anthony, Bruno J.

    2015-01-01

    Screening children to determine risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders has become more common, although some question the advisability of such a strategy. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify autism screening tools that have been adapted for use in cultures different from that in which they were developed, evaluate the cultural…

  18. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks screened...

  19. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the...

  20. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the...

  1. 49 CFR 40.245 - What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? 40.245 Section 40.245 Transportation Office of the... Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.245 What is the procedure for an alcohol screening test using a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD? (a) As the STT or BAT, you must take the following steps when using the...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  3. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  4. Developing the Thai Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool and validating the Thai Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Chiowchanwisawakit, Praveena; Wattanamongkolsil, Luksame; Srinonprasert, Varalak; Petcharat, Chonachan; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Katchamart, Wanruchada

    2016-10-01

    To validate the Thai language version of the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) and the Early Arthritis for Psoriatic Patients Questionnaire (EARP), as well as also to develop a new tool for screening psoriatic arthritis (PsA) among psoriasis (Ps) patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Ps patients visiting the psoriasis clinic at Siriraj Hospital were recruited. They completed the EARP and PEST. Full musculoskeletal history, examination, and radiography were evaluated. PsA was diagnosed by a rheumatologist's evaluation and fulfillment of the classification criteria for psoriatic arthritis. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the performances of the tools. The Siriraj Psoriatic Arthritis Screening Tool (SiPAT) contained questions most relevant to peripheral arthritis, axial inflammation, and enthesitis, selected from multivariate analysis. Of a total of 159 patients, the prevalence of PsA was 78.6 %. The ROC curve analyses of Thai EARP, PEST, and SiPAT were 0.90 (95 % CI 0.84, 0.96), 0.85 (0.78, 0.92), and 0.89 (0.83, 0.95), respectively. The sensitivities of SiPAT, Thai EARP, and PEST were 91.0, 83.0, and 72.0 %, respectively, while the specificities were 69.0, 79.3, and 89.7 %, respectively. All screening questionnaires showed good diagnostic performances. SiPAT could be considered as a screening tool with its desirable properties: higher sensitivity and taking less time. Thai PEST and EARP could possibly be sequentially administered for people with a positive test from SiPAT to reduce the number of false positives. PMID:27333800

  5. Comparison of automated docking programs as virtual screening tools.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Maxwell D; DesJarlais, Renee L; Gibbs, Alan C; Mohan, Venkatraman; Jaeger, Edward P

    2005-02-24

    The performance of several commercially available docking programs is compared in the context of virtual screening. Five different protein targets are used, each with several known ligands. The simulated screening deck comprised 1000 molecules from a cleansed version of the MDL drug data report and 49 known ligands. For many of the known ligands, crystal structures of the relevant protein-ligand complexes were available. We attempted to run experiments with each docking method that were as similar as possible. For a given docking method, hit rates were improved versus what would be expected for random selection for most protein targets. However, the ability to prioritize known ligands on the basis of docking poses that resemble known crystal structures is both method- and target-dependent. PMID:15715466

  6. AMMOS: Automated Molecular Mechanics Optimization tool for in silico Screening

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Tania; Lagorce, David; Pajeva, Ilza; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Miteva, Maria A

    2008-01-01

    Background Virtual or in silico ligand screening combined with other computational methods is one of the most promising methods to search for new lead compounds, thereby greatly assisting the drug discovery process. Despite considerable progresses made in virtual screening methodologies, available computer programs do not easily address problems such as: structural optimization of compounds in a screening library, receptor flexibility/induced-fit, and accurate prediction of protein-ligand interactions. It has been shown that structural optimization of chemical compounds and that post-docking optimization in multi-step structure-based virtual screening approaches help to further improve the overall efficiency of the methods. To address some of these points, we developed the program AMMOS for refining both, the 3D structures of the small molecules present in chemical libraries and the predicted receptor-ligand complexes through allowing partial to full atom flexibility through molecular mechanics optimization. Results The program AMMOS carries out an automatic procedure that allows for the structural refinement of compound collections and energy minimization of protein-ligand complexes using the open source program AMMP. The performance of our package was evaluated by comparing the structures of small chemical entities minimized by AMMOS with those minimized with the Tripos and MMFF94s force fields. Next, AMMOS was used for full flexible minimization of protein-ligands complexes obtained from a mutli-step virtual screening. Enrichment studies of the selected pre-docked complexes containing 60% of the initially added inhibitors were carried out with or without final AMMOS minimization on two protein targets having different binding pocket properties. AMMOS was able to improve the enrichment after the pre-docking stage with 40 to 60% of the initially added active compounds found in the top 3% to 5% of the entire compound collection. Conclusion The open source AMMOS

  7. mHealth Tool for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Latinos in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Abujarad, Fuad; Vaca, Federico E.

    2015-01-01

    Latino drinkers experience a disparate number of negative health and social consequences. Emergency Department Alcohol Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (ED-SBIRT) is viable and effective at reducing harmful and hazardous drinking. However, barriers (e.g. readily available language translators, provider time burden, resources) to broad implementation remain and account for a major lag in adherence to national guidelines. We describe our approach to the design of a patient-centered bilingual Web-based mobile health ED-SBIRT App that could be integrated into a clinically complex ED environment and used regularly to provide ED-SBIRT for Spanish speaking patients. PMID:26844234

  8. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups. PMID:24563138

  9. Screening for Alcohol Risk in Predominantly Hispanic Youths: Positive Rates and Behavioral Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaka, Joe; Salaiz, Rebekah A.; Morales-Monks, Stormy; Thompson, Sharon; McKinnon, Sarah; O'Rourke, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between CAGE alcohol risk scores and predisposing factors for alcohol use, current alcohol use, and behavioral consequences in a large sample of secondary students. Students completed the CAGE, measures of demographics, potential predisposing factors, and consequences of alcohol use. More than 18% of…

  10. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  11. The feasibility and cost of neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure by measuring phosphatidylethanol in dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Savich, Renate D.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Cano, Sandra; Annett, Robert D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Garg, Mahek; Goff, Chelsea; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is required as a diagnostic criterion for the majority of children adversely affected by PAE who do not manifest the physical features associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A number of ethanol biomarkers have been used to assess PAE, often with suboptimal results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and cost of PAE screening in newborns by measuring phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) cards. Methods The feasibility of collecting an additional DBS card during routine newborn screening and the background prevalence of PAE were evaluated in a de-identified sample of newborn children delivered at the University of New Mexico Hospital. Electronic orders to collect DBS cards from newborns who continue to bleed after the routine newborn screen, glucose or hematocrit testing were initiated for all infants delivered during a 4-week timeframe. Specimens were sent to a contract laboratory for PEth analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A cost analysis was conducted to compare the cost of PAE screening by PEth in DBS vs. PEth in conventional blood specimens and by meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). Results From 230 collected cards, 201 (87.4%) had at least one full blood spot (amount sufficient for PEth analysis), and 6.5% had PEth >20ng/mL indicative of potential PAE in late pregnancy. PAE screening by PEth in DBS is logistically simpler and less expensive compared to two other screening approaches. Conclusions These results indicate that screening for PAE in DBS cards is a feasible procedure and that a majority of infants have enough blood after the routine heel prick to fill an additional card. Moreover, screening by PEth analysis from DBS cards is cost-efficient. The acceptability of such screening by parents and corresponding ethical issues remain to be investigated. PMID:23421919

  12. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders associated with reproductive cyclicity in women: advances in screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hall, Elise; Steiner, Meir

    2015-06-01

    Female-specific psychiatric illness including premenstrual dysphoria, perinatal depression, and psychopathology related to the perimenopausal period are often underdiagnosed and treated. These conditions can negatively affect the quality of life for women and their families. The development of screening tools has helped guide our understanding of these conditions. There is a wide disparity in the methods, definitions, and tools used in studies relevant to female-specific psychiatric illness. As a result, there is no consensus on one tool that is most appropriate for use in a research or clinical setting. In reviewing this topic, we hope to highlight the evolution of various tools as they have built on preexisting instruments and to identify the psychometric properties and clinical applicability of available tools. It would be valuable for researchers to reach a consensus on a core set of screening instruments specific to female psychopathology to gain consistency within and between clinical settings. PMID:26102476

  13. Streptomyces: A Screening Tool for Bacterial Cell Division Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Charul; Tocheva, Elitza I.; McAuley, Scott; Craney, Arryn; Jensen, Grant J.; Nodwell, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Cell division is essential for spore formation but not for viability in the filamentous streptomycetes bacteria. Failure to complete cell division instead blocks spore formation, a phenotype that can be visualized by the absence of gray (in Streptomyces coelicolor) and green (in Streptomyces venezuelae) spore-associated pigmentation. Despite the lack of essentiality, the streptomycetes divisome is similar to that of other prokaryotes. Therefore, the chemical inhibitors of sporulation in model streptomycetes may interfere with the cell division in rod-shaped bacteria as well. To test this, we investigated 196 compounds that inhibit sporulation in S. coelicolor. We show that 19 of these compounds cause filamentous growth in Bacillus subtilis, consistent with impaired cell division. One of the compounds is a DNA-damaging agent and inhibits cell division by activating the SOS response. The remaining 18 act independently of known stress responses and may therefore act on the divisome or on divisome positioning and stability. Three of the compounds (Fil-1, Fil-2, and Fil-3) confer distinct cell division defects on B. subtilis. They also block B. subtilis sporulation, which is mechanistically unrelated to the sporulation pathway of streptomycetes but is also dependent on the divisome. We discuss ways in which these differing phenotypes can be used in screens for cell division inhibitors. PMID:25256667

  14. Public health tools for holding self-regulators accountable: lessons from the alcohol experience.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H

    2011-05-01

    Self-regulation is a common strategy used by industries to avoid or supplement statutory health and safety regulation of their products and practices. The public health experience with self-regulation in the alcohol industry provides methods and lessons relevant to health educators and advocates working in other public health fields. Methods for and examples and limitations of monitoring content and placement of marketing messages are described. The alcohol experience shows that, although self-regulation has many drawbacks in terms of protecting the health of the public, there are tools available for valid monitoring of self-regulated activities that, when combined with aggressive dissemination of results to media and policy makers, can make self-regulation more accountable and build an evidence base for effective measures to be taken. PMID:21518922

  15. Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST): a report from the GRAPPA 2009 annual meeting.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Philip S

    2011-03-01

    Patients with psoriasis attending general practitioner and dermatology clinics may complain about their joints, but it may be difficult for the nonrheumatologist to distinguish psoriatic arthritis (PsA) from other forms of arthritis. A screening tool for PsA would therefore be useful to both general practitioners and dermatologists and help identify patients for further evaluation by a rheumatologist. Although several screening tools have been developed, the Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) has the advantage of simplicity and ease of use. This new instrument consists of 5 simple questions supported by the addition of a manikin for patient markup. During development, the questionnaire has shown a sensitivity of 0.94 and a specificity of 0.78. Further validation of this and the other questionnaires is now required. A "head to head" study of the PEST, ToPAS (Toronto Psoriatic Arthritis Screening questionnaire), and PASE (Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation) tools is planned in a secondary-care population with psoriasis. This study is important not only to confirm the comparative performance of the instruments, but also to confirm the high figures for sensitivity in a secondary-care population. PMID:21362785

  16. Partitioning of Dietary Metal Intake--A Metal Dietary Exposure Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nga L; Barraj, Leila M; Scrafford, Carolyn; Bi, Xiaoyu; Troxell, Terry

    2015-05-01

    Detection of heavy metals at trace or higher levels in foods and food ingredients is not unexpected given the widespread unavoidable presence of several metals in nature, coupled with advancement in analytical methods and lowering limits of detection. To assist risk managers with a rapid risk assessment when facing these situations, a metal dietary exposure screening tool (MDEST) was developed. The tool uses food intake rates based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 consumption data for the U.S. population two+ years and up and for infants age six months to tool has data entry fields for detected concentrations and includes algorithms that combine metal levels with consumption data to generate screening-level exposure estimates, which it then compares to MDEST assigned default portions of the exposure limits in the risk characterization module. As a screening-level tool, the risk assessment output is intentionally conservative, public health protective, and useful for a rapid assessment to set aside issues that are not of concern. Issues that cannot be readily resolved using this screening tool will need to be further evaluated with more refined input data that are tailored to the specific question or situation under consideration. PMID:25545420

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in C57BL/6 Mice Detected through Proteomics Screening of the Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Susmita; Turner, Delano; Singh, Reetu; Ruest, L. Bruno; Pierce, William M.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a severe consequence of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, is associated with craniofacial defects, mental retardation, and stunted growth. Previous studies in C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice provide evidence that alcohol-induced pathogenesis follows early changes in gene expression within specific molecular pathways in the embryonic headfold. Whereas the former (B6J) pregnancies carry a high-risk for dysmorphogenesis following maternal exposure to 2.9 g/kg alcohol (two injections spaced 4.0 h apart on gestation day 8), the latter (B6N) pregnancies carry a low-risk for malformations. The present study used this murine model to screen amniotic fluid for biomarkers that could potentially discriminate between FAS-positive and FAS-negative pregnancies. METHODS B6J and B6N litters were treated with alcohol (exposed) or saline (control) on day 8 of gestation. Amniotic fluid aspirated on day 17 (n = 6 replicate litters per group) was subjected to trypsin digestion for analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption–time of flight mass spectrometry with the aid of denoising algorithms, statistical testing, and classification methods. RESULTS We identified several peaks in the proteomics screen that were reduced consistently and specifically in exposed B6J litters. Preliminary characterization by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multidimensional protein identification mapped the reduced peaks to alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The predictive strength of AFP deficiency as a biomarker for FAS-positive litters was confirmed by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. CONCLUSIONS These findings in genetically susceptible mice support clinical observations in maternal serum that implicate a decrease in AFP levels following prenatal alcohol damage. PMID:18240165

  18. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  19. Are We There Yet? A Review of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Implementation Fidelity Tools and Proficiency Checklists.

    PubMed

    Reho, Kaitlyn; Agley, Jon; DeSalle, Mallori; Gassman, Ruth A

    2016-08-01

    Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for alcohol is an evidence-based prevention practice designed to reduce frequency and severity of alcohol misuse. Many studies have validated the effectiveness of SBI for reducing levels of alcohol misuse, especially in primary medical care. Additional research continues to be conducted in terms of the effectiveness of including referral to treatment (SBIRT) and addressing illicit drug use and prescription drug abuse. Importantly, cross-comparison among SBIRT programs is difficult because evaluative processes vary widely between programs, which themselves often are substantively different. In this brief report, we utilized cross-comparison techniques to elucidate similarities and differences among SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. In early 2014, researchers completed a systematic review of SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists published or made available from 2004 through April 2014; in total, eleven instruments were located and assessed. The analytic methodology consisted of creating a matrix with key SBIRT components identified from the literature prior to assessment. Three researchers populated the matrix with the identified fidelity tools and proficiency checklists before assessing each tool for the presence or absence of each component. The level of agreement between the researchers was checked for inter-rater reliability using free-marginal Kappa statistics. The results of the matrix analysis suggested heterogeneity among existing SBIRT fidelity tools and proficiency checklists. Importantly, it was not the case that this lack of concordance reflected poorly on any given fidelity tool. Rather, it emphasized the multi-partite and variable nature of SBIRT programs. It was not evident that a single standardized SBIRT fidelity tool or proficiency checklist could appropriately determine the level of fidelity to SBIRT for all programs. Suggestions for next steps in SBIRT fidelity research are provided

  20. A feasibility study of short message service text messaging as a surveillance tool for alcohol consumption and vehicle for interventions in university students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Practitioners who come into contact with the intoxicated, such as those in unscheduled care, often have limited resources to provide structured interventions. There is therefore a need for cost-effective alcohol interventions requiring minimal input. This study assesses the barriers, acceptability and validity of text messaging to collect daily alcohol consumption data and explores the feasibility of a text-delivered intervention in an exploratory randomised controlled trial. Methods Study I. Participants (n = 82) completed the initial online screening survey and those eligible were asked each day, for 157 days via text message, to reply with the number of alcohol units consumed the previous day. Analyses compared standard measures of hazardous consumption with self-report alcohol use. Attrition and sampling biases were examined. Study I included secondary exploratory analyses using data from 70 participants to determine associations between events (including Christmas and other celebratory occasions) and consumption. Study I further included the thematic analysis of semi-structured interview data and assessed the feasibility of and barriers to surveillance and interventions delivered through text messaging. Developing findings from Study I, Study II developed an exploratory randomised control trial that delivered a single message on monthly alcohol expenditure in order to assess effect size and test generalisability. Results Self-report alcohol consumption data was significantly associated with FAST and AUDIT scores. Attrition from the study was not associated with greater alcohol use. Greater alcohol use was observed on Fridays, Saturdays and Wednesdays as were notable celebratory events. Interview data indicated that text messaging was acceptable to participants and preferred over email and web-based methods. The exploratory randomised controlled trial suggested that a simple text delivered intervention might be effective in eliciting a reduction in

  1. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  2. Eating Disorders in Graduate Students: Exploring the SCOFF Questionnaire as a Simple Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sarah C.; Lyons, John; Bonner, Julia

    2005-01-01

    The results of several studies have established the validity of the SCOFF questionnaire (a 5-question screening tool for eating disorders), but researchers need to explore further replicability using the US version in the graduate school population. In this study, the authors asked 335 graduate students attending the Northwestern student health…

  3. Using SWPBS Expectations as a Screening Tool to Predict Behavioral Risk in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mack D.; Davis, John L.; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; Fogarty, Melissa Shea

    2014-01-01

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) focuses on promoting social competence through the establishment of behavior expectations that are explicitly taught and reinforced by all teachers across all settings. This study investigated the validity of using adherence to SWPBS behavior expectations as a screening tool for predicting behavior…

  4. Sudomotor function assessment as a screening tool for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Eranki, V G; Santosh, R; Rajitha, K; Pillai, A; Sowmya, P; Dupin, J; Calvet, J H

    2013-09-01

    Sudoscan, a non invasive, quick, and simple method to measure sweat function, was evaluated as a screening tool for microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. AUC of the ROC curve for detection of microvascular complication was 0.75 for an autonomic risk score, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 61%. PMID:23880037

  5. Further Investigation of Findings Reported for the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool--Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Calvin M.; Barbaree, Howard E.; Harkins, Leigh; Peacock, Edward J.; Arenovich, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Among a number of widely used risk assessment instruments with adult sexual offenders, the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) has been subject to relatively few evaluation studies. Only two independent research groups have published replication studies in the peer-reviewed literature with data not provided by the MnSOST-R's…

  6. PLASMA PROTEIN PROFILING AS A HIGH THROUGHPUT TOOL FOR CHEMICAL SCREENING USING A SMALL FISH MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hudson, R. Tod, Michael J. Hemmer, Kimberly A. Salinas, Sherry S. Wilkinson, James Watts, James T. Winstead, Peggy S. Harris, Amy Kirkpatrick and Calvin C. Walker. In press. Plasma Protein Profiling as a High Throughput Tool for Chemical Screening Using a Small Fish Model (Abstra...

  7. Dietary Patterns are similar using a population specific diet screening tool and multiple 24-hour recalls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but requires comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS) cohort. Thi...

  8. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Depression Screening Tools among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailey, Sarah H.

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the validity and the sensitivity and specificity of depression screening tools among adults with intellectual and disabilities (ID). Subjects (N = 75) were interviewed with the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the Glasgow Depression Scale for People with a Learning Disability (GDS-LD) and also completed a clinical…

  9. [Evaluation of a tool for developmental disorder screening in 4-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Pouzet, P; Collignon, A; Pouthier, P F; Millereau, C; Mouton, A; Sillière, J

    1997-06-01

    With the aim of helping physicians working in a "Mother and Infant Protection Service" (PMI) in their mission of children's development difficulties screening, authors tried to assess performances of a clinical tool including parental informations and standardized tests. The whole four years old children going at school in a canton of Calvados department were independently examined by a PMI doctor using the tool to be estimated and by a specialized service working from a beforehand established protocol. For the language disorders on the one hand and the adaptation on the other hand, this evaluation shows a significant correlation between the PMI screening and the specialists one's: the sensitivity of the PMI examination is about 70% for those two types of difficulties with a positive predictive value respectively 28% and 57%. However the tool appears less reliable for the psychomotor disorders screening: only one quarter of the children who require a specialized investigation about these problems have been detected by the PMI screening. A filing and a selection of the questionnaire items should permit to improve the efficiency of this tool. PMID:9417378

  10. Dietary patterns are similar in multiple 24-hour recalls and a dietary screening tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults but are usually derived by comprehensive dietary assessment methods. We designed a dietary screening tool (DST) to assess DP using a population-specific data-based approach from a cohort of the Geisinger R...

  11. Preliminary Validation of a Screening Tool for Adolescent Panic Disorder in Pediatric Primary Care Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen, Alexander H.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Hershorin, Eugene R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the validity of a brief screening tool for adolescent panic disorder (PD) in a primary care setting. A total of 165 participants (ages 12-17 years) seen in two pediatric primary care clinics completed the Autonomic Nervous System Questionnaire (ANS; Stein et al. in Psychosomatic Med 61:359-364, 40). A subset of those screening…

  12. Health on the Web: Randomised Controlled Trial of Online Screening and Brief Alcohol Intervention Delivered in a Workplace Setting

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Freemantle, Nick; Linke, Stuart; Hunter, Rachael; Murray, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion) annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. Methods and Findings This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees). 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39%) scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse) and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659), or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671). Participants were mostly male (75%), with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%). Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066) of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome) (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI −4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30)), AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm) and health utility (EQ-5D). Conclusions There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this organisation

  13. The m/r SEBT: development of a functional screening tool for dance educators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Batson, Glenna

    2014-12-01

    Dance screenings provide direct and indirect data bearing on a dancer's readiness to undertake rigorous physical training. Rarely, however, are dance teachers able to translate results from these screenings into practical technical knowledge. In this article, an example of a preseason assessment tool is presented that translates scientific findings into useful information for dance teachers conducting auditions. Designed as a baseline assessment of the dancer during auditioning, the m/r SEBT tool helps teachers stratify technical levels, identify injury risk, and consequently assist with immediate and appropriate recommendations for supplemental training and//or follow-up with a medical professional. The tool evolved out of more than 3 years of collaborative, multisite research utilizing the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) as a dynamic test of balance. Modifications were made to render the test more dance-specific and to increase balance challenges. Within the 3-year period, more than 100 dancers were tested in four sites, two in the United States and two in the United Kingdom. Despite the relatively large collective sample size, neither the original SEBT nor its modifications (m/r SEBT) held robust face or content validity as balance screens. What did emerge, however, were qualitative criteria that the authors organized into a feasible assessment tool for preseason auditions. While this tool awaits further validation, its current evolution helps serve as a bridge between dance teachers' clinical and practical knowledge. PMID:25433257

  14. Study protocol for screening and diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among young people sentenced to detention in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Rochelle E; Marriott, Rhonda; Pestell, Carmela; Zubrick, Stephen R; Rainsford, Candice; Walker, Noni; Fitzpatrick, James P; Freeman, Jacinta; Kippin, Natalie; Safe, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause lifelong disability, including physical, cognitive and behavioural deficits, known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Among individuals with FASD, engagement with justice services is common. Little is known about the prevalence of FASD among young people engaged with the Australian justice system. This study aims to establish FASD prevalence among sentenced young people in detention in Western Australia (WA), and use the findings to develop a screening tool for use among young people entering detention. Translation of these results will guide the management and support of young people in detention and will have significant implications on the lives of young people with FASD and the future of Australian youth justice services. Methods and analysis Any sentenced young person in WA aged 10–17 years 11 months is eligible to participate. Young people are assessed for FASD by a multidisciplinary team. Standardised assessment tools refined for the Australian context are used, acknowledging the language and social complexities involved. Australian diagnostic guidelines for FASD will be applied. Information is obtained from young people, responsible adults, teachers and custodial officers. Individualised results and management plans for each young person are communicated to the young person and responsible adult. Prevalence of FASD will be reported and multivariate methods used to identify variables most predictive of FASD and to optimise the predictive value of screening. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been granted by the WA Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee, University of WA Human Research Ethics Committee, Department of Corrective Services, and Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Anonymised findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed manuscripts, presentations and the media. Extensive consultation with stakeholders (including government agencies, detention centre staff

  15. Initial Validation of a Brief Pictorial Measure of Caregiver Aggression: The Family Aggression Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Charlotte A M; McCrory, Eamon J; Viding, Essi; Holden, George W; Barker, Edward D

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we report on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Family Aggression Screening Tool (FAST). The FAST is a brief, self-report tool that makes use of pictorial representations to assess experiences of caregiver aggression, including direct victimization and exposure to intimate partner violence. It is freely available on request and takes under 5 minutes to complete. Psychometric properties of the FAST were investigated in a sample of 168 high-risk youth aged 16 to 24 years. For validation purposes, maltreatment history was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; levels of current psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Internal consistency of the FAST was good. Convergent validity was supported by strong and discriminative associations with corresponding Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscales. The FAST also correlated significantly with multi-informant reports of psychiatric symptomatology. Initial findings provide support for the reliability and validity of the FAST as a brief, pictorial screening tool of caregiver aggression. PMID:26085494

  16. Designed amyloid beta peptide fibril - a tool for high-throughput screening of fibril inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Gunnar T; Ouberai, Myriam; Dumy, Pascal; Garcia, Julian

    2007-11-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) fibril formation is widely believed to be the causative event of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Therapeutic approaches are therefore in development that target various sites in the production and aggregation of Abeta. Herein we present a high-throughput screening tool to generate novel hit compounds that block Abeta fibril formation. This tool is an application for our fibril model (Abeta(16-37)Y(20)K(22)K(24))(4), which is a covalent assembly of four Abeta fragments. With this tool, screening studies are complete within one hour, as opposed to days with native Abeta(1-40). A Z' factor of 0.84+/-0.03 was determined for fibril formation and inhibition, followed by the reporter molecule thioflavin T. Herein we also describe the analysis of a broad range of reported inhibitors and non-inhibitors of Abeta fibril formation to test the validity of the system. PMID:17876751

  17. The East London glaucoma prediction score: web-based validation of glaucoma risk screening tool

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Cook; Benjamin, Longo-Mbenza

    2013-01-01

    AIM It is difficult for Optometrists and General Practitioners to know which patients are at risk. The East London glaucoma prediction score (ELGPS) is a web based risk calculator that has been developed to determine Glaucoma risk at the time of screening. Multiple risk factors that are available in a low tech environment are assessed to provide a risk assessment. This is extremely useful in settings where access to specialist care is difficult. Use of the calculator is educational. It is a free web based service. Data capture is user specific. METHOD The scoring system is a web based questionnaire that captures and subsequently calculates the relative risk for the presence of Glaucoma at the time of screening. Three categories of patient are described: Unlikely to have Glaucoma; Glaucoma Suspect and Glaucoma. A case review methodology of patients with known diagnosis is employed to validate the calculator risk assessment. RESULTS Data from the patient records of 400 patients with an established diagnosis has been captured and used to validate the screening tool. The website reports that the calculated diagnosis correlates with the actual diagnosis 82% of the time. Biostatistics analysis showed: Sensitivity = 88%; Positive predictive value = 97%; Specificity = 75%. CONCLUSION Analysis of the first 400 patients validates the web based screening tool as being a good method of screening for the at risk population. The validation is ongoing. The web based format will allow a more widespread recruitment for different geographic, population and personnel variables. PMID:23550097

  18. Adolescent reactions to icon-driven response modes in a tablet-based health screening tool.

    PubMed

    Blander, Eitan; Saewyc, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Increasingly popular touch-screen electronic tablets offer clinics a new medium for collecting adolescent health screening data in the waiting area before visits, but there has been limited evaluation of interactive response modes. This study investigated the clarity, comprehensibility, and utility of icon-driven and gestural response functions employed in one such screening tool, TickiT. We conducted cognitive processing interviews with 30 adolescents from Vancouver (aged 14-20 years, 60% female, 30% English as a second language) as they completed the TickiT survey. Participants used seven different interactive functions to respond to questions across 30 slides, while being prompted to articulate their thoughts and reactions. The audio-recorded, transcribed interviews were analyzed for evidence of comprehension, nuances in response choices, and youth interest in the modes. Participants were quite receptive to the icon response modes. Across demographics and cultural backgrounds, they indicated question prompts were clear, response choices appropriate, and response modes intuitive. Most said they found the format engaging and would be more inclined to fill out such a screening tool than a paper-and-pencil form in a clinical setting. Given the positive responses and ready understanding of these modes among youth, clinicians may want to consider interactive icon-driven approaches for screening. PMID:25851558

  19. Screening tools for psychiatry disorders in cancer setting: Caution when using.

    PubMed

    Osório, Flávia Lima; Lima, Manuela Polidoro; Chagas, Marcos Hortes N

    2015-10-30

    This study evaluated sensitivity/specificity of self-report instruments for the screening of psychiatric disorders/symptoms in cancer outpatients like: current/past major depression, dysthymia, alcohol abuse and dependence, tobacco abuse and dependence, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, current mania, delusion and hallucination. First, 1384 patients responded to several self-assessment instruments. Then, 400 patients, were then interviewed by telephone to confirm the presence/absence of psychiatric diagnosis. The ROC analyses showed moderate/excellent specificity (Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4)=0.75-0.88, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7)=0.77, Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST)=0.83-0.86, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)=0.72, Brief version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-Panic Disorder Module (Brief-PD)=0.75, and Self Reporting Questionnaire - psychosis items=(0.68-0.91) but low sensitivity (PHQ-4=0.53-0.54, GAD-7=0.52, FAST=0.48-0.58, FTND=0.97, and Brief-PD=0.66)). These results suggest that sensitivity indicators should be used with caution in the cancer clinical setting. PMID:26275706

  20. Improving Alcohol Screening for College Students: Screening for Alcohol Misuse amongst College Students with a Simple Modification to the CAGE Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Purcell; El-Sabawi, Taleed; Cangin, Causenge

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To improve the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye opener) questionnaire's predictive accuracy in screening college students. Participants: The sample consisted of 219 midwestern university students who self-administered a confidential survey. Methods: Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, receiver operating…

  1. Mineotaur: a tool for high-content microscopy screen sharing and visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Antal, Bálint; Chessel, Anatole; Carazo Salas, Rafael E

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput/high-content microscopy-based screens are powerful tools for functional genomics, yielding intracellular information down to the level of single-cells for thousands of genotypic conditions. However, accessing their data requires specialized knowledge and most often that data is no longer analyzed after initial publication. We describe Mineotaur ( http://www.mineotaur.org ), a open-source, downloadable web application that allows easy online sharing and interactive visualisation of large screen datasets, facilitating their dissemination and further analysis, and enhancing their impact. PMID:26679168

  2. Review of nutritional screening and assessment tools and clinical outcomes in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Zhang, Haifeng; Lin, Zheng; Li, Xinli; Kong, Xiangqin; Sun, Gouzhen

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that undernutrition as defined using multidimensional nutritional evaluation tools may affect clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF). The evidence supporting this correlation is unclear. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review to critically appraise the use of multidimensional evaluation tools in the prediction of clinical outcomes in HF. We performed descriptive analyses of all identified articles involving qualitative analyses. We used STATA to conduct meta-analyses when at least three studies that tested the same type of nutritional assessment or screening tools and used the same outcome were identified. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to validate our positive results. We identified 17 articles with qualitative analyses and 11 with quantitative analysis after comprehensive literature searching and screening. We determined that the prevalence of malnutrition is high in HF (range 16-90 %), particularly in advanced and acute decompensated HF (approximate range 75-90 %). Undernutrition as identified by multidimensional evaluation tools may be significantly associated with hospitalization, length of stay and complications and is particularly strongly associated with high mortality. The meta-analysis revealed that compared with other tools, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scores were the strongest predictors of mortality in HF [HR (4.32, 95 % CI 2.30-8.11)]. Our results remained reliable after conducting sensitivity analyses. The prevalence of malnutrition is high in HF, particularly in advanced and acute decompensated HF. Moreover, undernutrition as identified by multidimensional evaluation tools is significantly associated with unfavourable prognoses and high mortality in HF. PMID:26920682

  3. Generation of orientation tools for automated zebrafish screening assays using desktop 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The zebrafish has been established as the main vertebrate model system for whole organism screening applications. However, the lack of consistent positioning of zebrafish embryos within wells of microtiter plates remains an obstacle for the comparative analysis of images acquired in automated screening assays. While technical solutions to the orientation problem exist, dissemination is often hindered by the lack of simple and inexpensive ways of distributing and duplicating tools. Results Here, we provide a cost effective method for the production of 96-well plate compatible zebrafish orientation tools using a desktop 3D printer. The printed tools enable the positioning and orientation of zebrafish embryos within cavities formed in agarose. Their applicability is demonstrated by acquiring lateral and dorsal views of zebrafish embryos arrayed within microtiter plates using an automated screening microscope. This enables the consistent visualization of morphological phenotypes and reporter gene expression patterns. Conclusions The designs are refined versions of previously demonstrated devices with added functionality and strongly reduced production costs. All corresponding 3D models are freely available and digital design can be easily shared electronically. In combination with the increasingly widespread usage of 3D printers, this provides access to the developed tools to a wide range of zebrafish users. Finally, the design files can serve as templates for other additive and subtractive fabrication methods. PMID:24886511

  4. Glycine and GABAA Ultra-Sensitive Ethanol Receptors as Novel Tools for Alcohol and Brain Research

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H.; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Perkins, Daya I.; Alkana, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABAARs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:25245406

  5. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  6. Development and application of screening tools for biodegradation in water-sediment systems and soil.

    PubMed

    Junker, Thomas; Coors, Anja; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-02-15

    Two new screening-test systems for biodegradation in water-sediment systems (WSST; Water-Sediment Screening Tool) and soil (SST; Soil Screening Tool) were developed in analogy with the water-only test system OECD 301C (MITI-test). The test systems could be applied successfully to determine reproducible experimental mineralization rates and kinetics on the screening-test level for fifteen organic chemicals in water (MITI), water-sediment (WSST) and soil (SST). Substance-specific differences were observed for mineralization compared among the three test systems. Based on mineralization rate and mineralization half-life, the fifteen compounds could be grouped into four biodegradation categories: substances with high mineralization and a half-life <28 days in (1) all three test systems, (2) only in the MITI test and in the WSST, (3) only in the SST, and (4) none of the test systems. The observed differences between the MITI results and the WSST and SST biodegradation rates of the compounds do not reflect their (reversible) sorption into organic matter in terms of experimental K(oc) values and log D values for the relevant pH range. Regarding mineralization kinetics we recommend to determine the lag-phase, mineralization half-life and mineralization rate using a 5-parameter logistic regression for degradation curves with and without lag-phase. Experimental data obtained with the WSST and the SST could be verified by showing good agreement with biodegradation data from databases and literature for the majority of compounds tested. Thus, these new screening-tools for water-sediment and soil are considered suitable to determine sound and reliable quantitative mineralization data including mineralization kinetics in addition to the water-only ready biodegradability tests according to OECD 301. PMID:26774960

  7. Accuracy of McMonnies Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Chinese Ophthalmic Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiwei; Tang, Zheng; Kang, Mei; Deng, Qinglong; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the accuracy of the McMonnies questionnaire (MQ) as a screening tool for dry eye (DE) among Chinese ophthalmic outpatients. Methods We recruited 27718 cases from 94 hospitals (research centers), randomly selected from 45 cities in 23 provinces from July to November in 2013. Only symptomatic outpatients were included and they were in a high risk of DE. Outpatients meeting the criteria filled out questionnaires and then underwent clinical examinations by qualified medical practitioners. We mainly evaluated sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) to evaluate the accuracy of the questionnaire in the diagnosis of dry eye. Results Of all the subjects included in the study, sensitivity, specificity, and DOR were 0.77, 0.86 and 20.6, respectively. AUC was 0.865 with a 95% CI (0.861, 0.869). The prevalence of DE among the outpatients claiming “constantly” as the frequency of symptom was over 90%. Scratchiness was a more accurate diagnostic indication than dryness, soreness, grittiness or burning. Different cut points of McMonnies Index (MI) scores can be utilized to optimize the screening results. Conclusions MQ can be an effective screening tool for dry eye. We can take full advantage of MI score during the screening process. PMID:27073922

  8. Prospective performance evaluation of selected common virtual screening tools. Case study: Cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Kaserer, Teresa; Temml, Veronika; Kutil, Zsofia; Vanek, Tomas; Landa, Premysl; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods can be applied in drug development for the identification of novel lead candidates, but also for the prediction of pharmacokinetic properties and potential adverse effects, thereby aiding to prioritize and identify the most promising compounds. In principle, several techniques are available for this purpose, however, which one is the most suitable for a specific research objective still requires further investigation. Within this study, the performance of several programs, representing common virtual screening methods, was compared in a prospective manner. First, we selected top-ranked virtual screening hits from the three methods pharmacophore modeling, shape-based modeling, and docking. For comparison, these hits were then additionally predicted by external pharmacophore- and 2D similarity-based bioactivity profiling tools. Subsequently, the biological activities of the selected hits were assessed in vitro, which allowed for evaluating and comparing the prospective performance of the applied tools. Although all methods performed well, considerable differences were observed concerning hit rates, true positive and true negative hits, and hitlist composition. Our results suggest that a rational selection of the applied method represents a powerful strategy to maximize the success of a research project, tightly linked to its aims. We employed cyclooxygenase as application example, however, the focus of this study lied on highlighting the differences in the virtual screening tool performances and not in the identification of novel COX-inhibitors. PMID:25916906

  9. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Hauser, Sheketha; Rodd, Zachary A.; Liang, Tiebing; Sari, Youssef; McClintick, Jeanette; Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein we sought to place the P rat’s behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this paper discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  10. A Genetic Animal Model of Alcoholism for Screening Medications to Treat Addiction.

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Hauser, S; Rodd, Z A; Liang, T; Sari, Y; McClintick, J; Rahman, S; Engleman, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present up-to-date pharmacological, genetic, and behavioral findings from the alcohol-preferring P rat and summarize similar past work. Behaviorally, the focus will be on how the P rat meets criteria put forth for a valid animal model of alcoholism with a highlight on its use as an animal model of polysubstance abuse, including alcohol, nicotine, and psychostimulants. Pharmacologically and genetically, the focus will be on the neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems that have received the most attention: cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, corticotrophin releasing hormone, opioid, and neuropeptide Y. Herein, we sought to place the P rat's behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes, and to some extent its genotype, in the context of the clinical literature. After reviewing the findings thus far, this chapter discusses future directions for expanding the use of this genetic animal model of alcoholism to identify molecular targets for treating drug addiction in general. PMID:27055615

  11. Consistence and discrepancy of neuropathic pain screening tools DN4 and ID-Pain.

    PubMed

    Padua, L; Briani, C; Truini, A; Aprile, I; Bouhassirà, D; Cruccu, G; Jann, S; Nobile-Orazio, E; Pazzaglia, C; Morini, A; Mondelli, M; Ciaramitaro, P; Cavaletti, G; Cocito, D; Fazio, R; Santoro, L; Galeotti, F; Carpo, M; Plasmati, R; Benedetti, L; Schenone, A

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a subjective condition that cannot be objectively measured; for this reason, self patient-perspective is crucial. Recently, several screening tools to discriminate between nociceptive and neuropathic pain have been developed. We aimed at assessing the consistence and discrepancy of two widely used screening tools, The Douleur Neuropathique 4 (DN4) and the 6-item questionnaire (ID-Pain), by comparing their ability in discriminating neuropathic from nociceptive pain. DN4 and ID-Pain were administered to 392 Italian patients attending 16 outpatient services for peripheral nerve diseases. Based on medical history, clinical findings and diagnostic tools, patients were divided into two groups (neuropathic and nociceptive). Globally, ID-Pain identified neuropathic pain in 60 % of patients (38 % probable, 22 % likely). Interestingly also DN4 diagnosed neuropathic pain in 60 % of cases. A discrepancy was observed in 16 % of cases. DN4 and ID-Pain resulted to be highly interrelated in the identification of neuropathic pain. Sensitivity of DN4 was 82 % and specificity was 81 %, while ID-Pain (considering both probable and likely groups) showed sensitivity 78 % and specificity 74 %. Reliable screening tools for neuropathic pain are well related between them; hence, they are available for researchers and clinicians who may choose the most appropriate for their activity. Since the gold standard for the diagnosis and treatment of neuropathic pain cannot do without a neurological evaluation, perhaps DN4, that includes physician objective measures, may help reducing the percentage of dubious cases. Conversely, when needing a more agile tool (not needing a physician) ID-Pain may be adopted. PMID:22434411

  12. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha; Larsen, David A

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  13. Development of a liquefaction hazard screening tool for caltrans bridge sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, K.-L.; Bott, J.D.J.; Woods, M.O.; McGuire, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a liquefaction hazard screening tool for the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) that is being used to evaluate the liquefaction hazard to approximately 13,000 bridge sites in California. Because of the large number of bridge sites to be evaluated, we developed a tool that makes use of parameters not typically considered in site-specific liquefaction investigations. We assessed geologic, topographic, seismic hazard, and subsurface conditions at about 100 sites of past liquefaction in California. Among the parameters we found common to many of these sites are: (a) low elevations, (b) proximity to a water body, and (c) presence of geologically youthful deposits or artificial fill materials. The nature of the study necessitated the use of readily available data, preferably datasets that are consistent across the state. The screening tool we provided to Caltrans makes use of the following parameters: (1) proximity to a water body, (2) whether the bridge crosses a water body, (3) the age of site geologic materials and the environment in which the materials were deposited, as discerned from available digital geologic maps, (4) probabilistic shaking estimates, (5) the site elevation, (6) information from available liquefaction hazard maps [covering the 9-county San Francisco Bay Area and Ventura County] and California Geological Survey (CGS) Zones of Required Investigation. For bridge sites at which subsurface boring data were available (from CGS' existing database), we calculated Displacement Potential Index values using a methodology developed by Allison Faris and Jiaer Wu. Caltrans' staff will use this hazard-screening tool, along with other tools focused on bridges and foundations, to prioritize site-specific investigations. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  14. Nutrition Screening Tools and the Prediction of Clinical Outcomes among Chinese Hospitalized Gastrointestinal Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Wei; Bruening, Kay Stearns; Raj, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are widely used screening tools but have not been compared in a Chinese population. We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study which included 332 hospitalized gastrointestinal disease patients, collected by the Gastrointestinal department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) in 2008. Results of NRS-2002 and SGA screening tools, complications, length of stay (LOS), cost, and death were measured. The agreement between the tools was assessed via Kappa (κ) statistics. The performance of NRS-2002 and SGA in predicting LOS and cost was assessed via linear regression. The complications and death prediction of tools was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. NRS-2002 and SGA identified nutrition risk at 59.0% and 45.2% respectively. Moderate agreement (κ >0.50) between the two tools was found among all age groups except individuals aged ≤ 20, which only slight agreement was found (κ = 0.087). NRS-2002 (R square 0.130) and SGA (R square 0.140) did not perform differently in LOS prediction. The cost prediction of NRS-2002 (R square 0.198) and SGA (R square 0.190) were not significantly different. There was no difference between NRS-2002 (infectious complications: area under ROC (AUROC) = 0.615, death: AUROC = 0.810) and SGA (infectious complications: AUROC = 0.600, death: AUROC = 0.846) in predicting infectious complication and death, but NRS-2002 (0.738) seemed to perform better than SGA (0.552) in predicting non-infectious complications. The risk of malnutrition among patients was high. NRS-2002 and SGA have similar capacity to predict LOS, cost, infectious complications and death, but NRS-2002 performed better in predicting non-infectious complications. PMID:27490480

  15. Prognostic value of nutritional screening tools for patients scheduled for cardiac surgery†

    PubMed Central

    Lomivorotov, Vladimir V.; Efremov, Sergey M.; Boboshko, Vladimir A.; Nikolaev, Dmitry A.; Vedernikov, Pavel E.; Deryagin, Mihail N.; Lomivorotov, Vladimir N.; Karaskov, Alexander M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of different nutritional screening tools in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, with regard to adverse clinical outcome. METHODS This prospective cohort study analysed 1193 adult patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were screened using five nutritional screening tools: Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire (SNAQ). In-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, length of stay in intensive care unit and length of hospitalization were analysed. Multivariate backward logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictive value of the studied screening tools. RESULTS In accordance with univariate analysis, malnutrition detected by SNAQ, MUST, NRS-2002 and MNA was associated with postoperative complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.3–2.4; OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.9 and OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.6). Malnutrition detected by MUST, NRS-2002, MNA and SGA was associated with intensive care unit stay >2 days (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1; OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.7; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.6). Prolonged hospitalization (>20 days) was predicted by SNAQ, MUST and MNA (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1–1.9; OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2–2.2). In accordance with multivariate analysis, only MUST and MNA independently predicted postoperative complications (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3 and OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2). Other independent factors influencing postoperative complications were well-known logistic EuroSCORE (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1–1.1) and the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass in minutes (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1–1.01). CONCLUSIONS MUST and MNA both have independent predictive values with regard to postoperative

  16. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal: Second Generation Education Strategies.

    PubMed

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. PMID:25816126

  17. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  18. Putting the Screen in Screening

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sion Kim; Knight, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is strongly linked to the leading causes of adolescent and adult mortality and health problems, making medical settings such as primary care and emergency departments important venues for addressing alcohol use. Extensive research evidence supports the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (SBIs) in medical settings, but this valuable strategy remains underused, with medical staff citing lack of time and training as major implementation barriers. Technology-based tools may offer a way to improve efficiency and quality of SBI delivery in such settings. This review describes the latest research examining the feasibility and efficacy of computer- or other technology-based alcohol SBI tools in medical settings, as they relate to the following three patient populations: adults (18 years or older); pregnant women; and adolescents (17 years or younger). The small but growing evidence base generally shows strong feasibility and acceptability of technology-based SBI in medical settings. However, evidence for effectiveness in changing alcohol use is limited in this young field. PMID:26259001

  19. Validation of the MINI (DSM IV) Tool for the Assessment of Alcohol Dependence among Young People in Northern Tanzania Using the Alcohol Biomarker Phosphatidylethanol (PEth)

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Joel M.; Helander, Anders; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Weiss, Helen A.; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol dependence section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire (MINI) has not been evaluated in young Africans. We applied the MINI in a cross-sectional study of 202 alcohol users from northern-Tanzania, aged 18–24 years (103 male casual workers and 99 students), and validated it against phophatidylethanol (PEth) at a cut-off suggesting heavy chronic alcohol use (≥0.30 µmol/L). Blood was assayed for PEth (16:0/18:1-subform) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The MINI dependence criteria (≥3 positive responses) were met by 39% participants although their PEth levels were low. Contrary, many young people with high PEth levels were not classified as dependent. The sensitivity of the MINI ranged from 0% to 69% (female students and male workers, respectively) and specificity from 52% to 85% (workers and female students, respectively). The highest AUROC (0.68) occurred with a cut-off of ≥4 positive responses. A modified MINI with three affirmative responses to five questions increased specificity to 92%–97%; however, sensitivity remained low. The performance of the MINI in detecting dependence among young people from northern-Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Specificity was improved using a modified version but sensitivity remained low. An accurate tool for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence is needed for epidemiological and clinical purposes. PMID:26529004

  20. Validation of the MINI (DSM IV) Tool for the Assessment of Alcohol Dependence among Young People in Northern Tanzania Using the Alcohol Biomarker Phosphatidylethanol (PEth).

    PubMed

    Francis, Joel M; Helander, Anders; Kapiga, Saidi H; Weiss, Helen A; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2015-11-01

    The alcohol dependence section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire (MINI) has not been evaluated in young Africans. We applied the MINI in a cross-sectional study of 202 alcohol users from northern-Tanzania, aged 18-24 years (103 male casual workers and 99 students), and validated it against phophatidylethanol (PEth) at a cut-off suggesting heavy chronic alcohol use (≥0.30 µmol/L). Blood was assayed for PEth (16:0/18:1-subform) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The MINI dependence criteria (≥3 positive responses) were met by 39% participants although their PEth levels were low. Contrary, many young people with high PEth levels were not classified as dependent. The sensitivity of the MINI ranged from 0% to 69% (female students and male workers, respectively) and specificity from 52% to 85% (workers and female students, respectively). The highest AUROC (0.68) occurred with a cut-off of ≥4 positive responses. A modified MINI with three affirmative responses to five questions increased specificity to 92%-97%; however, sensitivity remained low. The performance of the MINI in detecting dependence among young people from northern-Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Specificity was improved using a modified version but sensitivity remained low. An accurate tool for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence is needed for epidemiological and clinical purposes. PMID:26529004

  1. Implementing outside the box: Community-based social service provider experiences with using an alcohol screening and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Patterson Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A.; Ramsey, Alex T.; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is better understand perceptions of front-line social service workers who are not addiction specialists, but have to address addiction-related issues during their standard services. Method Six social service organizations implemented a validated alcohol assessment and brief education intervention. After a 3-month trial implementation period, a convenience sample of 64 front-line providers participated in six focus groups to examine barriers and facilitators to the implementation of an alcohol screening and brief intervention. Results Three themes emerged: (1) usefulness of the intervention, (2) intervention being an appropriate fit with the agency and client population, and (3) worker commitment and proper utilization during the implementation process. Conclusions A cross-cutting theme that emerged was the context in which the intervention was implemented, as this was central to each of the three primary themes identified from the focus groups (i.e., the usefulness and appropriateness of the intervention and the implementation process overall). Practitioner buy-in concerns also indicate the need for better addiction service training opportunities for those without addiction-specific educational backgrounds. Future research should assess whether targeted trainings increase addiction screening and education in social services settings. PMID:25798019

  2. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT): a review of the evidence for use as a screening tool.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Fiona J; Tucker, Lorraine; Young, Ken C

    2016-02-01

    Breast screening with full-field digital mammography (FFDM) fails to detect 15-30% of cancers. This figure is higher for women with dense breasts. A new tomographic technique in mammography has been developed--digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT)--which allows images to be viewed in sections through the breast and has the potential to improve cancer detection rates. Results from retrospective reading studies comparing DBT with FFDM have been largely favourable with improvement in sensitivity and specificity. Increases in diagnostic accuracy have been reported as being independent of breast density; however there are mixed reports regarding the detection of microcalcification. Prospective screening studies using DBT with FFDM have demonstrated increased rates in cancer detection compared with FFDM alone. A reduction in false-positive recall rates has also been shown. Screening with the addition of DBT would approximately double radiation dose; however a simulated FFDM image can be generated from a DBT scan. The combination of simulated FFDM images and DBT is being evaluated within several studies and some positive results have been published. Interval cancer rates for the UK National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) demonstrate the limited sensitivity of FFDM in cancer detection. DBT has the potential to increase sensitivity and decrease false-positive recall rates. It has approval for screening and diagnostics in several countries; however, there are issues with DBT as a screening tool including additional reading time, IT storage and connectivity, over-diagnosis, and cost effectiveness. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness trials are needed before the implementation of DBT in NHSBSP can be considered. PMID:26707815

  3. Postanalytical tools improve performance of newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Patricia L.; Marquardt, Gregg; McHugh, David M.S.; Currier, Robert J.; Tang, Hao; Stoway, Stephanie D.; Rinaldo, Piero

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare performance metrics of postanalytical interpretive tools of the Region 4 Stork collaborative project to the actual outcome based on cutoff values for amino acids and acylcarnitines selected by the California newborn screening program. Methods: This study was a retrospective review of the outcome of 176,186 subjects born in California between 1 January and 30 June 2012. Raw data were uploaded to the Region 4 Stork Web portal as .csv files to calculate tool scores for 48 conditions simultaneously using a previously unpublished functionality, the tool runner. Scores for individual target conditions were deemed informative when equal or greater to the value representing the first percentile rank of known true-positive cases (17,099 cases in total). Results: In the study period, the actual false-positive rate and positive predictive value were 0.26 and 10%, respectively. Utilization of the Region 4 Stork tools, simple interpretation rules, and second-tier tests could have achieved a false-positive rate as low as 0.02% and a positive predictive value >50% by replacing the cutoff system with Region 4 Stork tools as the primary method for postanalytical interpretation. Conclusion: Region 4 Stork interpretive tools, second-tier tests, and other evidence-based interpretation rules could have reduced false-positive cases by up to 90% in California. PMID:24875301

  4. A screening tool for delineating subregions of steady recharge within groundwater models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Bakker, Mark; Crompton, Becky

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a screening method for simplifying groundwater models by delineating areas within the domain that can be represented using steady-state groundwater recharge. The screening method is based on an analytical solution for the damping of sinusoidal infiltration variations in homogeneous soils in the vadose zone. The damping depth is defined as the depth at which the flux variation damps to 5% of the variation at the land surface. Groundwater recharge may be considered steady where the damping depth is above the depth of the water table. The analytical solution approximates the vadose zone diffusivity as constant, and we evaluated when this approximation is reasonable. We evaluated the analytical solution through comparison of the damping depth computed by the analytic solution with the damping depth simulated by a numerical model that allows variable diffusivity. This comparison showed that the screening method conservatively identifies areas of steady recharge and is more accurate when water content and diffusivity are nearly constant. Nomograms of the damping factor (the ratio of the flux amplitude at any depth to the amplitude at the land surface) and the damping depth were constructed for clay and sand for periodic variations between 1 and 365 d and flux means and amplitudes from nearly 0 to 1 × 10−3 m d−1. We applied the screening tool to Central Valley, California, to identify areas of steady recharge. A MATLAB script was developed to compute the damping factor for any soil and any sinusoidal flux variation.

  5. Usability Testing of a National Substance Use Screening Tool Embedded in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    DeStio, Catherine; McCullagh, Lauren; Kapoor, Sandeep; Morley, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is currently being implemented into health systems nationally via paper and electronic methods. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integration of an electronic SBIRT tool into an existing paper-based SBIRT clinical workflow in a patient-centered medical home. Methods Usability testing was conducted in an academic ambulatory clinic. Two rounds of usability testing were done with medical office assistants (MOAs) using a paper and electronic version of the SBIRT tool, with two and four participants, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative data was analyzed to determine the impact of both tools on clinical workflow. A second round of usability testing was done with the revised electronic version and compared with the first version. Results Personal workflow barriers cited in the first round of testing were that the electronic health record (EHR) tool was disruptive to patient’s visits. In Round 2 of testing, MOAs reported favoring the electronic version due to improved layout and the inclusion of an alert system embedded in the EHR. For example, using the system usability scale (SUS), MOAs reported a grade “1” for the statement, “I would like to use this system frequently” during the first round of testing but a “5” during the second round of analysis. Conclusions The importance of testing usability of various mediums of tools used in health care screening is highlighted by the findings of this study. In the first round of testing, the electronic tool was reported as less user friendly, being difficult to navigate, and time consuming. Many issues faced in the first generation of the tool were improved in the second generation after usability was evaluated. This study demonstrates how usability testing of an electronic SBRIT tool can help to identify challenges that can impact clinical workflow. However, a limitation of this study was the small sample size

  6. Polyphenol metabolism provides a screening tool for beneficial effects of Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    PubMed

    Thill, Jana; Regos, Ionela; Farag, Mohamed A; Ahmad, Asma F; Kusek, Justyna; Castro, Ana; Schlangen, Karin; Carbonero, Christine Hayot; Gadjev, Ilya Z; Smith, Lydia M J; Halbwirth, Heidi; Treutter, Dieter; Stich, Karl

    2012-10-01

    Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin) is a traditional fodder legume showing multiple benefits for the environment, animal health and productivity but weaker agronomic performance in comparison to other legumes. Benefits can be mainly ascribed to the presence of polyphenols. The polyphenol metabolism in O. viciifolia was studied at the level of gene expression, enzyme activity, polyphenol accumulation and antioxidant activity. A screening of 37 accessions regarding each of these characters showed a huge variability between individual samples. Principal component analysis revealed that flavonols and flavan 3-ols are the most relevant variables for discrimination of the accessions. The determination of the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase provides a suitable screening tool for the estimation of the ratio of flavonols to flavan 3-ols and can be used for the selection of samples from those varieties that have a specific optimal ratio of these compounds for further breeding. PMID:22818525

  7. Problem alcohol use among problem drug users in primary care: a qualitative study of what patients think about screening and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Problem alcohol use is common and associated with considerable adverse outcomes among patients who attend primary care in Ireland and other European countries for opiate substitution treatment. This paper aims to describe patients’ experience of, and attitude towards, screening and therapeutic interventions for problem alcohol use in primary care. Methods This qualitative study recruited problem drug users (N = 28) from primary care based methadone programmes in the Ireland’s Eastern region, using a stratified sampling matrix to include size of general practice and geographical area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis, and audited by a third reviewer. Results We identified three overarching themes relevant to the purpose of this paper: (1) patients’ experience of, and (2) attitude towards, screening and treatment for problem alcohol use in primary care, as well as their (3) views on service improvement. While most patients reported being screened for problem alcohol use at initial assessment, few recalled routine screening or treatment. Among the barriers and enablers to screening and treatment, patients highlighted the importance of the practitioner-patient relationship in helping them address the issue. Nevertheless, patients felt that healthcare professionals should be more proactive in the management of problem alcohol use at a primary care level and that primary care can play an important role in their treatment. Conclusions Problem alcohol use is an important challenge in the care of problem drug users. While primary care is well placed to address this issue, little data has reported on this topic. The development of interventions which promote screening and brief interventions in practice are likely to benefit this at-risk group and further research and education, that help achieve this goal, are a priority. Strategies such as dissemination of clinical guidelines, educational videos, academic

  8. Developing a web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback

    PubMed Central

    Arcand, JoAnne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Manuel, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator (www.projectbiglife.ca), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet. PMID:24552393

  9. Developing a Web-based dietary sodium screening tool for personalized assessment and feedback.

    PubMed

    Arcand, Joanne; Abdulaziz, Kasim; Bennett, Carol; L'abbé, Mary R; Manuel, Douglas G

    2014-03-01

    Dietary sodium reduction is commonly used in the treatment of hypertension, heart and liver failure, and chronic kidney disease. Sodium reduction is also an important public health problem since most of the Canadian population consumes sodium in excess of their daily requirements. Lack of awareness about the amount of sodium consumed and the sources of sodium in diet is common, and undoubtedly a major contributor to excess sodium consumption. There are few known tools available to screen and provide personalized information about sodium in the diet. Therefore, we developed a Web-based sodium intake screening tool called the Salt Calculator ( www.projectbiglife.ca ), which is publicly available for individuals to assess the amount and sources of sodium in their diet. The Calculator contains 23 questions focusing on restaurant foods, packaged foods, and added salt. Questions were developed using sodium consumption data from the Canadian Community Health Survey cycle 2.2 and up-to-date information on sodium levels in packaged and restaurant food databases from the University of Toronto. The Calculator translates existing knowledge about dietary sodium into a tool that can be accessed by the public as well as integrated into clinical practice to address the high levels of sodium presently in the Canadian diet. PMID:24552393

  10. Role of Open Source Tools and Resources in Virtual Screening for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Advancement in chemoinformatics research in parallel with availability of high performance computing platform has made handling of large scale multi-dimensional scientific data for high throughput drug discovery easier. In this study we have explored publicly available molecular databases with the help of open-source based integrated in-house molecular informatics tools for virtual screening. The virtual screening literature for past decade has been extensively investigated and thoroughly analyzed to reveal interesting patterns with respect to the drug, target, scaffold and disease space. The review also focuses on the integrated chemoinformatics tools that are capable of harvesting chemical data from textual literature information and transform them into truly computable chemical structures, identification of unique fragments and scaffolds from a class of compounds, automatic generation of focused virtual libraries, computation of molecular descriptors for structure-activity relationship studies, application of conventional filters used in lead discovery along with in-house developed exhaustive PTC (Pharmacophore, Toxicophores and Chemophores) filters and machine learning tools for the design of potential disease specific inhibitors. A case study on kinase inhibitors is provided as an example. PMID:26138575

  11. Qualitative Investigation of a Brief Chronic Pain Screening Tool in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Melonie M.; Herbey, Ivan; Chamot, Eric; Ritchie, Christine; Saag, Michael S.; Kertesz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Chronic pain in HIV-infected patients is prevalent but understudied. A limitation of HIV/chronic pain research to date is the lack of a widely used chronic pain screening tool. A Brief Chronic Pain Screening tool (BCPS) has been described, but has not yet been tested in a clinical population. This study sought to evaluate how the BCPS is experienced by HIV-infected individuals, and adapt its questions if necessary. We conducted cognitive interviews using cognitive inquiry in participants from the UAB 1917 HIV Clinic Cohort. Data were analyzed using a process of inductive, iterative coding by three investigators. Results: Of 30 participants, most were male, African American, and less than 50 years old. Participants reported that the questions were understandable; however, feedback suggested concerns regarding lack of specificity in regard to the intensity and consistency of pain. An introductory statement aimed at improving clarity resulted in more divergent responses. This research team concluded that the version of the BCPS used in the first 30 interviews was optimum. Its inclusive language allows the respondent to decide what pain merits reporting. This study is the first investigation of the BCPS in a clinical population, and should lead to further quantitative validation studies of this tool. PMID:24621145

  12. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  13. Toward a simple risk assessment screening tool for HCV infection in Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Ghitany, Engy M; Farghaly, Azza G; Abdel Wahab, Moataza M; Farag, Shehata; Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W

    2016-10-01

    Asymptomatic patients with HCV infection identified through screening program could benefit not only from treatment but also from other interventions such as counseling to maintain health and avoid risk behaviors. This might prevent the spread of infection and result in significant public health benefits. However, mass screening would quickly deplete resources. This work aims to develop a brief HCV risk assessment questionnaire that inquires initially about a wide range of risk factors found to be potentially associated with HCV infection in order to identify the few most significant questions that could be quickly used to facilitate cost-effective HCV case-finding in the general population in Egypt. An exhaustive literature search was done to include all reported HCV risk factors that were pooled in a 65 item questionnaire. After an initial pilot study, a case-control study was performed that included 1,024 cases and 1,046 controls. In a multivariable model, a list of independent risk factors were found to be significant predictors for being HCV seropositive among two age strata (<45 and >45 years) for each gender. A simplified model that assigned values of the odds ratio as a weight for each factor present predicted HCV infection with high diagnostic accuracy. Attaining the defined cut-off value of the total risk score enhances the effectiveness of screening. HCV risk factors in the Egyptian population vary by age and gender. An accurate prediction screening tool can be used to identify those at high risk who may benefit most from HCV serologic testing. These results are to be further validated in a large scale cross-sectional study to assess the wider use of this tool. J. Med. Virol. 88:1767-1775, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970264

  14. Reliability and Validity of the Acanthosis Nigricans Screening Tool for Use in Elementary School-Age Children by School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Leslie K.; Hall, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of an acanthosis nigricans (AN) screening tool for use in elementary school-age children of different ethnic groups. Cross-sectional data were collected via observation of 288, 5- to 12-year-old school-age children. Three nurse clinicians used a 0-4 grade AN screening tool to rate…

  15. VitalQPlus: a potential screening tool for early diagnosis of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Chee Fai; Ming, Long Chiau; Neoh, Chin Fen; Ibrahim, Baharudin

    2015-01-01

    Background This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener (COPD-PS) questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings. Methods This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers. Results Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83) were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia) compared to 75.9% (63/83) from Sabah (Borneo region). Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of ≥5) yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1/FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5). Conclusion With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the

  16. Detecting limited health literacy in Brazil: development of a multidimensional screening tool.

    PubMed

    Apolinario, Daniel; Mansur, Leticia Lessa; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    Screening questions have been proposed as practical tools for detecting limited functional health literacy, but have achieved only moderate accuracy in previous studies. We hypothesized that a combination of screening questions and demographic characteristics could better predict a patient's functional health literacy. Three hundred and twenty-two hospital users from São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed for demographic information and answered questions about literacy habits and perceived difficulties. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was used to classify individuals as having adequate or limited functional health literacy. Of the 322 participants, 102 (31.7%) presented limited functional health literacy. The final logistic model included six predictors. The three demographic variables were educational attainment, mother's educational attainment and major lifetime occupation (manual or non-manual). The three questions concerned 'frequency of use of computers', 'difficulty with writing that have precluded the individual from getting a better job' and 'difficulty reading the subtitles while watching a foreign movie'. A simple score was derived to constitute a practical tool we named the Multidimensional Screener of Functional Health Literacy (MSFHL). The sensitivity of the MSFHL in detecting limited functional health literacy was 81.4% and the specificity was 87.7%, with an area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.95). The MSFHL was better than educational attainment in accurately classifying functional health literacy status (p = 0.0018). We have developed a screening tool based on three demographic characteristics and three simple questions which provides an accurate prediction of a patient's functional health literacy level. PMID:24179154

  17. A better screening tool for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: is it what clinicians need?

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Marie-J.; Mayo, Nancy; Fellows, Lesley K.; Lebedeva, Elena; Higgins, Johanne; Overton, Edgar T.; Ances, Beau M.; Koski, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Existing screening tools for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) may lack the accuracy required for clinical use. We hypothesized that the diagnostic accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as a screening tool for HAND might be improved with a stronger scoring methodology. Design: Two hundred HIV-positive participants aged 18–65 years completed the MoCA and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Methods: HAND diagnosis was established according to the Frascati criteria, and an NPZ-8 score was also calculated. Rasch analysis was applied to the MoCA items to create a quantitative score. Results: The optimal cut-off on the quantitative MoCA for detecting impairment as per Frascati criteria yielded a sensitivity of 0.74 and a specificity of 0.68. Overall accuracy was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73–0.85), an improvement over standard scoring methods. However, whether cognition was quantified with the quantitative MoCA or with NPZ-8, there was substantial overlap between diagnostic categories; several individuals categorized as impaired had better overall cognitive function as assessed by NPZ-8 or quantitative MoCA than those classified as normal using standard criteria. Conclusion: Quantifying performance on MoCA items through Rasch analysis improves its accuracy as a screening tool for HAND, and demonstrates that cognition can be measured as a unidimensional construct in HIV, at least at the level of precision of bedside testing. However, the current categorical diagnostic approach to HAND is poorly aligned with summary measures of cognitive ability. Measuring cognition as a quasi-continuous construct may be more relevant than conventional HAND diagnostic categories for many clinical purposes. PMID:25291105

  18. User's Guide to the Water-Analysis Screening Tool (WAST): A Tool for Assessing Available Water Resources in Relation to Aquatic-Resource Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Kiesler, James L.

    2008-01-01

    A water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, to provide an initial screening of areas in the state where potential problems may exist related to the availability of water resources to meet current and future water-use demands. The tool compares water-use information to an initial screening criteria of the 7-day, 10-year low-flow statistic (7Q10) resulting in a screening indicator for influences of net withdrawals (withdrawals minus discharges) on aquatic-resource uses. This report is intended to serve as a guide for using the screening tool. The WAST can display general basin characteristics, water-use information, and screening-indicator information for over 10,000 watersheds in the state. The tool includes 12 primary functions that allow the user to display watershed information, edit water-use and water-supply information, observe effects downstream from edited water-use information, reset edited values to baseline, load new water-use information, save and retrieve scenarios, and save output as a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet.

  19. HDAT: web-based high-throughput screening data analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rong; Hassan, Taimur; Rallo, Robert; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    The increasing utilization of high-throughput screening (HTS) in toxicity studies of engineered nano-materials (ENMs) requires tools for rapid and reliable processing and analyses of large HTS datasets. In order to meet this need, a web-based platform for HTS data analyses tools (HDAT) was developed that provides statistical methods suitable for ENM toxicity data. As a publicly available computational nanoinformatics infrastructure, HDAT provides different plate normalization methods, various HTS summarization statistics, self-organizing map (SOM)-based clustering analysis, and visualization of raw and processed data using both heat map and SOM. HDAT has been successfully used in a number of HTS studies of ENM toxicity, thereby enabling analysis of toxicity mechanisms and development of structure-activity relationships for ENM toxicity. The online approach afforded by HDAT should encourage standardization of and future advances in HTS as well as facilitate convenient inter-laboratory comparisons of HTS datasets.

  20. Developing a postal screening tool for frailty in primary care: a secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis (SDA) was to review a subset of quantitative and qualitative paired data sets from a returned postal screening tool (PST) completed by patients and compare them to the clinical letters composed by elderly care community nurses (ECCN) following patient assessment to ascertain the tool's reliability and validity. The aim was to understand to what extent the problems identified by patients in PSTs aligned with actual or potential problems identified by the ECCNs. The researcher examined this connection to establish whether the PST was a valid, reliable approach to proactive care. The findings of this SDA indicated that patients did understand the PST. Many appropriate referrals were made as a result of the ECCN visit that would not have occurred if the PST had not been sent. This article focuses specifically upon the physiotherapy section as this was the area where the most red flags were identified. PMID:27401197

  1. Molecular targets of alcohol action: translational research for pharmacotherapy development and screening

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, Giorgio; Bell, Richard L.; Mayfield, R. Dayne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol abuse and dependence are multifaceted disorders with neurobiological, psychological, and environmental components. Research on other complex neuropsychiatric diseases suggests that genetically influenced intermediate characteristics affect the risk for heavy alcohol consumption and its consequences. Diverse therapeutic interventions can be developed through identification of reliable biomarkers for this disorder and new pharmacological targets for its treatment. Advances in the fields of genomics and proteomics offer a number of possible targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches. This brain-focused review highlights studies identifying neurobiological systems associated with these targets and possible pharmacotherapies, summarizing evidence from clinically relevant animal and human studies, as well as sketching improvements and challenges facing the fields of proteomics and genomics. Concluding thoughts on using results from these profiling technologies for medication development are also presented. PMID:21199775

  2. The Drinking Habits of Users of an Alcohol Drinking Screening Website in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    VISNOVIČ POREDOŠ, Aleksandra; KOLŠEK, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption in Slovenia is one of the highest in Europe. In Slovenia there were a few epidemiological studies on drinking habits among adult population, but none of them has used the AUDIT questionnaire or the Internet for research. Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the drinking habits of the visitors of our website www.nalijem.si, which included an anonymous questionnaire for self-assessment of alcohol drinking. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted between January 2010 and December 2013. The front page of our website included an invitation to fill in the anonymous web-based questionnaire; a part of it was the AUDIT 10 questionnaire. Everyone who filled in the questionnaire completely received an individualized feedback on his drinking. Results 54.020 persons visited our website, 15.817 (29.3%) of them started to fill in the questionnaire, 12.800 (80.9%) filled it in completely. In the analysis, 9.087 (71.0%) persons were included who completed the questionnaire for themselves. There were 37.1% (N=3.373) women and 62.9% (N=5.714) men. The average age was 33 years, the majority was employed (59.7%, N=5.222). The minority drank alcohol 2–4 times per month (32.8%, N=2.977) and most of them (64.5%, N=5.869) drank more than 3 units of alcohol per one occasion on a typical day. The average AUDIT 10 score was 11.7 for men, 8.1 for women. Conclusions A large percentage of participants were identified as hazardous and harmful drinkers, which should be a matter of serious concern.

  3. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  4. BeeDoctor, a Versatile MLPA-Based Diagnostic Tool for Screening Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y.; Moritz, Robin F. A.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called “BeeDoctor”, was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. “BeeDoctor” is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. “BeeDoctor” was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the “BeeDoctor”, virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  5. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  6. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  7. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  8. MED-SuMoLig: a new ligand-based screening tool for efficient scaffold hopping.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Olivier; Andrieu, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Vo, Minh-Quang; Souaille, Marc; Delfaud, François; Villoutreix, Bruno O

    2007-01-01

    The identification of small molecules with selective bioactivity, whether intended as potential therapeutics or as tools for experimental research, is central to progress in medicine and in the life sciences. To facilitate such study, we have developed a ligand-based program well-suited for effective screening of large compound collections. This package, MED-SuMoLig, combines a SMARTS-driven substructure search aiming at 3D pharmacophore profiling and computation of the local atomic density of the compared molecules. The screening utility was then investigated using 52 diverse active molecules (against CDK2, Factor Xa, HIV-1 protease, neuraminidase, ribonuclease A, and thymidine kinase) merged to a library of about 40,000 putative inactive (druglike) compounds. In all cases, the program recovered more than half of the actives in the top 3% of the screened library. We also compared the performance of MED-SuMoLig with that of ChemMine or of ROCS and found that MED-SuMoLig outperformed both methods for CDK2 and Factor Xa in terms of enrichment rates or performed equally well for the other targets. PMID:17477521

  9. Rapid Diagnostic Algorithms as a Screening Tool for Tuberculosis: An Assessor Blinded Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Bruckschwaiger, Harald; Wischenbart, Martin; Parschalk, Bernhard; Fernandez-Reyes, Delmiro; Lagler, Heimo; Indra, Alexandra; Graninger, Wolfgang; Winkler, Stefan; Krishna, Sanjeev; Ramharter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background A major obstacle to effectively treat and control tuberculosis is the absence of an accurate, rapid, and low-cost diagnostic tool. A new approach for the screening of patients for tuberculosis is the use of rapid diagnostic classification algorithms. Methods We tested a previously published diagnostic algorithm based on four biomarkers as a screening tool for tuberculosis in a Central European patient population using an assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design. In addition, we developed an improved diagnostic classification algorithm based on a study population at a tertiary hospital in Vienna, Austria, by supervised computational statistics. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the previously published diagnostic algorithm for our patient population consisting of 206 patients was 54% (CI: 47%–61%). An improved model was constructed using inflammation parameters and clinical information. A diagnostic accuracy of 86% (CI: 80%–90%) was demonstrated by 10-fold cross validation. An alternative model relying solely on clinical parameters exhibited a diagnostic accuracy of 85% (CI: 79%–89%). Conclusion Here we show that a rapid diagnostic algorithm based on clinical parameters is only slightly improved by inclusion of inflammation markers in our cohort. Our results also emphasize the need for validation of new diagnostic algorithms in different settings and patient populations. PMID:23185397

  10. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A powerful high throughput screening tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Ostrowski, Sara G.

    2007-07-01

    Combinatorial materials libraries are becoming more complicated; successful screening of these libraries requires the development of new high throughput screening methodologies. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a surface analytical technique that is able to detect and image all elements (including hydrogen which is problematic for many other analysis instruments) and molecular fragments, with high mass resolution, during a single measurement. Commercial ToF-SIMS instruments can image 500μm areas by rastering the primary ion beam over the region of interest. In this work, we will show that large area analysis can be performed, in one single measurement, by rastering the sample under the ion beam. We show that an entire 70mm diameter wafer can be imaged in less than 90min using ToF-SIMS stage (macro)rastering techniques. ToF-SIMS data sets contain a wealth of information since an entire high mass resolution mass spectrum is saved at each pixel in an ion image. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA) tools are being used in the ToF-SIMS community to assist with data interpretation; we will demonstrate that MVSA tools provide details that were not obtained using manual (univariate) analysis.

  11. Automated cell analysis tool for a genome-wide RNAi screen with support vector machine based supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmele, Steffen; Ritzerfeld, Julia; Nickel, Walter; Hesser, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    RNAi-based high-throughput microscopy screens have become an important tool in biological sciences in order to decrypt mostly unknown biological functions of human genes. However, manual analysis is impossible for such screens since the amount of image data sets can often be in the hundred thousands. Reliable automated tools are thus required to analyse the fluorescence microscopy image data sets usually containing two or more reaction channels. The herein presented image analysis tool is designed to analyse an RNAi screen investigating the intracellular trafficking and targeting of acylated Src kinases. In this specific screen, a data set consists of three reaction channels and the investigated cells can appear in different phenotypes. The main issue of the image processing task is an automatic cell segmentation which has to be robust and accurate for all different phenotypes and a successive phenotype classification. The cell segmentation is done in two steps by segmenting the cell nuclei first and then using a classifier-enhanced region growing on basis of the cell nuclei to segment the cells. The classification of the cells is realized by a support vector machine which has to be trained manually using supervised learning. Furthermore, the tool is brightness invariant allowing different staining quality and it provides a quality control that copes with typical defects during preparation and acquisition. A first version of the tool has already been successfully applied for an RNAi-screen containing three hundred thousand image data sets and the SVM extended version is designed for additional screens.

  12. A screening tool to prioritize public health risk associated with accidental or deliberate release of chemicals into the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chemical Events Working Group of the Global Health Security Initiative has developed a flexible screening tool for chemicals that present a risk when accidentally or deliberately released into the atmosphere. The tool is generic, semi-quantitative, independent of site, situation and scenario, encompasses all chemical hazards (toxicity, flammability and reactivity), and can be easily and quickly implemented by non-subject matter experts using freely available, authoritative information. Public health practitioners and planners can use the screening tool to assist them in directing their activities in each of the five stages of the disaster management cycle. PMID:23517410

  13. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Adolescents: Evaluation of a Pediatric Residency Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Sheryl A.; Martel, Shara; Pantalon, Michael; Martino, Steve; Tetrault, Jeanette; Thung, Stephen F.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Auinger, Peggy; Green, Michael L.; Fiellin, David A.; O'Connor, Patrick G.; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the integration of a screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) curriculum for alcohol and other drug use into a pediatric residency program. Pediatric and medicine/pediatric residents in an adolescent medicine rotation located in an urban teaching hospital participated in the…

  14. Skills-Based Residency Training in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention: Results from the Georgia-Texas "Improving Brief Intervention" Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, J. Paul; Velasquez, Mary M.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Shellenberger, Sylvia; von Sternberg, Kirk; Dodrill, Carrie; Boltri, John M.; Takei, Roy; Clark, Denice; Grace, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI) is recommended for all primary care patients but is underutilized. This project trained 111 residents and faculty in 8 family medicine residencies to conduct SBI and implement SBI protocols in residency clinics, then assessed changes in self-reported importance and confidence in performing SBI and…

  15. Adaptation of Alcohol and Drug Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) to a Department of Intercollegiate Athletics: The COMPASS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agley, Jon; Walker, Barbara B.; Gassman, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop and implement an intervention for problem alcohol and substance use among student athletes at a large Midwestern department of intercollegiate athletics in the USA, by use of screening, a brief intervention, referral to treatment (SBIRT) and motivational interviewing (MI). This paper outlines the development of the protocol,…

  16. Thermographic image analysis as a pre-screening tool for the detection of canine bone cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Samrat; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Fu, Jiyuan; Marino, Dominic J.; Loughin, Catherine A.; Sackman, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    Canine bone cancer is a common type of cancer that grows fast and may be fatal. It usually appears in the limbs which is called "appendicular bone cancer." Diagnostic imaging methods such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are more common methods in bone cancer detection than invasive physical examination such as biopsy. These imaging methods have some disadvantages; including high expense, high dose of radiation, and keeping the patient (canine) motionless during the imaging procedures. This project study identifies the possibility of using thermographic images as a pre-screening tool for diagnosis of bone cancer in dogs. Experiments were performed with thermographic images from 40 dogs exhibiting the disease bone cancer. Experiments were performed with color normalization using temperature data provided by the Long Island Veterinary Specialists. The images were first divided into four groups according to body parts (Elbow/Knee, Full Limb, Shoulder/Hip and Wrist). Each of the groups was then further divided into three sub-groups according to views (Anterior, Lateral and Posterior). Thermographic pattern of normal and abnormal dogs were analyzed using feature extraction and pattern classification tools. Texture features, spectral feature and histogram features were extracted from the thermograms and were used for pattern classification. The best classification success rate in canine bone cancer detection is 90% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80% produced by anterior view of full-limb region with nearest neighbor classification method and normRGB-lum color normalization method. Our results show that it is possible to use thermographic imaging as a pre-screening tool for detection of canine bone cancer.

  17. Inflammation-driven malnutrition: a new screening tool predicts outcome in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Irene; Prager, Matthias; Valentini, Luzia; Büning, Carsten

    2016-09-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent feature in Crohn's disease (CD), affects patient outcome and must be recognised. For chronic inflammatory diseases, recent guidelines recommend the development of combined malnutrition and inflammation risk scores. We aimed to design and evaluate a new screening tool that combines both malnutrition and inflammation parameters that might help predict clinical outcome. In a prospective cohort study, we examined fifty-five patients with CD in remission (Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) <200) at 0 and 6 months. We assessed disease activity (CDAI, Harvey-Bradshaw index), inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), faecal calprotectin (FC)), malnutrition (BMI, subjective global assessment (SGA), serum albumin, handgrip strength), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis) and administered the newly developed 'Malnutrition Inflammation Risk Tool' (MIRT; containing BMI, unintentional weight loss over 3 months and CRP). All parameters were evaluated regarding their ability to predict disease outcome prospectively at 6 months. At baseline, more than one-third of patients showed elevated inflammatory markers despite clinical remission (36·4 % CRP ≥5 mg/l, 41·5 % FC ≥100 µg/g). Prevalence of malnutrition at baseline according to BMI, SGA and serum albumin was 2-16 %. At 6 months, MIRT significantly predicted outcome in numerous nutritional and clinical parameters (SGA, CD-related flares, hospitalisations and surgeries). In contrast, SGA, handgrip strength, BMI, albumin and body composition had no influence on the clinical course. The newly developed MIRT was found to reliably predict clinical outcome in CD patients. This screening tool might be used to facilitate clinical decision making, including treatment of both inflammation and malnutrition in order to prevent complications. PMID:27546478

  18. German Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the STarT Back Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jonathan C.; Hilfiker, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Background Although evidence based treatment approaches for acute low back pain are available, the prevention of persistent disabling symptoms remains a challenge. Subgroup targeted treatment using adequate screening tools may be a key component for the development of new treatment concepts and is demonstrating promising early evidence. The Keele STarT Back Screening Tool is a practical instrument, developed to stratify patients with back pain according to their risk of persistent disabling symptoms. The aim of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the STarT tool into German (STarT-G) and to investigate its psychometric properties. Methods The translation was performed according to internationally accepted guidelines and pretested to assess face validity among patients. Psychometric testing was then performed within a cross-sectional cohort of adult patients attending physiotherapy practices for back pain. Patients completed a booklet containing STarT-G and 5 reference standard questionnaires. Measurement properties of the STarT-G were explored including construct validity, floor and ceiling effects, and discriminative abilities. Results The pretests (n=25) showed good face validity including strong comprehension and acceptability of the STarT-G with only item 5 (fear avoidance) manifesting some ambiguities. The questionnaires were sent to 74 and completed by 50 patients (68%) of whom mean age was 46 (SD 14.5) years and 52% were male. Spearman’s rank correlations for construct validity ranged from 0.35 to 0.56. AUCs for discriminative ability ranged from 0.79 to 0.91. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed. There were 28 (57%) participants defined as low risk, 17 (35%) as medium risk, and 4 (8%) as high risk. Conclusion STarT-G is linguistically valid for German speaking countries. For the selected population, the correlations indicate acceptable validity and AUC showed satisfying discrimination. Data for psychometric properties have to

  19. Performance of Screening Tools in Detecting Major Depressive Disorder among Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanping; Yang, Hui; Browning, Colette; Thomas, Shane; Liu, Meiyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is common in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and there is no consensus on the optimal screening tool for use in identifying MDD. This study aimed to systematically review the performance of various screening tools in the identification of MDD. Material/Methods Eligible studies published before 31 Dec 2013 were identified from the following databases: Ovid Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL Plus, and Web of Science. Results Eight studies aiming to identify MDD in CHD patients were included, and there were 10 self-reporting questionnaires (such as PHQ-2, PHQ-9, PHQ categorical algorithm, HADS-D, BDI, BDI-II, BDI-II-cog, CES-D, SCL-90, 2 simple yes/no items) and 1 observer rating scale (Ham-D). For MDD alone, the sensitivity and specificity of various screening tools at the validity and optimal cut-off point varied from 0.34 [0.19, 0.52] to 0.96 [0.78, 1.00] and 0.69 [0.65, 0.73] to 0.97 [0.93, 0.99]. Results showed PHQ-9 (≥10), BDI-II (≥14 or ≥16), and HADS-D (≥5 or ≥4) were widely used for screening MDD in CHD patients. Conclusions There is no consensus on the optimal screening tool for MDD in CHD patients. When evaluating the performance of a screening tool, balancing the high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) between specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for screening or diagnostic purpose should be considered. After screening, further diagnosis, appropriate management, and necessary referral may also improve cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25725615

  20. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use among university students in South Africa: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; van der Heever, Hendry; Skaal, Linda

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was -1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. PMID:23698697

  1. Improving Nursing Knowledge of Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Berl, Kimberly; Collins, Michelle L.; Melson, Jo; Mooney, Ruth; Muffley, Cheryl; Wright-Glover, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Christiana Care Health System implemented a Care Management Guideline for Alcohol Withdrawal Symptom Management, which provided direction for inpatient screening for alcohol withdrawal risk, assessment, and treatment. Nurses educated on its use expressed confusion with the use of the assessment tools, pharmacokinetics, and pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal and delirium tremens. Reeducation was provided by nursing professional development specialists. Pre- and postsurveys revealed that nurses were more confident in caring for patients with alcohol withdrawal. (See CE Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPD/A9) PMID:25816126

  2. Validation of Microtox as a first screening tool for waste classification.

    PubMed

    Weltens, R; Deprez, K; Michiels, L

    2014-12-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD; 2008/98/EG) describes how waste materials are to be classified as hazardous or not. For complex waste materials chemical analyses are often not conclusive and the WFD provides the possibility to assess the hazardous properties by testing on the waste materials directly. As a methodology WFD refers to the protocols described in the CLP regulation (regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging of chemicals) but the toxicity tests on mammals are not acceptable for waste materials. The DISCRISET project was initiated to investigate the suitability of alternative toxicity tests that are already in use in pharmaceutical applications, for the toxicological hazard assessment of complex waste materials. Results indicated that Microtox was a good candidate as a first screening test in a tiered approached hazard assessment. This is now further validated in the present study. The toxic responses measured in Microtox were compared to biological responses in other bioassays for both organic and inorganic fractions of the wastes. Both fractions contribute to the toxic load of waste samples. Results show that the Microtox test is indeed a good and practical screening tool for the organic fraction. A screening threshold (ST) of 5 geq/l as the EC50 value in Microtox is proposed as this ST allows to recognize highly toxic samples in the screening test. The data presented here show that the Microtox toxicity response at this ST is not only predictive for acute toxicity in other organisms but also for sub lethal toxic effects of the organic fraction. This limit value has to be further validated. For the inorganic fraction no specific biotest can be recommended as a screening test, but the use of direct toxicity assessment is also preferable for this fraction as metal speciation is an important issue to define the toxic load of elutriate fractions. A battery of 3 tests (Microtox, Daphnia and Algae) for direct toxicity assessment of this

  3. Screening for Substance Use Disorder among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-administered and Interviewer-administered Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost- effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2 X 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  4. Screening for Substance Use Disorder Among Incarcerated Men with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Administered and Interviewer-Administered Modalities.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing

    2015-06-01

    Substance use disorders are overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Cost-effective screening for alcohol and substance use problems among incarcerated populations is a necessary first step forward intervention. The Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) holds promise because it has strong psychometric properties, requires minimal training, is easy to score, is available in the public domain but, because of complicated skip patterns, cannot be self-administered. This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered self-interviewing (CASI) versus interviewer-administered interviewing (IAI) to screen for substance use problems among incarcerated men using the ASSIST. A 2×2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 396 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared to IAI, CASI produced equally reliable screening information on substance use and symptom severity, with test-retest intraclass correlations for ASSIST total and substance-specific scores ranging from 0.7 to 0.9, and ASSIST substance-specific scores and a substance abuse disorder diagnosis based on the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) were significantly correlated for IAI and CASI. These findings indicate that data on substance use and symptom severity using the ASSIST can be reliably and validly obtained from CASI technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for substance use problems and, those at risk, identified for treatment. PMID:25659203

  5. A Primary Healthcare Screening Tool to Identify Depression and Anxiety Disorders among People with Epilepsy in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Nkwanyana, Ntombifikile M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-01-01

    Among the 50 million people with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, ~15 to 60% also likely suffer from depression and/or anxiety disorders and 80% reside in low-income regions where these comorbidities are often under-recognised and undertreated. We developed a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety disorders for use in Zambian primary care clinics where the baseline detection rate of depression and/or anxiety disorders among PWE is ~1%. Consenting adults (n=595) completed the screening tool and 53.7% screened positive. The screen was validated by a Psychiatric Clinical Officer using DMS-IV criteria. Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.77 overall, and 0.67 and 0.57 for the depression and anxiety components, respectively. Other test characteristics included sensitivity 56.63%, specificity 68.05%, positive predictive value 67.3%, and negative predictive value 57.5%. Interrater reliability (kappa) was 0.85. The psychometric qualities of the tool are inadequate. Development of further, better quality instruments is needed though this will likely require a longer tool which the healthcare workers delivering epilepsy care services have previously deemed non-feasible for routine use. As we work toward development and acceptability of a more optimal instrument, use of this initial screening tool which healthcare workers are willing to use may increase the identification of comorbid depression and anxiety in the low resource setting described in the study. PMID:23510742

  6. A primary healthcare screening tool to identify depression and anxiety disorders among people with epilepsy in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Nkwanyana, Ntombifikile M; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-05-01

    Among the 50 million people with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide, ~15 to 60% also likely suffer from depression and/or anxiety disorders, and 80% reside in low-income regions where these comorbidities are often underrecognized and undertreated. We developed a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety disorders for use in Zambian primary care clinics where the baseline detection rate of depression and/or anxiety disorders among PWE is ~1%. Consenting adults (n=595) completed the screening tool, and 53.7% screened positive. The screen was validated by a psychiatric clinical officer using DMS-IV criteria. Cronbach's alpha was 0.77 overall and 0.67 and 0.57 for the depression and anxiety components, respectively. Other test characteristics included sensitivity 56.6%, specificity 68.1%, positive predictive value 67.3%, and negative predictive value 57.5%. Interrater reliability (kappa) was 0.85. The psychometric qualities of the tool are inadequate. Development of further, better quality instruments is needed though this will likely require a longer tool which the healthcare workers delivering epilepsy care services have previously deemed nonfeasible for routine use. As we work toward development and acceptability of a more optimal instrument, use of this initial screening tool which healthcare workers are willing to use may increase the identification of comorbid depression and anxiety in the low resource setting described in the study. PMID:23510742

  7. Development of a Simple Tool for Identifying Alcohol Use Disorder in Female Korean Drinkers from Previous Questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yu Ri; Kim, Sung Soo; Yoon, Seok Joon; Suh, Won Yoon; Youn, Kwangmi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop a simple tool for identifying alcohol use disorders in female Korean drinkers from previous questionnaires. Methods This research was conducted on 400 women who consumed at least one alcoholic drink during the past month and visited the health promotion center at Chungnam National University Hospital between June 2013 to May 2014. Drinking habits and alcohol use disorders were assessed by structured interviews using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition diagnostic criteria. The subjects were also asked to answer the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), AUDIT-Consumption, CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener), TWEAK (Tolerance, Worried, Eye-opener, Amnesia, Kut down), TACE (Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut down, Eye-opener), and NET (Normal drinker, Eye-opener, Tolerance) questionnaires. The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) of each question of the questionnaires on alcohol use disorders was assessed. After combining two questions with the largest AUROC, it was compared to other previous questionnaires. Results Among the 400 subjects, 58 (14.5%) were identified as having an alcohol use disorder. Two questions with the largest AUROC were question no. 7 in AUDIT, "How often during the last year have you had a feeling of guilt or remorse after drinking?" and question no. 5 in AUDIT, "How often during the past year have you failed to do what was normally expected from you because of drinking?" with an AUROC (95% confidence interval [CI]) of 0.886 (0.850–0.915) and 0.862 (0.824–0.894), respectively. The AUROC (95% CI) of the combination of the two questions was 0.958 (0.934–0.976) with no significant difference as compared to the existing AUDIT with the largest AUROC. Conclusion The above results suggest that the simple tool consisting of questions no. 5 and no. 7 in AUDIT is useful in identifying alcohol use disorders in Korean female drinkers. PMID:26885318

  8. Identifying preschool children at risk of later reading difficulties: evaluation of two emergent literacy screening tools.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Shauna B; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children's early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to effective emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that, at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children's overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills. PMID:19822699

  9. Cardiolipin fingerprinting of leukocytes by MALDI-TOF/MS as a screening tool for Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Gorgoglione, Ruggiero; Bowron, Ann; Steward, Colin G; Corcelli, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked disease associated with cardioskeletal myopathy, neutropenia, and organic aciduria, is characterized by abnormalities of card-iolipin (CL) species in mitochondria. Diagnosis of the disease is often compromised by lack of rapid and widely available diagnostic laboratory tests. The present study describes a new method for BTHS screening based on MALDI-TOF/MS analysis of leukocyte lipids. This generates a "CL fingerprint" and allows quick and simple assay of the relative levels of CL and monolysocardiolipin species in leukocyte total lipid profiles. To validate the method, we used vector algebra to analyze the difference in lipid composition between controls (24 healthy donors) and patients (8 boys affected by BTHS) in the high-mass phospholipid range. The method of lipid analysis described represents an important additional tool for the diagnosis of BTHS and potentially enables therapeutic monitoring of drug targets, which have been shown to ameliorate abnormal CL profiles in cells. PMID:26144817

  10. Ultrasound as a primary screening tool for detecting low birthweight newborns

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Eita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: As low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity, the pre-delivery detection of low birthweight is clinically advantageous. This study was performed to determine whether ultrasound is suitable for use in primary screening to detect low birthweight newborns. Methods: The primary outcomes included sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns. Ten databases, including PubMed, were searched. All English language studies that provided true- and false-positive and true- and false-negative results regarding the pre-delivery ultrasound detection of low birthweight newborns were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Bivariate diagnostic meta-analysis was performed and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Results: Studies of relatively good quality were included in the analysis to evaluate crown–rump length (n = 12); femur length (n = 5); formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard (n = 9); and uterine artery blood flow (n = 7). All showed low sensitivity (=0.24–0.58) regardless of specificity (=0.60–0.96). The formulas of Campbell, Hadlock, and Shepard were usable for a confirmation strategy only (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 14.8 and 0.44, respectively), but crown–rump or femur length, and uterine artery blood flow were not usable for an exclusion or confirmation strategy (positive and negative likelihood ratios = 1.4–2.8 and 0.71–0.85, respectively). Conclusions: Primary screening does not have to confirm low birthweight, but should almost always categorize low birthweight as a positive result and exclude normal birthweight. Therefore, ultrasound is not suitable as a primary screening tool to detect low birthweight newborns. PMID

  11. Dynamic balance control in elders: gait initiation assessment as a screening tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.; Krebs, D. E.; Wall, C. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether measurements of center of gravity-center of pressure separation (CG-CP moment arm) during gait initiation can differentiate healthy from disabled subjects with sufficient specificity and sensitivity to be useful as a screening test for dynamic balance in elderly patients. SUBJECTS: Three groups of elderly subjects (age, 74.97+/-6.56 yrs): healthy elders (HE, n = 21), disabled elders (DE, n = 20), and elders with vestibular hypofunction (VH, n = 18). DESIGN: Cross-sectional, intact-groups research design. Peak CG-CP moment arm measures how far the subject will tolerate the whole-body CG to deviate from the ground reaction force's CP; it represents dynamic balance control. Screening test cutoff points at 16 to 18 cm peak CG-CP moment arm predicted group membership. RESULTS: The magnitude of peak CG-CP moment arm was significantly greater in HE than in DE and VH subjects (p<.01) and was not different between the DE and VH groups. The peak CG-CP moment arm occurred at the end of single stance phase in all groups. As a screening test, the peak moment arm has greater than 50% sensitivity and specificity to discriminate the HE group from the DE and VH groups with peak CG-CP moment arm cutoff points between 16 and 18 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Examining dynamic balance through the use of the CG-CP moment arm during single stance in gait initiation discriminates between nondisabled and disabled older persons and warrants further investigation as a potential tool to identify people with balance dysfunction.

  12. Teaching child psychiatric assessment skills: Using pediatric mental health screening tools.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, T M; Arthur, M E

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the workshop "Teaching Child Psychiatric Assessment Skills: Using Mental Health Screening Instruments," presented at the 35th Forum for Behavioral Sciences in Family Medicine on 20 September 2014. The goals of the presentation were (1) to teach family medicine behavioral health educators to use both general and problem-specific mental health screening tools (MHSTs) in their work with trainees to help satisfy the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) mandate for behavioral and mental health experience during family medicine residency, (2) to reflect on how MHSTs might be integrated into the flow of family medicine teaching practices, and (3) to exemplify how evidence-based methods of adult education might be used in teaching such content. One general MHST, the Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17 and one problem-specific MHST for each of the four commonest pediatric mental health issues: for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Vanderbilt; for Anxiety, the Screen for Childhood Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders; for Depression, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for teens; and for Aggression, the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale, were practiced at least twice in the context of a clinical vignette. All of the selected MHSTs are free in the public domain and available for download from the website: www.CAPPCNY.org. Participants were asked to reflect on their own office practice characteristics and consider how MHSTs might be integrated into their systems of care. This workshop could be replicated by others wishing to teach the use of MHSTs in primary care settings or teaching programs. PMID:26116547

  13. Glycated hemoglobin cannot yet be proposed as a screening tool for cystic fibrosis related diabetes.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Valérie; Coriati, Adèle; Desjardins, Katherine; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2016-03-01

    With improved life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, CF-related diabetes (CFRD) has become a major complication. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is the standard test to detect it. However, the use of OGTT is controversial, in addition to being a burden for patients and the treatment team. Research to find alternative ways of testing is ongoing. While some propose that glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) may be an effective alternative, our past results suggest otherwise. A new analysis involving the OGTT and HbA1c values of 207 patients, between 2004 and 2015, proposes that the threshold of a lower value of HbA1c of ≥5.8%(39.9mmol/mol) gives a sensitivity of 68.2% and a specificity of 60.5%. With such sensitivity to identify patients in need of an OGTT, 31.8% of CFRD diagnosis would be missed if the suggested HbA1c value of ≥5.8% was used as a screening tool to identify patients in need of OGTTs. Considering our results, we believe the HbA1c does not possess the characteristics of a suitable screening test for CFRD. PMID:26905501

  14. Microarrays as a diagnostic tool in prenatal screening strategies: ethical reflection.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Antina; Dondorp, Wybo J; Macville, Merryn V E; de Die-Smulders, Christine E M; van Lith, Jan M M; de Wert, Guido M W R

    2014-02-01

    Genomic microarray analysis is increasingly being applied as a prenatal diagnostic tool. Microarrays enable searching the genome at a higher resolution and with higher sensitivity than conventional karyotyping for identifying clinically significant chromosomal abnormalities. As yet, no clear guidelines exist on whether microarrays should be applied prenatally for all indications or only in selected cases such as ultrasound abnormalities, whether a targeted or genome-wide array should be used, and what these should include exactly. In this paper, we present some ethical considerations on the prenatal use of microarrays. There is a strong consensus, at least in Western countries, that the aim of prenatal screening for foetal abnormalities should be understood as facilitating autonomous reproductive choice for prospective parents. The tests offered should be valid and useful to reach that purpose. Against this background, we address several ethical issues raised by the prenatal application of microarrays. First, we argue that the general distinction between a targeted and a genome-wide microarray needs to be scrutinised. Then we examine whether microarrays are 'suitable tests' to serve either a screening or a diagnostic purpose. Given the wide range of findings possibly generated by microarrays, the question arises whether microarrays actually promote or interfere with autonomous reproductive decision-making. Moreover, if variants of unknown clinical significance are identified, this adds to the burden and complexity of reproductive decision-making. We suggest a qualified use of microarrays in the prenatal context. PMID:24077959

  15. CRIER, a relative analysis tool for preliminary screening of complex industrial waste and effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.D.; Brucher, S.; Melanson, P.

    1994-12-31

    CRIER (Chemrisk, a Relative Index for Evaluating Risk), a Windows{trademark}-based program for the preliminary screening of potential risk to aquatic ecosystems, has been developed at the Center of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (CECE) in Concordia. This tool, originally designed for environmental management government bodies, was designed to screen chemical compounds found in industrial aqueous effluents, for their potential to cause harm to some selected target species such as the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This revised model will be applicable in both regulatory and industrial managements as an expert system that provides an assessment based on the most up-to-date toxicological information regarding each compound. Some major characteristics include the consideration of partitioning, plume effect, bioavailability and bioconcentration capacity in producing an evaluation of potential for harm to freshwater species. When parameters are empirically unavailable from the diverse databases, QSARs are used to produce theoretical preliminary estimates of the missing values. one aspect of the model allows consideration of the combined toxicity of organic congeners. Case studies are used in demonstrating the capacities of this model.

  16. ChemScreener: A Distributed Computing Tool for Scaffold based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Muthukumarasamy; Pandit, Deepak; Vyas, Renu

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present ChemScreener, a Java-based application to perform virtual library generation combined with virtual screening in a platform-independent distributed computing environment. ChemScreener comprises a scaffold identifier, a distinct scaffold extractor, an interactive virtual library generator as well as a virtual screening module for subsequently selecting putative bioactive molecules. The virtual libraries are annotated with chemophore-, pharmacophore- and toxicophore-based information for compound prioritization. The hits selected can then be further processed using QSAR, docking and other in silico approaches which can all be interfaced within the ChemScreener framework. As a sample application, in this work scaffold selectivity, diversity, connectivity and promiscuity towards six important therapeutic classes have been studied. In order to illustrate the computational power of the application, 55 scaffolds extracted from 161 anti-psychotic compounds were enumerated to produce a virtual library comprising 118 million compounds (17 GB) and annotated with chemophore, pharmacophore and toxicophore based features in a single step which would be non-trivial to perform with many standard software tools today on libraries of this size. PMID:26138574

  17. Evaluation of a novel portable x-ray fluorescence screening tool for detection of arsenic exposure.

    PubMed

    McIver, David J; VanLeeuwen, John A; Knafla, Anthony L; Campbell, Jillian A; Alexander, Kevin M; Gherase, Mihai R; Guernsey, Judith R; Fleming, David E B

    2015-12-01

    A new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) screening tool was evaluated for its effectiveness in arsenic (As) quantification in human finger and toe nails ([Formula: see text]). Nail samples were measured for total As concentration by XRF and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Using concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), kappa, diagnostic sensitivity (Sn) and specificity (Sp), and linear regression analyses, the concentration of As measured by XRF was compared to ICP-MS. The CCC peaked for scaled values of fingernail samples, at 0.424 (95% CI: 0.065-0.784). The largest kappa value, 0.400 (95% CI:  -0.282-1.000), was found at a 1.3 μg g(-1) cut-off concentration, for fingernails only, and the largest kappa at a clinically relevant cut-off concentration of 1.0 μg g(-1) was 0.237 (95% CI:  -0.068-0.543), again in fingernails. Analyses generally showed excellent XRF Sn (up to 100%, 95% CI: 48-100%), but low Sp (up to 30% for the same analysis, 95% CI: 14-50%). Portable XRF shows some potential for use as a screening tool with fingernail samples. The difference between XRF and ICP-MS measurements decreased as sample mass increased to 30 mg. While this novel method of As detection in nails has shown relatively high agreement in some scenarios, this portable XRF is not currently considered suitable as a substitute for ICP-MS. PMID:26536141

  18. Right Ventricular Apical Flattening as an Echocardiographic Screening Tool for Right Ventricular Enlargement.

    PubMed

    Buddhe, Sujatha; Ferguson, Mark; Arya, Bhawna; Soriano, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Right ventricular dilation is a common complication after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Traditional echocardiographic assessments are imprecise due to the RV's location and complex geometry. We propose a novel echocardiographic measurement: RV apical flattening (RVAF) as a screening tool to help identify subjects with severe RV dilation. Patients with repaired TOF who had both echocardiograms and CMR's within 6-month interval at our institution were included in the study. The RVAF was measured in the four-chamber echocardiographic view as the minor length of RV cavity at the level of RV apical endocardium. Subjects were divided into two groups (group I: RVEDVi ≥ 150 ml/m(2) and group II; RVEDVi < 150 ml/m(2)). Echocardiogram and CMR data were compared between groups. A total of 75 subjects were included in the study. Mean age was 12.8 ± 3.6 years. Group I had 36 subjects, and group II had 39 subjects. The mean RVAF was significantly higher in group I (2.7 ± 0.5 cm) compared with group II (1.7 ± 0.4 cm; p < 0.001). There was significant correlation between RVAF and RVEDVi (r = 0.81; p < 0.001). By ROC analysis, an RVAF cutoff value of 2.0 cm had 94 % sensitivity and 77 % specificity in identifying severe RV dilation (area under the curve 0.95). RVAF is a simple and effective echocardiographic screening tool to help identify severe RV dilation. In conjunction with other 2D echocardiographic parameters, this technique would help further refine echocardiography-guided patient selection for timing of CMR and pulmonary valve replacement. PMID:26667958

  19. Development of the Water-Analysis Screening Tool Used in the Initial Screening for the Pennsylvania State Water Plan Update of 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    The Water Resources Planning Act, Act 220 of 2002, requires the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) to update the State Water Plan by 2008. As part of this update, a water-analysis screening tool (WAST) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the PaDEP, to provide assistance to the state in the identification of critical water-planning areas. The WAST has two primary inputs: net withdrawals and the initial screening criteria. A comprehensive water-use database that includes data from registration, estimation, discharge monitoring reports, mining data, and other sources was developed as input into the WAST. Water use in the following categories was estimated using water-use factors: residential, industrial, commercial, agriculture, and golf courses. A percentage of the 7-day, 10-year low flow is used for the initial screenings using the WAST to identify potential critical water-planning areas. This quantity, or initial screening criteria, is 50 percent of the 7-day, 10-year low flow for most streams. Using a basic water-balance equation, a screening indicator is calculated that indicates the potential influences of net withdrawals on aquatic-resource uses for watersheds generally larger than 15 square miles. Points representing outlets of these watersheds are colored-coded within the WAST to show the screening criteria for each watershed.

  20. [Alcohol related problem in the workplace: trial of a screening and brief intervention program for risky drinking in the workplace, via the Internet].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Kaoru; Shimizu, Yukiko; Izumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Hiroko; Yoshimoto, Hisashi; Ino, Aro; Ochiai, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This report describes the effect of a screening and brief intervention via the Internet (6-month Total health Management Program: TMP, a kind of life evolution program), for improvement of alcohol related problem in the workplace. At a certain company, 2,096 employees were screened.using AUDIT-C and CAGE via the Internet (electronic screening). From those screened, 17 risky drinkers were picked up. The classification of "risky drinker" was determined based on employees scoring over six points on AUDIT-C and over two points on_ AGE. These employees were then called to one-day practical seminar program (including the program of food education, music therapy, aro-atherapy, body conditioning etc.). After which, during 6 months, they were followed up via e-mail every month. After the 6-month follow up, their results of AUDIT-C were significantly decreased. Additionally, aside from the frequency of drinking at bedtime, maximum alcohol consumption per day was also significantly decreased. The Visual Analogue Scale for anxiety captured the initial screen and then again after follow-up was reduced significantly. Moreover, quality-of-life index for sleep and dinner were both significantly improved as well..These results suggest that the SBI (screening and brief intervention: TMP) is effective for reducing drinking behavior, can be used to effectively elevate quality of life. PMID:25831951

  1. Validation Analysis of a Geriatric Dehydration Screening Tool in Community-Dwelling and Institutionalized Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Susana; Silva, Joana; Severo, Milton; Inácio, Cátia; Padrão, Patrícia; Lopes, Carla; Carvalho, Joana; do Carmo, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration is common among elderly people. The aim of this study was to perform validation analysis of a geriatric dehydration-screening tool (DST) in the assessment of hydration status in elderly people. This tool was based on the DST proposed by Vivanti et al., which is composed by 11 items (four physical signs of dehydration and seven questions about thirst sensation, pain and mobility), with four questions extra about drinking habits. The resulting questionnaire was evaluated in a convenience sample comprising institutionalized (n = 29) and community-dwelling (n = 74) elderly people. Urinary parameters were assessed (24-h urine osmolality and volume) and free water reserve (FWR) was calculated. Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the scale’s dimensionality and Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure the reliability of each subscale. Construct’s validity was tested using linear regression to estimate the association between scores in each dimension and urinary parameters. Two factors emerged from factor analysis, which were named “Hydration Score” and “Pain Score”, and both subscales showed acceptable reliabilities. The “Hydration Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality in community-dwelling; and the “Pain Score” was negatively associated with 24-h urine osmolality, and positively associated with 24-h urine volume and FWR in institutionalized elderly people. PMID:25739005

  2. Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS): an efficient tool for depression screening in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Neitzer, Andrea; Sun, Sumi; Doss, Sheila; Moran, John; Schiller, Brigitte

    2012-04-01

    Depression is common in patients suffering from end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Various screening tools for depression in ESRD patients are available. This study aimed to validate the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS) with the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as depression screening tool in conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients. One hundred sixty two CHD patients were studied with both screening questionnaires. We used the Pearson Correlation Coefficient to measure the agreement between BDI-II and BDI-FS scores from 134 patients who responded to both questionnaires. Receiver operating characteristics curve and area under the curve were constructed to determine a valid BDI-FS cutoff score to identify ESRD patients at risk for depression. BDI-II and BDI-FS scores strongly correlated (Pearson r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). At a BDI-II cutoff ≥16, receiver operating characteristics showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity for the BDI-FS cutoff value of ≥4 with a sensitivity of 97.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.5%, 99.9%) and a specificity of 91.8% (95% CI: 84.5%, 96.4%). When applying the above cutoff scores, prevalence of depressive symptoms in all completed questionnaires was found to be 28.7% (BDI-II) and 30.1% (BDI-FS), respectively. The BDI-FS was found to be an efficient and effective tool for depression screening in ESRD patients which can be easily implemented in routine dialysis care. PMID:22754932

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cumulative Environmental Health Impacts in California: Evidence From a Statewide Environmental Justice Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1)

    PubMed Central

    Faust, John; August, Laura Meehan; Cendak, Rose; Wieland, Walker; Alexeeff, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We used an environmental justice screening tool (CalEnviroScreen 1.1) to compare the distribution of environmental hazards and vulnerable populations across California communities. Methods. CalEnviroScreen 1.1 combines 17 indicators created from 2004 to 2013 publicly available data into a relative cumulative impact score. We compared cumulative impact scores across California zip codes on the basis of their location, urban or rural character, and racial/ethnic makeup. We used a concentration index to evaluate which indicators were most unequally distributed with respect to race/ethnicity and poverty. Results. The unadjusted odds of living in one of the 10% most affected zip codes were 6.2, 5.8, 1.9, 1.8, and 1.6 times greater for Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and other or multiracial individuals, respectively, than for non-Hispanic Whites. Environmental hazards were more regressively distributed with respect to race/ethnicity than poverty, with pesticide use and toxic chemical releases being the most unequal. Conclusions. Environmental health hazards disproportionately burden communities of color in California. Efforts to reduce disparities in pollution burden can use simple screening tools to prioritize areas for action. PMID:26378826

  4. A brief patient self-administered substance use screening tool for primary care: two-site validation study of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS)

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M; Saitz, Richard; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use screening is widely encouraged in healthcare settings, but the lack of a screening approach that fits easily into clinical workflows has restricted its broad implementation. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify unhealthy use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. We evaluated the validity and test-retest reliability of the SUBS in adult primary care patients. Methods Adults age 18-65 were enrolled from urban safety net primary care clinics to self-administer the SUBS using touch-screen tablet computers for a test-retest reliability study (n=54) and a two-site validation study (n=586). In the test-retest reliability study, the SUBS was administered twice within a 2-week period. In the validation study, the SUBS was compared to reference standard measures, including self-reported measures and saliva drug tests. We measured test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS for detection of unhealthy use and substance use disorder for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (illicit and prescription drug misuse). Results Test-retest reliability was good or excellent for each substance class. For detection of unhealthy use, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI 93.7 to 99.5) and 95.7% (95% CI 92.4 to 97.8), respectively, for tobacco; and 85.2% (95% CI 79.3 to 89.9) and 77.0% (95% CI 72.6 to 81.1) for alcohol. For unhealthy use of illicit or prescription drugs, sensitivity was 82.5% (95% CI 75.7 to 88.0) and specificity 91.1% (95% CI 87.9 to 93.6). With respect to identifying a substance use disorder, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.7 to 100.0) and 72.1% (95% CI 67.1 to 76.8) for tobacco; 93.5% (95% CI 85.5 to 97.9) and 64.6% (95% CI 60.2 to 68.7) for alcohol; and 85.7% (95% CI 77.2 to 92.0) and 82.0% (95% CI 78.2 to 85.3) for drugs. Analyses of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated good

  5. Autism Screening Tools: An Evaluation of the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witwer, Andrea N.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study is the first to evaluate the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ) and the "Developmental Behaviour Checklist-Autism Screening Algorithm" (DBC-ASA) in the same sample of school-aged children with intellectual disability (ID) with and without Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs). Method: Parents of 49 children (36…

  6. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  7. Stereo tests as a screening tool for strabismus: which is the best choice?

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Chiara; Stoppani, Monica; Odazio, Veronica; La Spina, Carlo; Corradetti, Giulia; Bandello, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare four stereo tests (Lang I, Lang II, Titmus, and TNO) and assess their effectiveness. The main focus of this study is to identify the most useful stereo test as a challenging tool in the screening of strabismus. Patients and methods A total of 143 Caucasian subjects, 74 males (52%) and 69 females (48%), aged between 4 years and 78 years (mean age 19.09±15.12 years) were examined at our Strabismus Service (Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy) and included in this observational cross-sectional study. Subjects recruited in this study were either affected by strabismus, including microstrabismic patients, or healthy volunteers. Subjects affected by ophthalmological diseases, other than strabismus, were excluded. All patients underwent both ophthalmological and orthoptic examination, including stereo tests, Hirschberg Corneal Light Reflex Test, Worth Four-Dot Test, the 4 Prism Diopter Base-Out Test, Cover Testing, Bruckner Test, visual acuity, automated refraction under 1% tropicamide cycloplegia and thereafter, posterior pole evaluation. Results All data were processed using the IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 2.0, to perform all statistical calculations. The main finding of this study is that Lang I stereo test achieved the highest sensitivity (89.8%) and specificity (95.2%) in detecting strabismus, including microstrabismus as well, compared to all the other stereoacuity tests. Furthermore, Lang I is the stereo test with the highest positive predictive value and negative predictive value, both greater than 90%. Conclusion The stereo test with the highest sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value is Lang I. These results suggest its applicability as a screening test for strabismus in people older than 4 years. PMID:25419114

  8. Prolonged androgenic anabolic steroid (AAS) induced QT interval shortening: a suitable screening tool?

    PubMed

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Taylor, Lee; Grace, Fergal M

    2016-01-01

    Androgenic anabolic steroid (AAS) abuse is associated with changes in cardiac electrophysiology. Recently heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) has been suggested as a method of screening for AAS use in athletes despite conflicting reports. This study aimed to further investigate the effect of AAS on QTc in a cohort of long-term AAS users in whom the affects may be more pronounced. Using a cross-sectional cohort design with AAS using resistance trained athletes (AS n = 15) and a group of non-AAS using resistance trained, age matched controls (C n = 15). AS had a long history of AAS use (18 ± 2 yrs) and AS and C both had >19 years of resistance training. Participants underwent a resting electrocardiogram (ECG), from which, the QTc interval was calculated using the Bazett formula. The main outcome measure was significant differences in mean corrected QTc between groups. A secondary outcome was to calculate a QTc that best differentiated between C and AS. Results indicated that QTc was shorter in AS than in C (382.0 ± 21.01 ms versus 409 ± 18.77 ms for AS and C respectively p < 0.001). Chi squared analyses revealed a greater incidence of QTc < 380 ms in AS versus C p < 0.01, specificity 93% sensitivity 60%). In conclusion these results supports previous findings that AAS use causes a reduction in QTc, however, the specificity and sensitivity in our sample is lower than reported previously and precludes use as a screening tool. PMID:26059219

  9. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D; Yeom, Jin S; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3-C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3-C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered "positive" when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  10. Spinolaminar Line Test as a Screening Tool for C1 Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Oshima, Yasushi; Kelly, Michael P.; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Moon Soo; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Vo, Katie D.; Yeom, Jin S.; Takeshita, Katsushi; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective cohort. Objective To clarify the sensitivity of C3–C2 spinolaminar line test as a screening tool for the stenosis of C1 space available for the cord (SAC). Methods Spine clinic records from April 2005 to August 2011 were reviewed. The C1 SAC was measured on lateral radiographs, and the relative positions between a C1 posterior arch and the C3–C2 spinolaminar line were examined and considered “positive” when the C1 ring lay ventral to the line. Computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were utilized to measure precise diameters of C1 and C2 SAC and to check the existence of spinal cord compression. Results Four hundred eighty-seven patients were included in this study. There were 246 men and 241 women, with an average age of 53 years (range: 18 to 86). The mean SAC at C1 on radiographs was 21.2 mm (range: 13.5 to 28.2). Twenty-one patients (4.3%) were positive for the spinolaminar line test; all of these patients had C1 SAC of 19.4 mm or less. Eight patients (1.6%) had C1 SAC smaller than C2 on CT examination; all of these patients had a positive spinolaminar test, with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%). MRI analysis revealed that two of the eight patients with a smaller C1 SAC had spinal cord compression at the C1 level. Conclusion Although spinal cord compression at the level of atlas without instability is a rare condition, the spinolaminar line can be used as a screening of C1 stenosis. PMID:27190740

  11. Evaluation of fetal echocardiography as a routine antenatal screening tool for detection of congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Krishnananda; Shetty, Ranjan; Narayan, Pratap Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background Fetal echocardiography plays a pivotal role in identifying the congenital heart defects (CHDs) in utero. Though foetal echocardiography is mostly reserved for high risk pregnant women, its role as a routine prenatal screening tool still needs to be defined. Performing foetal echocardiography based on only these indications can lead to a significant numbers of CHD cases going undetected who will be deprived of further management leading to increased early neonatal mortalities. The aim of this study is to assess the incidence of CHDs by fetal echocardiography in an unselected population of pregnant women in comparison with pregnant women with conventional high risk factors for CHD. Methods This study enrolled consecutive pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic between 2008 and 2012 in a tertiary care hospital. These pregnant women were categorized into two groups: high risk group included pregnant women with traditional risk factors for CHD as laid down by Pediatric Council of the American Society of Echocardiography and low risk group. Detailed fetal 2 D echocardiography was done. Results A total of 1,280 pregnant women were included in study. The 118 women were categorized as the high risk group while remaining 1,162 were included in the low risk group. Twenty six cases of CHDs were detected based on abnormal foetal echocardiography (20.3 per 1,000). Two of the 26 cases of CHD occurred in high risk group whereas the remaining 24 occurred in low risk pregnancy. The difference in the incidence of CHDs between the two groups was not significant statistically (P=0.76). Conclusions Our study shows no difference in incidence of CHDs between pregnancies associated with high risk factors compared to low risk pregnancies. So we advocate foetal echocardiography should be included as a part of routine antenatal screening and all pregnant women irrespective of risk factors for CHDs. PMID:26885491

  12. Formaldehyde in Alcoholic Beverages: Large Chemical Survey Using Purpald Screening Followed by Chromotropic Acid Spectrophotometry with Multivariate Curve Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Jendral, Julien A.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    A strategy for analyzing formaldehyde in beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol was developed, and 508 samples from worldwide origin were analyzed. In the first step, samples are qualitatively screened using a simple colorimetric test with the purpald reagent, which is extremely sensitive for formaldehyde (detection limit 0.1 mg/L). 210 samples (41%) gave a positive purpald reaction. In the second step, formaldehyde in positive samples is confirmed by quantitative spectrophotometry of the chromotropic acid-formaldehyde derivative combined with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS). Calculation of UV-VIS and 13C NMR spectra confirmed the monocationic dibenzoxanthylium structure as the product of the reaction and disproved the widely cited para,para-quinoidal structure. Method validation for the spectrophotometric procedure showed a detection limit of 0.09 mg/L and a precision of 4.2–8.2% CV. In total, 132 samples (26%) contained formaldehyde with an average of 0.27 mg/L (range 0–14.4 mg/L). The highest incidence occurred in tequila (83%), Asian spirits (59%), grape marc (54%), and brandy (50%). Our survey showed that only 9 samples (1.8%) had formaldehyde levels above the WHO IPCS tolerable concentration of 2.6 mg/L. PMID:21760790

  13. Virtual Screening of Phytochemicals to Novel Target (HAT) Rtt109 in Pneumocystis Jirovecii using Bioinformatics Tools

    PubMed Central

    Adithavarman, Abhinand Ponneri; Dakshinamoorthi, Anusha; David, Darling Chellathai; Ragunath, Padmavathi Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pneumocystis jirovecii is a fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV and other immunosuppressed patients. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with the currently available antifungals is challenging and associated with considerable adverse effects. There is a need to develop drugs against novel targets with minimal human toxicities. Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) Rtt109 is a potential therapeutic target in Pneumocystis jirovecii species. HAT is linked to transcription and is required to acetylate conserved lysine residues on histone proteins by transferring an acetyl group from acetyl CoA to form e-N-acetyl lysine. Therefore, inhibitors of HAT can be useful therapeutic options in Pneumocystis pneumonia. Aim To screen phytochemicals against (HAT) Rtt109 using bioinformatics tool. Materials and Methods The tertiary structure of Pneumocystis jirovecii (HAT) Rtt109 was modeled by Homology Modeling. The ideal template for modeling was obtained by performing Psi BLAST of the protein sequence. Rtt109-AcCoA/Vps75 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (PDB structure 3Q35) was chosen as the template. The target protein was modeled using Swiss Modeler and validated using Ramachandran plot and Errat 2. Comprehensive text mining was performed to identify phytochemical compounds with antipneumonia and fungicidal properties and these compounds were filtered based on Lipinski’s Rule of 5. The chosen compounds were subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109 using Molegro Virtual Docker 4.5. Osiris Property Explorer and Open Tox Server were used to predict ADME-T properties of the chosen phytochemicals. Results Tertiary structure model of HAT Rtt 109 had a ProSA score of -6.57 and Errat 2 score of 87.34. Structure validation analysis by Ramachandran plot for the model revealed 97% of amino acids were in the favoured region. Of all the phytochemicals subjected to virtual screening against the target protein (HAT) Rtt109, baicalin

  14. Tool for Rapid & Easy Identification of High Risk Diabetic Foot: Validation & Clinical Pilot of the Simplified 60 Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Woodbury, M. Gail; Sibbald, R. Gary; Ostrow, Brian; Persaud, Reneeka; Lowe, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Most diabetic foot amputations are caused by ulcers on the skin of the foot i.e. diabetic foot ulcers. Early identification of patients at high risk for diabetic foot ulcers is crucial. The ‘Simplified 60-Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool’ has been designed to rapidly detect high risk diabetic feet, allowing for timely identification and referral of patients needing treatment. This study aimed to determine the clinical performance and inter-rater reliability of ‘Simplified 60 Second Diabetic Foot Screening Tool’ in order to evaluate its applicability for routine screening. Methods and Findings The tool was independently tested by n=12 assessors with n=18 Guyanese patients with diabetes. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha for each of the assessment items. A minimum value of 0.60 was considered acceptable. Reliability scores of the screening tool assessment items were: ‘monofilament test’ 0.98; ‘active ulcer’ 0.97; ‘previous amputation’ 0.97; ‘previous ulcer’ 0.97; ‘fixed ankle’ 0.91; ‘deformity’ 0.87; ‘callus’ 0.87; ‘absent pulses’ 0.87; ‘fixed toe’ 0.80; ‘blisters’ 0.77; ‘ingrown nail’ 0.72; and ‘fissures’ 0.55. The item ‘stiffness in the toe or ankle’ was removed as it was observed in only 1.3% of patients. The item ‘fissures’ was also removed due to low inter-rater reliability. Clinical performance was assessed via a pilot study utilizing the screening tool on n=1,266 patients in an acute care setting in Georgetown, Guyana. In total, 48% of patients either had existing diabetic foot ulcers or were found to be at high risk for developing ulcers. Conclusions Clinicians in low and middle income countries such as Guyana can use the Simplified 60-Second Diabetic Screening Tool to facilitate early detection and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Implementation of this screening tool has the potential to decrease diabetes related disability and

  15. A Comparison of Five Brief Screening Tools for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the USA and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Joska, J A; Witten, J; Thomas, K G; Robertson, C; Casson-Crook, M; Roosa, H; Creighton, J; Lyons, J; McArthur, J; Sacktor, N C

    2016-08-01

    Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the mini-mental state examination, International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), Montreal cognitive assessment, Simioni symptom questionnaire and cognitive assessment tool-rapid version (CAT-rapid) to a gold standard neuropsychological battery. Antiretroviral-experienced participants from Cape Town, South Africa, and Baltimore, USA, were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the five tools, as well as those of the combined IHDS and CAT-rapid, were established using 2 × 2 contingency tables and ROC analysis. More than a third (65165) had symptomatic HAND. In detecting HIV-D, the CAT-Rapid had good sensitivity (94 %) and weak specificity (52 %) (cut-point ≤10), while the IHDS showed fair sensitivity (68 %) and good specificity (86 %) (cut-point ≤10). The combined IHDS and CAT-rapid showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-D at a cut-off score of ≤16 (out of 20; 89 and 82 %). No tool was adequate in screening for any HAND. The combination IHDS and CAT-rapid tool appears to be a good screener for HIV-D but is only fairly sensitive and poorly specific in screening for any HAND. Screening for milder forms of HAND continues to be a clinical challenge. PMID:26860536

  16. OPTIMAL WELL LOCATOR (OWL): A SCREENING TOOL FOR EVALUATING LOCATIONS OF MONITORING WELLS: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 1.2

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Optimal Well Locator ( OWL) program was designed and developed by USEPA to be a screening tool to evaluate and optimize the placement of wells in long term monitoring networks at small sites. The first objective of the OWL program is to allow the user to visualize the change ...

  17. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-STD-0014 Pennington*, D.W., and Bare*, J.C. Comparison of Chemical Screening and Ranking Approaches: The Waste Minimization Prioritization Tool versus Toxic Equivalency Potentials. Risk Analysis (Anderson, E.L. (Ed.), Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers) 21 (5):897-912 (2001)...

  18. The Dimensionality of Language Ability in Four-Year-Olds: Construct Validation of a Language Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klem, Marianne; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric; Hagtvet, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian government recommends a systematic language assessment of all four-year-olds as part of the general health surveillance program for the purpose of identifying children at risk of language delay. This study aimed to investigate the construct validity of the recommended language screening tool called LANGUAGE4 [SPRÅK4] by first…

  19. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  20. Screening for addiction in patients with chronic pain and "problematic" substance use: evaluation of a pilot assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Compton, P; Darakjian, J; Miotto, K

    1998-12-01

    Assessing for the presence of addiction in the chronic pain patient receiving chronic opioid analgesia is a challenging clinical task. This paper presents a recently developed screening tool for addictive disease in chronic pain patients, and pilot efficacy data describing its ability to do so. In a small sample of patients (n = 52) referred from a multidisciplinary pain center for "problematic" medication use, responses to the screening questionnaire were compared between patients who met combined diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder and those who did not, as assessed by a trained addiction medicine specialist. Responses of addicted patients significantly differed from those of nonaddicted patients on multiple screening items, with the two groups easily differentiated by total questionnaire score. Further, three key screening indicators were identified as excellent predictors for the presence of addictive disease in this sample of chronic pain patients. PMID:9879160

  1. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infection among active injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dawn K.; Pan, Yi; Rose, Charles E.; Pals, Sherri L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To incorporate preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical or intensive behavioral interventions into the care of injection drug users, healthcare providers need validated, rapid, risk screening tools for identifying persons at highest risk of incident HIV infection. Methods To develop and validate a brief screening tool for assessing the risk of contracting HIV (ARCH), we included behavioral and HIV test data from 1904 initially HIV-uninfected men and women enrolled and followed in the ALIVE prospective cohort study between 1988 and 2008. Using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we identified significant predictors of incident HIV infection, then rescaled and summed their regression coefficients to create a risk score. Results The final logistic regression model included age, engagement in a methadone maintenance program, and a composite injection risk score obtained by counting the number of the following five behaviors reported during the past six months: injection of heroin, injection of cocaine, sharing a cooker, sharing needles, or visiting a shooting gallery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.720, possible scores on index ranged from 0 to 100 and a score ≥46 had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 42.5%, appropriate for a screening tool. Discussion We developed an easy to administer 7-question screening tool with a cutoff that is predictive of incident HIV infection in a large prospective cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore. The ARCH-IDU screening tool can be used to prioritize persons who are injecting illicit drugs for consideration of PrEP and other intensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25961495

  2. Identifying the best scenario for using schematic organizers as integration tools for alcohol-related information.

    PubMed

    Peel, J L; Dansereau, D F; Dees, S

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine scenarios for using two schematic organizers--schematic knowledge maps and conceptual matrices--in integrating episodic and semantic knowledge about alcohol. Seventy students from undergraduate general psychology classes participated for course credit. Participants were assigned to either a schematic organizer group or an essay writing group. These groups were subdivided further into two treatment sequences: episodic/semantic and semantic/episodic. The episodic activity required participants to complete materials using their own alcohol-related experiences, whereas the semantic activity required participants to annotate expert materials. Assessment measures used were consumer-satisfaction questionnaires and free-recall tests. While no preferences were established for any one scenario, the episodic activities were rated higher than the semantic activities regardless of integration sequence. The semantic/episodic integration scenario did produce higher recall scores for the expert information. PMID:8487138

  3. Electronic Structure Modeling as a Screening Tool for Molybdenum Alloy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Clint B.; Wimmer, Erich

    2003-03-01

    Rice-Thomson theory^1 provides a gross measure of the tendency of a material to manifest ductile behavior, based on a comparison of the nucleation energy for a dislocation in the preferred slip direction and the surface energy density in the slip plane. (110)[111] Rice-Thomson parameter values were calculated for pure Mo and for selected real and hypothetical Mo_0.75X_0.25 body centered cubic (bcc) alloys using the VASP electronic structure code^2 with Projector Augmented Wave potentials^3. These calculations provide a basis for ranking the relative efficacy of prospective ductilizing agents (X) in Mo on an atom-for-atom basis. It is concluded that the Rice-Thomson formalism, in conjunction with electronic structure computational tools, is a useful starting point for understanding the known ductilizing role of rhenium in Mo alloys and for screening potential ductilizing additives. Results to date also support a hypothesis that metallic additives that are hexagonal close-packed in their pure state tend to weaken the Mo bcc lattice against shear in the (110) plane, thus reducing the critical dislocation nucleation energy and promoting ductility. 1. J. R. Rice and R. Thomson, Phil. Mag. 29, 78(1974) 2. G. Kresse and J. Furthmüller, Phys. Rev. B 54, 11169 (1996) 3. G. Kresse and D. Joubert, Phys. Rev. B 59, 1758 (1999)

  4. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  5. Evaluation of Radiomorphometric Indices in Panoramic Radiograph – A Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Bajoria, Atul Anand; ML, Asha; Kamath, Geetha; Babshet, Medha; Patil, Preeti; Sukhija, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Background : Mandibular cortical indices, like the mandibular cortical index (MCI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mental index (MI), antegonial index (AI) and gonial index (GI) have been developed to assess and quantify the quality of mandibular bone mass. Aim and Objectives : The aim of this pilot study was to measure the radiomorphometric indices in a digital panoramic radiograph and find the inter-relationship of the indices with age and sex of the patients. Materials and Method : A total of 23 randomly selected patients were included in the study. Panoramic radiograph of each patient was taken and radiomorphometric indices were determined. Results : There was 69.57% agreement between MI and PMI which was significant. Similarly 78.26% agreement was seen between AI and MI which was significant. In contrast 30.43%, 52.17% and 56.52% agreement was observed while comparing GI with PMI, MI and AI respectively. Conclusion : MCI, PMI, AI and MI can be effectively measured on a panoramic radiograph, hence could be used as a screening tool for determining osteoporosis. All indices have a negative correlation with age and a significant difference between the younger and older age groups. All indices were significantly lower in females when compared to males of the same age group. PMID:26464600

  6. Parameter-space screening: a powerful tool for high-throughput crystal structure determination.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Jie; Lin, Dawei; Tempel, Wolfram; Praissman, Jeremy L; Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng

    2005-05-01

    The determination of protein structures on a genomic scale requires both computing capacity and efficiency increases at many stages along the complex process. By combining bioinformatics workflow-management techniques, cluster-based computing and popular crystallographic structure-determination software packages, an efficient and powerful new tool for structural biology/genomics has been developed. Using the workflow manager and a simple web interface, the researcher can, in a few easy steps, set up hundreds of structure-determination jobs, each using a slightly different set of program input parameters, thus efficiently screening parameter space for the optimal input-parameter combination, i.e. a set of parameters that leads to a successful structure determination. Upon completion, results from the programs are harvested, analyzed, sorted based on success and presented to the user via the web interface. This approach has been applied with success in more than 30 cases. Examples of successful structure determinations based on single-wavelength scattering (SAS) are described and include cases where the 'rational' crystallographer-based selection of input parameters values had failed. PMID:15858261

  7. The Sleep Condition Indicator: a clinical screening tool to evaluate insomnia disorder

    PubMed Central

    Espie, Colin A; Kyle, Simon D; Hames, Peter; Gardani, Maria; Fleming, Leanne; Cape, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the development and psychometric validation of a brief scale (the Sleep Condition Indicator (SCI)) to evaluate insomnia disorder in everyday clinical practice. Design The SCI was evaluated across five study samples. Content validity, internal consistency and concurrent validity were investigated. Participants 30 941 individuals (71% female) completed the SCI along with other descriptive demographic and clinical information. Setting Data acquired on dedicated websites. Results The eight-item SCI (concerns about getting to sleep, remaining asleep, sleep quality, daytime personal functioning, daytime performance, duration of sleep problem, nights per week having a sleep problem and extent troubled by poor sleep) had robust internal consistency (α≥0.86) and showed convergent validity with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index. A two-item short-form (SCI-02: nights per week having a sleep problem, extent troubled by poor sleep), derived using linear regression modelling, correlated strongly with the SCI total score (r=0.90). Conclusions The SCI has potential as a clinical screening tool for appraising insomnia symptoms against Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria. PMID:24643168

  8. Chemoenzymatic Dynamic Kinetic Resolution: A Powerful Tool for the Preparation of Enantiomerically Pure Alcohols and Amines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) constitutes a convenient and efficient method to access enantiomerically pure alcohol and amine derivatives. This Perspective highlights the work carried out within this field during the past two decades and pinpoints important avenues for future research. First, the Perspective will summarize the more developed area of alcohol DKR, by delineating the way from the earliest proof-of-concept protocols to the current state-of-the-art systems that allows for the highly efficient and selective preparation of a wide range of enantiomerically pure alcohol derivatives. Thereafter, the Perspective will focus on the more challenging DKR of amines, by presenting the currently available homogeneous and heterogeneous methods and their respective limitations. In these two parts, significant attention will be dedicated to the design of efficient racemization methods as an important means of developing milder DKR protocols. In the final part of the Perspective, a brief overview of the research that has been devoted toward improving enzymes as biocatalysts is presented. PMID:25730714

  9. Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution: a powerful tool for the preparation of enantiomerically pure alcohols and amines.

    PubMed

    Verho, Oscar; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-04-01

    Chemoenzymatic dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) constitutes a convenient and efficient method to access enantiomerically pure alcohol and amine derivatives. This Perspective highlights the work carried out within this field during the past two decades and pinpoints important avenues for future research. First, the Perspective will summarize the more developed area of alcohol DKR, by delineating the way from the earliest proof-of-concept protocols to the current state-of-the-art systems that allows for the highly efficient and selective preparation of a wide range of enantiomerically pure alcohol derivatives. Thereafter, the Perspective will focus on the more challenging DKR of amines, by presenting the currently available homogeneous and heterogeneous methods and their respective limitations. In these two parts, significant attention will be dedicated to the design of efficient racemization methods as an important means of developing milder DKR protocols. In the final part of the Perspective, a brief overview of the research that has been devoted toward improving enzymes as biocatalysts is presented. PMID:25730714

  10. Chemical assessment state of the science: Evaluation of 32 decision-support tools used to screen and prioritize chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Alison M; Fung, Mai; Panko, Julie; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Hitchcock, Kristen; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Banducci, Amber; Jacobsen, Megan; Abelmann, Anders; Shay, Erin

    2015-04-01

    The last decade has seen an increased focus on evaluating the safety and sustainability of chemicals in consumer and industrial products. In order to effectively and accurately evaluate safety and sustainability, tools are needed to characterize hazard, exposure, and risk pertaining to products and processes. Because many of these tools will be used to identify problematic chemistries, and because many have potential applications in various steps of an alternatives analysis, the limitations and capabilities of available tools should be understood by users so that, ultimately, potential chemical risk is accurately reflected. In our study, we examined 32 chemical characterization tools from government, industry, academia, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The tools we studied were diverse, and varied widely in their scope and assessment. As such, they were separated into five categories for comparison: 1) Screening and Prioritization; 2) Database Utilization; 3) Hazard Assessment; 4) Exposure and Risk Assessment; and 5) Certification and Labeling. Each tool was scored based on our weighted set of criteria, and then compared to other tools in the same category. Ten tools received a high score in one or more categories; 24 tools received a medium score in one or more categories, and five tools received a low score in one or more categories. Although some tools were placed into more than one category, no tool encompassed all five of the assessment categories. Though many of the tools evaluated may be useful for providing guidance for hazards - and, in some cases, exposure - few tools characterize risk. To our knowledge, this study is the first to critically evaluate a large set of chemical assessment tools and provide an understanding of their strengths and limitations. PMID:25377590

  11. The impact of a short depression and anxiety screening tool in epilepsy care in primary health care settings in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Mbewe, Edward K; Uys, Leana R; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2013-11-01

    Up to 60% of the 50 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide have depression and anxiety and 80% of PWE live in low-income regions. Common psychiatric comorbidities are often unrecognized and undertreated. We developed and validated a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety at primary healthcare clinics in Zambia in which the baseline detection rate among PWE was 1%. We trained primary care clinic workers in selected clinics to use this screening tool. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 120 consecutive PWE who received care one month after training. Detection improved from 1% to 49%, and treatment was frequently initiated. Of the 120 screened, 59 (49.2%) scored above cutoff point of 18. Of these persons, 43 (73.0%) were positive for depression, 16 (23.0%) were positive for anxiety, 38 (64.4%) received counseling, 18 (30.5%) received antidepressants, and 3 (5.1%) were referred to a psychiatrist. Use of this screening tool resulted in improved mental health care for PWE. PMID:24062482

  12. The Impact of a Short Depression and Anxiety Screening Tool in Epilepsy Care in Primary Health Care Settings in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Mbewe, Edward K.; Uys, Leana R.; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2013-01-01

    Up to 60% of the 50 million persons with epilepsy (PWE) worldwide have depression and anxiety and 80% of PWE live in low-income regions. Common psychiatric comorbidities are often unrecognized and undertreated. We developed and validated a 10-item screening tool for the detection of depression and anxiety at primary healthcare clinics in Zambia in which the baseline detection rate among PWE was 1%. We trained primary care clinic workers in selected clinics to use this screening tool. A retrospective chart review was conducted for 120 consecutive PWE who received care one month after training. Detection improved from 1% to 49%, and treatment was frequently initiated. Of the 120 screened, 59 (49.2%) scored above cutoff point of 18. Of these persons, 43 (73.0%) were positive for depression, 16 (23.0%) were positive for anxiety, 38 (64.4%) received counseling, 18 (30.5%) received antidepressants, and 3 (5.1%) were referred to a psychiatrist. Use of this screening tool resulted in improved mental health care for PWE. PMID:24062482

  13. The painDETECT project - far more than a screening tool on neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Freynhagen, Rainer; Tölle, Thomas R; Gockel, Ulrich; Baron, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Background and objectives The painDETECT questionnaire (PD-Q), a simple and reliable screening questionnaire of neuropathic pain, was developed in 2004 in cooperation with the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. The initial aim was to implement quality management and to improve the situation of neuropathic pain (NeP) patients in Germany. The PD-Q proved immediately successful and was translated into and validated in multiple languages. Subsequently a comprehensive electronic system (PD) comprising various validated questionnaires with regard to pain typical comorbidities, such as function, sleep, mood or anxiety, was implemented Germany wide. We aimed to provide a comprehensive overview about the development and validation as well as the application of the PD-Q in various clinical conditions. Methods This overview is based on a literature search on English full-text papers using the term 'painDETECT' in Medline and PubMed covering the time period from 2006 to September 2015, amended with further publications cited in the retrieved publications or provided by the questionnaire developers. Results PD-Q as screening tool for NeP described in patients with lower back pain (8 studies), rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis (10), thoracotomy (2 studies), tumor diseases (4 studies), fibromyalgia (4 studies), diverse musculoskeletal conditions (12 studies) and diverse other conditions (10 studies). In addition, the PD-Q was used in 9 studies that investigated the effect of drugs for the treatment of patients with a NeP component. Conclusion To date more than 300,000 patients were assessed, providing the basis for one of the world's largest datasets for chronic pain. Among others the extensive pool of PD-Q data triggered the idea of subgrouping patients on the basis of their individual sensory profiles which might in the future lead to a stratified treatment approach and ultimately to personalized therapy. Started as a healthcare utilization project in Germany

  14. Comparisons of Different Screening Tools for Identifying Fracture/Osteoporosis Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older People

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Chen, Yi-Ju; Cheng, Chui-Hsuan; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age Bulk One or Never Estrogens (ABONE), body weight criterion (BWC), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Garvan fracture risk calculator (GARVAN), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), among older men and women in Taiwan. Using the femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-score as an external criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each tool were calculated. The ability of these tools to predict injurious falls was examined. A principal component analysis was applied to understand whether these tools were measuring the same underlying construct. The FRAX, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in men, while the GARVAN, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in women. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE tools in both men and women were 100%, ≥90%, and 0.0, respectively; the specificity and positive predictive value and likelihood ratio were far from satisfactory. The GARVAN displayed the best predictive ability of a fall in both men (AUCs, 0.653–0.686) and women (AUCs, 0.560–0.567), despite being smaller in women. The 9 screening tools and 2 central DXA measurements assessed 5 different factors, while the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE measured the same one. Simple self-assessment tools can serve as initial screening instruments to rule out persons who have osteoporosis; however, these tools may measure a different construct

  15. Comparisons of Different Screening Tools for Identifying Fracture/Osteoporosis Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older People.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sy-Jou; Chen, Yi-Ju; Cheng, Chui-Hsuan; Hwang, Hei-Fen; Chen, Chih-Yi; Lin, Mau-Roung

    2016-05-01

    A prospective study was conducted to compare criterion, predictive, and construct validities of 9 fracture/osteoporosis assessment tools, including calcaneal quantitative ultrasonography (QUS), Age Bulk One or Never Estrogens (ABONE), body weight criterion (BWC), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), Garvan fracture risk calculator (GARVAN), Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI), Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS), Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE), among older men and women in Taiwan.Using the femoral neck dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-score as an external criterion, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for each tool were calculated. The ability of these tools to predict injurious falls was examined. A principal component analysis was applied to understand whether these tools were measuring the same underlying construct.The FRAX, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in men, while the GARVAN, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE had AUCs of ≥0.8 in women. The sensitivity, negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio of the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE tools in both men and women were 100%, ≥90%, and 0.0, respectively; the specificity and positive predictive value and likelihood ratio were far from satisfactory. The GARVAN displayed the best predictive ability of a fall in both men (AUCs, 0.653-0.686) and women (AUCs, 0.560-0.567), despite being smaller in women. The 9 screening tools and 2 central DXA measurements assessed 5 different factors, while the ABONE, BWC, ORAI, OSIRIS, OSTA, and SCORE measured the same one.Simple self-assessment tools can serve as initial screening instruments to rule out persons who have osteoporosis; however, these tools may measure a different construct other than fracture

  16. Risk assessment of cattle handling on pasture using work environment screening tool.

    PubMed

    Geng, Qiuqing; Field, William E; Salomon, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Working with beef cattle in an open area or while on pasture has been shown to expose workers to a high risk of work-related injury. Prior research on this problem has been conducted using mail surveys, interviews, self-reporting of work practices and injury experiences, and summaries of published injury data, including media reports. Prior research on injury prevention has largely focused on worker education in a specific cultural or geographical setting. A pilot study was conducted to test the cross-cultural usability of the Working Environment Screening Tool in Agriculture (WEST-AG), a modification of the WEST, developed for Swedish industrial applications, to assess risk factors associated with farmers working with cattle being raised largely on pasture as compared with cattle raised in confined feeding operations. Swedish and English language versions of WEST-AG were developed and pilot-tested on a convenient sample of eight Swedish and eight Indiana farms that raise beef cattle primarily on pasture. On-site observations were conducted independently by Swedish and US agricultural safety professionals and documented using photography and a 15-risk-of-injury component on an 11-degree linear scale. Comparisons were made between independent observations documented from the Swedish and Indiana application of the WEST, including collective assessment of photographic record, and the results reported. Key findings included (a) a higher level of observed risks on Indiana farms studied as compared with their Swedish counterparts; (b) high levels of worker exposure to cattle, especially mature breeding bulls, on both sets of farms; (c) a higher frequency of self-reported farm-related injuries than anticipated on both Swedish and Indiana farms; (d) substantially different economic, social, cultural, and regulatory forces that influence small-operation Swedish and Indiana beef producers' decisions regarding adoption of safer work practices, including use of new and safer

  17. Microbial water pollution: a screening tool for initial catchment-scale assessment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Kay, D; Anthony, S; Crowther, J; Chambers, B J; Nicholson, F A; Chadwick, D; Stapleton, C M; Wyer, M D

    2010-11-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive requires that Management Plans are developed for individual River Basin Districts. From the point of view of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs), there is a critical need for screening tools that can provide a rapid assessment of the likely FIO concentrations and fluxes within catchments under base- and high-flow conditions, and of the balance ('source apportionment') between agriculture- and sewage-derived sources. Accordingly, the present paper reports on: (1) the development of preliminary generic models, using water quality and land cover data from previous UK catchment studies for assessing FIO concentrations, fluxes and source apportionment within catchments during the summer bathing season; (2) the calibration of national land use data, against data previously used in the models; and (3) provisional FIO concentration and source-apportionment assessments for England and Wales. The models clearly highlighted the crucial importance of high-flow conditions for the flux of FIOs within catchments. At high flow, improved grassland (and associated livestock) was the key FIO source; FIO loadings derived from catchments with high proportions of improved grassland were shown to be as high as from urbanized catchments; and in many rural catchments, especially in NW and SW England and Wales, which are important areas of lowland livestock (especially dairy) farming, ≥ 40% of FIOs was assessed to be derived from agricultural sources. In contrast, under base-flow conditions, when there was little or no runoff from agricultural land, urban (i.e. sewerage-related) sources were assessed to dominate, and even in rural areas the majority of FIOs were attributed to urban sources. The results of the study demonstrate the potential of this type of approach, particularly in light of climate change and the likelihood of more high-flow events, in underpinning informed policy development and prioritization of investment. PMID:19717181

  18. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with chemometrics as a powerful predictive tool for ß-thalassemia screening.

    PubMed

    Risoluti, Roberta; Materazzi, Stefano; Sorrentino, Francesco; Maffei, Laura; Caprari, Patrizia

    2016-10-01

    β-Thalassemia is a hemoglobin genetic disorder characterized by the absence or reduced β-globin chain synthesis, one of the constituents of the adult hemoglobin tetramer. In this study the possibility of using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) followed by chemometrics as a new approach for β-thalassemia detection is proposed. Blood samples from patients with β-thalassemia were analyzed by the TG7 thermobalance and the resulting curves were compared to those typical of healthy individuals. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the correlation between the hematological parameters and the thermogravimetric results. The thermogravimetric profiles of blood samples from β-thalassemia patients were clearly distinct from those of healthy individuals as result of the different quantities of water content and corpuscular fraction. The hematological overview showed significant decreases in the values of red blood cell indices and an increase in red cell distribution width value in thalassemia subjects when compared with those of healthy subjects. The implementation of a predictive model based on Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) for β-thalassemia diagnosis, was performed and validated. This model permitted the discrimination of anemic patients and healthy individuals and was able to detect thalassemia in clinically heterogeneous patients as in the presence of δβ-thalassemia and β-thalassemia combined with Hb Lepore. TGA and Chemometrics are capable of predicting ß-thalassemia syndromes using only a few microliters of blood without any pretreatment and with an hour of analysis time. A fast, rapid and cost-effective diagnostic tool for the β-thalassemia screening is proposed. PMID:27474327

  19. Development of a Screening Tool for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children Using the Phone Oximeter™

    PubMed Central

    Garde, Ainara; Dehkordi, Parastoo; Karlen, Walter; Wensley, David; Ansermino, J. Mark; Dumont, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can lead to daytime sleepiness, growth failure and developmental delay in children. Polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard to diagnose SDB, is a highly resource-intensive test, confined to the sleep laboratory. Aim To combine the blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) characterization and cardiac modulation, quantified by pulse rate variability (PRV), to identify children with SDB using the Phone Oximeter, a device integrating a pulse oximeter with a smartphone. Methods Following ethics approval and informed consent, 160 children referred to British Columbia Children's Hospital for overnight PSG were recruited. A second pulse oximeter sensor applied to the finger adjacent to the one used for standard PSG was attached to the Phone Oximeter to record overnight pulse oximetry (SpO2 and photoplethysmogram (PPG)) alongside the PSG. Results We studied 146 children through the analysis of the SpO2 pattern, and PRV as an estimate of heart rate variability calculated from the PPG. SpO2 variability and SpO2 spectral power at low frequency, was significantly higher in children with SDB due to the modulation provoked by airway obstruction during sleep (p-value ). PRV analysis reflected a significant augmentation of sympathetic activity provoked by intermittent hypoxia in SDB children. A linear classifier was trained with the most discriminating features to identify children with SDB. The classifier was validated with internal and external cross-validation, providing a high negative predictive value (92.6%) and a good balance between sensitivity (88.4%) and specificity (83.6%). Combining SpO2 and PRV analysis improved the classification performance, providing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 88%, beyond the 82% achieved using SpO2 analysis alone. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the implementation of this algorithm in the Phone Oximeter will provide an improved portable, at-home screening tool, with the

  20. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Subjective Response to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a two-site placebo-controlled alcohol administration study (N=215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (1) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition (2) good internal consistency, (3) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use, and (4) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal positive subscales. PMID:23647036

  1. PopulationProfiler: A Tool for Population Analysis and Visualization of Image-Based Cell Screening Data

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Damian J.; Wählby, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Image-based screening typically produces quantitative measurements of cell appearance. Large-scale screens involving tens of thousands of images, each containing hundreds of cells described by hundreds of measurements, result in overwhelming amounts of data. Reducing per-cell measurements to the averages across the image(s) for each treatment leads to loss of potentially valuable information on population variability. We present PopulationProfiler—a new software tool that reduces per-cell measurements to population statistics. The software imports measurements from a simple text file, visualizes population distributions in a compact and comprehensive way, and can create gates for subpopulation classes based on control samples. We validate the tool by showing how PopulationProfiler can be used to analyze the effect of drugs that disturb the cell cycle, and compare the results to those obtained with flow cytometry. PMID:26987120

  2. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze serious games outcomes: A pilot study for a new cognitive screening tool.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Vanessa; Mitache, Andrei V; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Muri, Rene; Mosimann, Urs P; Nef, Tobias

    2015-08-01

    Computer games for a serious purpose - so called serious games can provide additional information for the screening and diagnosis of cognitive impairment. Moreover, they have the advantage of being an ecological tool by involving daily living tasks. However, there is a need for better comprehensive designs regarding the acceptance of this technology, as the target population is older adults that are not used to interact with novel technologies. Moreover given the complexity of the diagnosis and the need for precise assessment, an evaluation of the best approach to analyze the performance data is required. The present study examines the usability of a new screening tool and proposes several new outlines for data analysis. PMID:26736513

  3. SPATIALLY-EXPLICIT BAT IMPACT SCREENING TOOL FOR WIND TURBINE SITING

    SciTech Connect

    Versar, Inc.; Exponent, Inc.

    2013-10-28

    As the U.S. seeks to increase energy production from renewable energy sources, development of wind power resources continues to grow. One of the most important ecological issues restricting wind energy development, especially the siting of wind turbines, is the potential adverse effect on bats. High levels of bat fatality have been recorded at a number of wind energy facilities, especially in the eastern United States. The U.S. Department of Energy contracted with Versar, Inc., and Exponent to develop a spatially-explicit site screening tool to evaluate the mortality of bats resulting from interactions (collisions or barotrauma) with wind turbines. The resulting Bat Vulnerability Assessment Tool (BVAT) presented in this report integrates spatial information about turbine locations, bat habitat features, and bat behavior as it relates to possible interactions with turbines. A model demonstration was conducted that focuses on two bat species, the eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) and the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). The eastern red bat is a relatively common tree-roosting species that ranges broadly during migration in the Eastern U.S., whereas the Indiana bat is regional species that migrates between a summer range and cave hibernacula. Moreover, Indiana bats are listed as endangered, and so the impacts to this species are of particular interest. The model demonstration used conditions at the Mountaineer Wind Energy Center (MWEC), which consists of 44 wind turbines arranged in a linear array near Thomas, West Virginia (Tucker County), to illustrate model functions and not to represent actual or potential impacts of the facility. The turbines at MWEC are erected on the ridge of Backbone Mountain with a nacelle height of 70 meters and a collision area of 72 meters (blade height) or 4,071 meters square. The habitat surrounding the turbines is an Appalachian mixed mesophytic forest. Model sensitivity runs showed that bat mortality in the model was most sensitive to

  4. The presence of nightmares as a screening tool for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in burn survivors.

    PubMed

    Low, Aili Janina F; Dyster-Aas, Johan; Kildal, Morten; Ekselius, Lisa; Gerdin, Bengt; Willebrand, Mimmie

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent nightmares can be a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study evaluated the method of asking burn survivors about nightmares as a screening tool for the presence of PTSD symptomatology. The presence of nightmares in 85 individuals treated at the Burn Center in Uppsala, Sweden, between 1996 and 2000 (23 women, 62 men, average age 47 years, average burn size 17% TBSA, average time after burn 3.6 years) was evaluated by one question from the Burn Specific Health Scale (BSHS) and by using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria for nightmares. PTSD symptomatology was assessed with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Sensitivity, Specificity, Discriminant Ability, and Likelihood Ratios for a positive and a negative result were calculated to evaluate the screening questions. As many as 46% of the burn survivors reported nightmares of some frequency in the BSHS and as many as 28% when using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition criteria. Both approaches were useful tools for detecting or ruling out PTSD symptoms. The best Discriminant Ability was achieved with a screening test using the BSHS item "I have nightmares." Screening questions for presence of nightmares after burns can be useful in detecting PTSD symptomatology. PMID:16998407

  5. The Feasibility of Screening for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Risk in Early Intervention Settings: A Pilot Study of Systems Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Enid; Finkelstein, Norma; Gurewich, Deborah; Morse, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which can include physical and neurobehavioral disorders, including cognitive, social, language, and motor impairments that can persist throughout life. In order for children with FASD to receive the full benefit of services, recognition of their disability needs to…

  6. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  7. SwissSimilarity: A Web Tool for Low to Ultra High Throughput Ligand-Based Virtual Screening.

    PubMed

    Zoete, Vincent; Daina, Antoine; Bovigny, Christophe; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-08-22

    SwissSimilarity is a new web tool for rapid ligand-based virtual screening of small to unprecedented ultralarge libraries of small molecules. Screenable compounds include drugs, bioactive and commercial molecules, as well as 205 million of virtual compounds readily synthesizable from commercially available synthetic reagents. Predictions can be carried out on-the-fly using six different screening approaches, including 2D molecular fingerprints as well as superpositional and fast nonsuperpositional 3D similarity methodologies. SwissSimilarity is part of a large initiative of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics to provide online tools for computer-aided drug design, such as SwissDock, SwissBioisostere or SwissTargetPrediction with which it can interoperate, and is linked to other well-established online tools and databases. User interface and backend have been designed for simplicity and ease of use, to provide proficient virtual screening capabilities to specialists and nonexperts in the field. SwissSimilarity is accessible free of charge or login at http://www.swisssimilarity.ch . PMID:27391578

  8. Screening Chemicals for Receptor-Mediated Toxicological and Pharmacological Endpoints: Using Public Data to Build Screening Tools within a KNIME Workflow.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, F P; Mellor, C L; Meinl, T; Cronin, M T D

    2015-02-01

    Assessing compounds for their pharmacological and toxicological properties is of great importance for industry and regulatory agencies. In this study an approach using open source software and open access databases to build screening tools for receptor-mediated effects is presented. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR), as a pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant target, was chosen for this study. RAR agonists are used in the treatment of a number of dermal conditions and specific types of cancer, such as acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, when administered chronically, there is strong evidence that RAR agonists cause hepatosteatosis and liver injury. After compiling information on ligand-protein-interactions, common substructures and physico-chemical properties of ligands were identified manually and coded into SMARTS strings. Based on these SMARTS strings and calculated physico-chemical features, a rule-based screening workflow was built within the KNIME platform. The workflow was evaluated on two datasets: one with RAR agonists exclusively and another large, chemically diverse dataset containing only a few RAR agonists. Possible modifications and applications of screening workflows, dependent on their purpose, are presented. PMID:27490039

  9. Use of a clinical tool for screening and diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardana, H. V. Y. D.; Senarath, U.; Chandrawansa, P. H.; Karunaweera, N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was first detected in Sri Lanka in 1992.Local disease is caused by a genetically different variant of Leishmania donovani. Early case detection and management is the mainstay of L. donovani control. High degree of clinical suspicion is critical but a clinical diagnostic tool is not available for leishmaniasis. Current study described, for the first time, a two-staged clinical algorhythm that facilitates screening of CL in Sri Lanka by primary health care worker in stage 1 and management by medical professional in stage 2.Selected clinical markers of 400 patients suspected of CL were analysed retrospectively with laboratory confirmation of leishmaniasis. Ten clinical markers predicted CL with a over 90% accuracy. Subsets of markers showed high levels of sensitivities (60–97.2%) and/or significant association with positive laboratory results as compared to negative lesions [typical onset (acne-form, painless non-itchy), (P = 0.026), size up to 2 cm (P = 0.046), well-defined edges (P = 0.002), regular edges (P = 0.018), rounded shape (P = 0.030), and lesions at 5–8 months (P = 0.052)]. Five of them (typical onset, number up to 2, small size, rounded edges, and rounded shape) also had > 70% sensitivity levels as compared to laboratory findings. Typical onset had the highest sensitivity of 97% and a PPV of 72%. Lesions at 5–8 months duration having defined edges (P =  0.013, specificity 89.7%, PPV 83.1) or having regular edges (P = 0.006, specificity 86.2%, PPV 82.4%) were also predictive of CL. Most of early laboratory-confirmed ( < 12 months) lesions remained  < 3 cm (sensitivity > 67%, PPV > 70%) and had defined edges (sensitivity of 52–71%, specificity 46.7–68.8%), (PPV 75.1–86%). Four clinical markers served as good diagnostic markers in both early ( ≤ 4) and late (>12 months) lesions, viz. typical onset (91.3–98.4%), presence of ≤ 2 lesions (sensitivity 82.6

  10. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    PubMed

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes. PMID:25561069

  11. NanoLuc Luciferase – A Multifunctional Tool for High Throughput Antibody Screening

    PubMed Central

    Boute, Nicolas; Lowe, Peter; Berger, Sven; Malissard, Martine; Robert, Alain; Tesar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recent development of NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc), a small (19 kDa), highly stable, ATP independent, bioluminescent protein, an extremely robust and ultra high sensitivity screening system has been developed whereby primary hits of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments could be characterized and quantified without purification. This system is very versatile allowing cellular and solid phase ELISA but also homogeneous BRET based screening assays, relative affinity determinations with competition ELISA and direct Western blotting. The new Nluc protein fusion represents a “swiss army knife solution” for today and future high throughput antibody drug screenings. PMID:26924984

  12. NanoLuc Luciferase - A Multifunctional Tool for High Throughput Antibody Screening.

    PubMed

    Boute, Nicolas; Lowe, Peter; Berger, Sven; Malissard, Martine; Robert, Alain; Tesar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Based on the recent development of NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc), a small (19 kDa), highly stable, ATP independent, bioluminescent protein, an extremely robust and ultra high sensitivity screening system has been developed whereby primary hits of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments could be characterized and quantified without purification. This system is very versatile allowing cellular and solid phase ELISA but also homogeneous BRET based screening assays, relative affinity determinations with competition ELISA and direct Western blotting. The new Nluc protein fusion represents a "swiss army knife solution" for today and future high throughput antibody drug screenings. PMID:26924984

  13. Utility of a Brief Screening Tool for Medication-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Margie E.; Pater, Karen S.; Frail, Caitlin K.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Doebbeling, Brad N.; Smith, Randall B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication therapy management (MTM) services position pharmacists to prevent, detect, and resolve medication-related problems (MRPs.) However, selecting patients for MTM who are most at risk for MRPs is a challenge. Using self-administered scales that are practical for use in clinical practice are one approach. Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the psychometric properties of a brief self-administered scale as a screening tool for MRPs. Methods This was a non-randomized study utilizing questionnaires administered cross-sectionally. In Phase 1, patients (n=394) at community pharmacies and outpatient clinics completed 78 items, provided to the study team by item authors, assessing perceived MRPs. These data were used to select items for further investigation as a brief, self-administered scale, and estimate the reliability and construct validity of the resulting instrument. In Phase 2, a convenience sample of patients (n=200) at community pharmacies completed a nine-item, self-administered scale. After completion, they were engaged in a comprehensive medication review by their pharmacist who was blinded to questionnaire responses. The main outcome measure for estimating the criterion-related validity of the scale was the number of pharmacist-identified medication-related problems (MRPs.) Item statistics were computed as well as bivariate associations between scale scores and other variables with MRPs. A multivariate model was constructed to examine the influence of scale scores on MRPs after controlling for other significant variables. Results Higher scores on the questionnaire were positively correlated with more pharmacist-identified MRPs (r = 0.24; p= 0.001) and scores remained as a significant predictor (p= 0.031) when controlling for other relevant variables in a multivariate regression model (R2= 0.21; p < 0.001.) Conclusions Patient responses on the scale may have a modest role in predicting MRPs. The use of self

  14. DemTect, PANDA, EASY, and MUSIC: cognitive screening tools with age correction and weighting of subtests according to their sensitivity and specificity.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Elke; Calabrese, Pasquale; Fengler, Sophie; Kessler, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive screening instruments have been developed during the last decades to detect mild cognitive dysfunction and dementia, and there is an ongoing discussion as to which tool should be used in which setting and which challenges have to be considered. Among other aspects, dependence on age is a recognized problem in screening tools which still has not found its way into common scoring procedures. Another aspect which has been handled very heterogeneously is which domain is represented in which proportion in the total score. Furthermore, screening ethnic minority patients has been identified as an important but so far widely unresolved matter. In this review, four cognitive screening tools that all follow a common, stringent concept and pay regard to some critical aspects are described: the DemTect, a "generic" tool; the PANDA for Parkinson's disease patients; the EASY, a non-verbal, culture-fair screening test for patients with migration background; and the MUSIC for patients with multiple sclerosis. All of these screening instruments have an age-correction, provide a total score in which the different subtests are weighted according to their individual sensitivity and specificity, and include tasks that are specifically aligned to the cognitive profile of the target group, including the EASY with non-verbal, culture-fair tasks to overcome language and cultural barriers. The development, main characteristics, data, and limitations of these tools are presented and discussed against the background of the current landscape of cognitive screening tools. PMID:23313929

  15. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  16. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Reilly, Timothy J; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available. PMID:26092474

  17. Developmental Screening Tools: Feasibility of Use at Primary Healthcare Level in Low- and Middle-income Settings

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Jodi; Martines, José

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An estimated 150 million children have a disability. Early identification of developmental disabilities is a high priority for the World Health Organization to allow action to reduce impairments through Gap Action Program on mental health. The study identified the feasibility of using the developmental screening and monitoring tools for children aged 0-3 year(s) by non-specialist primary healthcare providers in low-resource settings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the tools, assess their psychometric properties, and feasibility of use in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Key indicators to examine feasibility in LMICs were derived from a consultation with 23 international experts. We identified 426 studies from which 14 tools used in LMICs were extracted for further examination. Three tools reported adequate psychometric properties and met most of the feasibility criteria. Three tools appear promising for use in identifying and monitoring young children with disabilities at primary healthcare level in LMICs. Further research and development are needed to optimize these tools. PMID:25076668

  18. Facilitating high resolution mass spectrometry data processing for screening of environmental water samples: An evaluation of two deconvolution tools.

    PubMed

    Bade, Richard; Causanilles, Ana; Emke, Erik; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernandez, Felix; de Voogt, Pim

    2016-11-01

    A screening approach was applied to influent and effluent wastewater samples. After injection in a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap, data analysis was performed using two deconvolution tools, MsXelerator (modules MPeaks and MS Compare) and Sieve 2.1. The outputs were searched incorporating an in-house database of >200 pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs or ChemSpider. This hidden target screening approach led to the detection of numerous compounds including the illicit drug cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine and the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, gemfibrozil and losartan. The compounds found using both approaches were combined, and isotopic pattern and retention time prediction were used to filter out false positives. The remaining potential positives were reanalysed in MS/MS mode and their product ions were compared with literature and/or mass spectral libraries. The inclusion of the chemical database ChemSpider led to the tentative identification of several metabolites, including paraxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and carboxylosartan, as well as the pharmaceutical phenazone. The first three of these compounds are isomers and they were subsequently distinguished based on their product ions and predicted retention times. This work has shown that the use deconvolution tools facilitates non-target screening and enables the identification of a higher number of compounds. PMID:27351148

  19. Engineered Amp C β-lactamase as a fluorescent screening tool for class C β-lactamase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Man-Wah; Chan, Pak-Ho; So, Pui-Kin; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tsang, Chun-Wai; Wong, Kwok-Yin; Leung, Yun-Chung

    2011-03-15

    Class C β-lactamases mediate antibiotic resistance in bacteria by efficiently hydrolyzing a broad range of β-lactam antibiotics. With their clinical significance and the lack of commercially available effective inhibitors, development of class C β-lactamase inhibitors has become one of the recent hot issues in the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, we report the protein engineering of a fluorescent Amp C β-lactamase mutant designated as V211Cf for the in vitro screening of class C β-lactamase inhibitors. When a fluorescein (f) was incorporated at the entrance of the enzyme's active site (position 211), Amp C β-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae P99 was tailor-made into a novel fluorescent biosensing protein that could display a fluorescence enhancement upon binding with its β-lactam substrates/inhibitors. With its catalytic activity close to the wild-type level, V211Cf can act as a "natural" fluorescent drug target for screening small binding molecules. In addition, V211Cf can allow specific detection for its active-site binding molecules and discriminate them from nondruglike molecules in the screen. Furthermore, V211Cf is amenable to a high throughput format. Taken together, V211Cf demonstrates the potential as an efficient tool for screening class C β-lactamase inhibitors and facilitates the discovery of therapeutics that can combat the clinically important class C β-lactamases. PMID:21338058

  20. Using a configurable EMR and decision support tools to promote process integration for routine HIV screening in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Robert; Moore, Eric

    2016-03-01

    Given the clinical and public health benefits of routine Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing in the emergency department (ED) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations, Maricopa Medical Center, as part of Maricopa Integrated Health System, started Test, Educate, Support, and Treat Arizona (TESTAZ) and became the first and, to-date, only hospital in Arizona to implement routine, non-targeted, opt-out, rapid HIV screening in the ED. The authors describe the implementation of a universal, routine, opt-out HIV screening program in the adult ED of an urban safety-net hospital serving under-served populations, including the uninsured and under-insured. Through a controlled and collaborative process, the authors integrated custom documentation elements specific to HIV screening into the triage/intake process, implemented and utilized clinical decision support tools to guide clinicians in each step of the process, and used electronic data collection and reporting to drive new screening protocols that led to a significant increase in overall HIV testing rates. PMID:26338216

  1. The ANAM lacks utility as a diagnostic or screening tool for concussion more than 10 days following injury.

    PubMed

    Coldren, Rodney L; Russell, Michael L; Parish, Robert V; Dretsch, Michael; Kelly, Mark P

    2012-02-01

    Congress has mandated that the Department of Defense perform screening for concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, on all service members redeploying from Iraq and Afghanistan. However, the retrospective diagnosis of concussion is complicated by the subjective nature of the complaints, overlap of symptoms with other conditions, and the normally rapid recovery of neurocognitive function following a concussive event. One diagnostic and screening test in current use by the Department of Defense is the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM). A team of researchers deployed to Iraq between January and April 2009 to test the validity of the ANAM for the diagnosis of concussion in the combat environment. Performance by concussed participants on all six ANAM subtests was compared with that of controls. The ANAM appears to have no utility as an individual diagnostic or population screening tool for the detection of neurocognitive dysfunction from a single, uncomplicated concussion when administered 10 or more days following injury. Further studies are required to determine the modalities providing optimal sensitivity and specificity for use as diagnostic or screening tests beyond the first 72-hour acute postinjury period. PMID:22360064

  2. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based risk screening tool for groundwater affected by landfills is presented. • Domenico solute transport equations are used to estimate downgradient contaminant concentrations. • Landfills are categorized as presenting high, moderate or low risks. • Analysis of parameter sensitivity and examples of the method’s application are given. • The method has value to regulators and those considering redeveloping closed landfills. - Abstract: A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically

  3. Systematic ultrasound screening as a significant tool for early detection of thyroid carcinoma in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Drozd, V; Polyanskaya, O; Ostapenko, V; Demidchik, Y; Biko, I; Reiners, C

    2002-01-01

    We report the results of ultrasound screening of the thyroid gland in 3,051 Belarus children 4-14 years of age exposed to radioactive fallout due to the Chernobyl accident. Screening was performed in 1990, 1993 and 1998. The study demonstrated that with time the prevalence of thyroid nodules in this contaminated region increased from 1.2% to 3.5%, mostly due to pathologically verified nodular goiter and non-verified small solid nodules and cysts. In contrast, the prevalence of thyroid carcinoma decreased from 0.6% in 1990 to 0.3% in 1993. We found 15 patients with carcinoma. On analysis of the ultrasound pattern of all carcinomas, we observed nodular and diffuse variants. Thus, we can conclude that systematic ultrasound screening is useful for the early detection of thyroid carcinoma in the population of Belarus exposed to radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. PMID:12199342

  4. Field screening at petroleum contaminated sites: A tool to save time, money

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.M.; Pucel, P.G.; Allee, P.

    1998-01-01

    The most expensive part of an environmental assessment is often lab services. Control of these costs while still collecting adequate data to assess a site is sometimes the difference between solvency and bankruptcy, especially for small companies. Fortunately, the use of field screening techniques can significantly reduce the quantity of samples going to the laboratory for analysis, thus controlling overall project costs. Chemical and Environmental Consultants, Inc. (CEC) has been field evaluating a rapid, widely applicable method for field screening petroleum contaminated soils and wastes for SVOCs. The method is similar in application to US EPA Method 418.1 and allows for the field screening of soil and waste samples in about 10 minutes. The method uses fluorescence spectroscopy analysis of a solvent extract of the soil or waste sample.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  6. A GIS-assisted regional screening tool to evaluate the leaching potential of volatile and non-volatile pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2015-03-01

    A regional screening tool-which is useful in cases where few site-specific parameters are available for complex vadose zone models-assesses the leaching potential of pollutants to groundwater over large areas. In this study, the previous pesticide leaching tool used in Hawaii was revised to account for the release of new volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the soil surface. The tool was modified to introduce expanded terms in the traditional pesticide ranking indices (i.e., retardation and attenuation factors), allowing the estimation of the leaching fraction of volatile chemicals based on recharge, soil, and chemical properties to be updated. Results showed that the previous tool significantly overestimated the mass fraction of VOCs leached through soils as the recharge rates increased above 0.001801 m/d. In contrast, the revised tool successfully delineated vulnerable areas to the selected VOCs based on two reference chemicals, a known leacher and non-leacher, which were determined in local conditions. The sensitivity analysis with the Latin-Hypercube-One-factor-At-a-Time method revealed that the new leaching tool was most sensitive to changes in the soil organic carbon sorption coefficient, fractional organic carbon content, and Henry's law constant; and least sensitive to parameters such as the bulk density, water content at field capacity, and particle density in soils. When the revised tool was compared to the analytical (STANMOD) and numerical (HYDRUS-1D) models as a susceptibility measure, it ranked particular VOCs well (e.g., benzene, carbofuran, and toluene) that were consistent with other two models under the given conditions. Therefore, the new leaching tool can be widely used to address intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to contamination of pesticides and VOCs, along with the DRASTIC method or similar Tier 1 models such as SCI-GROW and WIN-PST.

  7. The PHQ-PD as a Screening Tool for Panic Disorder in the Primary Care Setting in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Cristina Mae; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Paloma; Tomás-Tomás, Patricia; Gracia-Gracia, Irene; Dongil-Collado, Esperanza; Iruarrizaga, M. Iciar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Panic disorder is a common anxiety disorder and is highly prevalent in Spanish primary care centres. The use of validated tools can improve the detection of panic disorder in primary care populations, thus enabling referral for specialized treatment. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-Panic Disorder (PHQ-PD) as a screening and diagnostic tool for panic disorder in Spanish primary care centres. Method We compared the psychometric properties of the PHQ-PD to the reference standard, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. General practitioners referred 178 patients who completed the entire PHQ test, including the PHQ-PD, to undergo the SCID-I. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the PHQ-PD were assessed. Results The operating characteristics of the PHQ-PD are moderate. The best cut-off score was 5 (sensitivity .77, specificity .72). Modifications to the questionnaire's algorithms improved test characteristics (sensitivity .77, specificity .72) compared to the original algorithm. The screening question alone yielded the highest sensitivity score (.83). Conclusion Although the modified algorithm of the PHQ-PD only yielded moderate results as a diagnostic test for panic disorder, it was better than the original. Using only the first question of the PHQ-PD showed the best psychometric properties (sensitivity). Based on these findings, we suggest the use of the screening questions for screening purposes and the modified algorithm for diagnostic purposes. PMID:27525977

  8. Screen Twice, Cut Once: Assessing the Predictive Validity of Teacher Selection Tools. Working Paper 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Huntington-Klein, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teacher hiring in public schools is ad hoc and often fails to result in good selection among applicants. Some districts use structured selection instruments in the hiring process, but we know little about the efficacy of such tools. In this paper, we evaluate the ability of applicant selection tools used by the Spokane…

  9. Identifying Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review of Selected Screening Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a dramatic worldwide increase in reported cases of autism over the past decade. Autism is much more prevalent than previously thought, especially when viewed as a spectrum of disorders (autism spectrum disorders; ASD). School-based professionals are now more likely to be asked to participate in the screening and identification of…

  10. COMPARISON OF CHEMICAL SCREENING AND RANKING APPROACHES: THE WASTE MINIMIZATION PRIORITIZATION TOOL VERSUS TOXIC EQUIVALENCY POTENTIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical screening in the United States is often conducted using scoring and ranking methodologies. Linked models accounting for chemical fate, exposure, and toxicological effects are generally preferred in Europe and in product Life Cycle Assessment. For the first time, a compar...

  11. ECONOMICS OF SAMPLE COMPOSITING AS A SCREENING TOOL IN GROUND WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent advances in high throughput/automated compositing with robotics/field-screening methods offer seldom-tapped opportunities for achieving cost-reduction in ground water quality monitoring programs. n economic framework is presented in this paper for the evaluation of sample ...

  12. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (D...

  13. E-Screen - potential tool for assessment of relative serum estrogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The E-Screen bioassay, used to measure estrogenic activity of environmental water samples, feedstuffs, and pure chemicals, was evaluated for its usefulness in estrogenicity assessment of porcine, ovine, bovine, and piscine serum. High concentrations of swine, cattle, and fish serum were toxic to th...

  14. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED BY A DIETARY QUALITY SCREENING TOOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns (DP) have been associated with nutritional and health status of older adults. DP assessment is typically based on comprehensive dietary assessment methods (i.e. 24-h recall, FFQ), which are not intended for broad-based screening. We created a diet quality screener questionnaire (DQS...

  15. Screen-Capture Instructional Technology: A Cognitive Tool for Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey George

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical investigation has been conducted on high school students and teachers using online instructional multimedia developed entirely from the classroom teacher's traditional live-lecture format. This study investigated academic achievement, engagement, preference, and curriculum development using screen-capture instructional…

  16. Assessment of an Interactive Computer-Based Patient Prenatal Genetic Screening and Testing Education Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jennifer M.; Sorenson, James R.; Bowling, J. Michael; Jennings-Grant, Tracey

    2005-01-01

    The Enhancing Patient Prenatal Education study tested the feasibility and educational impact of an interactive program for patient prenatal genetic screening and testing education. Patients at two private practices and one public health clinic participated (N = 207). The program collected knowledge and measures of anxiety before and after use of…

  17. Developing a Brief Cross-Culturally Validated Screening Tool for Externalizing Disorders in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2008-01-01

    The study aims at developing and validating a brief, easy-to-use screening instrument for teachers to predict externalizing disorders in children and recommending them for timely referral. The scores are compared between Dutch and non-Dutch immigrant children and a significant amount of cases for externalizing disorders were identified but sex and…

  18. A rapid screening tool for psychological distress in children 3–6years old: results of a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mental health needs of young children in humanitarian contexts often remain unaddressed. The lack of a validated, rapid and simple tool for screening combined with few mental health professionals able to accurately diagnose and provide appropriate care mean that young children remain without care. Here, we present the results of the principle cross-cultural validation of the “Psychological Screening for Young Children aged 3 to 6” (PSYCAa3-6). The PSYCa 3–6 is a simple scale for children 3 to 6 years old administered by non-specialists, to screen young children in crises and thereby refer them to care if needed. Methods This study was conducted in Maradi, Niger. The scale was translated into Hausa, using corroboration of independent translations. A cross-cultural validation was implemented using quantitative and qualitative methods. A random sample of 580 mothers or caregivers of children 3 to 6 years old were included. The tool was psychometrically examined and diagnostic properties were assessed comparing the PSYCa 3–6 against a clinical interview as the gold standard. Results The PSYCa 3–6 Hausa version demonstrated good concurrent validity, as scores correlated with the gold standard and the Clinical Global Impression Severity Scale (CGI-S) [rho = 0.41, p-value = 0.00]. A reduction procedure was used to reduce the scale from 40 to 22 items. The test-retest reliability of the PSYCa 3–6 was found to be high (ICC 0.81, CI95% [0.68; 0.89]). In our sample, although not the purpose of this study, approximately 54 of 580 children required subsequent follow-up with a psychologist. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first validation of a screening scale for children 3 to 6 years old with a cross-cultural validation component, for use in humanitarian contexts. The Hausa version of the PSYCa 3–6 is a reliable and a valuable screening tool for psychological distress. Further studies to replicate our findings and additional

  19. Computational challenges and human factors influencing the design and use of clinical research participant eligibility pre-screening tools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical trials are the primary mechanism for advancing clinical care and evidenced-based practice, yet challenges with the recruitment of participants for such trials are widely recognized as a major barrier to these types of studies. Data warehouses (DW) store large amounts of heterogenous clinical data that can be used to enhance recruitment practices, but multiple challenges exist when using a data warehouse for such activities, due to the manner of collection, management, integration, analysis, and dissemination of the data. A critical step in leveraging the DW for recruitment purposes is being able to match trial eligibility criteria to discrete and semi-structured data types in the data warehouse, though trial eligibility criteria tend to be written without concern for their computability. We present the multi-modal evaluation of a web-based tool that can be used for pre-screening patients for clinical trial eligibility and assess the ability of this tool to be practically used for clinical research pre-screening and recruitment. Methods The study used a validation study, usability testing, and a heuristic evaluation to evaluate and characterize the operational characteristics of the software as well as human factors affecting its use. Results Clinical trials from the Division of Cardiology and the Department of Family Medicine were used for this multi-modal evaluation, which included a validation study, usability study, and a heuristic evaluation. From the results of the validation study, the software demonstrated a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.12% and 0.7%, respectively, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73.3% and 87.5%, respectively, for two types of clinical trials. Heuristic principles concerning error prevention and documentation were characterized as the major usability issues during the heuristic evaluation. Conclusions This software is intended to provide an initial list of eligible patients to a clinical study

  20. Molecular Markers of Diabetic Retinopathy: Potential Screening Tool of the Future?

    PubMed Central

    Pusparajah, Priyia; Lee, Learn-Han; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is among the leading causes of new onset blindness in adults. Effective treatment may delay the onset and progression of this disease provided it is diagnosed early. At present retinopathy can only be diagnosed via formal examination of the eye by a trained specialist, which limits the population that can be effectively screened. An easily accessible, reliable screening biomarker of diabetic retinopathy would be of tremendous benefit in detecting the population in need of further assessment and treatment. This review highlights specific biomarkers that show promise as screening markers to detect early diabetic retinopathy or even to detect patients at increased risk of DR at the time of diagnosis of diabetes. The pathobiology of DR is complex and multifactorial giving rise to a wide array of potential biomarkers. This review provides an overview of these pathways and looks at older markers such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), inflammatory markers, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as other newer proteins with a role in the pathogenesis of DR including neuroprotective factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor (PEDF); SA100A12, pentraxin 3, brain natriuretic peptide, apelin 3, and chemerin as well as various metabolites such as lipoprotein A, folate, and homocysteine. We also consider the possible role of proteins identified through proteomics work whose levels are altered in the sera of patients with DR as screening markers though their role in pathophysiology remains to be characterized. The role of microRNA as a promising new screening marker is also discussed. PMID:27313539

  1. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... questions you have. Make sure to ask about: Alcohol use Depression Weight Screening tests Screening tests Screening tests Ages ... for high cholesterol, and ways to improve cholesterol levels through lifestyle changes. ... Sheets - Alcohol Use and Health - This fact sheet talks about ...

  2. Hearing and vision screening tools for long-term care residents with dementia: protocol for a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    McGilton, Katherine S; Höbler, Fiona; Campos, Jennifer; Dupuis, Kate; Labreche, Tammy; Guthrie, Dawn M; Jarry, Jonathan; Singh, Gurjit; Wittich, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hearing and vision loss among long-term care (LTC) residents with dementia frequently goes unnoticed and untreated. Despite negative consequences for these residents, there is little information available about their sensory abilities and care assessments and practices seldom take these abilities or accessibility needs into account. Without adequate knowledge regarding such sensory loss, it is difficult for LTC staff to determine the level of an individual's residual basic competence for communication and independent functioning. We will conduct a scoping review to identify the screening measures used in research and clinical contexts that test hearing and vision in adults aged over 65 years with dementia, aiming to: (1) provide an overview of hearing and vision screening in older adults with dementia; and (2) evaluate the sensibility of the screening tools. Methods and analysis This scoping review will be conducted using the framework by Arksey and O'Malley and furthered by methodological enhancements from cited researchers. We will conduct electronic database searches in CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We will also carry out a ‘grey literature’ search for studies or materials not formally published, both online and through interview discussions with healthcare professionals and research clinicians working in the field. Our aim is to find new and existing hearing and vision screening measures used in research and by clinical professionals of optometry and audiology. Abstracts will be independently reviewed twice for acceptance by a multidisciplinary team of researchers and research clinicians. Ethics and dissemination This review will inform health professionals working with this growing population. With the review findings, we aim to develop a toolkit and an algorithmic process to select the most appropriate hearing and vision screening assessments for LTC residents with dementia that will facilitate accurate testing and can

  3. Virtual Screening for Dipeptide Aggregation: Toward Predictive Tools for Peptide Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Frederix, Pim W J M; Ulijn, Rein V; Hunt, Neil T; Tuttle, Tell

    2011-10-01

    Several short peptide sequences are known to self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with interesting properties. In this study, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is employed to rapidly screen all 400 dipeptide combinations and predict their ability to aggregate as a potential precursor to their self-assembly. The simulation protocol and scoring method proposed allows a rapid determination of whether a given peptide sequence is likely to aggregate (an indicator for the ability to self-assemble) under aqueous conditions. Systems that show strong aggregation tendencies in the initial screening are selected for longer simulations, which result in good agreement with the known self-assembly or aggregation of dipeptides reported in the literature. Our extended simulations of the diphenylalanine system show that the coarse-grain model is able to reproduce salient features of nanoscale systems and provide insight into the self-assembly process for this system. PMID:23795243

  4. Virtual Screening for Dipeptide Aggregation: Toward Predictive Tools for Peptide Self-Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Several short peptide sequences are known to self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with interesting properties. In this study, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is employed to rapidly screen all 400 dipeptide combinations and predict their ability to aggregate as a potential precursor to their self-assembly. The simulation protocol and scoring method proposed allows a rapid determination of whether a given peptide sequence is likely to aggregate (an indicator for the ability to self-assemble) under aqueous conditions. Systems that show strong aggregation tendencies in the initial screening are selected for longer simulations, which result in good agreement with the known self-assembly or aggregation of dipeptides reported in the literature. Our extended simulations of the diphenylalanine system show that the coarse-grain model is able to reproduce salient features of nanoscale systems and provide insight into the self-assembly process for this system. PMID:23795243

  5. Replication-Competent Influenza B Reporter Viruses as Tools for Screening Antivirals and Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Benjamin O.; Palese, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Influenza B virus is a human pathogen responsible for significant health and economic burden. Research into this pathogen has been limited by the lack of reporter viruses. Here we describe the development of both a replication-competent fluorescent influenza B reporter virus and bioluminescent influenza B reporter virus. Furthermore, we demonstrate these reporter viruses can be used to quickly monitor viral growth and permit the rapid screening of antiviral compounds and neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26401044

  6. [Models for calculating risks as a tool in screening for cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Bryndorf, T E; Petersen, H H; Baastrup, A; Bremmelgaard, A; Videbaek, J

    1990-04-16

    In connection with screening for risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in Bispebjerg Hospital, we have assessed three different models for calculation of the risk, employed on our own material. A total of 462 persons participated in the screening and 275 of these were under the age of 65 years. Out of these 275, 92 had plasma cholesterol values over or equal to 7.0 mmol/l and or smoked over 20 gram tobacco daily. On comparison between three models for calculation of the risk: one American, one British and one Swedish, moderate agreement was observed: the correlation coefficients varied between 0.75 and 0.89. The reason for this may be that the models for calculation of the risk are constructed on the basis of statistics already described from epidemiological investigations in which coincidence is demonstrated between selected observable factors and ischaemic heart disease. It is thus possible that the factors which we measure and possibly attempt to influence are not pathogenetic. We consider, therefore, that risk scoring should be employed with caution. As causal connection between ischaemic heart disease and cholesterol and smoking, respectively, have been demonstrated with reasonable certainty, we consider that it is reasonable to screen and intervene for these factors alone. PMID:2330641

  7. HiTSelect: a comprehensive tool for high-complexity-pooled screen analysis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Aaron A; Qin, Han; Ramalho-Santos, Miguel; Song, Jun S

    2015-02-18

    Genetic screens of an unprecedented scale have recently been made possible by the availability of high-complexity libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides designed to mediate either gene knockdown or gene knockout, coupled with next-generation sequencing. However, several sources of random noise and statistical biases complicate the interpretation of the resulting high-throughput data. We developed HiTSelect, a comprehensive analysis pipeline for rigorously selecting screen hits and identifying functionally relevant genes and pathways by addressing off-target effects, controlling for variance in both gene silencing efficiency and sequencing depth of coverage and integrating relevant metadata. We document the superior performance of HiTSelect using data from both genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 screens. HiTSelect is implemented as an open-source package, with a user-friendly interface for data visualization and pathway exploration. Binary executables are available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/hitselect/, and the source code is available at https://github.com/diazlab/HiTSelect. PMID:25428347

  8. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    PubMed

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  9. Parental concerns based general developmental screening tool and autism risk: the Taiwan National Birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2010-02-01

    Early detection of developmental delay and childhood disorders are important for early intervention. This study aimed to describe the distribution of responses in a large population-based survey, identify cutoff points for the parent concern checklist (PCC) suitable for the Chinese language and culture, and explore how many children were identified as having evidence of problems at age 18 mo different from those at age 6 mo. Using a national randomly selected sample, the overall development of 21,248 children was investigated using the Taiwan Birth Cohort study instrument, and the PCC, a problem-oriented screening instrument. The Newton-Raphson iteration showed that the PCC should be separated into three groups, those scoring 1-2 in the first group, 3- 6 in the second group, and 7- 8 in the third group.Structural equation models showed that 6-mo development was predictive of 18-mo development; additionally, 18-mo development and the PCC showed good concurrent validity. This study identified three groups with distinct developmental trajectories and two cutoff points of 2/3 and 6/7. Thus, the PCC can be used as a first-stage screening instrument in a two-stage window screening procedure. Further studies are needed to investigate the factors, which contribute to the differences among these groups;follow-up on the typical and atypical development of these children is necessary. PMID:20091940

  10. Power Reflectance as a Screening Tool for the Diagnosis of Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Gabrielle R.; Röösli, Christof; Niesten, Marlien E. F.; Hamade, Mohamad A.; Lee, Daniel J.; McKinnon, Melissa L.; Ulku, Cagatay H.; Rosowski, John J.; Merchant, Saumil N.; Nakajima, Hideko Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Power reflectance (PR) measurements in ears with Superior Canal Dehiscence (SCD) have a characteristic pattern, whose detection can assist in diagnosis. Background The aim of this study is to determine if PR coupled with a novel detection algorithm can perform well as a fast, non-invasive, and easy screening test for SCD. The screening test is to determine if patients with various vestibular and/or auditory symptom(s) should be further considered for more expensive and invasive tests that better define the diagnosis of SCD (and other third-window lesions). Methods PR was measured in patients diagnosed with SCD by high-resolution CT. The study included 40 ears from 32 patients with varying symptoms (e.g., with and without conductive hearing loss, vestibular symptoms, and abnormal auditory sensations). Results PR results were compared to previously published norms, and showed that SCD is commonly associated with a PR notch near 1 kHz. An analysis algorithm was designed to detect such notches and to quantify their incidence in affected and normal ears. Various notch detection thresholds yielded sensitivities of 80%–93%, specificities of 69%–72%, negative predictive value of 84%–93% and positive predictive value of 67%. Conclusion This study shows evidence that PR measurements together with the proposed notch-detecting algorithm can be used to quickly and effectively screen patients for third-window lesions such as SCD in the early stages of a diagnostic workup. PMID:25076227

  11. NMRmix: A Tool for the Optimization of Compound Mixtures in 1D (1)H NMR Ligand Affinity Screens.

    PubMed

    Stark, Jaime L; Eghbalnia, Hamid R; Lee, Woonghee; Westler, William M; Markley, John L

    2016-04-01

    NMR ligand affinity screening is a powerful technique that is routinely used in drug discovery or functional genomics to directly detect protein-ligand binding events. Binding events can be identified by monitoring differences in the 1D (1)H NMR spectrum of a compound with and without protein. Although a single NMR spectrum can be collected within a short period (2-10 min per sample), one-by-one screening of a protein against a library of hundreds or thousands of compounds requires a large amount of spectrometer time and a large quantity of protein. Therefore, compounds are usually evaluated in mixtures ranging in size from 3 to 20 compounds to improve the efficiency of these screens in both time and material. Ideally, the NMR signals from individual compounds in the mixture should not overlap so that spectral changes can be associated with a particular compound. We have developed a software tool, NMRmix, to assist in creating ideal mixtures from a large panel of compounds with known chemical shifts. Input to NMRmix consists of an (1)H NMR peak list for each compound, a user-defined overlap threshold, and additional user-defined parameters if default settings are not used. NMRmix utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize the composition of the mixtures to minimize spectral peak overlaps so that each compound in the mixture is represented by a maximum number of nonoverlapping chemical shifts. A built-in graphical user interface simplifies data import and visual evaluation of the results. PMID:26965640

  12. NMRmix: A Tool for the Optimization of Compound Mixtures in 1D 1H NMR Ligand Affinity Screens

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    NMR ligand affinity screening is a powerful technique that is routinely used in drug discovery or functional genomics to directly detect protein–ligand binding events. Binding events can be identified by monitoring differences in the 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a compound with and without protein. Although a single NMR spectrum can be collected within a short period (2—10 min per sample), one-by-one screening of a protein against a library of hundreds or thousands of compounds requires a large amount of spectrometer time and a large quantity of protein. Therefore, compounds are usually evaluated in mixtures ranging in size from 3 to 20 compounds to improve the efficiency of these screens in both time and material. Ideally, the NMR signals from individual compounds in the mixture should not overlap so that spectral changes can be associated with a particular compound. We have developed a software tool, NMRmix, to assist in creating ideal mixtures from a large panel of compounds with known chemical shifts. Input to NMRmix consists of an 1H NMR peak list for each compound, a user-defined overlap threshold, and additional user-defined parameters if default settings are not used. NMRmix utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize the composition of the mixtures to minimize spectral peak overlaps so that each compound in the mixture is represented by a maximum number of nonoverlapping chemical shifts. A built-in graphical user interface simplifies data import and visual evaluation of the results. PMID:26965640

  13. Subgrouping For Patients With Low Back Pain: A Multidimensional Approach Incorporating Cluster Analysis & The STarT Back Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Beneciuk, Jason M.; Robinson, Michael E.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Early screening for psychological distress has been suggested to improve patient management for individuals experiencing low back pain. This study compared two approaches to psychological screening (i.e., multidimensional and unidimensional) so that preliminary recommendations on which approach may be appropriate for use in clinical settings other than primary care could be provided. Specifically, this study investigated STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT): 1) discriminant validity by evaluating its relationship with unidimensional psychological measures and 2) construct validity by evaluating how SBT risk categories compared to empirically derived subgroups using unidimensional psychological and disability measures. Patients (n = 146) receiving physical therapy for LBP were administered the SBT and a battery of unidimensional psychological measures at initial evaluation. Clinical measures consisted of pain intensity and self-reported disability. Several SBT risk dependent relationships (i.e., SBT low < medium < high risk) were identified for unidimensional psychological measure scores with depressive symptom scores associated with the strongest influence on SBT risk categorization. Empirically derived subgroups indicated that there was no evidence of distinctive patterns amongst psychological or disability measures other than high or low profiles, therefore two groups may provide a more clear representation of the level of pain associated psychological distress, maladaptive coping and disability in this setting, as compared to three groups which have been suggested when using the SBT in primary care settings. PMID:25451622

  14. A Novel Geriatric Screening Tool in Older Patients with Cancer: The Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric assessment (GA) is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92−0.95) in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85–0.89) within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73−0.90), and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention. PMID:26401951

  15. A Novel Geriatric Screening Tool in Older Patients with Cancer: The Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric assessment (GA) is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.95) in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89) within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90), and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention. PMID:26401951

  16. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  17. Evaluation of the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a screening tool for the identification of emotional and psychosocial problems

    PubMed Central

    Muzzolon, Sandra Regina B.; Cat, Mônica Nunes L.; dos Santos, Lúcia Helena C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the Brazilian version of Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) as a screening tool to identify psychosocial and emotional problems in schoolchildren from six to 12 years old. METHODS Diagnostic test conducted in a public school of Curitiba, Paraná (Southern Brazil), to evaluate the PSC accuracy and consistency, considering the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the gold standard. Among 415 parents invited for the study, 145 responded to both PSC and CBCL. The results of the two instruments were compared. PSC and CBCL were considered positive if scores ≥28 and >70 respectively. RESULTS Among the 145 cases, 49 (33.8%) were positive for both PSC and CBCL. The ROC curve showed the PSC score of 21 as the best cutoff point for screening psychosocial and emotional problems, with a sensitivity of 96.8% and a specificity of 86.7%. Regarding the reference cutoff (score ≥28 points), the sensitivity was 64.5% and the specificity, 100.0%, similar to those found in the original version of the tool. CONCLUSIONS The Portuguese version of PSC was effective for early identification of emotional and/or psychosocial problems in a schoolchildren group and may be useful for pediatricians. PMID:24142319

  18. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) Is an Inadequate Tool to Screen for Urethral Stricture Recurrence After Anterior Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Christopher A.; Elliott, Sean P.; Voelzke, Bryan B.; Myers, Jeremy B.; Vanni, Alex J.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; McClung, Christopher D.; Erickson, Bradley A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To validate the use of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) as a stand-alone tool to detect urethral stricture recurrence following urethroplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 393 men who had undergone anterior urethroplasty and were enrolled in a multi-institutional outcomes study. Data analyzed included pre- and post-operative answers to the IPSS in addition to findings from a same- day cystoscopy. IPSS from men found to have cystoscopic recurrence were then compared to scores from those with successful repairs, and receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to illustrate the predictive ability of these questions to screen for cystoscopic recurrence. RESULTS Mean postoperative scores were lower (fewer symptoms) in successful repairs; IPSS improved from preoperative values regardless of recurrence. Successful repairs had significantly better degree of improvement in question #5 (assessing weak stream) compared to recurrences. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated the highest area under the curve for the IPSS quality of life question (0.66) that alone outperformed the complete IPSS questionnaire (0.56). CONCLUSION The IPSS had inadequate sensitivity and specificity to be used as a stand-alone screening tool for stricture recurrence in this large cohort of men, highlighting the need to continue development of a disease-specific, validated patient-reported outcome measure. PMID:27109599

  19. Avoidance tests with Collembola and earthworms as early screening tools for site-specific assessment of polluted soils.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Tiago Natal; Ribeiro, Rui; Sousa, José Paulo

    2004-09-01

    Avoidance tests with earthworms and collembolans were conducted to demonstrate their feasibility as early screening tools for assessing the toxic potential of metal-polluted soils. Four different soils, with different degrees of metal contamination, were obtained from an abandoned mining area. All possible paired combinations were assessed for an avoidance response by the organisms. Data revealed that both species were able to avoid the most contaminated soils at the center of the ore extraction and treatment areas compared to those collected further away from the mine. However, earthworms and springtails differed in sensitivity to metals, especially when testing the two most polluted soils that had different contamination profiles. Earthworms exhibited a more consistent, less variable response than springtails. Overall results showed that avoidance tests with collembolans and earthworms have the potential to be used as screening tools in ecological risk assessment schemes for contaminated land, to trigger other tests in case of concern. However, further method development is needed to reduce variability in the data, particularly in the Collembola assays, and to gain knowledge about the possible effects of soil properties on the outcome of the tests. PMID:15378996

  20. Strategies to Overcome Barriers to Implementation of Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in General Practice: a Delphi Study Among Healthcare Professionals and Addiction Prevention Experts.

    PubMed

    Abidi, L; Oenema, A; Nilsen, P; Anderson, P; van de Mheen, D

    2016-08-01

    Despite the evidence base, alcohol screening and brief intervention (ASBI) have rarely been integrated into routine clinical practice. The aim of this study is to identify strategies that could tackle barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice by involving primary healthcare professionals and addiction prevention experts. A three-round online Delphi study was carried out in the Netherlands. The first-round questionnaire consisted of open-ended questions to generate ideas about strategies to overcome barriers. In the second round, participants were asked to indicate how applicable they found each strategy. Items without consensus were systematically fed back with group median ratings and interquartile range (IQR) scores in the third-round questionnaire. In total, 39 out of 69 (57 %) invited participants enrolled in the first round, 214 participants completed the second round, and 144 of these (67 %) completed the third-round questionnaire. Results show that participants reached consensus on 59 of 81 strategies, such as the following: (1) use of E-learning technology, (2) symptom-specific screening by general practitioners (GPs) and/or universal screening by practice nurses, (3) reimbursement incentives, (4) supportive materials, (5) clear guidelines, (6) service provision of addiction care centers, and (7) more publicity in the media. This exploratory study identified a broad set of strategies that could potentially be used for overcoming barriers to ASBI implementation in general practice and paves the way for future research to experimentally test the identified implementation strategies using multifaceted approaches. PMID:27167074

  1. Autism detection in early childhood (ADEC): reliability and validity data for a Level 2 screening tool for autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Nah, Yong-Hwee; Young, Robyn L; Brewer, Neil; Berlingeri, Genna

    2014-03-01

    The Autism Detection in Early Childhood (ADEC; Young, 2007) was developed as a Level 2 clinician-administered autistic disorder (AD) screening tool that was time-efficient, suitable for children under 3 years, easy to administer, and suitable for persons with minimal training and experience with AD. A best estimate clinical Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis of AD was made for 70 children using all available information and assessment results, except for the ADEC data. A screening study compared these children on the ADEC with 57 children with other developmental disorders and 64 typically developing children. Results indicated high internal consistency (α = .91). Interrater reliability and test-retest reliability of the ADEC were also adequate. ADEC scores reliably discriminated different diagnostic groups after controlling for nonverbal IQ and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Composite scores. Construct validity (using exploratory factor analysis) and concurrent validity using performance on the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2000), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Le Couteur, Lord, & Rutter, 2003), and DSM-IV-TR criteria were also demonstrated. Signal detection analysis identified the optimal ADEC cutoff score, with the ADEC identifying all children who had an AD (N = 70, sensitivity = 1.0) but overincluding children with other disabilities (N = 13, specificity ranging from .74 to .90). Together, the reliability and validity data indicate that the ADEC has potential to be established as a suitable and efficient screening tool for infants with AD. PMID:24490680

  2. EVALUATING POLLUTION PREVENTION PROGRESS (P2P) III: AN ENVIRONMENTAL TOOL FOR SCREENING IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND CHEMICAL PROCESS DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    P2P is a computer-based tool that supports the comparison of process and product alternatives in terms of environmental impacts. This tool provides screening-level information for use in process design and in product LCA. Twenty one impact categories and data for approximately ...

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  4. SWAT Check: A screening tool to assist users in the identification of potential model application problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a basin scale hydrologic model developed by the US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. SWAT's broad applicability, user friendly model interfaces, and automatic calibration software have led to a rapid increase in the number of new u...

  5. Certify, Blink, Hire: An Examination of the Process and Tools of Teacher Screening and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Stacey A.; Harris, Douglas N.; Thompson, Cynthia T.; Ingle, W. Kyle

    2008-01-01

    While much has been written about the process of employee selection in other occupations, there has been little discussion on the process and tools of teacher selection and why it occurs as it does. To understand this question, we conduct an extensive literature review in which we compare teacher hiring with hiring in other occupations. We also…

  6. Screening for the high-risk diabetic foot: a 60-second tool (2012).

    PubMed

    Sibbald, R Gary; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Alavi, Afsaneh; Ostrow, Brian; Lowe, Julia; Botros, Mariam; Goodman, Laurie; Woo, Kevin; Smart, Hiske

    2012-10-01

    People with diabetes mellitus will develop lower-limb complications, such as neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot ulcers, and lower-leg amputations. Resources to control elevated hemoglobin A1c and blood pressure, along with the standardized approach using the 60-second tool (2012), can detect the high-risk diabetic foot and help prevent complications. PMID:22990344

  7. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays. PMID:26048216

  8. A parental tool to screen for posttraumatic stress in children: first psychometric results.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Eva; van Laar, Yvette L; van Meijel, Els P M; Opmeer, Brent C; Beer, Renée; de Roos, Carlijn; Bicanic, Iva A E; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2014-08-01

    The Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13) is a brief self-report measure designed to screen children for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study investigates the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CRIES-13-parent version and evaluates its correlation with the child version. A sample of 59 trauma-exposed children (8 years-18 years) and their parents completed an assessment including the CRIES-13 (child/parent version) along with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV: Parent version. Results demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87) with acceptable values for the 3 subscales. A strong correlation (r = .73) with another measure of PTSD and lower correlations with a behavioral measure (r = .15 to .38) were found, confirming the convergent/divergent validity. A cutoff score ≥ 31 emerged as the best balance between sensitivity and specificity, and correctly classified 83.6% of all children as having a diagnosis of PTSD. This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the CRIES-13-parent version as a screening measure for posttraumatic stress in children. PMID:25069420

  9. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  10. Validity of the CAGE in Screening for Problem Drinking in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, Edward J.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the ability of CAGE, an established screening test for alcoholism, to identify accurately problem drinkers among college students (N=582). Found that the CAGE did not perform well enough to serve as a screening tool for problem drinking within the college student population. (Author/ABL)

  11. Validation of a screening tool to identify older children living with HIV in primary care facilities in high HIV prevalence settings

    PubMed Central

    Bandason, Tsitsi; McHugh, Grace; Dauya, Ethel; Mungofa, Stanley; Munyati, Shungu M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Mujuru, Hilda; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We previously proposed a simple tool consisting of five items to screen for risk of HIV infection in adolescents (10–19 years) in Zimbabwe. The objective of this study is to validate the performance of this screening tool in children aged 6–15 years attending primary healthcare facilities in Zimbabwe. Methods: Children who had not been previously tested for HIV underwent testing with caregiver consent. The screening tool was modified to include four of the original five items to be appropriate for the younger age range, and was administered. A receiver operator characteristic analysis was conducted to determine a suitable cut-off score. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the modified tool were assessed against the HIV test result. Results: A total of 9568 children, median age 9 (interquartile, IQR: 7–11) years and 4971 (52%) men, underwent HIV testing. HIV prevalence was 4.7% (95% confidence interval, CI:4.2–5.1%) and increased from 1.4% among those scoring zero on the tool to 63.6% among those scoring four (P < 0.001). Using a score of not less than one as the cut-off for HIV testing, the tool had a sensitivity of 80.4% (95% CI:76.5–84.0%), specificity of 66.3% (95% CI:65.3–67.2%), positive predictive value of 10.4% and a negative predictive value of 98.6%. The number needed to screen to identify one child living with HIV would drop from 22 to 10 if this screening tool was used. Conclusion: The screening tool is a simple and sensitive method to identify children living with HIV in this setting. It can be used by lay healthcare workers and help prioritize limited resources. PMID:26588175

  12. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  13. Automated measurement of mouse apolipoprotein B: convenient screening tool for mouse models of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Levine, D M; Williams, K J

    1997-04-01

    Although mice are commonly used for studies of atherosclerosis, investigators have had no convenient way to quantify apolipoprotein (apo) B, the major protein of atherogenic lipoproteins, in this model. We now report an automated immunoturbidimetric assay for mouse apo B with an NCCLS imprecision study CV < 5%. Added hemoglobin up to 50 g/L did not interfere with the assay, nor did one freeze-thaw cycle of serum samples. Assay linearity extends to apo B concentrations of 325 mg/L. We have used the assay to determine serum apo B concentrations under several atherogenic conditions, including the apo E "knock-out" genotype and treatment with a high-cholesterol diet. Our assay can be used to survey inbred mouse strains for variants in apo B concentrations or regulation. Moreover, the mouse can now be used as a convenient small-animal model to screen compounds that may lower apo B concentrations. PMID:9105271

  14. Raman spectroscopy as a screening tool for ancient life detection on Mars.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Craig P; Marshall, Alison Olcott

    2014-12-13

    The search for sp(2)-bonded carbonaceous material is one of the major life detection strategies of the astrobiological exploration programmes of National Aeronautics and Space Administration and European Space Agency (ESA). The ESA ExoMars rover scheduled for launch in 2018 will include a Raman spectrometer with the goal of detecting sp(2)-bonded carbonaceous material as potential evidence of ancient life. However, sp(2)-bonded carbonaceous material will yield the same Raman spectra of well-developed G and D bands whether they are synthesized biologically or non-biologically. Therefore, the origin and source of sp(2)-bonded carbonaceous material cannot be elucidated by Raman spectroscopy alone. Here, we report the combined approach of Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry biomarker analysis to Precambrian sedimentary rocks, which taken together, provides a promising new methodology for readily detecting and rapidly screening samples for immature organic material amenable to successful biomarker analysis. PMID:25368343

  15. Novel cell-free high-throughput screening method for pharmacological tools targeting K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenwei; Brown, Emily C; Wang, Weiwei; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2016-05-17

    K(+) channels, a superfamily of ∼80 members, control cell excitability, ion homeostasis, and many forms of cell signaling. Their malfunctions cause numerous diseases including neuronal disorders, cardiac arrhythmia, diabetes, and asthma. Here we present a novel liposome flux assay (LFA) that is applicable to most K(+) channels. It is robust, low cost, and high throughput. Using LFA, we performed small molecule screens on three different K(+) channels and identified new activators and inhibitors for biological research on channel function and for medicinal development. We further engineered a hERG (human ether-à-go-go-related gene) channel, which, when used in LFA, provides a highly sensitive (zero false negatives on 50 hERG-sensitive drugs) and highly specific (zero false positives on 50 hERG-insensitive drugs), low-cost hERG safety assay. PMID:27091997

  16. Application of Short Screening Tools for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in the Korean Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Yu Jin; Chung, Hae Gyung; Choi, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Yong; So, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often missed or incorrectly diagnosed in primary care settings. Although brief screening instruments may be useful in detecting PTSD, an adequate validation study has not been conducted with older adults. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the primary care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) and single-item PTSD screener (SIPS) in elderly veterans. Methods The PC-PTSD and SIPS assessments were translated into Korean, with a back-translation to the original language to verify accuracy. Vietnamese war veterans [separated into a PTSD group (n=41) and a non-PTSD group (n=99)] participated in several psychometric assessments, including the Korean versions of the PC-PTSD (PC-PTSD-K), SIPS (SIPS-K), a structured clinical interview from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV(SCID), and PTSD checklist(PCL). Results The PC-PTSD-K showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.76), and the test-retest reliability of the PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K were also high (r=0.97 and r=0.91, respectively). A total score of 3 from the PC-PTSD-K yielded the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.90 and 0.86, respectively. The 'bothered a lot' response level from the SIPS-K showed the highest diagnostic efficiency, with sensitivity and specificity values of 0.85 and 0.89, respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggest that both PC-PTSD-K and SIPS-K have good psychometric properties with high validity and reliability for detecting PTSD symptoms in elderly Korean veterans. However, further research will be necessary to increase our understanding of PTSD characteristics in diverse groups with different types of trauma. PMID:27482241

  17. Evaluation of a New Self-Reported Tool for Periodontitis Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kottmann, Tanja; Schwarzenberger, Fabian; Jentsch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is still highly prevalent in industrial population whereas at the same time appropriate screening programs are missing. Aim To evaluate, a self-reported questionnaire about periodontal risk factors in combination with the Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) to identify an existing need for periodontal treatment combined with the early recognition of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods Total 200 patients took part in the questionnaire based study and were examined using the PSI. Thereafter the participants were divided into two groups, subjects with periodontitis (Group 1; PSI 0-2) and subjects without periodontitis (Group 2; PSI 3-4). The answers were evaluated using a point system ranging from 0 to 8, based on known periodontal risk factors and their assumed degree of influence. Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were applied to examine the overall discriminatory power, sensitivity, specificity and corresponding cut-off points of the self-reported periodontal disease scale. Results There was a significant difference between Group 1 and 2 concerning the majority of the inquired items (12 of 16, p<0.05). The distribution of the individual total score exhibited a high statistical significance (p<0.001) of robustness in terms of differing definitions of periodontitis. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) was 0.912 with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 76%. Conclusion The questionnaire produced a reliable assessment of the individual risk (total score) and the need for periodontal treatment as well as the differentiation between gingivitis and periodontitis. Clinical relevance Patient-based data (clinical variables and periodontal risk factors of periodontitis) were adequate to make a preliminary assessment of a possible need for periodontal treatment. PMID:27504399

  18. Transposon activation mutagenesis as a screening tool for identifying resistance to cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of resistance to chemotherapies represents a significant barrier to successful cancer treatment. Resistance mechanisms are complex, can involve diverse and often unexpected cellular processes, and can vary with both the underlying genetic lesion and the origin or type of tumor. For these reasons developing experimental strategies that could be used to understand, identify and predict mechanisms of resistance in different malignant cells would be a major advance. Methods Here we describe a gain-of-function forward genetic approach for identifying mechanisms of resistance. This approach uses a modified piggyBac transposon to generate libraries of mutagenized cells, each containing transposon insertions that randomly activate nearby gene expression. Genes of interest are identified using next-gen high-throughput sequencing and barcode multiplexing is used to reduce experimental cost. Results Using this approach we successfully identify genes involved in paclitaxel resistance in a variety of cancer cell lines, including the multidrug transporter ABCB1, a previously identified major paclitaxel resistance gene. Analysis of co-occurring transposons integration sites in single cell clone allows for the identification of genes that might act cooperatively to produce drug resistance a level of information not accessible using RNAi or ORF expression screening approaches. Conclusion We have developed a powerful pipeline to systematically discover drug resistance in mammalian cells in vitro. This cost-effective approach can be readily applied to different cell lines, to identify canonical or context specific resistance mechanisms. Its ability to probe complex genetic context and non-coding genomic elements as well as cooperative resistance events makes it a good complement to RNAi or ORF expression based screens. PMID:23442791

  19. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use among patients with active tuberculosis attending primary public care clinics in South Africa: results from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2008 the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that South Africa had the highest tuberculosis (TB) incidence in the world. This high incidence rate is linked to a number of factors, including HIV co-infection and alcohol use disorders. The diagnosis and treatment package for TB and HIV co-infection is relatively well established in South Africa. However, because alcohol use disorders may present more insidiously, making it difficult to diagnose, those patients with active TB and misusing alcohol are not easily cured from TB. With this in mind, the primary purpose of this cluster randomized controlled trial was to provide screening for alcohol misuse and to test the effectiveness of brief interventions in reducing alcohol intake in those patients with active TB found to be misusing alcohol in primary public health care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Methods Within each of the three provinces targeted, one district with the highest TB burden was selected. Furthermore, 14 primary health care facilities with the highest TB caseload in each district were selected. In each district, 7 of the 14 (50%) clinics were randomly assigned to a control arm and another 7 of the 14 (50%) clinics assigned to intervention arm. At the clinic level systematic sampling was used to recruit newly diagnosed and retreatment TB patients. Those consenting were screened for alcohol misuse using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse over a 6-month period were given either a brief intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) Model or an alcohol use health education leaflet. Results Of the 4882 tuberculosis patients screened for alcohol and agreed to participate in the trial, 1196 (24.6%) tested positive for the AUDIT. Among the 853 (71%) patients who also attended the 6-month follow-up session, the frequency of positive screening results at baseline/follow-up were 100

  20. Associations Between Anthropometry, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Jesse D.; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Oken, Martin M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55–74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993–2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (Ptrend < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: Ptrend = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  1. Associations between anthropometry, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Troy, Jesse D; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L; Oken, Martin M; Colditz, Graham A; Mechanic, Leah E; Morton, Lindsay M

    2010-06-15

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55-74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993-2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (P(trend) < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI > or =30 vs. 18.5-24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: P(trend) = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  2. Reliability of a flushing questionnaire and the ethanol patch test in screening for inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and alcohol-related cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Muramatsu, T; Ohmori, T; Kumagai, Y; Higuchi, S; Ishii, H

    1997-12-01

    Molecular epidemiology of esophageal and upper aerodigestive tract cancers revealed that alcohol is more carcinogenic in persons with inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) than in those with active ALDH2. A simple questionnaire has been developed to screen for the facial flushing that occurs in persons with inactive ALDH2 when they drink even a single glass of beer. In this study, 266 of 284 consecutive male Japanese clinic patients (age > or = 50 years) completed the flushing questionnaire, and 239 underwent the ethanol patch test (a cutaneous model for the flushing response). Blinded genotyping showed inactive ALDH2 for 94.4% (102 of 108) of subjects who reported always flushing (early in their drinking history or currently) and for 47.7% (21 of 44) of those who reported sometimes flushing, whereas 95.6% (109 of 114) of subjects reporting that they never exhibited facial flushing had active ALDH2. When all three categories of flushing (current always, former always, and sometimes) were collapsed into one, the questionnaire's sensitivity and specificity for identifying inactive ALDH2 were 96.1 and 79.0%, respectively, compared with 72.4 and 71.4% for the ethanol patch test. The results suggest the utility of this simple flushing questionnaire in daily practice, as well as large-scale studies to assess cancer risks associated with drinking and ALDH2 and for activities aimed at preventing alcohol-related cancer. PMID:9419411

  3. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Preventive & screening services How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone ...

  4. Identifying Preschool Children At-Risk of Later Reading Difficulties: Evaluation of two Emergent Literacy Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Emergent literacy skills are predictive of children’s early reading success, and literacy achievement in early schooling declines more rapidly for children who are below-average readers. It is therefore important for teachers to identify accurately children at risk for later reading difficulty so children can be exposed to good emergent literacy interventions. In this study, 176 preschoolers were administered two screening tools, the Revised Get Ready to Read! (GRTR-R) and the Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs), and a diagnostic measure at two time points. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses revealed that at optimal cut scores, GRTR-R provided more accurate classification of children’s overall emergent literacy skills than did IGDIs. However, neither measure was particularly good at classifying specific emergent literacy skills. PMID:19822699

  5. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense 'splice-switching' oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2'O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R² 0.89) and 53 (R² 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each position of

  6. In Silico Screening Based on Predictive Algorithms as a Design Tool for Exon Skipping Oligonucleotides in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Echigoya, Yusuke; Mouly, Vincent; Garcia, Luis; Yokota, Toshifumi; Duddy, William

    2015-01-01

    The use of antisense ‘splice-switching’ oligonucleotides to induce exon skipping represents a potential therapeutic approach to various human genetic diseases. It has achieved greatest maturity in exon skipping of the dystrophin transcript in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), for which several clinical trials are completed or ongoing, and a large body of data exists describing tested oligonucleotides and their efficacy. The rational design of an exon skipping oligonucleotide involves the choice of an antisense sequence, usually between 15 and 32 nucleotides, targeting the exon that is to be skipped. Although parameters describing the target site can be computationally estimated and several have been identified to correlate with efficacy, methods to predict efficacy are limited. Here, an in silico pre-screening approach is proposed, based on predictive statistical modelling. Previous DMD data were compiled together and, for each oligonucleotide, some 60 descriptors were considered. Statistical modelling approaches were applied to derive algorithms that predict exon skipping for a given target site. We confirmed (1) the binding energetics of the oligonucleotide to the RNA, and (2) the distance in bases of the target site from the splice acceptor site, as the two most predictive parameters, and we included these and several other parameters (while discounting many) into an in silico screening process, based on their capacity to predict high or low efficacy in either phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (89% correctly predicted) and/or 2’O Methyl RNA oligonucleotides (76% correctly predicted). Predictions correlated strongly with in vitro testing for sixteen de novo PMO sequences targeting various positions on DMD exons 44 (R2 0.89) and 53 (R2 0.89), one of which represents a potential novel candidate for clinical trials. We provide these algorithms together with a computational tool that facilitates screening to predict exon skipping efficacy at each

  7. The Brazilian version of STarT Back Screening Tool - translation, cross-cultural adaptation and reliability.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Bruna; Vasconcelos, Rodrigo A; Marcondes, Freddy B; Lodovichi, Samuel S; Mello, Wilson; Grossi, Débora B

    2014-08-29

    Background: Psychosocial factors are not routinely identified in physical therapy assessments, although they can influence the prognosis of patients with low back pain. The "STarT Back Screening Tool" (SBST) questionnaire aids in screening such patients for poor prognosis in the primary care setting and classifies them as high, medium, or low risk based on physical and psychosocial factors. Objectives: This study sought to translate and cross-culturally adapt the SBST to the Brazilian Portuguese language and test the reliability of the Brazilian version. Method: The first stage of the study consisted of the translation, synthesis, and back-translation of the original version of the STSB, including revision by the Translation Group, pretest of the translated version, and assessment by an expert panel. The pre-final Brazilian version was applied to 2 samples comprising 52 patients with low back pain; these patients were of both genders and older than 18 years of age. To assess the instrument's reliability, an additional sample comprising 50 patients was subjected to 2 interviews, and the results were assessed using the quadratic weighted kappa value. The instrument's internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (n=105), and the standard error of measurement was also calculated (n=50). Results: Translation and back-translation attained consensus, and only item 6 required changes; the reformulated version was applied to an additional sample comprising 52 individuals who did not report any doubts related to this item. The reliability of the SBST-Brazil was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-0.95), the internal consistency was 0.74 for the total score and 0.72 for the psychosocial subscale, and the standard error of measurement was 1.9%. Conclusion: The translated and cross-culturally adapted SBST-Brazil proved to be reliable for screening patients according to their risk of poor prognosis and the presence of psychosocial factors. PMID:25185032

  8. Factors influencing the implementation of a brief alcohol screening and educational intervention in social settings not specializing in addiction services.

    PubMed

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol use continues to be a major problem, when high-risk users enter social services, they are not provided with empirically supported treatments (ESTs). This study investigates predictors of successful implementation in agencies not specializing in addiction services. Fifty-four frontline workers in six organizations were enrolled in the study. After completing self-administered surveys of organizational culture and climate and attitudes toward ESTs, workers were trained to implement a brief intervention. The results indicate that organizational factors and attitudes may not be related to implementation. Although high implementers had similar traits, further research is needed to characterize successful EST implementers. PMID:25905766

  9. Factors influencing the implementation of a brief alcohol screening and educational intervention in social settings not specializing in addiction services

    PubMed Central

    Silver Wolf (Adelv unegv Waya), David A. Patterson

    2015-01-01

    Although alcohol use continues to be a major problem, when high-risk users enter social services, they are not provided with empirically supported treatments (ESTs). This study investigates predictors of successful implementation in agencies not specializing in addiction services. Fifty-four frontline workers in six organizations were enrolled in the study. After completing self-administered surveys of organizational culture and climate and attitudes toward ESTs, workers were trained to implement a brief intervention. The results indicate that organizational factors and attitudes may not be related to implementation. Although high implementers had similar traits, further research is needed to characterize successful EST implementers. PMID:25905766

  10. Integrated One-Against-One Classifiers as Tools for Virtual Screening of Compound Databases: A Case Study with CNS Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Valadkhani, Abolfazl

    2013-08-01

    A total of 21 833 inhibitors of the central nervous system (CNS) were collected from Binding-database and analyzed using discriminant analysis (DA) techniques. A combination of genetic algorithm and quadratic discriminant analysis (GA-QDA) was proposed as a tool for the classification of molecules based on their therapeutic targets and activities. The results indicated that the one-against-one (OAO) QDA classifiers correctly separate the molecules based on their therapeutic targets and are comparable with support vector machines. These classifiers help in charting the chemical space of the CNS inhibitors and finding specific subspaces occupied by particular classes of molecules. As a next step, the classification models were used as virtual filters for screening of random subsets of PUBCHEM and ZINC databases. The calculated enrichment factors together with the area under curve values of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that these classifiers are good candidates to speed up the early stages of drug discovery projects. The "relative distances" of the center of active classes of biosimilar molecules calculated by OAO classifiers were used as indices for sorting the compound databases. The results revealed that, the multiclass classification models in this work circumvent the definition inactive sets for virtual screening and are useful for compound retrieval analysis in Chemoinformatics. PMID:27480066

  11. Is the MDS-UPDRS a Good Screening Tool for Detecting Sleep Problems and Daytime Sleepiness in Parkinson's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Aschermann, Zsuzsanna; Ács, Péter; Bosnyák, Edit; Deli, Gabriella; Pál, Endre; Janszky, József; Késmárki, Ildikó; Komoly, Sámuel; Bokor, Magdolna; Rigó, Eszter; Lajtos, Júlia; Klivényi, Péter; Takáts, Annamária; Tóth, Adrián; Imre, Piroska; Nagy, Ferenc; Herceg, Mihály; Hidasi, Eszter

    2014-01-01

    Movement Disorder Society-sponsored Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) has separate items for measuring sleep problems (item 1.7) and daytime sleepiness (1.8). The aim of our study was to evaluate the screening sensitivity and specificity of these items to the PD Sleep Scale 2nd version (PDSS-2) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). In this nationwide, cross-sectional study 460 PD patients were enrolled. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated between the individual items, domains, and the total score of PDSS-2 and item 1.7 of MDS-UPDRS. Similarly, the items and the total score of ESS were contrasted to item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. After developing generalized ordinal logistic regression models, the transformed and observed scores were compared by Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient. Only item 3 difficulties staying asleep and the “disturbed sleep” domain of PDSS-2 showed high correlation with “sleep problems” item 1.7 of the MDS-UPDRS. Total score of PDSS-2 had moderate correlation with this MDS-UPRDS item. The total score of ESS showed the strongest, but still moderate, correlation with “daytime sleepiness” item 1.8 of MDS-UPDRS. As intended, the MDS-UPDRS serves as an effective screening tool for both sleep problems and daytime sleepiness and identifies subjects whose disabilities need further investigation. PMID:25506041

  12. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorders comorbidity in obsessive compulsive disorder: Symptom screening, diagnostic tools and reflections on treatment.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan

    2014-08-16

    Borderline personality disorder, conversion disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder frequently have dissociative symptoms. The literature has demonstrated that the level of dissociation might be correlated with the severity of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and that those not responding to treatment had high dissociative symptoms. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV dissociative disorders, dissociation questionnaire, somatoform dissociation questionnaire and dissociative experiences scale can be used for screening dissociative symptoms and detecting dissociative disorders in patients with OCD. However, a history of neglect and abuse during childhood is linked to a risk factor in the pathogenesis of dissociative psychopathology in adults. The childhood trauma questionnaire-53 and childhood trauma questionnaire-40 can be used for this purpose. Clinicians should not fail to notice the hidden dissociative symptoms and childhood traumatic experiences in OCD cases with severe symptoms that are resistant to treatment. Symptom screening and diagnostic tools used for this purpose should be known. Knowing how to treat these pathologies in patients who are diagnosed with OCD can be crucial. PMID:25133142

  13. Tools for building a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening under real biological conditions: The Computational Titration algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Glen E; Fornabaio, Micaela; Chen, Deliang L; Abraham, Donald J; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Computational tools utilizing a unique empirical modeling system based on the hydrophobic effect and the measurement of logP(o/w) (the partition coefficient for solvent transfer between 1-octanol and water) are described. The associated force field, Hydropathic INTeractions (HINT), contains much rich information about non-covalent interactions in the biological environment because of its basis in an experiment that measures interactions in solution. HINT is shown to be the core of an evolving virtual screening system that is capable of taking into account a number of factors often ignored such as entropy, effects of solvent molecules at the active site, and the ionization states of acidic and basic residues and ligand functional groups. The outline of a comprehensive modeling system for virtual screening that incorporates these features is described. In addition, a detailed description of the Computational Titration algorithm is provided. As an example, three complexes of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are analyzed with our system and these results are compared with the experimental free energies of binding. PMID:16236534

  14. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Sohee

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  15. Zebrafish needle EMG: a new tool for high-throughput drug screens

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Joon; Nam, Tai-Seung; Byun, Donghak; Choi, Seok-Yong; Kim, Myeong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish models have recently been highlighted as a valuable tool in studying the molecular basis of neuromuscular diseases and developing new pharmacological treatments. Needle electromyography (EMG) is needed not only for validating transgenic zebrafish models with muscular dystrophies (MD), but also for assessing the efficacy of therapeutics. However, performing needle EMG on larval zebrafish has not been feasible due to the lack of proper EMG sensors and systems for such small animals. We introduce a new type of EMG needle electrode to measure intramuscular activities of larval zebrafish, together with a method to hold the animal in position during EMG, without anesthetization. The silicon-based needle electrode was found to be sufficiently strong and sharp to penetrate the skin and muscles of zebrafish larvae, and its shape and performance did not change after multiple insertions. With the use of the proposed needle electrode and measurement system, EMG was successfully performed on zebrafish at 30 days postfertilization (dpf) and at 5 dpf. Burst patterns and spike morphology of the recorded EMG signals were analyzed. The measured single spikes were triphasic with an initial positive deflection, which is typical for motor unit action potentials, with durations of ∼10 ms, whereas the muscle activity was silent during the anesthetized condition. These findings confirmed the capability of this system of detecting EMG signals from very small animals such as 5 dpf zebrafish. The developed EMG sensor and system are expected to become a helpful tool in validating zebrafish MD models and further developing therapeutics. PMID:26180124

  16. The panic disorder screener (PADIS): Development of an accurate and brief population screening tool.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Christensen, Helen

    2015-07-30

    The Panic Disorder Screener (PADIS) was developed as a new screener to identify panic disorder in the community and to assess severity of symptoms. The PADIS was developed to fill a gap in existing screening measures, as there are no brief panic screeners available that assess severity. The current study aimed to test the performance of the screener relative to the Patient Health Questionnaire-panic scale (PHQ-panic). The 4-item PADIS was administered to 12,336 young Australian adults, together with the PHQ-panic. A subsample of 1674 participants also completed a phone-based clinical interview to determine whether they met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS (77% sensitivity, 84% specificity) had higher sensitivity for identifying panic disorder based on clinical criteria than the PHQ-panic (57% sensitivity, 91% specificity), although with reduced specificity. Administration of the PADIS required a mean of 1.9 items, compared to 4.7 items for the PHQ-panic. Each one-point increase in PADIS score was associated with 69% increased odds of meeting clinical criteria for panic disorder. The PADIS was found to be a valid, reliable and brief panic screener that is freely available for use in research and clinical settings. PMID:25956758

  17. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a tool for food screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola; Dalipi, Rogerta; Bontempi, Elza; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive overview of the applications of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) in the field of food analysis. Elemental composition of food is of great importance, since food is the main source of essential, major and trace elements for animals and humans. Some potentially toxic elements, dangerous for human health may contaminate food, entering the food chain from the environment, processing, and storage. For this reason the elemental analysis of food is fundamental for safety assessment. Fast and sensitive analytical techniques, able to detect major and trace elements, are required as a result of the increasing demand on multi-elemental information and product screening. TXRF is suitable for elemental analysis of food, since it provides simultaneous multi-elemental identification in a wide dynamic range of concentrations. Several different matrices may be analyzed obtaining results with a good precision and accuracy. In this review, the most recent literature about the use of TXRF for the analysis of food is reported. The focus is placed on the applications within food quality monitoring of drinks, beverages, vegetables, fruits, cereals, animal derivatives and dietary supplements. Furthermore, this paper provides a critical outlook on the developments required to transfer these methods from research to the industrial and analytical laboratories contexts.

  18. Development of a screening tool for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Ashis Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Bency, Mayur Joseph; Rangayyan, Rangaraj M.; Bansal, Reema; Gupta, Amod

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a condition of the eye of diabetic patients where the retina is damaged because of long-term diabetes. The condition deteriorates towards irreversible blindness in extreme cases of diabetic retinopathy. Hence, early detection of diabetic retinopathy is important to prevent blindness. Regular screening of fundus images of diabetic patients could be helpful in preventing blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose techniques for staging of diabetic retinopathy in fundus images using several shape and texture features computed from detected microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages. The classification accuracy is reported in terms of the area (Az) under the receiver operating characteristic curve using 200 fundus images from the MESSIDOR database. The value of Az for classifying normal images versus mild, moderate, and severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is 0:9106. The value of Az for classification of mild NPDR versus moderate and severe NPDR is 0:8372. The Az value for classification of moderate NPDR and severe NPDR is 0:9750.

  19. Zebrafish obesogenic test: a tool for screening molecules that target adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Tingaud-Sequeira, Angèle; Ouadah, Nafia; Babin, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary and xenobiotic compounds may alter endocrine signaling and lipid homeostasis, thus inducing obesity. We describe a short-term assay method, the zebrafish obesogenic (ZO) test, for examining the effects of diet, drugs, and environmental contaminants, singly or in combination, on white adipose tissue (WAT) dynamics in live larvae. The ZO test is an intermediate step in obesity research, between in vitro and rodent assays, and may be also used to study the effect of environmental toxicants on the adiposity of aquatic species. The procedure, using Nile Red (NR) fluorescent probe to reveal adipocyte lipid droplets, is suitable for pharmaceutical or toxicological screening. Larvae treated at an environmentally-relevant concentration of tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental obesogen, exhibited a remarkable increase in adiposity, irrespective of the lipid composition of the background diet. Exogenous compounds, e.g., rosiglitazone or TBT, known to increase adiposity in the fasting state, were classified as obesogenic. Anti-obesogenic compounds favored a decrease in adiposity in the fasting state. The ZO test, using adipocyte lipid droplet size and adiposity as its endpoints, is a whole-organism alternative testing assay for obesogenic and anti-obesogenic compounds and mixtures and provides relevant information for environmental and human risk assessments. PMID:21724975

  20. Development of a computerized tool for the chinese version of the montreal cognitive assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Zhang, Shangang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaofei; Qin, Yang; Wang, Jian; Li, Congyang; Wu, Yuxian; Wang, Weiwen; Lin, Hang

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC). Methods: MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85). Results: A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's α for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test-retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18-8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for "Naming" (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver-operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. Conclusion: The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations. PMID:25362894

  1. Evaluation of AUSDRISK as a screening tool for lifestyle modification programs: international implications for policy and cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Jonathan A; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward D; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Vartiainen, Erkki; Coates, Michael J; Dunbar, James A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current use of Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Tool (AUSDRISK) as a screening tool to identify individuals at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes for entry into lifestyle modification programs. Research Design and Methods AUSDRISK scores were calculated from participants aged 40–74 years in the Greater Green Triangle Risk Factor Study, a cross-sectional population survey in 3 regions of Southwest Victoria, Australia, 2004–2006. Biomedical profiles of AUSDRISK risk categories were determined along with estimates of the Victorian population included at various cut-off scores. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value, and receiver operating characteristics were calculated for AUSDRISK in determining fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥6.1 mmol/L. Results Increasing AUSDRISK scores were associated with an increase in weight, body mass index, FPG, and metabolic syndrome. Increasing the minimum cut-off score also increased the proportion of individuals who were obese and centrally obese, had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and metabolic syndrome. An AUSDRISK score of ≥12 was estimated to include 39.5% of the Victorian population aged 40–74 (916 000), while a score of ≥20 would include only 5.2% of the same population (120 000). At AUSDRISK≥20, the PPV for detecting FPG≥6.1 mmol/L was 28.4%. Conclusions AUSDRISK is powered to predict those with IFG and undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, but its effectiveness as the sole determinant for entry into a lifestyle modification program is questionable given the large proportion of the population screened-in using the current minimum cut-off of ≥12. AUSDRISK should be used in conjunction with oral glucose tolerance testing, fasting glucose, or glycated hemoglobin to identify those individuals at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes, who should be the primary targets for lifestyle modification. PMID:26468399

  2. Improving Alcohol Withdrawal Outcomes in Acute Care

    PubMed Central

    Melson, Jo; Kane, Michelle; Mooney, Ruth; McWilliams, James; Horton, Terry

    2014-01-01

    Context Excessive alcohol consumption is the nation’s third leading cause of preventable deaths. If untreated, 6% of alcohol-dependent patients experience alcohol withdrawal, with up to 10% of those experiencing delirium tremens (DT), when they stop drinking. Without routine screening, patients often experience DT without warning. Objective: Reduce the incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT, restraint use, and transfers to the intensive care unit (ICU) in patients with DT. Design: In October 2009, the alcohol withdrawal team instituted a care management guideline used by all disciplines, which included tools for screening, assessment, and symptom management. Data were obtained from existing datasets for three quarters before and four quarters after implementation. Follow-up data were analyzed and showed a great deal of variability in transfers to the ICU and restraint use. Percentage of patients who developed DT showed a downward trend. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of alcohol withdrawal advancing to DT and, in patients with DT, restraint use and transfers to the ICU. Results: Initial data revealed a decrease in percentage of patients with alcohol withdrawal who experienced DT (16.4%–12.9%). In patients with DT, restraint use decreased (60.4%–44.4%) and transfers to the ICU decreased (21.6%–15%). Follow-up data indicated a continued downward trend in patients with DT. Changes were not statistically significant. Restraint use and ICU transfers maintained postimplementation levels initially but returned to preimplementation levels by third quarter 2012. Conclusion: Early identification of patients for potential alcohol withdrawal followed by a standardized treatment protocol using symptom-triggered dosing improved alcohol withdrawal management and outcomes. PMID:24867561

  3. Fragment-based Shape Signatures: a new tool for virtual screening and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zauhar, Randy J; Gianti, Eleonora; Welsh, William J

    2013-12-01

    Since its introduction in 2003, the Shape Signatures method has been successfully applied in a number of drug design projects. Because it uses a ray-tracing approach to directly measure molecular shape and properties (as opposed to relying on chemical structure), it excels at scaffold hopping, and is extraordinarily easy to use. Despite its advantages, a significant drawback of the method has hampered its application to certain classes of problems; namely, when the chemical structures considered are large and contain heterogeneous ring-systems, the method produces descriptors that tend to merely measure the overall size of the molecule, and begin to lose selective power. To remedy this, the approach has been reformulated to automatically decompose compounds into fragments using ring systems as anchors, and to likewise partition the ray-trace in accordance with the fragment assignments. Subsequently, descriptors are generated that are fragment-based, and query and target molecules are compared by mapping query fragments onto target fragments in all ways consistent with the underlying chemical connectivity. This has proven to greatly extend the selective power of the method, while maintaining the ease of use and scaffold-hopping capabilities that characterized the original implementation. In this work, we provide a full conceptual description of the next generation Shape Signatures, and we underline the advantages of the method by discussing its practical applications to ligand-based virtual screening. The new approach can also be applied in receptor-based mode, where protein-binding sites (partitioned into subsites) can be matched against the new fragment-based Shape Signatures descriptors of library compounds. PMID:24366428

  4. Predicting Structures of Ru-Centered Dyes: A Computational Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Fredin, Lisa A; Allison, Thomas C

    2016-04-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) represent a means for harvesting solar energy to produce electrical power. Though a number of light harvesting dyes are in use, the search continues for more efficient and effective compounds to make commercially viable DSCs a reality. Computational methods have been increasingly applied to understand the dyes currently in use and to aid in the search for improved light harvesting compounds. Semiempirical quantum chemistry methods have a well-deserved reputation for giving good quality results in a very short amount of computer time. The most recent semiempirical models such as PM6 and PM7 are parametrized for a wide variety of molecule types, including organometallic complexes similar to DSC chromophores. In this article, the performance of PM6 is tested against a set of 20 molecules whose geometries were optimized using a density functional theory (DFT) method. It is found that PM6 gives geometries that are in good agreement with the optimized DFT structures. In order to reduce the differences between geometries optimized using PM6 and geometries optimized using DFT, the PM6 basis set parameters have been optimized for a subset of the molecules. It is found that it is sufficient to optimize the basis set for Ru alone to improve the agreement between the PM6 results and the DFT results. When this optimized Ru basis set is used, the mean unsigned error in Ru-ligand bond lengths is reduced from 0.043 to 0.017 Å in the set of 20 test molecules. Though the magnitude of these differences is small, the effect on the calculated UV/vis spectra is significant. These results clearly demonstrate the value of using PM6 to screen DSC chromophores as well as the value of optimizing PM6 basis set parameters for a specific set of molecules. PMID:26982657

  5. Passive sampling - a tool for targeted screening of emerging pollutants in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodes, Vit; Grabic, Roman

    2016-04-01

    A screening of more than 300 pollutants such as pharmaceuticals (analgesics, psycholeptics, antidepressants, antibiotics, beta blockers), PCPs (UV blockers, musk's, repellents), illicit drugs, pesticides, perfluorinated compounds and their metabolites at 22 monitoring sites throughout the Czech Republic was conducted in 2013. POCIS samplers were used in this study. Two types of passive samplers (pesticide and pharmaceutical POCIS) were deployed for 14 days in May and in October, 88 samples were collected in total. In total 265 and 310 target compounds were analyzed in pharmaceutical and pesticide samplers respectively. The chemicals of interest were extracted from the passive samplers according to standardized procedures. LC -MS/MS and LC-MS/HRMS methods were applied for analyses of extracts. 150 of 310 (48%) and 127 of 265 (48%) analyzed substances had been found in pesticide and pharmaceutical samplers respectively. 27 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides, caffeine, nicotine metabolite cotinine) occurred at all sampled sites, additional 39 substances (pharmaceuticals, PCPs, pesticides) occurred at more than 17 (75%) sites. One of perfluorinated compounds (PFOA) occurred at 68% of sites, whilst one of illicit drugs (Methamphetamine) was found at 61% of sites. The highest number of contaminants found in one POCIS at a single monitoring site was 111. The concentrations varied from nanograms to thousands of nanograms per sampler. Emerging contaminants occurring in highest concentrations (> 1000 ng/sampler) were BP-4 and PBSA (UV blockers), caffeine, DEET (insect repellent), imidacloprid (insecticide), telmisartan (hypertension drug) and tramadol (analgesic). Monitoring in the Czech Republic has demonstrated that many target compounds enter river waters and a number of these compounds reach high concentrations.

  6. Development of a Sexual Health Screening Tool for Adolescent Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Monika K.; Shea, Judy A.; Hayes, Katie L.; Badolato, Gia; Chamberlain, James M.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Fein, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Develop a content-valid audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) sexual health survey (SHS) that is understandable and acceptable to adolescents and can be feasibly implemented in a pediatric emergency department (ED) for sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk assessment. Methods Multi-step iterative qualitative study utilizing a Delphi panel of key informants for survey development and content validity, cognitive interviews with end-users to evaluate understanding, and pilot testing with end-users to evaluate acceptability and feasibility. Results We developed a 20-item questionnaire through an iterative modified Delphi process with experts in adolescent and pediatric emergency medicine. All items were assessed as understandable by >90% of adolescents during the cognitive interviews. All respondents found the SHS easy to use. 76.5% preferred answering questions related to sexual health through the SHS compared to face-to-face interviews. Mean length of survey completion was 17.5 minutes (SD +/−6.7) and 88.6% of participants found survey length to be “just right.” With respect to feasibility testing, there was no statistically significant difference in median ED length of stay between those who piloted the SHS and those who did not (230.0 vs 219.0 minutes; p=0.7). Conclusions We developed a content-valid ACASI for the identification of adolescents at risk for STIs that was understandable, acceptable, and easy to use by adolescent patients and feasible for implementation in the pediatric ED. Future planned steps include the evaluation of the SHS in providing clinical decision support for targeted STI screening in the ED. PMID:27126128

  7. Development of a Screening Tool for Predicting Adverse Outcomes of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young Han; Cho, Hee Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common disease in pregnancy causing maternal and fetal complications. To prevent these adverse outcomes, optimal screening and diagnostic criteria must be adequate, timely, and efficient. This study suggests a novel approach that is practical, efficient, and patient- and clinician-friendly in predicting adverse outcomes of GDM. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study via medical record review of patients admitted between March 2001 and April 2013 at the Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Patients diagnosed by a conventional 2-step method were evaluated according to the presence of adverse outcomes (neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and hyperinsulinemia; admission to the neonatal intensive care unit; large for gestational age; gestational insulin therapy; and gestational hypertension). Of 802 women who had an abnormal 50-g, 1-hour glucose challenge test, 306 were diagnosed with GDM and 496 did not have GDM (false-positive group). In the GDM group, 218 women (71.2%) had adverse outcomes. In contrast, 240 women (48.4%) in the false-positive group had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) at entry (P = 0.03) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) (P = 0.03). Our logistic regression model derived from 2 variables, BMI at entry and FBG, predicted GDM adverse outcome with an area under the curve of 0.642, accuracy of 61.3%, sensitivity of 57.2%, and specificity of 66.9% compared with the conventional 2-step method with an area under the curve of 0.610, accuracy of 59.1%, sensitivity of 47.6%, and specificity of 74.4%. Our model performed better in predicting GDM adverse outcomes than the conventional 2-step method using only BMI at entry and FBG. Moreover, our model represents a practical, inexpensive, efficient, reproducible, easy, and patient- and clinician-friendly approach. PMID:26735528

  8. Quantitative computerized color vision testing in diabetic retinopathy: A possible screening tool?

    PubMed Central

    Al Saeidi, Rashid; Kernt, Marcus; Kreutzer, Thomas C; Rudolph, Guenther; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Haritoglou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a computerized color vision testing (Arden color contrast test) as a screening test for detection of diabetic macular edema (DME). Materials and Methods: A consecutive, prospective case series of 83 eyes of 42 diabetic patients with and without macular edema was enrolled. Macular edema was assessed clinically by stereoscopic grading and by central retinal thickness measurement with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Additionally, a computerized chromatest for the protan- and tritan-axis was performed. Analysis of test characteristics included receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated sensitivity and specificity. Results: Sixty-one eyes had clinically significant macular edema (CSME). OCT yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.92. Color vision testing yielded an AUC of 0.82 for the tritan- and 0.80 for the protan-axis. Using a cut off of 199 microns OCT resulted in a 100% sensitivity at 39% specificity. With a cut-off of 4.85, color testing yielded a sensitivity of 100% at a specificity of 8% on the tritan-axis, respectively. Considering OCT instead of clinical examination as a reference standard resulted in a comparable high sensitivity, but low specificity for color vision testing. Disturbance of the tritan axis was more pronounced than for the protan axis in present macular edema and also better correlated (r = 0.46) with retinal thickness measured with OCT. Conclusions: Computerized, quantitative color testing using the chromatest allows detection of diabetic maculopathy with high sensitivity. However, only a low specificity exists for retinal macular edema, as in diabetic retinopathy (DR) frequently abnormalities of the tritan axis exist before any retinal thickening occurs. PMID:24391371

  9. A Blood-Based Screening Tool for Alzheimer's Disease That Spans Serum and Plasma: Findings from TARC and ADNI

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Robert; Huebinger, Ryan; Wilhelmsen, Kirk; Edwards, Melissa; Graff-Radford, Neill; Doody, Rachelle; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2011-01-01

    Context There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD) at the population level. Objective To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. Design, Setting, Participants Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD) participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC) with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine), and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status) data. Major Outcome Measures Alzheimer's disease. Results 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF) biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set) yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set) (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN) = 0.54 and specificity (SP) = 0.78), which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92). However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91). The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+) = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49–14.47), the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR−) = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22–5.71), and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR) = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86–69.47). Conclusions It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses. PMID:22163278

  10. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    PubMed Central

    Castanho, Teresa C.; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment. PMID:24611046

  11. Bringing the light to high throughput screening: use of optogenetic tools for the development of recombinant cellular assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agus, Viviana; Di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, Jean Francois; Mondini, Anna; Tremolada, Sara; Montag, Katharina; Scarabottolo, Lia; Redaelli, Loredana; Lohmer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    The use of light-activated proteins represents a powerful tool to control biological processes with high spatial and temporal precision. These so called "optogenetic" technologies have been successfully validated in many recombinant systems, and have been widely applied to the study of cellular mechanisms in intact tissues or behaving animals; to do that, complex, high-intensity, often home-made instrumentations were developed to achieve the optimal power and precision of light stimulation. In our study we sought to determine if this optical modulation can be obtained also in a miniaturized format, such as a 384-well plate, using the instrumentations normally dedicated to fluorescence analysis in High Throughput Screening (HTS) activities, such as for example the FLIPR (Fluorometric Imaging Plate Reader) instrument. We successfully generated optogenetic assays for the study of different ion channel targets: the CaV1.3 calcium channel was modulated by the light-activated Channelrhodopsin-2, the HCN2 cyclic nucleotide gated (CNG) channel was modulated by the light activated bPAC adenylyl cyclase, and finally the genetically encoded voltage indicator ArcLight was efficiently used to measure potassium, sodium or chloride channel activity. Our results showed that stable, robust and miniaturized cellular assays can be developed using different optogenetic tools, and efficiently modulated by the FLIPR instrument LEDs in a 384-well format. The spatial and temporal resolution delivered by this technology might enormously advantage the early stages of drug discovery, leading to the identification of more physiological and effective drug molecules.

  12. Using logistic regression modeling to predict sexual recidivism: the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-3 (MnSOST-3).

    PubMed

    Duwe, Grant; Freske, Pamela J

    2012-08-01

    This study presents the results from efforts to revise the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R), one of the most widely used sex offender risk-assessment tools. The updated instrument, the MnSOST-3, contains nine individual items, six of which are new. The population for this study consisted of the cross-validation sample for the MnSOST-R (N = 220) and a contemporary sample of 2,315 sex offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2006. To score and select items for the MnSOST-3, we used predicted probabilities generated from a multiple logistic regression model. We used bootstrap resampling to not only refine our selection of predictors but also internally validate the model. The results indicate the MnSOST-3 has a relatively high level of predictive discrimination, as evidenced by an apparent AUC of .821 and an optimism-corrected AUC of .796. The findings show the MnSOST-3 is well calibrated with actual recidivism rates for all but the highest risk offenders. Although estimating a penalized maximum likelihood model did not improve the overall calibration, the results suggest the MnSOST-3 may still be useful in helping identify high-risk offenders whose sexual recidivism risk exceeds 50%. Results from an interrater reliability assessment indicate the instrument, which is scored in a Microsoft Excel application, has an adequate degree of consistency across raters (ICC = .83 for both consistency and absolute agreement). PMID:22291047

  13. Developmental Risk Signals as a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Sensory Processing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Cristina; Gomez, M Marlene; Ramos, Gregorio; Rios Del Rio, Janina

    2016-06-01

    The main purpose of this research was to determine if the indicators of risk included in the Indicators of Developmental Risk Signals (INDIPCD-R) could differentiate between children at risk of sensory processing disorders (SPDs) from those with normal development and if the SPD indicators correlated with a delay or altered development. A retrospective, descriptive, correlational design was used with a sample of 51 children, 36 referred because of clinical sensory processing indicators and 15 with non-clinical indicators. Participants were assessed with a developmental scale Revised Profile of Developmental Behaviors (PCD-R), the Sensory Profile, play and clinical observations. The INDIPCD-R showed a high correlation with developmental areas of PCD-R and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, when compared with the Sensory Profile. T-test results for independent samples showed significant differences at p ≤ 0.01 level between the children with SPD indicators and those with no clinical signs in the PCD-R. The Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted for unpaired samples, to verify if there were significant differences between children with apparent SPD indicators and children with no apparent difficulties. The Spearman's rho was used to identify the correlations between the INDIPCD-R, with different areas of development. This study supports the use of the INDIPCD-R as a screening instrument that could be used by occupational therapists to discriminate children with and without indicators of SPD. The limitation of this study was that it did not cover all the ages of the INDIPCD-R. Additional studies are required to determine the utility of this instrument for outcome studies and whether it is valid and reliable to identify children at risk of different pathologies. The INDIPCD-R is a low-cost instrument that allows the occupational therapist to make a quick review of the different components that could be involved in SPD and therefore guide the more in

  14. Incidence and predictors of screen failures due to positive urine tests for alcohol, drugs of abuse, and cotinine among normal healthy research volunteers (NHRVs): analysis of data from 687 NHRVs screened at a large clinical pharmacology unit in the United States.

    PubMed

    Nada, Adel; Baxter, Shawn; Loraas, Erik; Somberg, John C

    2008-01-01

    Accurate medical histories for all NHRVs screening to participate in clinical pharmacology trials are vital to ensure volunteers' safety, and integrity of study results. Evidence from previous studies illustrate the potential for NHRVs to misrepresent their histories, especially when monetary incentives are offered, and the need to objectively verify these self-reported histories whenever practical. This study demonstrates that among the sample participants, all of whom self-reported a negative history of drug and alcohol abuse and tobacco smoking, 16% failed urine testing for either alcohol and drugs of abuse (6%), or cotinine (11%). Male sex and increased number of screenings in the preceding 12 months were significantly associated with increased odds for urine screen failure whereas increased enrollments in the same time period and increased study stipend decreased the same odds. These results emphasize the importance of diligently screening NHRVs participating in phase I clinical trails. PMID:18496258

  15. Tinnitus and Hearing Survey: A Screening Tool to Differentiate Bothersome Tinnitus From Hearing Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Griest, Susan; Zaugg, Tara L.; Thielman, Emily; Kaelin, Christine; Galvez, Gino; Carlson, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Individuals complaining of tinnitus often attribute hearing problems to the tinnitus. In such cases some (or all) of their reported “tinnitus distress” may in fact be caused by trouble communicating due to hearing problems. We developed the Tinnitus and Hearing Survey (THS) as a tool to rapidly differentiate hearing problems from tinnitus problems. Method For 2 of our research studies, we administered the THS twice (mean of 16.5 days between tests) to 67 participants who did not receive intervention. These data allow for measures of statistical validation of the THS. Results Reliability of the THS was good to excellent regarding internal consistency (α = .86–.94), test–retest reliability (r = .76–.83), and convergent validity between the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (Newman, Jacobson, & Spitzer, 1996; Newman, Sandridge, & Jacobson, 1998) and the A (Tinnitus) subscale of the THS (r = .78). Factor analysis confirmed that the 2 subscales, A (Tinnitus) and B (Hearing), have strong internal structure, explaining 71.7% of the total variance, and low correlation with each other (r = .46), resulting in a small amount of shared variance (21%). Conclusion These results provide evidence that the THS is statistically validated and reliable for use in assisting patients and clinicians in quickly (and collaboratively) determining whether intervention for tinnitus is appropriate. PMID:25551458

  16. Using a screening tool to improve timely referral of patients from acute oncology-haematology to palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Begum, Akhtari

    2013-01-01

    This project was done at specialist cancer hospital in Qatar. At a haematology-oncology inpatient department most patients were not getting access to palliative care unless they were at the very end stages of life. Data collected from 2008-2011 showed significant numbers of patients were dying within one month of their transfer to palliative care. There was no standard measure to identify the prospective palliative care patients. A multidisciplinary team developed a Palliative care referral screening tool based on the National Cancer Care Network guideline. Retrospective medical record review done from January to April 2012 showed a mean of 68% of patients who scored more than five were not consulted, 32% of patients who scored more than seven were not transferred to palliative care and seven percent died without any referral. The team used various kinds of quality planning, analysis and improvement tools in the form of process mapping, value analysis, Fish Bone diagrams, stakeholders' analysis and communication, physician survey, "Pareto's principal" (80 / 20 rule, the law of vital few) and other data collection tools. The palliative care referral process was standardised by preparing and implementing an objective scoring tool based on international best practice. It changed the referral culture and helped manage the psychological barriers of patients, families and caregivers. Extensive orientation and education of all key stakeholders was implemented. Monthly auditing of patient records was carried out. The aim has been achieved, exceeded and sustained, and we reduced the percentage of patients who scored more than five without palliative consultation from a mean of 68% to 16% and those who scored more than seven without palliative care transfer from a mean of thirty two percent to three percent, after four months of the project's implementation. Standardising the referral process and creating an objective referral tool is needed to facilitate safe, collaborative

  17. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  18. Evaluation of a two dimensional analysis method as a screening and evaluation tool for anterior cruciate ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    McLean, S; Walker, K; Ford, K; Myer, G; Hewett, T; van den Bogert, A J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Increased knee valgus predicts the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, particularly in women. Reducing injury rates thus relies on detecting and continually evaluating people with relatively large valgus motions. Objectives: To examine the potential of a two dimensional (2D) video analysis method for screening for excessive valgus. Methods: Ten female and 10 male National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball players had three dimensional (3D) knee valgus and two dimensional (2D) frontal plane knee angle quantified during side step, side jump, and shuttle run tasks. 3D valgus was quantified from external marker coordinates using standard techniques, and 2D data were obtained from both the frontal plane projections of these coordinates (2D-Mot) and manual digitisation of digital video footage (2D-Cam). A root mean square (RMS) error was calculated between 2D-Mot and 2D-Cam data to evaluate the reliability of the latter. Correlations between 2D-Cam and 3D data (intersubject and intrasubject) were also conducted, and regression slope and r2 values obtained. Results: 2D-Cam and 2D-Mot data were consistent for side step (RMS = 1.7°) and side jump (RMS = 1.5°) movements. Between subjects, 2D-Cam and 3D data correlated well for the side step (r2 = 0.58) and side jump (r2 = 0.64). Within subjects, 2D-Cam and 3D data correlated moderately for the side step (r2 = 0.25 (0.19)) and side jump (r2 = 0.36 (0.27)). Conclusions: The 2D-Cam method can be used to screen for excessive valgus in elite basketball players, particularly for movements occurring primarily in the frontal plane. This method may also be a useful training evaluation tool when large reductions in dynamic valgus motions are required. PMID:15911607

  19. Tandem virtual screening targeting the SRA domain of UHRF1 identifies a novel chemical tool modulating DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Myrianthopoulos, Vassilios; Cartron, Pierre Francois; Liutkevičiūtė, Zita; Klimašauskas, Saulius; Matulis, Daumantas; Bronner, Christian; Martinet, Nadine; Mikros, Emmanuel

    2016-05-23

    Ubiquitin-like protein UHRF1 that contains PHD and RING finger domain 1 is a key epigenetic protein enabling maintenance of the DNA methylation status through replication. A tandem virtual screening approach was implemented for identifying small molecules able to bind the 5-methylcytosine pocket of UHRF1 and inhibit its functionality. The NCI/DTP small molecules Repository was screened in silico by a combined protocol implementing structure-based and ligand-based methodologies. Consensus ranking was utilized to select a set of 27 top-ranked compounds that were subsequently evaluated experimentally in a stepwise manner for their ability to demethylate DNA in cellulo using PCR-MS and HPLC-MS/MS. The most active molecules were further assessed in a cell-based setting by the Proximity Ligation In Situ Assay and the ApoTome technology. Both evaluations confirmed that the DNMT1/UHRF1 interactions were significantly reduced after 4 h of incubation of U251 glioma cells with the most potent compound NSC232003, showing a 50% interaction inhibition at 15 μM as well as induction of global DNA cytosine demethylation as measured by ELISA. This is the first report of a chemical tool that targets UHRF1 and modulates DNA methylation in a cell context by potentially disrupting DNMT1/UHRF1 interactions. Compound NSC232003, a uracil derivative freely available by the NCI/DTP Repository, provides a versatile lead for developing highly potent and cell-permeable UHRF1 inhibitors that will enable dissection of DNA methylation inheritance. PMID:27049577

  20. Development of a tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL)

    PubMed Central

    Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Hillman, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop a screening tool to identify elderly patients at the end of life and quantify the risk of death in hospital or soon after discharge for to minimise prognostic uncertainty and avoid potentially harmful and futile treatments. Design Narrative literature review of definitions, tools and measurements that could be combined into a screening tool based on routinely available or obtainable data at the point of care to identify elderly patients who are unavoidably dying at the time of admission or at risk of dying during hospitalisation. Main measurements Variables and thresholds proposed for the Criteria for Screening and Triaging to Appropriate aLternative care (CriSTAL screening tool) were adopted from existing scales and published research findings showing association with either in-hospital, 30-day or 3-month mortality. Results Eighteen predictor instruments and their variants were examined. The final items for the new CriSTAL screening tool included: age ≥65; meeting ≥2 deterioration criteria; an index of frailty with ≥2 criteria; early warning score >4; presence of ≥1 selected comorbidities; nursing home placement; evidence of cognitive impairment; prior emergency hospitalisation or intensive care unit readmission in the past year; abnormal ECG; and proteinuria. Conclusions An unambiguous checklist may assist clinicians in reducing uncertainty patients who are likely to die within the next 3 months and help initiate transparent conversations with families and patients about end-of-life care. Retrospective chart review and prospective validation will be undertaken to optimise the number of prognostic items for easy administration and enhanced generalisability. Development of an evidence-based tool for defining and identifying the dying patient in hospital: CriSTAL. PMID:25613983

  1. Clinician Suspicion of an Alcohol Problem: An Observational Study From the AAFP National Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Vinson, Daniel C.; Turner, Barbara J.; MSED; Manning, Brian K.; Galliher, James M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE In clinical practice, detection of alcohol problems often relies on clinician suspicion instead of using a screening instrument. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of clinician suspicion compared with screening-detected alcohol problems in patients. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 94 primary care clinicians’ office visits. Brief questionnaires were completed separately after a visit by both clinicians and eligible patients. The patient’s anonymous exit questionnaire screened for hazardous drinking based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) and for harmful drinking (alcohol abuse or dependence) based on 2 questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. After the visit, clinicians responded to the question, “Does this patient have problems with alcohol?” with answer options including “yes, hazardous drinking” and “yes, alcohol abuse or dependence.” Analyses assessed the associations between patients’ responses to screening questions and clinician’s suspicions. RESULTS Of 2,518 patients with an office visit, 2,173 were eligible, and 1,699 (78%) completed the exit questionnaire. One hundred seventy-one (10.1%) patients had a positive screening test for hazardous drinking (an AUDIT-C score of 5 or greater) and 64 (3.8%) for harmful drinking. Clinicians suspected alcohol problems in 81 patients (hazardous drinking in 37, harmful drinking in 40, and both in 4). The sensitivity of clinician suspicion of either hazardous or harmful drinking was 27% and the specificity was 98%. Positive and negative predictive values were 62% and 92%, respectively. CONCLUSION Clinician suspicion of alcohol problems had poor sensitivity but high specificity for identifying patients who had a positive screening test for alcohol problems. These data support the routine use of a screening tool to supplement clinicians’ suspicions, which already provide reasonable

  2. Screening for Drug and Alcohol Use Disorders and Their Association with HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Ludford, Kaysia T.; Vagenas, Panagiotis; Lama, Javier R.; Peinado, Jesus; Gonzales, Pedro; Leiva, Rene; Pun, Monica; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Peru's HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM). The contribution of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) to known high-risk behaviors associated with HIV transmission in this context has not been well characterized. Methods Between June and October 2011, 5,148 sexually active MSM were recruited using convenience sampling in five cities to participate in a cross-sectional bio-behavioral survey. Five high-risk sexual criteria previously associated with incident HIV infection in this setting were selected a priori as the dependent outcomes. Screening for AUDs used the validated Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and AUDS were stratified by severity. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were computed to establish the independent correlates of the five dependent outcomes. Results The majority (62.8%) of participants met screening criteria for having an AUD, which were independently correlated with each of the following high-risk sexual risk behaviors in the previous 6 months: 1) >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.76; (1.54–2.02)]; 2) sex with an HIV-infected partner [AOR = 1.29; (1.03–1.62)]; 3) having a sexually transmitted infection [AOR = 1.38; (1.13–1.68)]; 4) being a sex worker [AOR = 1.61; (1.40–1.87)]; and 5) unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.22; (1.09–1.38)]. Recent drug use was also correlated with having >5 sexual partners [AOR = 1.42 (1.19–1.71)], sex work [AOR = 1.97 (1.63–2.39)] and unprotected sex during last encounter [AOR = 1.31 (1.11–1.54)]. For each dependent variable, the association with AUDs significantly increased with increasing AUD severity. Conclusions AUDs are highly prevalent among MSM in Peru and are associated with increased HIV risk-taking behaviors that are associated with HIV transmission. Strategies that target problematic drinking such as medication-assisted therapy, behavioral counseling and structural interventions could potentially

  3. The Effectiveness of Electronic Screening and Brief Intervention for Reducing Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Robert; Phillips, Thomas; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic screening and brief intervention (eSBI) has been shown to reduce alcohol consumption, but its effectiveness over time has not been subject to meta-analysis. Objective The current study aims to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the effectiveness of eSBI over time in nontreatment-seeking hazardous/harmful drinkers. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant studies identified through searching the electronic databases PsychINFO, Medline, and EMBASE in May 2013. Two members of the study team independently screened studies for inclusion criteria and extracted data. Studies reporting data that could be transformed into grams of ethanol per week were included in the meta-analysis. The mean difference in grams of ethanol per week between eSBI and control groups was weighted using the random-effects method based on the inverse-variance approach to control for differences in sample size between studies. Results There was a statistically significant mean difference in grams of ethanol consumed per week between those receiving an eSBI versus controls at up to 3 months (mean difference –32.74, 95% CI –56.80 to –8.68, z=2.67, P=.01), 3 to less than 6 months (mean difference –17.33, 95% CI –31.82 to –2.84, z=2.34, P=.02), and from 6 months to less than 12 months follow-up (mean difference –14.91, 95% CI –25.56 to –4.26, z=2.74, P=.01). No statistically significant difference was found at a follow-up period of 12 months or greater (mean difference –7.46, 95% CI –25.34 to 10.43, z=0.82, P=.41). Conclusions A significant reduction in weekly alcohol consumption between intervention and control conditions was demonstrated between 3 months and less than 12 months follow-up indicating eSBI is an effective intervention. PMID:24892426

  4. A Preliminary Investigation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Parent Scale as a Screening Tool for Anxiety in Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainal, Hani; Magiati, Iliana; Tan, Julianne Wen-Li; Sung, Min; Fung, Daniel S.; Howlin, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Despite high rates of clinically elevated anxiety difficulties in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very few studies have systematically examined the usefulness of commonly used caregiver report anxiety screening tools with this population. This study investigated the use of the Spence Children's Anxiety…

  5. Use of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) for Children under 24 Months: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; McMahon, Caitlin R.; Henderson, Lynnette M.

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the properties of the Screening Tool for Autism in Two-Year-Olds (STAT) for children under 24 months. The STAT provides a standard context for observing social-communicative behavior in play, imitation, and communication. Seventy-one children received the STAT between 12 and 23 months of age and a follow-up diagnostic evaluation…

  6. The Screening Tool of Feeding Problems Applied to Children (STEP-CHILD): Psychometric Characteristics and Associations with Child and Parent Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiverling, Laura; Hendy, Helen M.; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the 23-item Screening Tool for Feeding Problems (STEP; Matson & Kuhn, 2001) with a sample of children referred to a hospital-based feeding clinic to examine the scale's psychometric characteristics and then demonstrate how a children's revision of the STEP, the STEP-CHILD is associated with child and parent variables.…

  7. TOPS: a versatile software tool for statistical analysis and visualization of combinatorial gene-gene and gene-drug interaction screens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Measuring the impact of combinations of genetic or chemical perturbations on cellular fitness, sometimes referred to as synthetic lethal screening, is a powerful method for obtaining novel insights into gene function and drug action. Especially when performed at large scales, gene-gene or gene-drug interaction screens can reveal complex genetic interactions or drug mechanism of action or even identify novel therapeutics for the treatment of diseases. The result of such large-scale screen results can be represented as a matrix with a numeric score indicating the cellular fitness (e.g. viability or doubling time) for each double perturbation. In a typical screen, the majority of combinations do not impact the cellular fitness. Thus, it is critical to first discern true "hits" from noise. Subsequent data exploration and visualization methods can assist to extract meaningful biological information from the data. However, despite the increasing interest in combination perturbation screens, no user friendly open-source program exists that combines statistical analysis, data exploration tools and visualization. Results We developed TOPS (Tool for Combination Perturbation Screen Analysis), a Java and R-based software tool with a simple graphical user interface that allows the user to import, analyze, filter and plot data from double perturbation screens as well as other compatible data. TOPS was designed in a modular fashion to allow the user to add alternative importers for data formats or custom analysis scripts not covered by the original release. We demonstrate the utility of TOPS on two datasets derived from functional genetic screens using different methods. Dataset 1 is a gene-drug interaction screen and is based on Luminex xMAP technology. Dataset 2 is a gene-gene short hairpin (sh)RNAi screen exploring the interactions between deubiquitinating enzymes and a number of prominent oncogenes using massive parallel sequencing (MPS). Conclusions TOPS provides

  8. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-06-28

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  9. Diagnosis and Management of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dugum, Mohannad; McCullough, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of liver disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Several factors, including the amount and duration of alcohol consumption, affect the development and progression of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD represents a spectrum of liver pathology ranging from fatty change to fibrosis to cirrhosis. Early diagnosis of ALD is important to encourage alcohol abstinence, minimize the progression of liver fibrosis, and manage cirrhosis-related complications including hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of questionnaires and laboratory tests are available to screen for alcohol intake. Liver biopsy remains the gold-standard diagnostic tool for ALD, but noninvasive accurate alternatives, including a number of biochemical tests as well as liver stiffness measurement, are increasingly being utilized in the evaluation of patients with suspected ALD. The management of ALD depends largely on complete abstinence from alcohol. Supportive care should focus on treating alcohol withdrawal and providing enteral nutrition while managing the complications of liver failure. Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a devastating acute form of ALD that requires early recognition and specialized tertiary medical care. Assessment of AH severity using defined scoring systems is important to allocate resources and initiate appropriate therapy. Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are commonly used in treating AH but provide a limited survival benefit. Liver transplantation represents the ultimate therapy for patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, with most transplant centers mandating a 6 month period of abstinence from alcohol before listing. Early liver transplantation is also emerging as a therapeutic measure in specifically selected patients with severe AH. A number of novel targeted therapies for ALD are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:26356792

  10. MACCS : Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening tool for high-frequency revisit data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Huc, M.; Feuvrier, T.; Ruffel, C.; Hagolle, O.; Lonjou, V.; Desjardins, C.

    2015-10-01

    For the production of Level2A products during Sentinel-2 commissioning in the Technical Expertise Center Sentinel-2 in CNES, CESBIO proposed to adapt the Venus Level-2 , taking advantage of the similarities between the two missions: image acquisition at a high frequency (2 days for Venus, 5 days with the two Sentinel-2), high resolution (5m for Venus, 10, 20 and 60m for Sentinel-2), images acquisition under constant viewing conditions. The Multi-Mission Atmospheric Correction and Cloud Screening (MACCS) tool was born: based on CNES Orfeo Toolbox Library, Venμs processor which was already able to process Formosat2 and VENμS data, was adapted to process Sentinel-2 and Landsat5-7 data; since then, a great effort has been made reviewing MACCS software architecture in order to ease the add-on of new missions that have also the peculiarity of acquiring images at high resolution, high revisit and under constant viewing angles, such as Spot4/Take5 and Landsat8. The recursive and multi-temporal algorithm is implemented in a core that is the same for all the sensors and that combines several processing steps: estimation of cloud cover, cloud shadow, water, snow and shadows masks, of water vapor content, aerosol optical thickness, atmospheric correction. This core is accessed via a number of plug-ins where the specificity of the sensor and of the user project are taken into account: products format, algorithmic processing chaining and parameters. After a presentation of MACCS architecture and functionalities, the paper will give an overview of the production facilities integrating MACCS and the associated specificities: the interest for this tool has grown worldwide and MACCS will be used for extensive production within the THEIA land data center and Agri-S2 project. Finally the paper will zoom on the use of MACCS during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Test phase showing the first Level-2A products.

  11. Assessment of the performance of a handheld Raman device for potential use as a screening tool in evaluating medicines quality.

    PubMed

    Hajjou, Mustapha; Qin, Yanyan; Bradby, Sanford; Bempong, Daniel; Lukulay, Patrick

    2013-02-23

    The TruScan(®) handheld Raman device is used for testing finished pharmaceutical products in the field to detect counterfeit and substandard medicines. Present work reports on the device's ability to discriminate between a specific product and similar products from different manufacturers, unrelated medicines, and medicines with different strengths. This investigation evaluated its ability to differentiate between similar drug products of similar or different strengths, focusing on the specificity and precision of the testing. First, several units of the same medicine's dosage form were compared; then comparisons were made between unrelated products, similar products, and products with different strengths. The six pharmaceutical products used in testing were from commonly used analgesic, antimalarial, and antidiarrheal medicines. The results showed that the performance of the TruScan(®) device depends on the nature and the strength of the dosage form tested; while the device could be suitable for authentication of some finished pharmaceutical products and, hence, could be used to detect some counterfeit medicines, it could not be used to detect substandard medicines. Careful consideration should be given when using the device as a screening tool for counterfeit medicines. PMID:23245232

  12. Application of a fish DNA damage assay as a biological toxicity screening tool for metal plating wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.; Zong, M.; Meier, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The utility of a fish DNA damage assay as a rapid monitoring tool was investigated. Metal plating wastewater was chosen as a sample because it contains various genotoxic metal species. Fish DNA damage assay results were compared to data generated from the conventional whole effluent toxicity (WET) test procedure. The Microtox{reg_sign} assay (Azur Environmental, Carlsbad, CA, USA) using Vibrio fischeri was also employed. Eleven samples from two metal plating companies were collected for this evaluation. For the fish DNA damage assay, 7-d-old fathead minnow larvae, Pimephales promelas, were utilized. They were exposed to a series of dilutions at 20 C for 2 h. Whole effluent toxicity tests conducted in this study included two acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and fathead minnows and two chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia and fathead minnows. The fish DNA damage assay showed good correlations with both the acute and chronic WET test results, especially with those obtained with fathead minnows. The kappa values, an index of agreement, between the fish DNA damage assay and WET tests were shown to be acceptable. These findings imply that this novel fish DNA damage assay has use as an expedient toxicity screening procedure since it produces comparable results to those of the acute and chronic fathead minnow toxicity tests.

  13. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m2, Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m2 and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m2 and 36 cm. PMID:27127598

  14. The Stop-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension in Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Pavarangkul, Tanut; Jungtrakul, Thipphailin; Chaobangprom, Pichsinee; Nitiwatthana, Luxanawadee; Jongkumchok, Wisit; Morrakotkhiew, Weerachat; Kachenchart, Sitthan; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Limpawattana, Panita; Srisaenpang, Sompong; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-04-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common public health issue. If left untreated, OSA may cause a large health economic burden from cardiovascular complications particularly stroke. The diagnosis of OSA can be made by polysomnography, but its availability is limited in the developing countries in Asia. STOP-BANG questionnaire is a good screening tool but may need some adjustment for Asian population. STOP-BANG stands for: Snoring history, Tired during the day, Observed stop breathing while sleep, High blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) more than 35 kg/m(2), Age more than 50 years, Neck circumference more than 40 cm and male Gender. We compared clinical features in STOP-BANG questionnaire between 42 OSA induced hypertension patients and 82 healthy control subjects in the Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The best cutoff point for the BMI and the neck circumference were 24.5 kg/m(2) and 36 cm, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the BMI cutoff point were 97.2% and 91.40, while those of the neck circumference were 94.7% and 82.9%. In conclusion, the appropriate cutoff points of BMI and neck circumference for Thai STOP-BANG questionnaire were 25 kg/m(2) and 36 cm. PMID:27127598

  15. Exploring the Potential of Venom from Nasonia vitripennis as Therapeutic Agent with High-Throughput Screening Tools

    PubMed Central

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Formesyn, Ellen M.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    The venom from the ectoparasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) contains at least 80 different proteins and possibly even more peptides or other small chemical compounds, demonstrating its appealing therapeutic application. To better understand the dynamics of the venom in mammalian cells, two high-throughput screening tools were performed. The venom induced pathways related to an early stress response and activated reporters that suggest the involvement of steroids. Whether these steroids reside from the venom itself or show an induced release/production caused by the venom, still remains unsolved. The proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was found to be down-regulated after venom and LPS co-treatment, confirming the anti-inflammatory action of N. vitripennis venom. When analyzing the expression levels of the NF-κB target genes, potentially not only the canonical but also the alternative NF-κB pathway can be affected, possibly explaining some counterintuitive results. It is proposed that next to an NF-κB binding site, the promoter of the genes tested by the PCR array may also contain binding sites for other transcription factors, resulting in a complex puzzle to connect the induced target gene with its respective transcription factor. Interestingly, Nasonia venom altered the expression of some drug targets, presenting the venom with an exciting therapeutical potential. PMID:26046700

  16. Number of genera as a potential screening tool for assessing quality of bryophyte communities in Ohio wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, William; Stapanian, Martin A.; Andreas, Barbara; Gara, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts, and hornworts) have numerous advantages as indicators of environmental quality. A quality assessment index for bryophyte species assemblages (BQAI) was developed for the State of Ohio, USA. Reliable identification of bryophytes to species often requires considerable training, practice, and time. In contrast, reliable identification to genera for most bryophytes in Ohio requires much less training. We identified 110 bryophyte species (14 liverworts and 96 mosses) belonging to 69 genera (13 liverwort and 56 moss) in 45 wetlands (27 emergent, 13 forested, and 5 shrub) in Ohio. As expected, there were more genera and higher BQAI scores in forested than in emergent wetlands. Number of genera was highly correlated (r ≥ 0.9) with BQAI in emergent and forested wetlands and for the combined set of wetlands. Number of genera and BQAI responded almost identically to an index of wetland disturbance. The results suggest that number of genera has potential as a screening tool for assessing bryophyte community quality in wetlands in some regions.

  17. [Nutritional screening tool versus anthropometric assessment in hospitalized children: which method is better associated to clinical outcomes?].

    PubMed

    Márquez Costa, María Verónica; Alberici Pastore, Carla

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization contributes to worsening of the nutritional status and malnutrition is associate to increase in morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to asses nutritional status/risk using anthropometry and the Screening Tool for Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), comparing their results to clinical outcomes. For that propose, was conducted an observational longitudinal study with children up to one month of life, hospitalized in Pediatric ward of a teaching hospital. Nutritional status was assessed by Body Mass Index for age and weight for age. Nutritional risk was classified as high, intermediate or low. The length of stay, clinical outcome and complications were taken of the medical records. This project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Research. Were evaluated 181 children, from both sexes. The median age was 8.8 (IQR 3.3; 26.9) months and the median length of stay was 7 (IQR 4; 10) days. There was 20.8% of malnutrition in children younger than one year. Most of the children (55.3%) were classified as in intermediate nutritional risk. The length of stay was associated to nutritional risk, while anthropometry was associated to only in those younger than one year. There were five infectious complication, not associated to nutritional status/risk. Therefore, nutritional risk was significantly associated to length of stay, showing that STRONGkids was a better method compared to anthropometric nutritional assessment to predict this outcome. PMID:26320301

  18. Interphase cytogenetics of prostatic carcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears of radical prostatectomy specimens: A practical screening tool?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.Y.; Troncoso, P.; El-Naggar, A.K.

    1994-09-01

    Identification of chromosomal aberrations that may be used for diagnostic or prognostic evaluation of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been the subject of great interest. In a previous study, we applied the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin-embedded material to show that trisomy 7 was associated with the progression of human prostate cancer. In this study, we attempted to assess the utility of the FISH technique in detecting aneuploidy in fine needle aspirate (FNA) smears of prostatic tissues and to compare FISH results with that of DNA flow cytometry (FCM). Paired samples of normal and tumor FNA smears were obtained from 10 radical prostatectomy specimens. Dual-color chromosomes 7 and 9-specific centromeric DNA probes were used for FISH. FISH analysis demonstrated increased frequencies of trisomy 7 cells in all 10 tumors studied when compared with the paired normals. In contrast, 6 of 10 tumors were determined to be diploid by FCM. Our results show that FNA of radical prostatectomy specimens is a practical method for obtaining suitable material for both FISH and FCM analyses of prostate carcinoma. Thus, interphase FISH may be a practical screening tool to determine aneuploidy in FNA smears of prostatic carcinoma.

  19. HiTSEE KNIME: a visualization tool for hit selection and analysis in high-throughput screening experiments for the KNIME platform

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We present HiTSEE (High-Throughput Screening Exploration Environment), a visualization tool for the analysis of large chemical screens used to examine biochemical processes. The tool supports the investigation of structure-activity relationships (SAR analysis) and, through a flexible interaction mechanism, the navigation of large chemical spaces. Our approach is based on the projection of one or a few molecules of interest and the expansion around their neighborhood and allows for the exploration of large chemical libraries without the need to create an all encompassing overview of the whole library. We describe the requirements we collected during our collaboration with biologists and chemists, the design rationale behind the tool, and two case studies on different datasets. The described integration (HiTSEE KNIME) into the KNIME platform allows additional flexibility in adopting our approach to a wide range of different biochemical problems and enables other research groups to use HiTSEE. PMID:22607449

  20. Screening the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor gene in 131 schizophrenics and eight alcoholics: Identification of polymorphisms but lack of functionally significant sequence changes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiang; Sommer, S.S.; Sobell, J.L.

    1995-04-24

    To determine whether mutations in the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor (D{sub 1}DR) gene are associated with schizophrenia, the coding sequence was examined in 106 Caucasian, 11 African-American, 8 Asian, and 6 Native American patients. Approximately 350 kb of genomic sequence was screened by dideoxy fingerprinting, a method related to single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis that detects virtually 100% of sequence changes. One polymorphism was identified in Asians and one in Caucasians, but neither altered 421 the amino acid sequence (Leu{sup 66}, and Ser{sup 421}, respectively). In addition, a previously reported polymorphism in the 5{prime} untranslated region of exon 2 at bp -48 was found to be common, with an allele frequency of approximately 40% in Caucasians of Western European descent. Based on the fact that no sequence changes of likely functional significance were identified, these data suggest that mutations affecting the structure of the D{sub 1} dopamine receptor protein are uncommon and are unlikely to contribute significantly to the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia. The D{sub 1}DR gene also was examined in eight alcoholics, including 3 African-Americans and 1 Native American, but no sequence changes were identified. 35 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Focused Decision Support: a Data Mining Tool to Query the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Dataset and Guide Screening Management for the Individual Patient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Hostetter, Jason; Morrison, James; Wang, Kenneth; Siegel, Eliot

    2016-04-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial enrolled ~155,000 participants to determine whether certain screening exams reduced mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Repurposing the data provides an unparalleled resource for matching patients with the outcomes of demographically or diagnostically comparable patients. A web-based application was developed to query this subset of patient information against a given patient's demographics and risk factors. Analysis of the matched data yields outcome information which can then be used to guide management decisions and imaging software. Prognostic information is also estimated via the proportion of matched patients that progress to cancer. The US Preventative Services Task Force provides screening recommendations for cancers of the breast, colorectal tract, and lungs. There is wide variability in adherence of clinicians to these guidelines and others published by the Fleischner Society and various cancer organizations. Data mining the PLCO dataset for clinical decision support can optimize the use of limited healthcare resources, focusing screening on patients for whom the benefit to risk ratio is the greatest and most efficacious. A data driven, personalized approach to cancer screening maximizes the economic and clinical efficacy and enables early identification of patients in which the course of disease can be improved. Our dynamic decision support system utilizes a subset of the PLCO dataset as a reference model to determine imaging and testing appropriateness while offering prognostic information for various cancers. PMID:26385814

  2. Utility of the pediatric sleep questionnaire and pulse oximetry as screening tools in pediatric patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Peña-Zarza, Jose A; Osona-Rodriguez de Torres, Borja; Gil-Sanchez, Jose Antonio; Figuerola-Mulet, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To assess the screening tools in snoring patients. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of data was conducted from children between 2 and 15 years old who were referred on suspicion of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) between June 2008 and June 2011. We excluded patients with significant comorbidities. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ), physical exam (PE), and pulse-oximetry data were collected and correlated with the results of the nightly polygraph at home. Results. We selected 98 patients. The 22-item version of the PSQ had sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 36.8%. The overall value of the clinic predictor of OSAH (PSQ and PE together) exhibited an increased specificity 57.6% with 94.6% of sensitivity. The nocturnal home oximetry method used alone was very specific, 92.1%, but had a lower sensitivity, 77.1%. The set of clinical assessment tools used together with pulse-oximetry screening provided excellent specificity 98.1% and a positive predictive value 94.1% globally. The performance of this screening tool is related with the severity of OSAH and accuracy is better in moderate and severe cases. Conclusion. The combination of clinical assessment and pulse-oximetry screening can provide a sufficient diagnostic approach for pediatric patients with suspected OSAH at least in moderate and severe cases. PMID:23471006

  3. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  4. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL ... this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  6. Feasibility of nephrinuria as a screening tool for the risk of pre-eclampsia: prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Tianyue; Furuta, Itsuko; Akaishi, Rina; Kawabata, Kosuke; Chiba, Kentaro; Umazume, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahiro; Morikawa, Mamoru; Minakami, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the possibility of nephrinuria as a screening tool for the risk of pre-eclampsia (PE). Design Prospective observational study. Setting A single university hospital. Changes in urinary nephrin:creatinine ratio (NCR, ng/mg) and protein:creatinine ratio (PCR, mg/mg) in pregnancy were determined. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy (SPIP) was defined as PCR>0.27. PE was diagnosed in women with both SPIP and hypertension. Participants 89 pregnant women in whom neither hypertension nor SPIP was present at enrolment, providing 31, 125 and 93 random urine samples during first, second and third trimesters, respectively. Results PE developed in 14 of the 89 women. NCR increased with increasing PCR in 14 women with PE (correlation coefficient, 0.862; p<0.0001). In contrast, NCR did not change significantly despite significant increases in PCR in 75 women with normotensive pregnancies defined as neither SPIP nor hypertension, indicating that there was little increase in nephrinuria over the physiological range of proteinuria in pregnancy. Relative risk of later development of PE among asymptomatic second and third trimester women with NCR (ng/mg) >122 (95th centile value for 75 women with normotensive pregnancies) was 5.93 (95% CI 2.59 to 13.6; 60% (6/10) vs 10% (8/79)) and 13.5 (95% CI 3.31 to 55.0; 75% (6/8) vs 5.5% (2/36)), respectively, compared with women with NCR≤122 at that time. Conclusions Nephrinuria was unlikely to increase in normal pregnancy. A certain NCR cut-off may efficiently differentiate women at higher risk of PE. PMID:27486123

  7. Assessing similarity analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Cyclopia subternata extracts as potential screening tool for in vitro glucose utilisation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Alexandra E; De Beer, Dalene; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Roux, Candice; Willenburg, Elize L; Nyunaï, Nyemb; Louw, Johan; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Similarity analysis of the phenolic fingerprints of a large number of aqueous extracts of Cyclopia subternata, obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was evaluated as a potential tool to screen extracts for relative bioactivity. The assessment was based on the (dis)similarity of their fingerprints to that of a reference active extract of C. subternata, proven to enhance glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. In vitro testing of extracts, selected as being most similar (n = 5; r ≥ 0.962) and most dissimilar (n = 5; r ≤ 0.688) to the reference active extract, showed that no clear pattern in terms of relative glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes emerged, irrespective of the dose. Some of the most dissimilar extracts had higher glucose-lowering activity than the reference active extract. Principal component analysis revealed the major compounds responsible for the most variation within the chromatographic fingerprints, as mangiferin, isomangiferin, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside-4-O-β-D-glucoside, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside, scolymoside, and phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-D-glucoside. Quantitative analysis of the selected extracts showed that the most dissimilar extracts contained the highest mangiferin and isomangiferin levels, whilst the most similar extracts had the highest scolymoside content. These compounds demonstrated similar glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes. It can be concluded that (dis)similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of extracts of unknown activity to that of a proven bioactive extract does not necessarily translate to lower or higher bioactivity. PMID:26542834

  8. Evaluation of the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire as a screening tool for clumsiness of Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Akio; Miyachi, Taishi; Okada, Ryo; Tani, Iori; Nakajima, Shunji; Onishi, Masafumi; Fujita, Chikako; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2011-01-01

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is characterized by clumsiness and coordination difficulties. DCD interferes with academic performance and participation in physical activities and psychosocial functions, such as self-esteem, cognition, or emotion, from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. DCD is a common pediatric condition and its prevalence is estimated to be 6% worldwide. Although English questionnaires are available, there is no questionnaire to identify DCD in Japan, and therefore, no information on its prevalence is available. Recently, we developed the Japanese version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-J). The purpose of this study was to describe the applicability of the DCDQ-J for use with a community-based population of children in Japan and to investigate the relationships between coordination and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tendencies or intelligence. The DCDQ-J was completed by 6330 parents or guardians of children and adolescents. We employed the ADHD-rating scale and determined the intelligence quotient (IQ) of the children. Two-way analysis of variance showed that the scores linearly increased as the children's grades advanced in 2 subscales, namely, control during movement and fine motor. In contrast, non-linear changes were found in the scores of the general coordination subscale. The total scores of the DCDQ-J and ADHD-RS were significantly correlated, but no relationship between DCDQ-J scores and IQ was found. The DCDQ-J is expected to be a useful screening tool to identify and assess motor coordination difficulties of children in Japan and enable cross-cultural comparisons. PMID:21377832

  9. Reliability of a Simple Physical Therapist Screening Tool to Assess Errors during Resistance Exercises for Musculoskeletal Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The main objective was to investigate the intra- and intertester reliability of a simple screening tool assessing errors in exercise execution by visual observation. 38 participants with no previous resistance exercise experience practiced for two weeks four typical upper limb exercises using elastic tubing. At 2-week follow-up, the participants were invited for a test-retest assessment on errors in technical execution. The assessment was based on ordinal deviation of joint position from neutral of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in a single plane by visual observation. Moderate intratester reliability weighted kappa (wΚ) score ranging from 0.50 (0.21–0.71) to 0.57 (0.24–0.82) for observer 1 and a fair to moderate intratester reliability wΚ score ranging from 0.27 (0.09–0.43) to 0.52 (0.15–0.86) for observer 2 across the four exercises was observed. For intertester reliability moderate to substantial mean wΚ scores were found between the two observers, slightly improving from round one to round two ranging from 0.40 (0.20–0.59) to 0.68 (0.45–0.91) in round one to 0.52 (0.20–0.80) to 0.69 (0.39–0.86) in round two. The exercise error assessment demonstrated fair to substantial intratester and intertester reliability, which is congruent with previously published studies. Hence the simplicity of defining a neutral joint position for each of the involved joints in the exercise and categorizing the deviation in “some deviation” and “substantial deviation” to either side in a single plane is a viable and inexpensive solution when assessing for errors during exercise. PMID:24738079

  10. Concurrent Validity of a Computer-Based Cognitive Screening Tool for Use in Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Mary Amanda; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Morrow, Lisa; Saxton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract As the incidence of HIV-associated dementia has decreased, the survival of HIV-infected individuals with milder forms of cognitive impairment has increased. Detecting this milder impairment in its earliest stages has great clinical and research importance. We report here the results of an initial evaluation of the Computer Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI®), a computerized screening tool designed to assess abnormal cognitive decline with reduced respondent and test administrator burden. Fifty-nine volunteers (29 HIV infected; age=50.9 years; education=14.9 years; 36/59 males) completed the CAMCI® and a battery of neuropsychological tests. The CAMCI was repeated 12 and 24 weeks later. The results from the CAMCI were compared to Global and Domain Impairment scores derived from the full neuropsychological test battery. The CAMCI detected mild impairment (compared with normal and borderline test performance) with a sensitivity of 0.72, specificity of 0.97, positive predictive rate of 0.93, and a negative predictive rate of 0.89. Median stability over 12 and 24 weeks of follow-up was 0.32 and 0.46, respectively. These rates did not differ as a function of serostatus. A discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90% of the subjects with respect to their overall Global Impairment Rating from six of the CAMCI scores. This preliminary study demonstrates that the CAMCI is sensitive to mild forms of cognitive impairment, and is stable over 24 weeks of follow-up. A larger trial to obtain risk-group appropriate normative data will be necessary to make the instrument useful in both clinical practice and research (e.g., clinical trials). PMID:21545295

  11. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  12. Teaching Tools to Engage Anishinaabek First Nations Women in Cervical Cancer Screening: Report of an Educational Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehbe, Ingeborg; Wood, Brianne; Wakewich, Pamela; Maar, Marion; Escott, Nicholas; Jumah, Naana; Little, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore educational strategies for engaging First Nations women in Canada to attend cervical cancer screening. Design: Within a participatory action research framework, semi-structured interviews with health-care providers in First Nations communities revealed that education about the value of screening is perceived as being a key…

  13. Evaluation of recently validated non-invasive formula using basic lung functions as new screening tool for pulmonary hypertension in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghanem, Maha K.; Makhlouf, Hoda A.; Agmy, Gamal R.; Imam, Hisham M. K.; Fouad, Doaa A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prediction formula for mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) using standard lung function measurement has been recently validated to screen for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients. OBJECTIVE: To test the usefulness of this formula as a new non invasive screening tool for PH in IPF patients. Also, to study its correlation with patients' clinical data, pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases (ABGs) and other commonly used screening methods for PH including electrocardiogram (ECG), chest X ray (CXR), trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computerized tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 37 IPF patients from tertiary hospital. The accuracy of MPAP estimation was assessed by examining the correlation between the predicted MPAP using the formula and PH diagnosed by other screening tools and patients' clinical signs of PH. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the prediction of PH using cut off point of 21 or 25 mm Hg (P = 0.24). The formula-predicted MPAP greater than 25 mm Hg strongly correlated in the expected direction with O2 saturation (r = −0.95, P < 0.000), partial arterial O2 tension (r = −0.71, P < 0.000), right ventricular systolic pressure measured by TTE (r = 0.6, P < 0.000) and hilar width on CXR (r = 0.31, P = 0.03). Chest symptoms, ECG and CTPA signs of PH poorly correlated with the same formula (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The prediction formula for MPAP using standard lung function measurements is a simple non invasive tool that can be used as TTE to screen for PH in IPF patients and select those who need right heart catheterization. PMID:19881164

  14. Trends in the management and burden of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathurin, Philippe; Bataller, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the most prevalent cause of advanced liver disease in Europe and is the leading cause of death among adults with excessive alcohol consumption. There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the risk of ALD. The relative risk of cirrhosis increases in subjects who consume more than 25 g/day. The burden of alcohol-attributable liver cirrhosis and liver cancer is high and is entirely preventable. Health agencies should develop population-based policies to reduce the prevalence of harmful and/or hazardous alcohol consumption and foster research in this field to provide new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Disease progression of patients with ALD is heavily influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Non-invasive methods for the diagnosis of fibrosis have opened new perspectives in the early detection of advanced ALD in asymptomatic patients. Alcoholic hepatitis, the most severe form of ALD, carries a high short-term mortality (around 30–50% at 3 months). Corticosteroids improve short-term survival in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis but duration of therapy should be adapted to early response. Liver transplantation is the best option for patients with severe liver dysfunction. However, alcohol relapse after transplantation remains a critical issue and drinking habits of transplanted patients need to be routinely screened. PMID:25920088

  15. Development of a web-based tool for automated processing and cataloging of a unique combinatorial drug screen.

    PubMed

    Dalecki, Alex G; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Facing totally resistant bacteria, traditional drug discovery efforts have proven to be of limited use in replenishing our depleted arsenal of therapeutic antibiotics. Recently, the natural anti-bacterial properties of metal ions in synergy with metal-coordinating ligands have shown potential for generating new molecule candidates with potential therapeutic downstream applications. We recently developed a novel combinatorial screening approach to identify compounds with copper-dependent anti-bacterial properties. Through a parallel screening technique, the assay distinguishes between copper-dependent and independent activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with hits being defined as compounds with copper-dependent activities. These activities must then be linked to a compound master list to process and analyze the data and to identify the hit molecules, a labor intensive and mistake-prone analysis. Here, we describe a software program built to automate this analysis in order to streamline our workflow significantly. We conducted a small, 1440 compound screen against M. tuberculosis and used it as an example framework to build and optimize the software. Though specifically adapted to our own needs, it can be readily expanded for any small- to medium-throughput screening effort, parallel or conventional. Further, by virtue of the underlying Linux server, it can be easily adapted for chemoinformatic analysis of screens through packages such as OpenBabel. Overall, this setup represents an easy-to-use solution for streamlining processing and analysis of biological screening data, as well as offering a scaffold for ready functionality expansion. PMID:27117032

  16. Early detection and prevention of domestic violence using the Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) in primary health care clinics in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yut-Lin, Wong; Othman, Sajaratulnisah

    2008-01-01

    Despite being an emergent major public health problem, little research has been done on domestic violence from the perspectives of early detection and prevention. Thus, this cross-sectional study was conducted to identify domestic violence among female adult patients attending health centers at the primary care level and to determine the relationship between social correlates of adult patients and domestic violence screening and subsequent help/health-seeking behavior if abused. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 710 female adult patients from 8 health centers in Selangor who matched the inclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study, using a structured questionnaire that included adaptation of a validated 8-item Women Abuse Screening Tool (WAST). Statistical tests showed significant differences in ethnicity, income, and education between those screened positive and those screened negative for domestic violence. Of the participants, 92.4% reported that during consultations, doctors had never asked them whether they were abused by their husband/partner. Yet, 67.3% said they would voluntarily tell the doctor if they were abused by their husband/partner. The findings indicate that primary care has an important role in identifying domestic violence by applying the WAST screening tool, or an appropriate adaptation, with women patients during routine visits to the various health centers. Such assessment for abuse could be secondary prevention for the abused women, but more important, it will serve as primary prevention for nonabused women. This approach not only will complement the existing 1-stop crisis center policy by the Ministry of Health that copes with crisis intervention but also will spearhead efforts toward prevention of domestic violence in Malaysia. PMID:19124304

  17. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  18. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  19. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  20. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  1. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  2. The E-SCREEN assay as a tool to identify estrogens: an update on estrogenic environmental pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C; Chung, K L; Fernandez, M F; Olea, N; Serrano, F O

    1995-01-01

    Estrogens are defined by their ability to induce the proliferation of cells of the female genital tract. The wide chemical diversity of estrogenic compounds precludes an accurate prediction of estrogenic activity on the basis of chemical structure. Rodent bioassays are not suited for the large-scale screening of chemicals before their release into the environment because of their cost, complexity, and ethical concerns. The E-SCREEN assay was developed to assess the estrogenicity of environmental chemicals using the proliferative effect of estrogens on their target cells as an end point. This quantitative assay compares the cell number achieved by similar inocula of MCF-7 cells in the absence of estrogens (negative control) and in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol (positive control) and a range of concentrations of chemicals suspected to be estrogenic. Among the compounds tested, several "new" estrogens were found; alkylphenols, phthalates, some PCB congeners and hydroxylated PCBs, and the insecticides dieldrin, endosulfan, and toxaphene were estrogenic by the E-SCREEN assay. In addition, these compounds competed with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor and increased the levels of progesterone receptor and pS2 in MCF-7 cells, as expected from estrogen mimics. Recombinant human growth factors (bFGF, EGF, IGF-1) and insulin did not increase in cell yields. The aims of the work summarized in this paper were a) to validate the E-SCREEN assay; b) to screen a variety of chemicals present in the environment to identify those that may be causing reproductive effects in wildlife and humans; c) to assess whether environmental estrogens may act cumulatively; and finally d) to discuss the reliability of this and other assays to screen chemicals for their estrogenicity before they are released into the environment. PMID:8593856

  3. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  4. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  5. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  6. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  7. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  8. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  9. A Combination of the Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and Korean Dementia Screening Questionnaire Is a Good Screening Tool for Dementia in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Park, Je Min; Kang, Cheol Joong; Lee, Byung Dae; Moon, Eunsoo; Chung, Young In

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate whether a combination of the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE) and the Korean dementia screening questionnaire (KDSQ) is better than the use of test alone when differentiating patients with dementia from those without dementia in Korea. Methods The subjects (patients without dementia, 1120; patients with dementia, 908) were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea. K-MMSE and KDSQ were used. Diagnosis of dementia was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth Edition. The weighted sum rule derived from logistic regression analysis was used for the combination of K-MMSE and KDSQ. Results On comparing the Area Under the Curve for each test using the method of Hanley and McNeil, the weighted sum was significantly greater than KDSQ or K-MMSE, and K-MMSE was significantly greater than KDSQ. Conclusion This study shows that when differentiating patients with dementia from those without dementia in Korea, a combination of K-MMSE and KDSQ achieved using the weighted sum method is better than either test performed alone. Further epidemiological studies in community-based settings are required before our results can be generalized to nonclinical samples. PMID:22216045

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Student Risk Screening Scale: An Effective Tool for Use in Diverse Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Wilder, Kaitlin S.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Powers, Lisa; Yokoyama, Lynn T. K.; O'Hare, Mary Ellen; Jenkins, Abbie B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the psychometric properties of the "Student Risk Screening Scale", as used in three ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse urban midwestern elementary schools. The results suggest strong internal consistency ([alpha] = 0.81-0.82) and test-retest stability (r = 0.86). Initial ratings of risk as measured by the…

  11. Falls screening and assessment tools used in acute mental health settings: a review of policies in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, V.; Dickinson, A.; Victor, C.; Griffiths, C.; Humphrey, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is an urgent need to improve the care of older people at risk of falls or who experience falls in mental health settings. The aims of this study were to evaluate the individual falls risk assessment tools adopted by National Health Service (NHS) mental health trusts in England and healthcare boards in Wales, to evaluate the comprehensiveness of these tools and to review their predictive validity. Methods All NHS mental health trusts in England (n = 56) and healthcare boards in Wales (n = 6) were invited to supply their falls policies and other relevant documentation (e.g. local falls audits). In order to check the comprehensiveness of tools listed in policy documents, the risk variables of the tools adopted by the mental health trusts’ policies were compared with the 2004 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) falls prevention guidelines. A comprehensive analytical literature review was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the tools used in these settings. Results Falls policies were obtained from 46 mental health trusts. Thirty-five policies met the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The main falls assessment tools used were the St. Thomas’ Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients (STRATIFY), Falls Risk Assessment Scale for the Elderly, Morse Falls Scale (MFS) and Falls Risk Assessment Tool (FRAT). On detailed examination, a number of different versions of the FRAT were evident; validated tools had inconsistent predictive validity and none of them had been validated in mental health settings. Conclusions Falls risk assessment is the most commonly used component of risk prevention strategies, but most policies included unvalidated tools and even well validated tool such as the STRATIFY and the MFS that are reported to have inconsistent predictive accuracy. This raises questions about operational usefulness, as none of these tools have been tested in acute mental health

  12. Highly efficient direct aerobic oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with alkyl alcohols catalysed by gold nanoparticles incarcerated in a nanoporous polymer matrix: a tool for investigating the role of the polymer host.

    PubMed

    Buonerba, Antonio; Noschese, Annarita; Grassi, Alfonso

    2014-04-25

    The selective aerobic oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, as well as direct oxidative esterification of this alcohol with primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols, were achieved with high chemoselectivity by using gold nanoparticles supported in a nanoporous semicrystalline multi-block copolymer matrix, which consisted of syndiotactic polystyrene-co-cis-1,4-polybutadiene. The cascade reaction that leads to the alkyl cinnamates occurs through two oxidation steps: the selective oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol to cinnamaldehyde, followed by oxidation of the hemiacetal that results from the base-catalysed reaction of cinnamaldehyde with an aliphatic alcohol. The rate constants for the two steps were evaluated in the temperature range 10-45 °C. The cinnamyl alcohol oxidation is faster than the oxidative esterification of cinnamaldehyde with methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol or 1-octanol. The rate constants of the latter reaction are pseudo-zero order with respect to the aliphatic alcohol and decrease as the bulkiness of the alcohol is increased. The activation energy (Ea) for the two oxidation steps was calculated for esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 1-butanol (Ea = 57.8±11.5 and 62.7±16.7 kJ mol(-1) for the first and second step, respectively). The oxidative esterification of cinnamyl alcohol with 2-phenylethanol follows pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to 2-phenylethanol and is faster than observed for other alcohols because of fast diffusion of the aromatic alcohol in the crystalline phase of the support. The kinetic investigation allowed us to assess the role of the polymer support in the determination of both high activity and selectivity in the title reaction. PMID:24644103

  13. Feasibility of using text messaging for unhealthy behaviors screening in a clinical setting: a case study on adolescent hazardous alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Underage alcohol use is the leading cause of preventable mortality among adolescents in the USA. Moreover, the average age of onset of underage drinking is 13 years. This study examined the feasibility of using a text messaging survey (TMS) to assess adolescent alcohol use. A sample of 29 adolescents, aged 13–17 years, was recruited from two primary care clinics. They completed a 16 question TMS while in the waiting room and a two-question exit TMS. The participation rate was 87%. Two out of 25 (8%) adolescents met the criteria for hazardous drinking and 28% reported alcohol use. It was found that 38% and 25% of adolescents who completed the exit TMS were asked or advised about drinking, respectively. Text messaging to assess adolescent alcohol use in this setting seems feasible, does not disrupt patient workflow, and can assess many health behaviors before a clinical encounter. PMID:22759622

  14. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  15. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  16. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  17. Metabolomics combined with chemometric tools (PCA, HCA, PLS-DA and SVM) for screening cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots during postharvest physiological deterioration.

    PubMed

    Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Moresco, Rodolfo; Coelho, Bianca; Nunes, Eduardo da Costa; Peruch, Luiz Augusto Martins; Neubert, Enilto de Oliveira; Rocha, Miguel; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2014-10-15

    Cassava roots are an important source of dietary and industrial carbohydrates and suffer markedly from postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD). This paper deals with metabolomics combined with chemometric tools for screening the chemical and enzymatic composition in several genotypes of cassava roots during PPD. Metabolome analyses showed increases in carotenoids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolics, reactive scavenging species, and enzymes (superoxide dismutase family, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase) until 3-5days postharvest. PPD correlated negatively with phenolics and carotenoids and positively with anthocyanins and flavonoids. Chemometric tools such as principal component analysis, partial least squares discriminant analysis, and support vector machines discriminated well cassava samples and enabled a good prediction of samples. Hierarchical clustering analyses grouped samples according to their levels of PPD and chemical compositions. PMID:24837923

  18. Assessing the usage of a guideline-driven interactive case simulation tool for insomnia screening and treatment in an HIV clinical education program.

    PubMed

    Le, Xuan Hung; Luque, Amneris E; Wang, Dongwen

    2013-01-01

    Interactive case simulation tools (ICSTs) are important vehicles to disseminate medical knowledge. We conducted a study to examine the usage of an insomnia screening and treatment case simulation tool in an HIV clinical education program. Using system usage diagrams (SUDs) as an instrument, we quantified visit frequency and length of stay for different types of system resources. Preliminary results have shown that both recommendations and interactive decision diagrams were frequently used, with the former having a longer length of stay but fewer visits. Case simulation functions seemed to be able to engage users. Future research is required to verify the generalizability of the identified usage patterns, to investigate issues in usability design, and to perform correlation analyses on system usage and context parameters. PMID:23920569

  19. A Teach-Discover-Treat Application of ZincPharmer: An Online Interactive Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening Tool

    PubMed Central

    Koes, David Ryan; Pabon, Nicolas A.; Deng, Xiaoyi; Phillips, Margaret A.; Camacho, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    The 2012 Teach-Discover-Treat (TDT) community-wide experiment provided a unique opportunity to test prospective virtual screening protocols targeting the anti-malarial target dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). Facilitated by ZincPharmer, an open access online interactive pharmacophore search of the ZINC database, the experience resulted in the development of a novel classification scheme that successfully predicted the bound structure of a non-triazolopyrimidine inhibitor, as well as an overall hit rate of 27% of tested active compounds from multiple novel chemical scaffolds. The general approach entailed exhaustively building and screening sparse pharmacophore models comprising of a minimum of three features for each bound ligand in all available DHODH co-crystals and iteratively adding features that increased the number of known binders returned by the query. Collectively, the TDT experiment provided a unique opportunity to teach computational methods of drug discovery, develop innovative methodologies and prospectively discover new compounds active against DHODH. PMID:26258606

  20. FieldChopper, a new tool for automatic model generation and virtual screening based on molecular fields.

    PubMed

    Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Ronkko, Toni; Poso, Antti

    2008-06-01

    Algorithms were developed for ligand-based virtual screening of molecular databases. FieldChopper (FC) is based on the discretization of the electrostatic and van der Waals field into three classes. A model is built from a set of superimposed active molecules. The similarity of the compounds in the database to the model is then calculated using matrices that define scores for comparing field values of different categories. The method was validated using 12 publicly available data sets by comparing the method to the electrostatic similarity comparison program EON. The results suggest that FC is competitive with more complex descriptors and could be used as a molecular sieve in virtual screening experiments when multiple active ligands are known. PMID:18489083

  1. High Resolution Melting Analysis: A Rapid Screening and Typing Tool for Common β-Thalassemia Mutation in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min; Jiao, Ji-Wei; Zhan, Xiu-Hui; Zhan, Xiao-Fen; Pan, Mei-Chen; Wang, Jun-Li; Wang, Chun-Fang; Zhong, Tian-Yu; Zhang, Qin; Yu, Xia; Wu, Jiao-Ren; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Fen; Tong, Xin; Yang, Hui; Zha, Guang-Cai; Wang, Qian; Zheng, Lei; Wen, Ying-Fang; Yang, Li-Ye

    2014-01-01

    β-thalassemia is a common inherited disorder worldwide including southern China, and at least 45 distinct β-thalassemia mutations have been identified in China. High-resolution melting (HRM) assay was recently introduced as a rapid, inexpensive and effective method for genotyping. However, there was no systemic study on the diagnostic capability of HRM to identify β-thalassemia. Here, we used an improved HRM method to screen and type 12 common β-thalassemia mutations in Chinese, and the rapidity and reliability of this method was investigated. The whole PCR and HRM procedure could be completed in 40 min. The heterozygous mutations and 4 kinds of homozygous mutations could be readily differentiated from the melting curve except c.-78A>G heterozygote and c.-79A>G heterozygote. The diagnostic reliability of this HRM assay was evaluated on 756 pre-typed genomic DNA samples and 50 cases of blood spots on filter paper, which were collected from seven high prevalent provinces in southern China. If c.-78A>G heterozygote and c.-79A>G heterozygote were classified into the same group (c.-78&79 A>G heterozygote), the HRM method was in complete concordance with the reference method (reverse dot blot/DNA-sequencing). In a conclusion, the HRM method appears to be an accurate and sensitive method for the rapid screening and identification of β-thalassemia mutations. In the future, we suggest this technology to be used in neonatal blood spot screening program. It could enlarge the coverage of β-thalassemia screening program in China. At the same time, its value should be confirmed in prospectively clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:25089872

  2. Learning algebra on screen and on paper: The effect of using a digital tool on students' understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2016-02-01

    The use of digital tools in algebra education is expected to not only contribute to master skill, but also to acquire conceptual understanding. The question is how digital tools affect students" thinking and understanding. This paper presents an analysis of data of one group of three grade seventh students (12-13 year-old) on the use of a digital tool for algebra, the Cover-up applet for solving equations in particular. This case study was part of a larger teaching experiment on initial algebra enriched with digital technology which aimed to improve students" conceptual understanding and skills in solving equations in one variable. The qualitative analysis of a video observation, digital and written work showed that the use of the applet affects student thinking in terms of strategies used by students while dealing with the equations. We conclude that the effects of the use of the digital tool can be traced from student problem solving strategies on paper-and-pencil environment which are similar to strategies while working with the digital tool. In future research, we recommend to use specific theoretical lenses, such as the theory of instrumental genesis and the onto-semiotic approach, to reveal more explicit relationships between students" conceptual understanding and the use of a digital tool.

  3. Validity of nutrition risk index as a malnutrition screening tool compared with subjective global assessment in end-stage renal disease patients on peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, N.; Sinha, A.; Gupta, A.; Bhadauria, D.; Manjunath, R.; Kaul, A.; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    We undertook this study to compare subjective global assessment (SGA) and nutrition risk index (NRI) as malnutrition screening tools in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Nutrition status of the patients was categorized into low, moderate and high risk of malnutrition based on both NRI and SGA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of NRI were compared with SGA, an already validated tool of nutrition status assessment in PD patients. Two hundred and eighty-three end-stage renal disease patients (age 50.02 ± 13.76 years; 204 males, 150 diabetic) were included. Based on SGA, 71/283 (25.08%) had normal nutrition, 192/283 (67.84%) mild–moderate and 20/283 (7.07%) severe malnutrition. Based on NRI, 38/283 (13.43%) patients had normal nutritional status, 193/283 (68.20%) mild-moderate and 52/283 (18.37%) severe malnutrition. Twenty-three of 283 (8.1%) were correctly classified as normal by NRI (true negative) and 197/283 (69.6%) as malnourished (true positive), 15/283 (5.3%) as false negative, 48/283 (16.96%) were misclassified as malnourished (false positive). NRI has sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 32.39%. Positive predictive value and Negative predictive values (NPVs) of NRI are 80.41% and 60.53%, respectively. Accuracy of the test is 78%. The receiver operating characteristic curve of NRI is 0.63. To conclude, NRI carries high sensitivity but low specificity as compared to SGA. It can be used as screening tool but not as a diagnostic tool for assessment of nutritional status in PD patients because of its low specificity and NPV. PMID:26937075

  4. Comparison of Anthropometric and Atherogenic Indices as Screening Tools of Metabolic Syndrome in the Kazakh Adult Population in Xinjiang

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Hui; Zhang, Mei; He, Jia; Yan, Yi-Zhong; Ma, Jiao-Long; Wang, Kui; Ma, Ru-Lin; Guo, Heng; Mu, La-Ti; Ding, Yu-Song; Zhang, Jing-Yu; Liu, Jia-Ming; Li, Shu-Gang; Niu, Qiang; Rui, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Shu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the screening ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic indices for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) using three common criteria and to evaluate the validity of suitable parameters in combination for the screening of MetS among a Kazakh population in Xinjiang. Methods: A total of 3752 individuals were selected using the stratified cluster random sampling method from nomadic Kazakhs (≥18 years old) in Xinyuan county, Xinjiang, China, which is approximately 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of each index. The sensitivity, specificity, Youden’s index and cut-offs of each index for the screening of MetS were calculated. Results: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS criteria, 18.61%, 10.51%, and 24.83% of males and 23.25%, 14.88%, and 25.33% of females had MetS. According to the IDF criteria, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was the index that most accurately identified individuals with and without MetS both in males (AUC = 0.872) and females (AUC = 0.804), with the optimal cut-offs of 0.53 and 0.52, respectively. According to both the ATP III and JIS criteria, the lipid accumulation product (LAP) was the best index to discriminate between individuals with and without MetS in males (AUC = 0.856 and 0.816, respectively) and females (AUC = 0.832 and 0.788, respectively), with optimal cut-offs of 41.21 and 34.76 in males and 28.16 and 26.49 in females, respectively. On the basis of the IDF standard, Youden’s indices of WHtR and LAP serial tests for the screening of MetS were 0.590 and 0.455 in males and females, respectively, and those of WHtR and LAP parallel tests were 0.608 and 0.479, accordingly. Conclusion: According to the IDF, ATP III and JIS

  5. Practical chiral alcohol manufacture using ketoreductases.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Gjalt W; Liang, Jack; Krebber, Anke

    2010-04-01

    Over the past two years the application of ketoreductases in the commercial synthesis of chiral alcohols has undergone a revolution. Biocatalysts are now often the preferred catalyst for the synthesis of chiral alcohols via ketone reduction and are displacing reagents and chemocatalysts that only recently were considered break-through process solutions themselves. Tailor-made enzymes can now be generated from advanced, non-natural variants using HTP screening and modern molecular biology techniques. At the same time, global economic and environmental pressures direct industrial process development toward versatile platforms that can be applied to the different stages of product development. We will discuss the technologies that have emerged over the past years that have guided biocatalysis from the bottom of the toolbox, to the power tool of choice. PMID:20071211

  6. Evaluation of the SediMax automated microscopy sediment analyzer and the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer as screening tools to rule out negative urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Íñigo, Melania; Coello, Andreu; Fernández-Rivas, Gema; Carrasco, María; Marcó, Clara; Fernández, Anabel; Casamajor, Teresa; Ausina, Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are highly prevalent in nosocomial and community settings, and their diagnosis is costly and time-consuming. Screening methods represent an important advance towards the final UTI diagnosis, diminishing inappropriate treatment or clinical complications. Automated analyzers have been developed and commercialized to screen and rule out negative urine samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate two of these automated analyzers (SediMax, an automatic sediment analyzer and UF-1000i a flow cytometer) to predict negative urine cultures. A total of 1934 urine samples were analyzed. A very strong correlation for white blood cells (WBC) (rs: 0.928) and a strong correlation for bacteria (BAC) (rs: 0.693) were obtained. We also calculated optimal cut-off points for both autoanalyzers: 18WBC/μL and 97BAC/μL for SediMax (sensitivity=96.25%, specificity=63.04%, negative predictive value=97.97%), and 40WBC/μL and 460BAC/μL for UF-1000i (sensitivity=98.13%, specificity=79.16%, negative predictive value=99.18%). The use of SediMax and UF-1000i resulted in a 46.33% and 57.19% reduction of all samples cultured, respectively. In conclusion, both analyzers are good UTI screening tools in our setting. PMID:26921459

  7. Validation of the STOP-Bang Questionnaire as a Screening Tool for Obstructive Sleep Apnea among Different Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Auckley, Dennis; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna; Memtsoudis, Stavros; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is clinically relevant because untreated OSA has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a validated screening tool for OSA. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effectiveness of STOP-Bang for screening patients suspected of having OSA and to predict its accuracy in determining the severity of OSA in the different populations. Methods A search of the literature databases was performed. Inclusion criteria were: 1) Studies that used STOP-Bang questionnaire as a screening tool for OSA in adult subjects (>18 years); 2) The accuracy of the STOP-Bang questionnaire was validated by polysomnography—the gold standard for diagnosing OSA; 3) OSA was clearly defined as apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) or respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 5; 4) Publications in the English language. The quality of the studies were explicitly described and coded according to the Cochrane Methods group on the screening and diagnostic tests. Results Seventeen studies including 9,206 patients met criteria for the systematic review. In the sleep clinic population, the sensitivity was 90%, 94% and 96% to detect any OSA (AHI ≥ 5), moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥15), and severe OSA (AHI ≥30) respectively. The corresponding NPV was 46%, 75% and 90%. A similar trend was found in the surgical population. In the sleep clinic population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 25%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability rose proportionally to 35%, 45%, 55% and 75%, respectively. In the surgical population, the probability of severe OSA with a STOP-Bang score of 3 was 15%. With a stepwise increase of the STOP-Bang score to 4, 5, 6 and 7/8, the probability increased to 25%, 35%, 45% and 65%, respectively. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms the high performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in the sleep

  8. Veterinary field test as screening tool for mastitis and HIV-1 viral load in breastmilk from HIV-infected Zambian women.

    PubMed

    Dorosko, Stephanie M; Thea, Donald M; Saperstein, George; Russell, Robert M; Paape, Max J; Hinckley, Lynn S; Decker, William D; Semrau, Katherine; Sinkala, Moses; Kasonde, Prisca; Kankasa, Chipepo; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Hamer, Davidson H

    2007-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical mastitis increase the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 through breastfeeding. We hypothesized that a field test for mastitis used for bovine milk, the California Mastitis Test, would detect high cell counts in milk of HIV-infected women. We also investigated whether total milk cell count would positively correlate with viral HIV-1 RNA in the milk of 128 HIV-positive Zambian women. Mean cell counts in each California Mastitis Test scoring category were significantly different (p < 0.01, n = 232). In a subset of 4-month postpartum milk samples tested for HIV-1 RNA, viral RNA levels did not significantly correlate with total cell count (r = 0.166, p = .244). The CMT may serve as a screening tool for mastitis in breastmilk, but total cell count does not correlate with HIV-1 RNA levels. Since both cell-free and cell-associated virus are associated with increased risk of MTCT, investigation of the relationship between total milk cell count and HIV-1 proviral DNA is warranted before a conclusive determination is made regarding use of the CMT as a clinical screening tool to detect cases at high risk for breastmilk transmission. PMID:17903106

  9. Screening for substance abuse in women's health: a public health imperative.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Daisy J; Wolff, Kristina B

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol and drug use is a significant public health problem with particular implications for the health and safety of women. Women who abuse these substances are more likely to have untreated depression and anxiety and are at higher risk for intimate partner violence, homelessness, incarceration, infectious disease, and unplanned pregnancy. Substance abuse during pregnancy places both mother and fetus at risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Data regarding the prevalence of substance abuse in women are conflicting and difficult to interpret. On the clinical level, strong arguments exist against routine urine drug testing and in favor of the use of validated instruments to screen women for drug and alcohol use both in primary women's health care and during pregnancy. A number of sex-specific screening tools are available for clinicians, some of which have also been validated for use during pregnancy. Given the risks associated with untreated substance abuse and dependence in women, the integration of drug and alcohol screening into daily clinical practice is imperative. This article reviews screening tools available to providers in both the prenatal and primary women's health care settings and addresses some of the challenges raised when women screen positive for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:23631601

  10. Performance of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) in Screening Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged and Old Women in the Chengdu Region of China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ji-Yuan; Song, Wen-Zhong; Zeng, Hui-Rong; Huang, Mei; Wen, Qun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performance of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians (OSTA) for screening middle-aged and old healthy women in the Chengdu region of China. OSTA scores were used to evaluate the effect of age on the development of osteoporosis. A total of 15,752 healthy women older than 40 yr, who reside in the Chengdu region, were assigned to 9 age groups divided by 5-yr intervals. Bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae, L1-L4, and the left hip was measured with a GE Lunar Prodigy advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry system (GE Healthcare, Cincinnati, OH). All subjects were classified into 3 categories according to OSTA cutoff values. The OSTA values used to define the categories were ≥-1, >-4 and <-1, and ≤-4. The accuracy of the OSTA index was compared with T-scores measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at various skeletal sites. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). The detection rate of osteoporosis and osteopenia at the lumbar vertebrae and the femur was found to increase with age. Furthermore, the sensitivity of OSTA value for detection of osteoporosis also gradually enhanced with subject age. In contrast, the specificity gradually decreased with age. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the OSTA index for detecting osteoporosis gradually increased with higher OSTA cutoff values, and the specificity and positive predictive value appeared to gradually decline. It was concluded that the OSTA is a useful screening tool to detect osteoporosis in middle-aged and old women in the Chengdu region of China. Furthermore, specific OSTA cutoff values should be selected for screening individuals who belong to different age groups. PMID:25833193

  11. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings. PMID:17178668

  12. A GIS based screening tool for locating and ranking of suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Inamdar, P M; Cook, S; Sharma, A K; Corby, N; O'Connor, J; Perera, B J C

    2013-10-15

    There is the need to re-configure current urban water systems to achieve the objective of sustainable water sensitive cities. Stormwater represents a valuable alternative urban water source to reduce pressure on fresh water resources, and to mitigate the environmental impact of urban stormwater runoff. The selection of suitable urban stormwater harvesting sites is generally based on the judgement of water planners, who are faced with the challenge of considering multiple technical and socio-economic factors that influence the site suitability. To address this challenge, the present study developed a robust GIS based screening methodology for identifying potentially suitable stormwater harvesting sites in urban areas as a first pass for then more detailed investigation. The study initially evaluated suitability based on the match between harvestable runoff and demand through a concept of accumulated catchments. Drainage outlets of these accumulated catchments were considered as potential stormwater harvesting sites. These sites were screened and ranked under screening parameters namely demand, ratio of runoff to demand and weighted demand distance. The methodology described in this paper was successfully applied to a case study in Melbourne, Australia in collaboration with the local water utility. The methodology was found to be effective in supporting the selection of priority sites for stormwater harvesting schemes, as it provided the basis to identify, short-list and rank sites for further detailed investigation. The rapid identification of suitable sites for stormwater harvesting can assist planners in prioritising schemes in areas that will have the most impact on reducing potable water demand. PMID:23786875

  13. Placental transfer of maternally-derived IgA precludes the use of guthrie card eluates as a screening tool for primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Borte, Stephan; Janzi, Magdalena; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Nordvall, Lennart; Winiarski, Jacek; Fasth, Anders; Hammarström, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for neonatal screening tools to improve the long-term clinical outcome of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Recently, a PCR-based screening method for both TRECs and KRECs using Guthrie card samples has been developed. However, the applicability of these excision circle assays is limited to patients with severe T or B cell lymphopenia (SCID, XLA and A-T), whereas the most common forms of PID are not detected. Absence of serum IgA is seen in a major fraction of patients with immunological defects. As serum IgA in newborns is considered to be of fetal origin, eluates from routinely collected dried blood spot samples might thus be suitable for identification of children with PID. To assess the applicability of such screening assays, stored Guthrie card samples were obtained from 47 patients with various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (SCID, XLA, A-T, HIGM and IgAD), 20 individuals with normal serum IgA levels born to IgA-deficient mothers and 51 matched healthy newborns. Surprisingly, normal serum IgA levels were found in all SCID, XLA, A-T and HIGM patients and, additionally, in all those IgAD patients born to IgA-sufficient mothers. Conversely, no serum IgA was found in any of the 16 IgAD patients born by IgA-deficient mothers. Moreover, half of the IgA-sufficient individuals born by IgA-deficient mothers also lacked IgA at birth whereas no IgA-deficient individuals were found among the controls. IgA in neonatal dried blood samples thus appears to be of both maternal and fetal origin and precludes its use as a reliable marker for neonatal screening of primary immunodeficiency diseases. PMID:22916257

  14. The Lichtenberg Financial Decision Screening Scale (LFDSS): A new tool for assessing financial decision making and preventing financial exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, P.A.; Howard, H; Simaskp, P.; Mall, S.; Speir, J.; Farrell, C.; Tatro, R; Rahman-Filipiak, A.; Ficker, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the challenges in preventing the financial exploitation of older adults is that neither criminal justice nor noncriminal justice professionals are equipped to detect capacity deficits. Because decision-making capacity is a cornerstone assessment in cases of financial exploitation, effective instruments for measuring this capacity are essential. We introduce a new screening scale for financial decision making that can be administered to older adults. To explore the scale’s implementation and assess construct validity, we conducted a pilot study of 29 older adults seen by APS workers and 79 seen by other professionals. Case examples are included. PMID:27010780

  15. Lattice energy calculation - A quick tool for screening of cocrystals and estimation of relative solubility. Case of flavonoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleshova, L. N.; Hofmann, D. W. M.; Boese, R.

    2013-03-01

    Cocrystals (or multicomponent crystals) have physico-chemical properties that are different from crystals of pure components. This is significant in drug development, since the desired properties, e.g. solubility, stability and bioavailability, can be tailored by binding two substances into a single crystal without chemical modification of an active component. Here, the FLEXCRYST program suite, implemented with a data mining force field, was used to estimate the relative stability and, consequently, the relative solubility of cocrystals of flavonoids vs their pure crystals, stored in the Cambridge Structural Database. The considerable potency of this approach for in silico screening of cocrystals, as well as their relative solubility, was demonstrated.

  16. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  17. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  19. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  20. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…