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Sample records for alcohol septal ablation

  1. Glue septal ablation: A promising alternative to alcohol septal ablation

    PubMed Central

    Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined as myocardial hypertrophy in the absence of another cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the magnitude of present hypertrophy. In about 70% of patients with HCM, there is left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (LVOTO) and this is known as obstructive type of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Cases refractory to medical treatment have had two options either surgical septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) to alleviate LVOT gradient. ASA may cause some life-threatening complications including conduction disturbances and complete heart block, hemodynamic compromise, ventricular arrhythmias, distant and massive myocardial necrosis. Glue septal ablation (GSA) is a promising technique for the treatment of HOCM. Glue seems to be superior to alcohol due to some intrinsic advantageous properties of glue such as immediate polymerization which prevents the leak into the left anterior descending coronary artery and it is particularly useful in patients with collaterals to the right coronary artery in whom alcohol ablation is contraindicated. In our experience, GSA is effective and also a safe technique without significant complications. GSA decreases LVOT gradient immediately after the procedure and this reduction persists during 12 months of follow-up. It improves New York Heart Association functional capacity and decrease interventricular septal wall thickness. Further studies are needed in order to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of this technique. PMID:27011786

  2. Percutaneous transluminal alcohol septal myocardial ablation after aortic valve replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, M.; Kapadia, S.; Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.; Tuzcu, M. E.; Lever, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    When left ventricular outflow tract obstruction develops after aortic valve replacement, few treatment choices have been available until now. We present a patient with prior aortic valve replacement who developed left ventricle outflow tract obstruction that was successfully treated with a percutaneous transcoronary myocardial septal alcohol ablation. This technique is a useful tool for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, especially in those patients with prior heart surgery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Microvascular permeability changes might explain cardiac tamponade after alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chang, Jung-Jung; Chung, Chang-Min; Chang, Shih-Tai; Pan, Kuo-Li

    2014-04-01

    Various sequelae of alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have been reported. Of note, some cases of cardiac tamponade after alcohol septal ablation cannot be well explained. We describe the case of a 78-year-old woman with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in whom cardiac tamponade developed one hour after alcohol septal ablation, probably unrelated to mechanical trauma. At that time, we noted a substantial difference in the red blood cell-to-white blood cell ratio between the pericardial effusion (1,957.4) and the peripheral blood (728.3). In addition to presenting the patient's case, we speculate that a possible mechanism for acute tamponade--alcohol-induced changes in microvascular permeability--is a reasonable explanation for cases of alcohol septal ablation that are complicated by otherwise-unexplainable massive pericardial effusions. PMID:24808788

  4. Microvascular Permeability Changes Might Explain Cardiac Tamponade after Alcohol Septal Ablation for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jen-Te; Hsiao, Ju-Feng; Chang, Jung-Jung; Chung, Chang-Min; Chang, Shih-Tai; Pan, Kuo-Li

    2014-01-01

    Various sequelae of alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have been reported. Of note, some cases of cardiac tamponade after alcohol septal ablation cannot be well explained. We describe the case of a 78-year-old woman with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in whom cardiac tamponade developed one hour after alcohol septal ablation, probably unrelated to mechanical trauma. At that time, we noted a substantial difference in the red blood cell-to-white blood cell ratio between the pericardial effusion (1,957.4) and the peripheral blood (728.3). In addition to presenting the patient's case, we speculate that a possible mechanism for acute tamponade—alcohol-induced changes in microvascular permeability—is a reasonable explanation for cases of alcohol septal ablation that are complicated by otherwise-unexplainable massive pericardial effusions. PMID:24808788

  5. [Septal alcohol ablation in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    López-Aburto, Gustavo; Palacios-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Cantú-Ramírez, Samuel; Galván-García, Eduardo; Tolosa-Dzul, Gonzalo; Morán-Benavente, Armando; Ontiveros-Martínez, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: conocer características demográficas, clínicas y hemodinámicas de los pacientes con ablación con alcohol para tratar la miocardiopatía hipertrófica septal obstructiva (MHSO). Métodos: estudio observacional, longitudinal, descriptivo de 21 pacientes con MHSO resistente a tratamiento o con gradiente = 30 mm Hg en reposo o = 60 mm Hg provocado y con movimiento sistólico anterior o insuficiencia mitral > grado II. Resultados: edad de 50 ± 16 años; hombres 38.1 % y mujeres 61.9 %. Los síntomas fueron angor 42.9 %, disnea 85.7 % y síncope 23.8 %. La clase funcional NYHA preablación fue grados III y IV en 61.9 %; al año todos tenían grados I y II. Preablación y al año, el espesor del septo interventricular fue de 22.7 ± 4.9 y 20.7 ± 3.1 mm. Preablación, después y al año, la fracción de eyección fue de 65.5 ± 7, 62.2 ± 6.5 y 68.7 ± 6.2 %. Preablación, después y al año, el gradiente del tracto de salida del ventrículo izquierdo fue de 106.9 ± 29.9, 44.6 ± 24.3 y 22.0 ± 5.7 mm Hg. Preablación, la insuficiencia mitral fue grados III y IV en 33.3 y 47.6 % y al año fue grados 0 en 52.4 %, I en 28.6 % y II en 19 %. No hubo defunciones intrahospitalarias. Conclusiones: la ablación septal con alcohol en pacientes con MHSO fue exitosa.

  6. Alcohol septal ablation in obstructive acromegalic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a first case report.

    PubMed

    Viveiros Monteiro, André; Fiarresga, António; Cacela, Duarte; de Sousa, Lídia; Ramos, Ruben; Galrinho, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease, mostly caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting benign pituitary tumor, with an increased production of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Cardiovascular complications are common and are associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Suppression of GH and IGF-1 appears to improve cardiac function only in the short term, with little or no decrease in left ventricular mass or improvement in cardiac function after prolonged treatment. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to septal myectomy, with significant improvement in symptoms, gradients and left ventricular remodeling. In this report, we describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma diagnosed and treated surgically at the age of 38 but with recurrence and reoperation at the age of 50. She was referred to our cardiology department due to a three-month history of progressively worsening exercise-induced dyspnea and orthopnea under optimal medical therapy. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe basal hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (19 mm), dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a gradient of 70 mmHg at rest and 120 mmHg with Valsalva maneuver, and systolic anterior movement (SAM). Genetic testing excluded the most frequent forms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ASA was performed with injection of 2 cc of alcohol in the first septal branch of the left coronary artery, without complications. At one-year reassessment, significant clinical and echocardiographic improvement was noted, with disappearance of SAM. To our knowledge, there have been no previously reported cases of ASA in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to acromegaly. We report a case of successful ASA in acromegalic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27503591

  7. Alcohol septal ablation in obstructive acromegalic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a first case report.

    PubMed

    Viveiros Monteiro, André; Fiarresga, António; Cacela, Duarte; de Sousa, Lídia; Ramos, Ruben; Galrinho, Ana; Branco, Luísa; Cruz Ferreira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease, mostly caused by a growth hormone (GH)-secreting benign pituitary tumor, with an increased production of GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Cardiovascular complications are common and are associated with cardiomyocyte apoptosis and concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Suppression of GH and IGF-1 appears to improve cardiac function only in the short term, with little or no decrease in left ventricular mass or improvement in cardiac function after prolonged treatment. Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to septal myectomy, with significant improvement in symptoms, gradients and left ventricular remodeling. In this report, we describe the case of a 73-year-old woman with acromegaly due to a pituitary adenoma diagnosed and treated surgically at the age of 38 but with recurrence and reoperation at the age of 50. She was referred to our cardiology department due to a three-month history of progressively worsening exercise-induced dyspnea and orthopnea under optimal medical therapy. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe basal hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (19 mm), dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with a gradient of 70 mmHg at rest and 120 mmHg with Valsalva maneuver, and systolic anterior movement (SAM). Genetic testing excluded the most frequent forms of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. ASA was performed with injection of 2 cc of alcohol in the first septal branch of the left coronary artery, without complications. At one-year reassessment, significant clinical and echocardiographic improvement was noted, with disappearance of SAM. To our knowledge, there have been no previously reported cases of ASA in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy due to acromegaly. We report a case of successful ASA in acromegalic cardiomyopathy.

  8. Salivary Biomarkers Associated with Myocardial Necrosis: Results from an Alcohol Septal Ablation Model

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Joseph D.; Sneed, J. Darrell; Steinhubl, Steven R.; Kolasa, Justin R.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Lin, Yushun; Kryscio, Richard J.; McDevitt, John T.; Campbell, Charles L.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if salivary biomarkers demonstrate utility for identifying aspects of myocardial necrosis. Methods Twenty-one patients undergoing alcohol septal ablation (ASA) for treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy provided serum and unstimulated whole saliva at baseline and incremental time points post-ASA. Samples were analyzed for seven biomarkers related to myocardial damage, inflammation and tissue remodeling using immunosorbent assays. Levels were compared to baseline and levels observed in 97 healthy controls. Results Biomarkers of myocardial damage and inflammation (i.e., troponin I, creatine kinase-MB, myoglobin, C-reactive protein) rose in serum 2 to 812-fold after ASA (p<0.01). Significant elevations of 2 to 3.5-fold were observed with C-reactive protein and troponin I in saliva (p<0.02). Significant correlations between levels in serum and saliva were observed for C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and myeloperoxidase (p < 0.001). Conclusions Select salivary biomarkers reflect changes that occur during, and subsequent to, myocardial necrosis caused by ASA. PMID:23021916

  9. Intra-cardiac echocardiography in alcohol septal ablation: a prospective comparative study against trans-thoracic echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert M; Shahzad, Adeel; Newton, James; Vejlstrup, Niels; Axelsson, Anna; Sharma, Vishal; Ormerod, Oliver; Stables, Rodney H

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy reduces left ventricular outflow tract gradients. A third of patients do not respond; inaccurate localisation of the iatrogenic infarct can be responsible. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) using myocardial contrast can be difficult in the laboratory environment. Intra-cardiac echocardiography (ICE) provides high-quality images. We aimed to assess ICE against TTE in ASA. The ability of ICE and TTE to assess three key domains (mitral valve (MV) anatomy and systolic anterior motion, visualisation of target septum, adjacent structures) was evaluated in 20 consecutive patients undergoing ASA. Two independent experts scored paired TTE and ICE images off line for each domain in both groups. The ability to see myocardial contrast following septal arterial injection was also assessed by the cardiologist performing ASA. In patients undergoing ASA, ICE was superior in viewing MV anatomy (P=0.02). TTE was superior in assessing adjacent structures (P=0.002). There was no difference in assessing target septum. Myocardial contrast: ICE did not clearly identify the area of contrast in 17/19 patients due to dense acoustic shadowing (8/19) and inadequate opacification of the myocardium (6/19). ICE only clearly localised contrast in 2/19 cases. ICE does not visualise myocardial contrast well and therefore cannot be used to guide ASA. TTE was substantially better at viewing myocardial contrast. There was no significant difference between ICE and TTE in the overall ability to comment on cardiac anatomy relevant to ASA.

  10. Role of endocardial septal ablation in the treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Aksu, Tolga; Güler, Tümer Erdem; Yalın, Kıvanç; Gölcük, Şükriye Ebru; Özcan, Kazım Serhan

    2016-09-01

    Septal reduction therapy is accepted as a first therapeutic option for symptomatic drug-resistant hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Although, surgical septal myectomy is the gold standard method, alcohol septal ablation is a well-studied alternative approach in the patients with suitable anatomy. Endocardial septal ablation (ESA) therapy was relatively new defined modality and outcomes of the procedure were not clearly elucidated yet. We aimed to review the clinical aspects of ESA procedure and provide some historical background. PMID:27609434

  11. Radiofrequency catheter septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in children

    PubMed Central

    Emmel, M.; Sreeram, N.

    2005-01-01

    Background The definitive therapeutic options for symptomatic obstructive cardiomyopathy in childhood are restricted. At present, extensive surgical myectomy is the only procedure that is of proven benefit. Patients and Methods Three patients, aged 5, 11 and 17 years, respectively, with progressive hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and increasing symptoms were considered for radiofrequency catheter septal ablation. The peak Doppler gradient recorded on several occasions ranged between 50 to 90mmHg. Via a femoral arterial approach, the His bundle was initially plotted and marked using the LocaLisa navigation system. Subsequently, using a cooled tip catheter a series of lesions were placed in the hypertrophied septum, taking care to stay away from the His bundle. A total of 17, 50 and 45 lesions were applied in the three patients. In one case, the procedure was complicated by two episodes of ventricular fibrillation requiring DC cardioversion but without any neurological sequelae. Results The preablation peak-to-peak gradient between left ventricle and aorta was 50 mmHg, 60 mmHg and 60 mmHg, respectively, and remained unchanged immediately after the procedure. All patients were discharged from hospital 48 hours later. Serial measurement of serum troponin T and CK-MB isoenzyme confirmed significant myocardial necrosis. Follow-up echocardiography both at seven days and at six weeks postablation confirmed a beneficial haemodynamic result, with reduction of left ventricular outflow obstruction and relief of symptoms. Conclusion In young children, in whom alcohol-induced septal ablation is not an option, radiofrequency catheter ablation offers an alternative to surgery, with the benefits of repeatability and a lower risk of procedure-related permanent AV block. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696442

  12. Comparison of left ventricular diastolic function in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing percutaneous septal alcohol ablation versus surgical myotomy/myectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, Marta; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Qin, Jian Xin; Bauer, Fabrice; Drinko, Jeannie K.; Agler, Deborah A.; Martin, Maureen G.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Lytle, Bruce W.; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Garcia, Mario J.; Thomas, James D.

    2003-01-01

    Both percutaneous transcoronary alcohol septal reduction (ASR) and surgical myectomy are effective treatments to relieve left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in 57 patients with obstructive HC at baseline and 5 +/- 4 months after ASR (n = 37) or surgical myectomy (n = 20). LV outflow tract pressure gradient decreased from 65 +/- 40 to 23 +/- 21 mm Hg (p <0.01) after treatment. The ratio of the early-to-late peak diastolic LV inflow velocities, and the ratio of the early peak diastolic LV inflow velocity to the lateral mitral annulus early diastolic velocity determined by tissue Doppler imaging significantly decreased after the procedures (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 1.0 +/- 0.7 and 15 +/- 8 vs 11 +/- 5, respectively), whereas LV inflow propagation velocity significantly increased (60 +/- 24 vs 71 +/- 36 cm/s). Left atrial size decreased from 29 +/- 7 to 25 +/- 6 cm(2) (p <0.05). Patients had a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class and in exercise performance. When comparing ASR with myectomy, no difference was found in the degree of change in any parameter of diastolic function. Thus, diastolic function indexes obtained by echocardiography changed after septal reduction interventions in patients with obstructive HC; this change was similar to that after surgical myectomy and ASR.

  13. Outcome of patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation and septal myectomy surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; Lever, H. M.; Kapadia, S. R.; Sitges, M.; Rubin, D. N.; Bauer, F.; Greenberg, N. L.; Agler, D. A.; Drinko, J. K.; Martin, M.; Tuzcu, E. M.; Smedira, N. G.; Lytle, B.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to evaluate follow-up results in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) who underwent either percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) or septal myectomy. BACKGROUND: Controversy exists with regard to these two forms of treatment for patients with HOCM. METHODS: Of 51 patients with HOCM treated, 25 were treated by PTSMA and 26 patients via myectomy. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were performed before both procedures, immediately afterwards and at a three-month follow-up. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was obtained before the procedures and at follow-up. RESULTS: Interventricular septal thickness was significantly reduced at follow-up in both groups (2.3 +/- 0.4 cm vs. 1.9 +/- 0.4 cm for septal ablation and 2.4 +/- 0.6 cm vs. 1.7 +/- 0.2 cm for myectomy, both p < 0.001). Estimated by continuous-wave Doppler, the resting pressure gradient (PG) across the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) significantly decreased immediately after the procedures in both groups (64 +/- 39 mm Hg vs. 28 +/- 29 mm Hg for PTSMA, 62 +/- 43 mm Hg vs. 7 +/- 7 mm Hg for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). At three-month follow-up, the resting PG remained lower in the PTSMA and myectomy groups (24 +/- 19 mm Hg and 11 +/- 6 mm Hg, respectively, vs. those before procedures, both p < 0.0001). The NYHA functional class was also significantly improved in both groups (3.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.9 +/- 0.7 for PTSMA, 3.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.7 for myectomy, both p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Both myectomy and PTSMA reduce LVOT obstruction and significantly improve NYHA functional class in patients with HOCM. However, there are benefits and drawbacks for each therapeutic method that must be counterbalanced when deciding on treatment for LVOT obstruction.

  14. New treatment strategies for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: alcohol ablation of the septum: the new gold standard?

    PubMed

    Hess, Otto M; Sigwart, Ulrich

    2004-11-16

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal pattern of inheritance characterized by inappropriate myocardial hypertrophy. Annual mortality has been reported to be 1% to 2% and sudden death represents the most common cause. Treatment strategies are 1) medical therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, 2) reduction of septal hypertrophy by surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation, and 3) implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator in the presence of non-sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. A debate has been started on whether surgical myectomy or alcohol ablation of the septum is the appropriate treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Surgical (transaortic) myectomy has been the gold standard in the past 20 to 30 years for treatment of symptomatic patients with significant hemodynamic outflow tract obstruction. However, modern interventional technologies allow reduction of the myocardial septum by injection of alcohol into the first or second septal branch under guidance of two-dimensional (2D)-contrast echocardiography. This percutaneous technique not only has a lower morbidity than surgical myectomy but can be guided precisely by 2D echocardiography. One potential complication is transient (<30%) or permanent (<10%) atrioventricular block III; however, this complication is relatively rare. A randomized trial comparing the two treatment modalities is lacking, and the chance is small that such a trial will be performed because alcohol ablation can be done with high success and low complication rates, leaving only complex interventions (with valvular reconstructions and so on) for surgical myectomy.

  15. Transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy (TASH): a new treatment option for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, H; Gietzen, F H; Leuner, C; Schäfers, M; Schober, O; Strunk-Müller, C; Obergassel, L; Freick, M; Gockel, B; Lieder, F; Raute-Kreinsen, U

    2000-01-01

    In 1991, our group started to develop a catheter interventional therapy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). The new concept was proposed in 1994. It is based on the conventional PTCA technique with the aim of inducing an artificial myocardial infarction by instillation of 96% ethanol into the most proximally situated septal branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery. This leads to a subaortic contraction disorder with subsequent decrease of the intraventricular pressure gradient, shrinkage of the hypertrophied septal bulge and widening of the outflow tract ("therapeutic remodeling"). The subaortic defect is small and well demarcated as assessed by left ventricular angiography, transesophageal echocardiography and 18 F-glucose positron emission tomography. The term transcoronary ablation of septum hypertrophy (TASH) was suggested. Our patient cohort that now comprises 215 therapeutic procedures in 187 patients underwent a large variety of prospective studies (maximum follow-up 4.5 years) including invasive controls at regular intervals, investigation of hemodynamics at rest and at exercise, transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography, Doppler echocardiography during bicycle exercise, electrophysiologic testing, Holter monitoring and measurement of myocardial metabolism and perfusion, assessment of microembolic events by transcranial Doppler sonography and histological examinations. This article gives an overview and reports our increasing experience in applying TASH. The following post-TASH findings were obtained: significant hemodynamic and clinical improvement at rest and at exercise, decrease of septum thickness, increase of outflow tract area and decrease of induced ventricular tachycardia. There were well-demarcated, histologically atypical subaortic myocardial defects, no microembolic events, abnormal early peak of infarct related enzymes, and no change of baroreflex sensitivity. Pre-/post-TASH evaluations of the patients

  16. Percutaneous Septal Ablation in Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: From Experiment to Standard of Care

    PubMed Central

    Faber, Lothar

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the more common hereditary cardiac conditions. According to presence or absence of outflow obstruction at rest or with provocation, a more common (about 60–70%) obstructive type of the disease (HOCM) has to be distinguished from the less common (30–40%) nonobstructive phenotype (HNCM). Symptoms include exercise limitation due to dyspnea, angina pectoris, palpitations, or dizziness; occasionally syncope or sudden cardiac death occurs. Correct diagnosis and risk stratification with respect to prophylactic ICD implantation are essential in HCM patient management. Drug therapy in symptomatic patients can be characterized as treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in HNCM, while symptoms and the obstructive gradient in HOCM can be addressed with beta-blockers, disopyramide, or verapamil. After a short overview on etiology, natural history, and diagnostics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, this paper reviews the current treatment options for HOCM with a special focus on percutaneous septal ablation. Literature data and the own series of about 600 cases are discussed, suggesting a largely comparable outcome with respect to procedural mortality, clinical efficacy, and long-term outcome. PMID:26556411

  17. Transient sinus node dysfunction following sinus node artery occlusion due to radiofrequency catheter ablation of the septal superior vena cava-right atrium junction.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Takeshi; Fukamizu, Seiji; Arai, Ken; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Komiyama, Kota; Sakurada, Harumizu; Hiraoka, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    We performed catheter ablation to septal superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium (RA) junction rapid firing in a 57-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. He later experienced transient sinus node dysfunction resulting from injury to the sinus node artery (SNA), which branched only from the proximal region of the left circumflex artery. The direction of the SNA should be considered during catheter ablation at the septal SVC-RA junction, especially if the sinus node is supplied by only one SNA from the right coronary artery or the left circumflex artery.

  18. [Repeated percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation leads to reduction of left ventricular outflow-tract pressure gradient in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Masafumi; Mori, Takao; Ohashi, Yoshitaka; Ichikawa, Shinobu; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Ejiri, Junya; Awano, Kojiro

    2006-06-01

    A 61-year-old man with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was treated twice with percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA). The first procedure improved the left ventricular outflow tract pressure gradient (LVOTG) from 148 to 48 mmHg and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class from III to II in a week. However, the LVOTG increased to 197 mmHg and the NYHA class worsened to III within 3 months. In spite of medical treatment with beta-blocker, syncope attack occurred suddenly. Repeated PTSMA was performed. Just after the second procedure, the LVOTG did not decrease. However, the LVOTG decreased to 81 mmHg and the NYHA class improved to II with 3 months. The different response of pressure gradient in the acute and chronic phase with repeated PTSMA was interesting. PMID:16800375

  19. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the resting electrocardiograph after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for the treatment of symptomatic obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Thai, Wai-ee; Antonis, Paul R; Hope, Sarah A; Meredith, Ian T

    2008-10-01

    Percutaneous Transluminal Septal Myocardial Ablation (PTSMA) may reduce symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Limited quantitative and qualitative data exists on the effects of PTSMA on the resting electrocardiograph. We report repolarisation and conduction abnormalities and incidence of arrhythmia post-PTSMA. Twelve-lead electrocardiographs from subjects without pre-procedural pacemakers who underwent successful procedures (37 procedures, mean age 61+/-14 years) were analysed for rhythm, heart rate, PR and QTc intervals, QRS duration and left or right bundle branch block (RBBB, LBBB). Four subjects developed permanent complete AV block, 19 subjects developed new RBBB and two subjects developed new LBBB pre-discharge. At a median follow-up of 34 (range 1-84) months, no new AV block, ventricular arrhythmias or deaths occurred. Post-PTSMA PR, QRS and QTc intervals lengthened (PR 180+/-33 ms, 204+/-40 ms, QRS 105+/-20 ms, 132+/-27 ms and QTc 454+/-32 ms, 491+/-37 ms (pre- and post-PTSMA respectively, all p=0.001). Predictors of permanent complete AV block included female gender (p=0.013), older age (p=0.013) and pre-existing LBBB (p<0.001). Atrio-ventricular and intra-ventricular conduction disturbances are common post-PTSMA. A pre-existing LBBB is a risk factor for the development of complete AV block and may merit prophylactic pacemaker insertion.

  20. Suppression of instability by double ablation in tungsten doped polyvinyl alcohol foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peedikakkandy, Leshma; Chaurasia, S.

    2012-07-01

    In Inertial fusion Energy (IFE) research stable acceleration of fusion targets is a significant problem due to hydrodynamic instabilities. This paper presents the results of the experiments done to investigate the effects of doping 20% of Tungsten (W) (by weight) in Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) polymer foils for suppression of instability during laser ablative acceleration. A 20J, 1.060μm, 900ps, Nd: Glass laser system with a focusable intensity of 3 to 9.6×1013W/cm2 was used in the experiment. It is observed that the doped PVA targets yielded stable and enhanced foil acceleration as compared to the undoped PVA foils.

  1. Acardiac twin pregnancy: successful intrauterine ablative treatment with alcohol at 14 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Guven, M A; Koc, O; Bodur, H; Erkanli, S; Bagis, T; Usal, D

    2016-01-01

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a serious condition of monochorionic twin pregnancy, occurring in approximately one in 35,000 cases. First trimester treatment of TRAP sequence is controversial with higher incidence of procedure related complications. Present case demonstrates a TRAP sequence that was managed by intrauterine treatment with one-ml 100% pure alcohol injection into the abdominal part of the umbilical artery and obliteration of the acardiac twin at 14 weeks of gestation. Antenatal follow-up was uneventful and elective cesarean section was performed at 39 weeks' gestation. Postnatal outcome of the pump twin was excellent at 30 months after birth. Early second trimester elective ablation by alcohol injection can be an inexpensive, alternative, and reasonable minimal invasive treatment option to prevent fetal loss of pump twin before mid and late second trimester in perinatology centers where intrafetal cord occlusive methods are not available. PMID:27328517

  2. Alcohol Ablation Therapy of an Atypically Located Symptomatic Bronchogenic Cyst: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lakadamyali, Hatice Ergun, Tarkan; Lakadamyali, Huseyin; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2007-11-15

    Bronchogenic cyst is a rare developmental lesion. It is usually asymptomatic and most frequently located in the middle mediastinum and lung parenchyma. It can cause symptoms only when infected or pressing on neighboring structures. The MRI findings in a 34-year-old woman with an 8 months history of back pain were evaluated and revealed a cystic lesion in the left paravertebral area. The histopathologic evaluation of the material aspirated with CT guidance was reported to be bronchogenic cyst. A simultaneous alcohol ablation was accomplished. After the procedure the patient's pain disappeared and the follow-up MRI scan 1 year later revealed no relapse. Paravertebrally located bronchogenic cysts are very rare and only 3 cases were found to be reported in the medical literature prior to this one. While aspiration alone is sufficient for diagnosis, it is insufficient to treat the lesion and prevent the recurrences. This paper reports a paravertebral bronchogenic cyst which was symptomatic despite of its small size. CT-guided aspiration was accomplished and simultaneous alcohol ablation was carried out to prevent recurrences.

  3. Ventricular septal defect (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Ventricular septal defect is a congenital defect of the heart, that occurs as an abnormal opening in ... wall that separates the right and left ventricles. Ventricular septal defect may also be associated with other ...

  4. Significant reduction of left atrial volume concomitant with clinical improvement after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation for drug-refractory hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and its precise detection with multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Yuichiro; Akita, Keitaro; Tsuruta, Hikaru; Yamada, Yoshitake; Hayashida, Kentaro; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Murata, Mitsushige; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective In patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), left atrial (LA) volume measurement is very important to provide prognostic information. Recent studies demonstrated that multidetector CT (MDCT) is useful to assess the changes in LA volume. Our aim was to examine the utility of a follow-up cardiac MDCT for long-term evaluation of the effect of percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) on LA volume. Methods We studied a consecutive cohort of 20 patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM after PTSMA. We evaluated LA volume analyses with cardiac MDCT on patients who underwent PTSMA as compared to echocardiography. Results Before PTSMA, 75% of all patients had heart failure-associated symptoms in the New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. All patients experienced relief from heart failure-associated symptoms after PTSMA. Cardiac MDCT showed significant reduction in the index of maximum LA volume during follow-up compared to before PTSMA in the same way as in echocardiography (93.6±34.1 mL/m2 vs 82.6±35.3 mL/m2, p=0.035). A Bland-Altman plot showed small mean differences and limits of agreement in the measurements of the index of maximum LA volume before and after PTSMA between echocardiography and MDCT. Conclusions The follow-up cardiac MDCT was a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of PTSMA on reduction of LA volume. Cardiac MDCT might provide comparable measurements of the LA volume in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic HOCM before and after PTSMA compared to echocardiography. PMID:27307994

  5. Atrial Septal Defect (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Atrial Septal Defect KidsHealth > For Teens > Atrial Septal Defect Print A ... Care of Yourself What Is an Atrial Septal Defect? Having a doctor listen to your heart is ...

  6. Endometrial ablation

    MedlinePlus

    Hysteroscopy-endometrial ablation; Laser thermal ablation; Endometrial ablation-radiofrequency; Endometrial ablation-thermal balloon ablation; Rollerball ablation; Hydrothermal ablation; Novasure ablation

  7. Stability and nonlinear optical properties of Cu nanoparticles prepared by femtosecond laser ablation of Cu target in alcohol and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Guanghua; Ren, Shoutian; Qu, Shiliang; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Renxi; Han, Min

    2014-11-01

    By using PVP of different concentrations as the protective agent, Cu nanoparticles (NPs) of different mean sizes are fabricated through laser ablation of Cu target in alcohol, water, and their mixtures. As-grown Cu NPs show good stability in alcohol. The nonlinear absorptions of Cu NPs with different mean sizes are investigated. With the increase of laser intensity, the nonlinear absorption of small NPs changes from saturable absorption (SA) to reverse saturable absorption (RSA) and two-photon absorption (TPA), whereas SA dominates the nonlinear absorption of the large NPs. The modulations of occupied and unoccupied density of states (DOS) in conduction band are proposed to be the key factors for the size-dependence of the nonlinear absorption. For the large Cu NPs, there are sufficiently occupied DOS in the ground state and unoccupied DOS in the first excited state to sustain the increase of SA, whereas for the small Cu NPs, the corresponding DOS is insufficient, so the SA is surpassed by the RSA and TPA at high laser excitation intensity.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  9. Facts about Ventricular Septal Defect

    MedlinePlus

    ... The size of the ventricular septal defect will influence what symptoms, if any, are present, and whether ... this image. Close Information For... Media Policy Makers Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart and surrounding organs an electrocardiogram (EKG) , which records the electrical activity of the heart ... What to Expect Congenital Heart Defects Getting an EKG (Video) Heart Murmurs Atrial Septal Defect EKG (Video) ...

  11. [Ventricular septal perforation].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Nobuhisa; Komeda, Masaharu

    2004-07-01

    As a mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction, ventricular septal perforation (VSP) occurs mostly within 1 week after infarction. Although incidence of the disease is only 1-2% of transmural infarction, patients are into serious condition progressively once it happens. Even if patients were treated medically under intensive care protocol, they would almost always present congestive heart failure due to massive volume overload. Hence VSP should be treated surgically as soon as possible after its onset. We believe that infarct exclusion technique is standard procedure of surgical treatment, because it is relatively simple, makes less bleeding and gives minimal damage to right ventricle. Acute mortality has come down to 10-20% after introduction of this procedure. Cardiogenic shock before surgery, severe right heart failure and high age are important predictors of death. It is still difficult to save patients who are in severe cardiogenic shock with very low ventricular function. New treatments such as ventricular assist device, heart transplantation and regeneration therapy are waited for this high risk group of patients.

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Septal flash and septal rebound stretch have different underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, John; Huntjens, Peter R; Prinzen, Frits W; Delhaas, Tammo; Lumens, Joost

    2016-02-01

    Abnormal left-right motion of the interventricular septum in early systole, known as septal flash (SF), is frequently observed in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Transseptal pressure gradient and early active septal contraction have been proposed as explanations for SF. Similarities in timing (early systole) and location (septum) suggest that SF may be related to septal systolic rebound stretch (SRSsept). We aimed to clarify the mechanisms generating SF and SRSsept. The CircAdapt computer model was used to isolate the effects of timing of activation of the left ventricular free wall (LVFW), right ventricular free wall (RVFW), and septum on SF and SRSsept. LVFW and septal activation times were varied by ±80 ms relative to RVFW activation time. M-mode-derived wall motions and septal strains were computed and used to quantify SF and SRSsept, respectively. SF depended on early activation of the RVFW relative to the LVFW. SF and SRSsept occurred in LBBB-like simulations and against a rising transseptal pressure gradient. When the septum was activated before both LVFW and RVFW, no SF occurred despite the presence of SRSsept. Computer simulations therefore indicate that SF and SRSsept have different underlying mechanisms, even though both can occur in LBBB. The mechanism of leftward motion during SF is early RVFW contraction pulling on and straightening the septum when unopposed by the LVFW. SRSsept is caused by late LVFW contraction following early contraction of the septum. Changes in transseptal pressure gradient are not the main cause of SF in LBBB.

  15. Displacement of Amplatzer septal occluder in a patient with atrial septal defects and an atrial septal aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Oda, Takeshi; Kato, Seiya; Suda, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects has become more common because of its high success rate and low morbidity; however, this treatment for patients with atrial septal aneurysms is still challenging. PMID:27434107

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  17. Genetics of Atrial Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Cascos, Andrés Sánchez

    1972-01-01

    Of 109 cases of atrial septal defect, cases with an isolated defect (92 cases) showed a female preponderance (sex ratio 0·64), but there was a higher risk to the sibs of the male patients, suggesting a multifactorial mechanism. Dermatoglyphs showed a large number of whorls on the fingers. In 17 cases there were multiple malformations, such as Holt-Oram syndrome (hypoplastic and triphalangic thumb, with ostium secundum atrial septal defect), polydactyly plus ostium primum defect, and tracheo-oesophageal fistula. ImagesFIG. 1.FIG. 2.FIG. 3. PMID:4261647

  18. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  19. Redefining the Septal L-Strut in Septal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dong Heon; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    In septal surgery, the surgeon preserves the L-strut, the portion anterior to a vertical line drawn from the rhinion to the anterior nasal spine (ANS) and at least a 1-cm width of the dorsal and caudal septal segment, to decrease the potential for loss of the tip and dorsal nasal support. However, nasal tip collapse and saddle deformities occur occasionally. We utilized a mechanical approach to determine the safe width size for the L-strut in contact with the maxillary crest. Five L-strut models were designed based on computed tomography data (80 patients) and previous studies (55 patients). All L-strut models connected the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (PPE) and the maxillary crest and were assumed to be fixed to the PPE and maxillary crest. An approximated daily load was applied to the dorsal portion of the L-strut. Finite element analyses were performed to compare the stress, strain, and displacement distribution of all L-strut models. According to the differences in the contact area between the caudal L-strut and maxillary crest, there are significant differences in terms of the stress, strain, and displacement distribution in the L-strut. High stresses occurred at the inner corner of the L-strut when 60 - 100% of the strut was in contact with the maxillary crest. High stresses also occurred at the inferior portion of the caudal L-strut when 20 - 40% of the caudal strut was in contact with maxillary crest. We conclude that it is important to preserve the 1-cm width L-strut caudal segment, which corresponds to the portion posterior to a vertical line drawn from the rhinion to the ANS. In particular, we must maintain more than 40% of the contact area between the L-strut and the maxillary crest when the septal cartilage in the caudal portion of the L-strut is harvested. PMID:25803842

  20. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  1. Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated.

  2. Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated. PMID:26748968

  3. [Asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet].

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Kalawski, Ryszard; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2012-01-01

    We presented a case of asymptomatic myxoma of the tricuspid valve septal leaflet. The tumour was diagnosed accidentally during rutine transthoracic echocardiography and confirmed by transesophageal echocardiography. It was resected and the septal leaflet repaired during surgery.

  4. Haemolysis after Amplatzer device closure of ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, S; Grech, V

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years, a vast variety of devices have been developed to close various septal defects through the transcatheter route. Haemolysis has been documented after Amplatzer device closure of patent ductus arteriousus, atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect. We report one patient with self-limiting haemolysis after implantation of an Amplatzer perimembranous VSD device. PMID:22368673

  5. [Septal Activation and Control of Limbic Structures].

    PubMed

    Fedotova, I R; Frolov, A A

    2015-01-01

    Coherent activation of limbic system structures as the main function of theta-rhythm is widely discussed in the literature. However until now does not exist the common view on its generation in these brain structures. The model of septal theta-rhythmic activation and control of limbic structures is suggested basing on the literature and own experimental data.

  6. Is the Increased Septal Perfusion the Signal of Asymmetrical Septal Hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Semra; Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Gazi, Emine

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we have compared scintigraphic and echocardiographic data in order to investigate whether increased septal perfusion represents asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH), which is a symptom followed in the scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion. The study consists of a total of 186 patients (120 females and 66 males with an average age of 59.45 ± 11.54 years) who had normal myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and echocardiography examinations. Statistical comparison of septal wall thickness measurements obtained from echocardiography and septal-to-lateral wall ratios (S/L ratio) was performed scintigraphically. Left ventricular mass values were obtained as both scintigraphic and echocardiographic data and their correlations were evaluated in order to assess the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In statistical analyses, the values of interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd), left ventricle posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWd), left ventricle mass (LVM), and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were found to be significantly higher in group 2 (S/L ratio >1) compared to group 1 (S/L ratio <1). In addition, S/L ratio is significantly correlated with echocardiographic IVSd, LVPWd, LVM, LVMI, and scintigraphic LVM (rest) values. Furthermore, echocardiographic LVM and LVMI values were significantly correlated with LVM and LVMI values obtained from scintigraphy. It should be known that increased S/L ratio that can be monitored during scintigraphic studies can be an indicator of septal hypertrophy and/or LVH, however, further examination and close follow-ups should be performed in necessary cases. PMID:27651739

  7. Is the Increased Septal Perfusion the Signal of Asymmetrical Septal Hypertrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Semra; Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Gazi, Emine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have compared scintigraphic and echocardiographic data in order to investigate whether increased septal perfusion represents asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH), which is a symptom followed in the scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion. The study consists of a total of 186 patients (120 females and 66 males with an average age of 59.45 ± 11.54 years) who had normal myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and echocardiography examinations. Statistical comparison of septal wall thickness measurements obtained from echocardiography and septal-to-lateral wall ratios (S/L ratio) was performed scintigraphically. Left ventricular mass values were obtained as both scintigraphic and echocardiographic data and their correlations were evaluated in order to assess the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In statistical analyses, the values of interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd), left ventricle posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWd), left ventricle mass (LVM), and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were found to be significantly higher in group 2 (S/L ratio >1) compared to group 1 (S/L ratio <1). In addition, S/L ratio is significantly correlated with echocardiographic IVSd, LVPWd, LVM, LVMI, and scintigraphic LVM (rest) values. Furthermore, echocardiographic LVM and LVMI values were significantly correlated with LVM and LVMI values obtained from scintigraphy. It should be known that increased S/L ratio that can be monitored during scintigraphic studies can be an indicator of septal hypertrophy and/or LVH, however, further examination and close follow-ups should be performed in necessary cases.

  8. Is the Increased Septal Perfusion the Signal of Asymmetrical Septal Hypertrophy?

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Semra; Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Gazi, Emine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have compared scintigraphic and echocardiographic data in order to investigate whether increased septal perfusion represents asymmetrical septal hypertrophy (ASH), which is a symptom followed in the scintigraphy of myocardial perfusion. The study consists of a total of 186 patients (120 females and 66 males with an average age of 59.45 ± 11.54 years) who had normal myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and echocardiography examinations. Statistical comparison of septal wall thickness measurements obtained from echocardiography and septal-to-lateral wall ratios (S/L ratio) was performed scintigraphically. Left ventricular mass values were obtained as both scintigraphic and echocardiographic data and their correlations were evaluated in order to assess the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). In statistical analyses, the values of interventricular septal thickness in diastole (IVSd), left ventricle posterior wall thickness in diastole (LVPWd), left ventricle mass (LVM), and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were found to be significantly higher in group 2 (S/L ratio >1) compared to group 1 (S/L ratio <1). In addition, S/L ratio is significantly correlated with echocardiographic IVSd, LVPWd, LVM, LVMI, and scintigraphic LVM (rest) values. Furthermore, echocardiographic LVM and LVMI values were significantly correlated with LVM and LVMI values obtained from scintigraphy. It should be known that increased S/L ratio that can be monitored during scintigraphic studies can be an indicator of septal hypertrophy and/or LVH, however, further examination and close follow-ups should be performed in necessary cases. PMID:27651739

  9. Numerical model of a nasal septal perforation.

    PubMed

    Grant, Orla; Bailie, Neil; Watterson, John; Cole, Jonathan; Gallagher, Geraldine; Hanna, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes numerical simulation of airflow in a nose with a nasal septal perforation. Diseased airflow is compared to airflow in a healthy nasal model. The healthy model has been generated from CT scans from the Antrim Area Hospital ENT clinic and is close to being anatomically accurate. The nasal septal perforation has been superimposed on the healthy geometry using image manipulation software. The flow is modeled as laminar, steady state, with the flow rates corresponding to quiet breathing at rest approximately 165 ml/sec. Healthy flow patterns show that the majority of the flow travels close to nasal septum, in the region close to the middle turbinate. In the diseased case, high shear stresses concentrated at the posterior region of the perforation explain bleeding associated with nasal perforations.

  10. Ventricular Septal Defect from Takotsubo Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caplow, Julie; Quatromoni, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo Syndrome is a transient condition characterized by left ventricular systolic dysfunction with apical akinesis/dyskinesis and ballooning. Although the prognosis with medical management is excellent in most cases, rare cases of serious complications can occur. We present here a case of a 71-year-old woman presenting with acute decompensated heart failure with initial findings consistent with a myocardial infarction, who was found instead to have an acute ventricular septal defect as a complication of Takotsubo Syndrome. PMID:27563471

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial:Treatments on Infundibular Ventricular Septal Defect

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-06

    Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Noncommitted VSD; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Subaortic VSD; Double Outlet Right Ventricle, Subpulmonary VSD; Supracristal Ventricular Septal Defect

  12. Self-inflicted ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, D. G.; Sharma, R. N.; Glennie, J. S.

    1970-01-01

    A case of attempted suicide is described which is believed to be the first reported example of survival after a self-inflicted penetrating knife wound of the heart. The 12 cm. blade entered the right ventricle and damaged one of the papillary muscles. The ventricular septum was also perforated. At cardiotomy the stab wound in the free wall of the right ventricle was surtured and the papillary muscle repaired. The ventricular septal defect was closed, but a small left-to-right shunt at ventricular level reappeared after operation. Images PMID:5433343

  13. Atrial Septal Defects and Cardioembolic Strokes.

    PubMed

    Leppert, Michelle; Poisson, Sharon N; Carroll, John D

    2016-05-01

    Atrial septal defects (ASDs) can be complicated by cardioembolic strokes, but the exact incidence is unknown. Patients with large and small shunts may present with a cardioembolic stroke. Patients with cryptogenic strokes should have cardiac ultrasound to see if an ASD is present. Cardioembolic strokes associated with ASD principally occur with 2 mechanisms. The first is paradoxic embolism involving a venous-based source of thrombus, which may subsequently pass through the ASD by right-to-left shunting, causing a cardioembolic stroke. The second is atrial fibrillation that can complicate the course of patients with ASDs, especially as they age. PMID:27150170

  14. Comparison of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet and carbon dioxide lasers for in vitro bone and cartilage ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, C.; van de Merwe, W.P.; Smith, M.; Reinisch, L. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro bone- and cartilage-ablation characteristics of the solid-state erbium:yttrium aluminum garnet laser were compared to those of the carbon dioxide laser. Ablations of fresh, frozen cadaver septal cartilage and maxillary sinus bone were performed using total energies between 1 and 6 J. Specimens were studied using hematoxylin and eosin stain and digitized, computer-assisted measurements of 35-mm photographs. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated bone averaged 5 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 67 microns with carbon dioxide-ablated bone. Erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet-ablated cartilage averaged 2 microns of adjacent tissue thermal injury, compared with 21 microns with the carbon dioxide-ablated cartilage. The tissue-ablation characteristics of the erbium-yttrium aluminum garnet laser are promising for future otolaryngologic applications.

  15. Deficits in reproductive behaviour in septally lesioned female rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1991-12-01

    Estrous cycle and sexual behaviour were studied in septally lesioned female albino Wistar rats. In lesioned rats the vaginal smears showed continuous diestrus and the females failed to exhibit sexual receptivity during the postoperative period. Ovarian and uterine weights in lesioned rats were also significantly decreased. The results suggest that the septal nuclei exert a modulatory influence on female sexual behaviour. PMID:1816101

  16. Septal regulation of male sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C; Kantak, N M

    1995-06-01

    Involvement of septal nuclei in modulation of male sexual behavior in rats was investigated. Sexually active Wistar male rats were assigned to intact, sham, lateral septal nuclei lesioned (LSL), and medial septal nuclei lesioned (MSL) groups. All male rats were tested for sexual behavior in an arena in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Intromission and ejaculation latencies were increased, and mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies were decreased in the LSL group compared to the intact group. In contrast, mount and intromission latencies were decreased, and pursuit and mount frequencies were increased in the MSL group compared to the intact group. The results indicate that medial septal nuclei may inhibit and lateral septal nuclei may facilitate male sexual behavior in rats. PMID:7652045

  17. Ablative Thermal Protection: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, Bernie

    2003-01-01

    Contents include the following: Why ablative thermal protections - TPS. Ablative TPS chronology: strategic reentry systems, solid rocket motor nozzles, space (manned missions and planetary entry probes). Ablation mechanisms. Ablation material testing. Ablative material testing.

  18. Septal aperture aetiology: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Myszka, A

    2015-01-01

    Many theories have been suggested in order to explain the aetiology of septal aperture. The influence of genes, the size and shape of ulna processes, joint laxity, bone robusticity, osteoarthritis, and osteoporosis has been discussed; however, the problem has not yet been solved. The aim of the study was to examine the correlations between musculoskeletal stress markers, humeral robusticity and septal aperture. Additionally, the frequency of septal aperture according to sex, age, and skeletal side had been analysed. The skeletal material had come from a medieval cemetery in Cedynia, Poland. Skeletons of 201 adults (102 males, 99 females) had been examined and septal aperture had been scored. Six muscle attachment sites of upper limb bones had been analysed. Humeral robusticity had been calculated by use of the humeral robusticity index. The frequency of septal aperture among the population from Cedynia is 7.5%. There are no differences in septal aperture prevalence between males and females, the skeletal sides or age groups. In the analysed material, males with less developed muscle markers of right upper bones proved a higher predictable rate in having septal aperture (R = -0.34). On the left bones and among females, the converse correlation had also been found, but it is not statistically significant. The correlation between septal aperture and humeral robusticity is converse, yet small and insignificant. These results can confirm the theory of joint laxity and suggest that stronger bones (heavier muscles, more robust bones) increase joint tightness, and therefore protect the humeral lamina from septal aperture formation. But this theory needs a further detailed analysis.

  19. Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.

  20. Septal stapler use during septum surgery.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Güven; Cingi, Cemal; Kaya, Ercan

    2013-03-01

    Although discussions regarding nasal packing are still ongoing, to eliminate any possible complications, surgeons have used nasal packing for many years. Septoplasty is one of the most frequently performed operations by head and neck surgeons. Any methods to diminish the surgical time or bring comfort to the surgeon will be well appreciated. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate the usefulness of the stapler method by comparing preoperative and postoperative results from the visual analog scale (VAS), nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE), rhinosinusitis quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), and acoustic rhinomanometry values. In addition, we evaluated pain scores, postoperative complications, and breathing after nasal packing, stapling, and trans-septal suturing techniques. Patients were divided into three groups. In the first group, deviated cartilage was removed or repositioned and mucoperichondrial flaps were closed with a bioresorbable stapler after septoplasty. Four or five staples were placed on the septum. In the second group, the septum was sutured continuously with 4/0 Pegelak (Doğsan TR). In the third group, Merocel packs were used without any sutures and were kept for 48 h. Nasal packing leads to patient discomfort after septal surgery; however, there is no difference in patient comfort between closing the mucoperichondrial flaps by suturing the septum or using a stapler. After surgery, there were no differences between the groups in terms of successful breathing. This situation was assessed by endoscopic examination and acoustic rhinomanometry. Thus, there was no objective or subjective difference. Stapling increases the doctor's comfort level and surgical time is optimized. Although experienced surgeons can easily suture the septum, less experienced ones have some difficulty; therefore, stapling may provide more benefit to the latter. Further, four staples are sufficient to close the septum.

  1. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient.

  2. Capillaria hepatica: a cause of septal fibrosis of the liver.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L A; Andrade, Z A

    1993-01-01

    Fine, long, fibrous septa were observed as a late change developing in the acinar zone III of the liver of rats experimentally infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica. Hepatic septal fibrosis begun 30 days after inoculation of embryonated eggs into the stomach of rats and became clearly evident from the 40th day onwards. Experimental observation was undertaken for 170 days. Septal fibrosis increased progressively with time and was most marked when the parasitic nodules formed around larvae, disintegrating worms and eggs were involving. Septal fibrosis of the liver has not been previously recognized as a manifestation of hepatic capillariasis. The presence of sequestered parasite antigens, probably being slowly released within the liver, appears to be a major factor in the pathogenesis of hepatic septal fibrosis observed in rats with C. hepatica infection.

  3. Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti).

    PubMed

    Laughlin, D S; Ialeggio, D M; Trupkiewicz, J G; Sleeper, M M

    2016-09-01

    The Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect is an uncommon type of ventricular septal defect characterised in humans by a traditionally perimembranous ventricular septal defect, anterior deviation (cranioventral deviation in small animal patients) of the muscular outlet septum causing malalignment relative to the remainder of the muscular septum, and overriding of the aortic valve. This anomaly is reported infrequently in human patients and was identified in a 45-day-old Humboldt Penguin, Spheniscus humboldti, with signs of poor growth and a cardiac murmur. This case report describes the findings in this penguin and summarises the anatomy and classification of this cardiac anomaly. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of an Eisenmenger ventricular septal defect in a veterinary patient. PMID:27286906

  4. Distribution of parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the rat septal area.

    PubMed

    Alonso, J R; Coveñas, R; Lara, J; Aijón, J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of parvalbumin (PV)-containing neurons and processes in the septal area of the rat brain was studied using a monoclonal antibody and the avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase method. PV-immunoreactive neurons were mainly located in the medial septum/diagonal band complex and in the horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, showing a high density of heavily immunostained neurons and fibers. Nonimmunoreactive cells surrounded by PV-positive cells and processes were observed in the same region, but no pericellular basket-like arrangements were found. On the contrary, the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral nuclei of the lateral septum were practically devoid of PV-positive neurons and processes. Thus, in these nuclei only a very low density of isolated neurons was labeled; these were specially scattered in the ventrolateral septal nucleus and in the dorsolateral septal nucleus just below the corpus callosum. Delicate PV-positive axonal plexuses were also observed in the dorsal and intermediate nuclei of the lateral septum. The immunopositive neurons displayed very different sizes and morphologies among the various septal nuclei and inside each of them, indicating that they do not belong to a single morphological class of neurons. Finally, the distribution of PV in the rat septal area is not directly related to cholinergic and GABAergic septal neurons.

  5. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  6. Mid-Infrared Laser Orbital Septal Tightening

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Eugene A.; Li, Michael; Lazarow, Frances B.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed facial aesthetic surgeries. While myriad techniques exist to improve the appearance of the lower eyelids, there is no clear consensus on the optimal management of the orbital septum. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and feasibility of the use of the holmium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser for orbital septal tightening, and to determine whether modest use of this laser would provide some degree of clinical efficacy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Direct laser irradiation of ex vivo bovine tissue was used to determine appropriate laser dosimetry using infrared thermal imaging and optical coherence tomography before conducting a pilot clinical study in 5 patients. Laser irradiation of the lower eyelid orbital septum was performed through a transconjunctival approach. Standardized preoperative and postoperative photographs were taken for each patient and evaluated by 6 unbiased aesthetic surgeons. EXPOSURE Use of the Ho:YAG laser for orbital septal tightening. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE To determine appropriate laser dosimetry, infrared thermal imaging and optical coherence tomography were used to monitor temperature and tissue shape changes of ex vivo bovine tissue that was subjected to direct laser irradiation. For the clinical study, preoperative and postoperative photographs were evaluated by 6 surgeons on a 10-point Likert scale. RESULTS Optical coherence tomography demonstrated that laser irradiation of bovine tissue to a temperature range of 60°C to 80°C resulted in an increase in thickness of up to 2-fold. There were no complications or adverse cosmetic outcomes in the patient study. Patient satisfaction with the results of surgery averaged 7 on a 10-point Likert scale. For 3 patients, 3 (50%) of the evaluators believed there was a mild improvement in appearance of the lower eyelids after surgery. The remaining patients were thought to have no significant changes. CONCLUSIONS AND

  7. Septal cartilage tissue engineering: new horizons.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jacqueline J; Watson, Deborah

    2010-10-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is a dynamically changing field that has the potential to address some of the tissue repair challenges seen in nasal and craniofacial reconstructive surgeries. The scope of the problem includes limited autologous tissue availability, donor site morbidity associated with the harvesting of these tissue grafts, and the risk of an immune reaction to allogenic or synthetic implants that might be used as alternatives. Current tissue engineering strategies involve harvesting a small biopsy specimen from a patient and then isolating chondrocytes through enzymatic digestion of the extracellular matrix. These isolated chondrocytes can be expanded in monolayer and reseeded into a three-dimensional scaffold that could potentially be used as autologous surgical grafts. Using cell-expansion techniques, it would be feasible to generate abundant amounts of cartilage in defined shapes and sizes. The ideal tissue-engineered cartilage would resemble native tissue in terms of its biochemical, structural, and metabolic properties so that it could restore stability, function, and contour to the damaged or defective facial region. In this article, emerging technology and major challenges are described to highlight recent advances and overall trends within septal cartilage tissue engineering.

  8. Nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-H; Huang, I-S

    2007-06-01

    Non-traumatic nasal septal abscess is rare, commonly seen in patients with poor immunity, and presents as isolated nasal septal abscess. Further, nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis is rather rare. Very little literature has been generated for non-traumatic nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis in healthy patients. Prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment will help to prevent the complications associated with nasal septal abscess such as saddle nose and intracranial involvement. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first case involving an otherwise healthy little girl with nasal septal abscess complicated with acute sinusitis and facial cellulitis.

  9. Improved results of surgical management of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture.

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, W M; Buckley, M J; Akins, C W; Leinbach, R C; Gold, H K; Block, P C; Austen, W G

    1982-01-01

    Fifty-five patients had surgical repair of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture in Massachusetts General Hospital from 1968 through 1981. In patients operated more than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival has been 93% (14/15). Before 1975 in patients operated less than three weeks after infarction, hospital survival was 41% (7/17). In this same era patents operated for septal rupture with cardiogenic shock present before operation had a hospital survival rate of only 27% (3/11). Before 1975 patients with cardiogenic shock were supported with intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) and vasopressors, and operation deferred pending hemodynamic stabilization. Before 1975 patients with anterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of 64% (9/14), while patients with posterior septal rupture had a hospital survival rate of only 38% (5/13). This difference in survival according to the location of septal rupture occurred despite comparable numbers of patients in each group requiring early operation, as well as incidence of cardiogenic shock. Since January 1, 1975 patients operated less than three weeks after infarction have had an overall hospital survival rate of 70% (16/23). Of the 10 most recent patients operated early, nine are survivors. In patients with anterior defects 85% (11/13) survived, while in patients with posterior defects 67% survived (10/15). In patients operated with cardiogenic shock present before operation, survival has been 67% (10/15). Changes in management leading to improved results include (1) immediate operation for patients with cardiogenic shock, (2) cold cardioplegic protection of the myocardium, and (3) prosthetic replacement of posterior left ventricular free wall defect, after infarctectomy and septal repair, in patients with posterior septal rupture. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7114934

  10. Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation: Patient Selection, Periprocedural Anticoagulation, Techniques, and Preventive Measures After Ablation.

    PubMed

    Link, Mark S; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Natale, Andrea

    2016-07-26

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered by cardiologists and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for AF include age, male sex, genetic predisposition, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, obesity, excessive alcohol, smoking, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary disease, air pollution, heart failure, and possibly excessive exercise. The management of AF involves decisions about rate versus rhythm control. Asymptomatic patients are generally managed with rate control and anticoagulation. Symptomatic patients will desire rhythm control. Rhythm control options are either antiarrhythmic agents or ablation, with each having its own risks and benefits. Ablation of AF has evolved from a rare and complex procedure to a common electrophysiological technique. Selection of patients to undergo ablation is an important aspect of AF care. Patients with the highest success rates of ablation are those with normal structural hearts and paroxysmal AF, although those with congestive heart failure have the greatest potential benefit of the procedure. Although pulmonary vein isolation of any means/energy source is the approach generally agreed on for those with paroxysmal AF, optimal techniques for the ablation of nonparoxysmal AF are not yet clear. Anticoagulation reduces thromboembolic complications; the newer anticoagulants have eased management for both the patient and the cardiologist. Aggressive management of modifiable risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea, obesity, excessive alcohol, smoking, hyperthyroidism, pulmonary disease, air pollution, and possibly excessive exercise) after ablation reduces the odds of recurrent AF and is an important element of care. PMID:27462054

  11. Echocardiographic differentiation of atrioventricular septal defects from inlet ventricular septal defects and mitral valve clefts.

    PubMed

    Sulafa, Ali K M; Tamimi, Omer; Najm, Hani K; Godman, Michael J

    2005-03-01

    Left ventricular inlet/outlet ratio and percent left atrioventricular valve (AVV) guarded by the posterior leaflet are valuable for characterizing atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). We performed these measurements echocardiographically in normal patients (n = 101), patients who had AVSD (n = 37), those who had isolated perimembranous inlet ventricular septal defect (VSD; n = 12), and those who had "isolated" mitral valve clefts (n = 5). Surgical findings of 38 patients were reviewed. The normal inlet/outlet ratio was 1.03 +/- 0.07. For patients who had AVSD, the ratio was 0.82 +/- 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.180 to 0.237, p = 0.001). For patients who had an isolated inlet VSD, this ratio was lower than that in normal patients (0.93 +/- 0.08, 95% CI 034 to 0.116, p = 0.001) but higher than that in patients who had AVSD (95% CI -0.175 to 0.091, p = 0.001). The percent left AVV guarded by the posterior leaflet was 56 +/- 1.4 in normal patients. For patients who had AVSD, it was significantly lower (43 +/- 1.1). For patients who had an isolated VSD and those who had an isolated mitral cleft, it was normal (57 +/- 1.9 and 55 +/- 2.2, respectively). The 2 measurements are valuable in differentiating AVSD from inlet VSD and isolated mitral cleft, but percent left AVV guarded by the posterior leaflet is more specific.

  12. Nasal Septal Deviations: A Systematic Review of Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Jeffrey; Certal, Victor; Chang, Edward T.; Camacho, Macario

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To systematically review the international literature for internal nasal septal deviation classification systems and summarize them for clinical and research purposes. Data Sources. Four databases (including PubMed/MEDLINE) were systematically searched through December 16, 2015. Methods. Systematic review, adhering to PRISMA. Results. After removal of duplicates, this study screened 952 articles for relevance. A final comprehensive review of 50 articles identified that 15 of these articles met the eligibility criteria. The classification systems defined in these articles included C-shaped, S-shaped, reverse C-shaped, and reverse S-shaped descriptions of the septal deviation in both the cephalocaudal and anteroposterior dimensions. Additional studies reported use of computed tomography and categorized deviation based on predefined locations. Three studies graded the severity of septal deviations based on the amount of deflection. The systems defined in the literature also included an evaluation of nasal septal spurs and perforations. Conclusion. This systematic review ascertained that the majority of the currently published classification systems for internal nasal septal deviations can be summarized by C-shaped or reverse C-shaped, as well as S-shaped or reverse S-shaped deviations in the anteroposterior and cephalocaudal dimensions. For imaging studies, predefined points have been defined along the septum. Common terminology can facilitate future research. PMID:26933510

  13. Intracardiac echocardiography to guide transseptal catheterization for radiofrequency catheter ablation of left-sided accessory pathways: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Citro, Rodolfo; Ducceschi, Valentino; Salustri, Alessandro; Santoro, Michele; Salierno, Michele; Gregorio, Giovanni

    2004-10-08

    Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) is a useful tool for guiding transseptal puncture during electrophysiological mapping and ablation procedures. Left-sided accessory pathways (LSAP) can be ablated by using two different modalities: retrograde approach through the aortic valve and transseptal approach with puncture of the fossa ovalis. We shall report two cases of LSAP where transcatheter radiofrequency ablation (TCRFA) was firstly attempted via transaortic approach with ineffective results. Subsequently, a transseptal approach under ICE guidance has been performed. During atrial septal puncture ICE was able to locate the needle tip position precisely and provided a clear visualization of the "tenting effect" on the fossa ovalis. ICE allowed a better mapping of the mitral ring and a more effective catheter ablation manipulation and tip contact which resulted in a persistent and complete ablation of the accessory pathway with a shorter time of fluoroscopic exposure. ICE-guided transseptal approach might be a promising modality for TCRFA of LSAP.

  14. Volume of the Human Septal Forebrain Region Is a Predictor of Source Memory Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Tracy; Blackmon, Karen; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Wang, Xiuyuan; DuBois, Jonathan; Carlson, Chad; Barr, William B.; French, Jacqueline; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Halgren, Eric; Thesen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Septal nuclei, components of basal forebrain, are strongly and reciprocally connected with hippocampus, and have been shown in animals to play a critical role in memory. In humans, the septal forebrain has received little attention. To examine the role of human septal forebrain in memory, we acquired high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from 25 healthy subjects and calculated septal forebrain volume using recently developed probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. We indexed memory with the California Verbal Learning Test-II. Linear regression showed that bilateral septal forebrain volume was a significant positive predictor of recognition memory accuracy. More specifically, larger septal forebrain volume was associated with the ability to recall item source/context accuracy. Results indicate specific involvement of septal forebrain in human source memory, and highlight the need for additional research into the role of septal nuclei in memory and other impairments associated with human diseases. PMID:22152217

  15. Thermal Ablation of Lung Tissue: In Vivo Experimental Comparison of Microwave and Radiofrequency

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, Laura Bozzi, Elena; Faviana, Pinuccia; Cioni, Dania; Della Pina, Clotilde; Sbrana, Alberto; Fontanini, Gabriella; Lencioni, Riccardo

    2010-08-15

    This study was designed to compare feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation versus radiofrequency (RF) ablation of lung tissue in a rabbit model. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits were submitted to MW (n = 10, group A) or RF ablation (n = 10, group B). The procedures were performed with a prototype MW ablation device with a 1.6-cm radiating section antenna (Valleylab MW Ablation System) and with a 2-cm exposed-tip RF electrode (Cool-tip RF Ablation System). At immediate computed tomography increase in density, maximum diameters (D1-D3) of ablation zones were measured and ablation volume was calculated. Histopathologic assessment was performed 3 and 7 days after the procedure. Technical success was achieved in nine of 10 rabbits in each group. One death occurred in group B. Complications included pneumothorax (group A, n = 4; group B, n = 4), abscess (group A, n = 1; group B, n = 1), and thoracic wall burn (group A, n = 4). No significant differences were demonstrated in attenuation increase (P = 0.73), dimensions (P = 0.28, 0.86, 0.06, respectively, comparing D1-D3) and volume (P = 0.17). At histopathology, ablation zones were similar, with septal necrosis, edema, hemorrhage, and peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. Complete thrombosis of more than 90% of vessels up to 2 mm in diameter was depicted at the periphery of the ablation zone in group A specimens. In group B specimens, complete thrombosis was depicted in 20% of vessels. Feasibility and safety of MW and RF ablation are similar in a lung rabbit model. MW ablation produces a greater damage to peripheral small vessels inducing thrombosis.

  16. High septal osteotomy in rhinoplasty for the deviated nose.

    PubMed

    Jameson, John J; Perry, Adam D; Ritter, Edmond F

    2006-01-01

    When attempting to straighten a patient's healed, deviated bony nasal dorsum, deviation of the central structure (high dorsal septum and medial nasal bones) must be addressed following the completion of medial and lateral osteotomies. When hump resection is not performed, blunt fracture (digitally or with forceps) of the deviated central structure is not a reliable method of mobilization, often leading to postoperative nasal drift. An intranasal osteotomy technique to mobilize the central structure of the nose is described, called "high septal osteotomy." Review of 25 cases suggests high septal osteotomy, supplemented as needed by resection of overlapping septal elements, can be performed safely and efficaciously, permitting stable midline reduction of the nasal pyramid. The technique is not advocated when hump resection is performed, as it is unnecessary and could destabilize the dorsum. Even aggressive maneuvers to mobilize the bony dorsum may fail if not performed properly with meticulous attention to completion of all osteotomies.

  17. Atrial Septal Aneurysm Presenting as Clubbing without Clinically Apparent Cyanosis.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Laxmi Kant; Banerjee, S; Yadav, R N; Singh, Gajraj; Ganguli, Sujata; Isran, Rohit

    2015-09-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a localised "saccular" deformity which protrudes to the right or the left atrium or on both sides. It is a rare, but well recognised cardiac abnormality. It is usually an incidental finding or may presents as atrial arrhythmias or arterial embolism. Though it is an acyanotic congenital heart disease but it may result in significant right to left shunt and cyanosis. We describe a patient of ASA with atrial septal defect who presented with clubbing and right to left shunt without clinically apparent cyanosis. PMID:27608873

  18. Ventricular septal defect in a houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii).

    PubMed

    Bailey, T A; Kinne, J

    2001-01-01

    A ventricular septal defect was found in a juvenile captive-bred houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) that died suddenly. The case history indicated that the bird had a retarded growth and maturation rate. Gross pathology demonstrated massive internal hemorrhage, an enlarged heart with an interventricular septal defect, one shrunken liver lobe, and hypoplastic kidneys. Histologically, the liver was characterized by fatty degeneration, and there was hydropic degeneration of the cardiac muscle fibers. We suggest that the occurrence of this defect led to cardiac insufficiency, which resulted in sudden death caused by hemorrhage from the liver.

  19. Laser ablation of blepharopigmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Tanenbaum, M.; Karas, S.; McCord, C.D. Jr. )

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses laser ablation of blepharopigmentation in four stages: first, experimentally, where pigment vaporization is readily achieved with the argon blue-green laser; second, in the rabbit animal model, where eyelid blepharopigmentation markings are ablated with the laser; third, in human subjects, where the argon blue-green laser is effective in the ablation of implanted eyelid pigment; and fourth, in a case report, where, in a patient with improper pigment placement in the eyelid, the laser is used to safely and effectively ablate the undesired pigment markings. This article describes in detail the new technique of laser ablation of blepharopigmentation. Potential complications associated with the technique are discussed.

  20. Nonequilibrium Ablation of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Chen, Yih K.; Gokcen, Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In previous work, an equilibrium ablation and thermal response model for Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator was developed. In general, over a wide range of test conditions, model predictions compared well with arcjet data for surface recession, surface temperature, in-depth temperature at multiple thermocouples, and char depth. In this work, additional arcjet tests were conducted at stagnation conditions down to 40 W/sq cm and 1.6 kPa. The new data suggest that nonequilibrium effects become important for ablation predictions at heat flux or pressure below about 80 W/sq cm or 10 kPa, respectively. Modifications to the ablation model to account for nonequilibrium effects are investigated. Predictions of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared with the arcjet data.

  1. Perventricular closure of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christian; Nöbauer, Christian; Zhang, Fengwei; Zhuang, Zhongyun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, perventricular ventricular septal defect device closure without cardiopulmonary bypass has gained increasing acceptance in China. Under transoesophageal echocardiography guidance, muscular, perimembranous and even doubly committed defects are closed. We performed the first application of this technique outside of China and explain step-by-step the hybrid procedure.

  2. Surgical Ventricular Septal Myectomy in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Spirito, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Surgical septal myectomy is the preferred treatment strategy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) to reverse progressive heart failure symptoms due to left ventricular outflow obstruction. However, open-heart surgery and the ventricular septal myectomy option in particular have limited accessibility in many parts of the world, including developing countries such as India, where skilled surgeons familiar with the complex left ventricular outflow tract anatomy of obstructive HC are rare. Indeed, septal myectomy, which is currently performed in only a limited number of countries, can become available in other venues if experienced surgeons dedicate their skills to this highly specialized but rewarding operation. Relevant to this issue, we describe a recent myectomy initiative in India (New Delhi) that demonstrates the possibility of generating a surgical myectomy program outside of an elite academic center environment, otherwise regarded as unfavorable for such an initiative. Demonstration that safe and effective septal myectomy is possible under such difficult circumstances bodes well for the expansion of this operation to many countries in the best interests of the hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patient population.

  3. Anatomical-embryological correlates in atrioventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Allwork, S P

    1982-01-01

    Recent embryological studies have supported the consideration that the ventricular septum is multifocal in origin. These data have also provided excellent correlation of the morphology of malformed hearts with their embryology. In particular, atrioventricular septal defect correlates accurately with these observations on ventricular septation. Many of the names given to atrioventricular septal defect (for example ostium primum, persistent atrioventricular canal, endocardial cushion defect) indicate attempts at correlating the anatomy with embryology. None of these has been very convincing. In the light of this uncertainty, this review considers briefly the anatomy of the malformation and its ontogeny, and presents a hypothesis of the development of atrioventricular septal defect. Although there is almost always a communication above the atrioventricular valves, the malformation lies in the ventricular, not the atrial septum. Hearts with inlet septal defect without interatrial communication represent one end of the spectrum of anomalies, and those with common atrioventricular orifice, in which Fallot's tetralogy or single outlet heart may be associated, mark the other end. The outflow tract malformations are not randomly associated, but are points in a huge range of cardiac malformations. Images PMID:7073902

  4. Septic arthritis: a unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future. PMID:25738728

  5. Chrome induced nasal septal perforation-An occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Krishna, N Joshi

    2004-04-01

    86 patients, working in a chemical factory dealing with Chrome manufacturing job, were referred by Health Inspectai to F S 1 S Hospital O PD 32 patients out of above were found to be having Nasal septal perforation and were recommended to Medical Board for consideration of compensation as cases of Occupational hazard.

  6. Septic arthritis: a unique complication of nasal septal abscess.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven M; Koch, Cody A; Ekbom, Dale C

    2015-03-01

    Nasal septal abscesses (NSAs) occur between the mucoperichondrium and the nasal septum. They most often arise when an untreated septal hematoma becomes infected. The most commonly reported sequela is a loss of septal cartilage support, which can result in a nasal deformity. Other sequelae include potentially life-threatening conditions such as meningitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, and subarachnoid empyema. We report the case of a 17-year-old boy who developed an NSA after he had been struck in the face with a basketball. He presented to his primary care physician 5 days after the injury and again the next day, but his condition was not correctly diagnosed. Finally, 7 days after his injury, he presented to an emergency department with more serious symptoms, and he was correctly diagnosed with NSA. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, and he remained hospitalized for 6 days. Among the abscess sequelae he experienced was septic arthritis, which has heretofore not been reported as a complication of NSA. He responded well to appropriate treatment, although he lost a considerable amount of septal cartilage. He was discharged home on intravenous antibiotic therapy, and his condition improved. Reconstruction of the nasal septum will likely need to be pursued in the future.

  7. Tricuspid valve detachment in closure of congenital ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinping; Li, Jun; Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Wei

    2003-01-01

    From January 1991 through December 2001, 600 patients underwent closure of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect through a right atrial approach at our institution. In 122 of these patients, the operation included temporary detachment of a tricuspid valve septal leaflet from the annulus to allow complete visualization of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect The mean age of the patients at surgery was 4.6 years in those who underwent leaflet detachment and 4.7 years in the 478 patients who did not (P > 0.05). Preoperatively, all patients were in sinus rhythm. Echocardiography showed trivial tricuspid regurgitation in 21 of the patients undergoing detachment and in 39 of the non-detachment patients. There was no difference in bypass time or aortic cross-clamp time between the 2 groups. Postoperatively, 3 patients in the non-detachment group had heart block; all other patients were in sinus rhythm. Echocardiograms on the 7th postoperative day showed small residual ventricular septal defects in none of the patients who underwent valve detachment and in 10 of the non-detachment patients; mild tricuspid regurgitation was present in 12 non-detachment patients only; and trivial tricuspid regurgitation was present in 19 patients who underwent valve detachment and in 29 who did not. There was no hospital death in either group. Long-term follow-up showed no progression of tricuspid regurgitation or tricuspid stenosis. All patients remained in sinus rhythm. This study suggests that tricuspid valve detachment is a safe, effective technique that improves exposure for ventricular septal defect repair and does not adversely affect valve competence. PMID:12638669

  8. [Surgery in children with atrial septal defects without cardiac catheterization].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Rosas, S J; Santamaría-Díaz, H; Gómez-Gómez, M; Alba-Espinosa, C; Maulen-Radovan, X; Palacios-Macedo, X

    1988-01-01

    We describe the results of surgical repair of atrial septal defects in 36 children who did not undergo pre-op cardiac catheterization. These cases were seen at the Hospital de Cardiologia y Neumología Dr. Luis Méndez del Centro Médico Nacional. There were 24 (67%) females and twelve (33%) males. The mean age was 6.4 +/- 2.4 years with a range from three to thirteen. All cases had auscultatory findings typical of atrial septal defect. Five patients with associated tricuspid murmur (chest film showed grade I cardiomegaly in 21 (58.3 per cent), grade II cardiomegaly in fifteen (41.7 percent). Pulmonary artery shadow was normal in 24 (66.6 percent) and increased in twelve (33.3%). Pulmonary blood flow was increased in all of them. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm in 35 (97.2%). In one instance left atrial rhythm; all EKGs demonstrated right axis deviation, complete right bundle branch block and right ventricular hypertrophy with diastolic overload. Only three had right atrial hypertrophy. The M-mode echocardiogram showed right ventricular dilatation in all and paradoxically septal motion in 26 (72.2%). Two-dimensional echo with the subxiphoid view allowed direct visualization of the defect in all cases. We performed contrast echocardiogram in eight cases and Doppler echocardiogram in six of them. Cardiac surgery findings were ostium secundum atrial septal defect in 34 (94.4%). Two of them also had partial anomalous venous connection. All had uneventful recovery. We conclude that in typical atrial septal defects operative repair is feasible without prior cardiac catheterization.

  9. Repair of tetralogy of Fallot associated with atrioventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Tláskal, T; Hucín, B; Kostelka, M; Chaloupecký, V; Marek, J; Tax, P; Janouàek, J; Kuèera, V; Hruda, J; Reich, O; Skovránek, J

    1998-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot, when associated with atrioventricular septal defect permitting shunting at ventricular level, represents a complex cyanotic congenital malformation. Experience with surgical repair is limited, and results vary considerably. Between 1984 and 1996, we repaired 14 consecutive patients with this combination seen in our center. Their ages ranged from 8 months to 21 years (median 7.4 years). Six (42.9%) had Down's syndrome. In eight patients the correct diagnosis was made using echocardiography alone. In the remaining six patients, who had previously-constructed arterial shunts and/or suspected pulmonary arterial stenosis, catheterization and angiocardiography were also performed. The repair consisted of double patch closure of the septal defect, reconstruction of two atrioventricular orifices, and relief of pulmonary stenosis at all levels. In five patients with a hypoplastic pulmonary trunk, a monocusp transannular patch (four patients) or an allograft (one patient) was used for restoration of continuity from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries. Patch enlargement of one or both pulmonary arteries was necessary in five patients. One patient (7.1%) died early, and another late. The twelve surviving (85.8%) patients have been followed for 1.2-12.5 years after surgery (median 4.9 years, mean 5.9+/-3.9 years). During the follow-up, reoperation was necessary for repair of residual ventricular septal defect and pulmonary regurgitation in two patients, and closure of an atrial septal defect and alteration to left atrioventricular valvar regurgitation in one patient. Seven patients are in class I of the New York Heart Association, four in class II, and one in class III. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with atrioventricular septal defect can be corrected with low mortality and good long-term results. Residual lesions, however, have a tendency to progress, especially when seen in combination. After surgery, all patients need long-term close follow

  10. Renal Ablation Update

    PubMed Central

    Khiatani, Vishal; Dixon, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal ablative technologies have evolved considerably in the recent past and are now an important component of current clinical guidelines for the treatment of small renal masses. Both radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation have intermediate-term oncologic control that rivals surgical options, with favorable complication profiles. Studies comparing cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation show no significant difference in oncologic control or complication profile between the two modalities. Early data from small series with microwave ablation have shown similar promising results. Newer technologies including irreversible electroporation and high-intensity–focused ultrasound have theoretical advantages, but will require further research before becoming a routine part of the ablation armamentarium. The purpose of this review article is to discuss the current ablative technologies available, briefly review their mechanisms of action, discuss technical aspects of each, and provide current data supporting their use. PMID:25049445

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation of Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Marc; Mikityansky, Igor; Kam, Anthony; Libutti, Steven K.; Walther, McClellan M.; Neeman, Ziv; Locklin, Julia K.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2004-09-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has been used for over 18 years for treatment of nerve-related chronic pain and cardiac arrhythmias. In the last 10 years, technical developments have increased ablation volumes in a controllable, versatile, and relatively inexpensive manner. The host of clinical applications for RFA have similarly expanded. Current RFA equipment, techniques, applications, results, complications, and research avenues for local tumor ablation are summarized.

  12. Alcohol neurolysis of digital nerves

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Garrett K.; Burnett, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol neurolysis is a well-established treatment in chronic pain management, often used in cases of intractable cancer-related pain that is refractory to other management therapies. We describe a 76-year-old woman with chronic toe neuritis who failed multiple treatments, including oral and topical analgesics, nerve blocks, and radiofrequency ablations. Alcohol neurolysis was performed via digit block of the toe resulting in 100% pain relief. PMID:27365891

  13. Catheter Ablation for Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jorge; Gianni, Carola; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia worldwide and represents a major burden to health care systems. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. The pulmonary veins have been identified as major sources of atrial triggers for AF. This is particularly true in patients with paroxysmal AF but not always the case for those with long-standing persistent AF (LSPAF), in which other locations for ectopic beats have been well recognized. Structures with foci triggering AF include the coronary sinus, the left atrial appendage (LAA), the superior vena cava, the crista terminalis, and the ligament of Marshall. More than 30 studies reporting results on radiofrequency ablation of LSPAF have been published to date. Most of these are observational studies with very different methodologies using different strategies. As a result, there has been remarkable variation in short- and long-term success, which suggests that the optimal ablation technique for LSPAF is still to be elucidated. In this review we discuss the different approaches to LSPAF catheter ablation, starting with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) through ablation lines in different left atrial locations, the role of complex fractionated atrial electrograms, focal impulses and rotor modulation, autonomic modulation (ganglionated plexi), alcohol ablation, and the future of epicardial mapping and ablation for this arrhythmia. A stepwise ablation approach requires several key ablation techniques, such as meticulous PVI, linear ablation at the roof and mitral isthmus, electrogram-targeted ablation with particular attention to triggers in the coronary sinus and LAA, and discretionary right atrial ablation (superior vena cava, intercaval, or cavotricuspid isthmus lines). PMID:26306125

  14. Catheter Ablation for Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Jorge; Gianni, Carola; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia worldwide and represents a major burden to health care systems. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a 4- to 5-fold increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. The pulmonary veins have been identified as major sources of atrial triggers for AF. This is particularly true in patients with paroxysmal AF but not always the case for those with long-standing persistent AF (LSPAF), in which other locations for ectopic beats have been well recognized. Structures with foci triggering AF include the coronary sinus, the left atrial appendage (LAA), the superior vena cava, the crista terminalis, and the ligament of Marshall. More than 30 studies reporting results on radiofrequency ablation of LSPAF have been published to date. Most of these are observational studies with very different methodologies using different strategies. As a result, there has been remarkable variation in short- and long-term success, which suggests that the optimal ablation technique for LSPAF is still to be elucidated. In this review we discuss the different approaches to LSPAF catheter ablation, starting with pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) through ablation lines in different left atrial locations, the role of complex fractionated atrial electrograms, focal impulses and rotor modulation, autonomic modulation (ganglionated plexi), alcohol ablation, and the future of epicardial mapping and ablation for this arrhythmia. A stepwise ablation approach requires several key ablation techniques, such as meticulous PVI, linear ablation at the roof and mitral isthmus, electrogram-targeted ablation with particular attention to triggers in the coronary sinus and LAA, and discretionary right atrial ablation (superior vena cava, intercaval, or cavotricuspid isthmus lines). PMID:26306125

  15. Septal nuclei enlargement in human temporal lobe epilepsy without mesial temporal sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zaborszky, Laszlo; Wang, Xiuyuan; McDonald, Carrie R.; Blackmon, Karen; Quinn, Brian T.; DuBois, Jonathan; Carlson, Chad; Barr, William B.; French, Jacqueline; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Halgren, Eric; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of basal forebrain septal nuclei in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as compared to patients with extratemporal epilepsy and controls. In animal models of TLE, septal lesions facilitate epileptogenesis, while septal stimulation is antiepileptic. Method: Subjects were recruited from 2 sites and consisted of patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy (20 with TLE and mesial temporal sclerosis [MTS], 24 with TLE without MTS, 23 with extratemporal epilepsy) and 114 controls. Septal volume was measured using high-resolution MRI in association with newly developed probabilistic septal nuclei maps. Septal volume was compared between subject groups while controlling for relevant factors. Results: Patients with TLE without MTS had significantly larger septal nuclei than patients with extratemporal epilepsy and controls. This was not true for patients with MTS. These results are interpreted with reference to prior studies demonstrating expansion of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic system in animal models of TLE and human TLE surgical specimens. Conclusion: Septal nuclei are enlarged in patients with TLE without MTS. Further investigation of septal nuclei and antiepileptic septo-hippocampal neurocircuitry could be relevant to development of new therapeutic interventions such as septal stimulation for refractory TLE. PMID:23303846

  16. Sprayable lightweight ablative coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G. (Inventor); Sharpe, Max H. (Inventor); Hill, William E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved lightweight, ablative coating is disclosed that may be spray applied and cured without the development of appreciable shrinkage cracks. The ablative mixture consists essentially of phenolic microballoons, hollow glass spheres, glass fibers, ground cork, a flexibilized resin binder, and an activated colloidal clay.

  17. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  18. Septo-Hippocampo-Septal Loop and Memory Formation

    PubMed Central

    Khakpai, Fatemeh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Haeri-Rohani, Ali; Eidi, Akram; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    The Cholinergic and GABAergic fibers of the medial septal/diagonal band of Broca (MS/ DB) area project to the hippocampus and constitute the septo-hippocampal pathway, which has been proven to play a role in learning and memory. In addition, the hippocampus has bidirectional connections with the septum so that to self-regulate of cholinergic input. The activity of septal and hippocampal neurons is modulated by several neurotransmitter systems including glutamatergic neurons from the entorhinal cortex, serotonergic fibers from the raphe nucleus, dopaminergic neurons from the ventral tegmental area (VTA), histaminergic cells from the tuberomammillary nucleus and adrenergic fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC). Thus, changes in the glutamatergic, serotonergic and other systems-mediated transmission in the MS/DB may influence cholinergic or GABAergic transmission in the hippocampus. PMID:25337323

  19. Optogenetic Activation of Septal Glutamatergic Neurons Drive Hippocampal Theta Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Williams, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) has an essential role for theta rhythm generation in the hippocampus and is critical for learning and memory. The MS-DBB contains cholinergic, GABAergic, and recently described glutamatergic neurons, but their specific contribution to theta generation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons in theta rhythm using optogenetic activation and electrophysiological recordings performed in in vitro preparations and in freely behaving mice. The experiments in slices suggest that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons provide prominent excitatory inputs to a majority of local GABAergic and a minority of septal cholinergic neurons. In contrast, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic fiber terminals in hippocampal slices elicited weak postsynaptic responses in hippocampal neurons. In the in vitro septo-hippocampal preparation, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons did increase the rhythmicity of hippocampal theta oscillations, whereas stimulation of septo-hippocampal glutamatergic fibers in the fornix did not have an effect. In freely behaving mice, activation of these neurons in the MS-DBB strongly synchronized hippocampal theta rhythms over a wide range of frequencies, whereas activation of their projections to the hippocampus through fornix stimulations had no effect on theta rhythms, suggesting that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons played a role in theta generation through local modulation of septal neurons. Together, these results provide the first evidence that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons modulate local septal circuits, which in turn contribute to theta rhythms in the hippocampus.

  20. Apamin improves spatial navigation in medial septal-lesioned mice.

    PubMed

    Ikonen, S; Schmidt, B; Riekkinen, P

    1998-04-17

    We investigated the effects of acute i.p. injections of the Ca2+-dependent K+ channel blocker, apamin, on water maze spatial navigation, Y-maze and passive avoidance behavior in intact and medial septal-lesioned mice. Apamin 0.02, 0.06 or 0.2 mg/kg (i.p.) administered 30 min before or immediately after the training did not affect the performance of intact mice. Apamin 0.02 or 0.06 mg/kg (i.p.) administered immediately after the daily training did not affect the performance of medial septal-lesioned mice. Apamin 0.02 and 0.06 mg/kg (i.p.) administered 30 min before daily training reversed the navigation failure present in medial septal-lesioned mice during the initial and reversal learning stages of the water maze task. Apamin had no effect on the cognitive performance in Y-maze or passive avoidance tests. The results indicate that blockade of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels may facilitate acquisition of spatial navigation performance, but has no effect on consolidation, inhibitory avoidance and spontaneous alternation behavior in mice.

  1. [Color-coded doppler echocardiography in atrial septal defects].

    PubMed

    Kautzner, J; Kozáková, M; Serf, B; Munclinger, M

    1990-04-20

    The magnitude of a left-to-right shunt in atrial septal defects was evaluated independently in catheterizations of the heart according to saturations and characteristics of the shunt stream in colour-flow Doppler echocardiography. The ratio of the pulmonary and systemic flow (Qp/Qs) assessed in 14 patients with atrial septal defects during catheterization correlated significantly with the maximal breadth (r = 0.8; p less than 0.001) and maximum area (r = 0.78; p less than 0.01) of the visualized shunted stream in transthoracic colour-flow Doppler echocardiography. Examination by means of transoesophageal colour-flow Doppler echocardiography in 8 patients revealed a correlation only with the maximal breadth of the shunted stream (r = 0.95; p less than 0.001). The magnitude of the maximum area of the shunted stream in transthoracic colour-flow Doppler echocardiography made it only possible to differentiate patients with a significant and not significant left-to-right shunt, i.e. Qp/Qs greater or smaller than 1.5:1. All patients with a shunt greater than 1.5:1 had a maximal area of the shunted stream greater than 10 sq.cm or 6 sq.cm/sq.m resp. Colour-flow Doppler echocardiography is a suitable method for the semiquantitative evaluation of the haemodynamic significance of atrial septal defects in adult patients.

  2. An incidentally detected giant membranous interventricular septal aneurysm secondary to previous surgery for subaortic valvular stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Karagöz, Ahmet; Çelik, Abdullah; Vural, Aslı; Başer, Bengi

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular septal aneurysms are rare clinical entities and their certain prevalence and clinical significance are not well known. Most of them are thought to develop during or after the closure process of the accompanying ventricular septal defects. Although a majority of the patients are typically asymptomatic, the potential risks should also be kept in mind. We present a case of a membranous interventricular septal aneurysm that developed after surgery for subaortic valvular stenosis. The points that make our case worth reporting are development of the aneurysm after aortic surgery and lack of a concomitant ventricular septal defect. On the basis of the existence of an aortic valve surgery history and reports that do not mention any ventricular septal defect and ventricular septal aneurysm when she was operated, we suggest that the aneurysmatic formation in the membranous portion of the interventricular septum developed due to valve surgery in the postoperative wound healing period. PMID:25240004

  3. Laser ablation of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Späth, M.; Stuke, M.

    1992-01-01

    High density 50 μs pulses of the UV dyes PPF, POPOP and BBO and of two dyes in the visible region, Xanthen N92 and Fluorol 7GA were generated by laser ablation. Dye powders were pressed with 7800 kp/cm 2 in round pellets which were ablated by exposure to KrF excimer laser radiation (248 nm) at a fluence of 100 mJ/cm 2. The ablation cloud was optically activated with a XeCl excimer laser. Its fluorescence spectrum was measured and was identified as a dye vapour fluorescence spectrum by comparison to conventional dye solution and dye vapour spectra. The dye cloud is not deflected in an electric field (10 6 V/m). By changing the delay time between the ablation laser and the focused activation laser, the velocity distribution of the ablated dye was measured. Its maximum is at 600 m/s for PPF. Knowing the thickness of the ablated dye layer per shot (300 Å) and the size of the ablation cloud (pictures of a video camera), one can estimate the maximum density of the dye in the gas pulse to be 10 -5 mol/ l in the range of concentration of lasing dyes. However, no lasing was observed up to now.

  4. Tumor Ablation and Nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Manthe, Rachel L.; Foy, Susan P.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Sharma, Blanka; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Next to surgical resection, tumor ablation is a commonly used intervention in the treatment of solid tumors. Tumor ablation methods include thermal therapies, photodynamic therapy, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing agents. Thermal therapies induce tumor cell death via thermal energy and include radiofrequency, microwave, high intensity focused ultrasound, and cryoablation. Photodynamic therapy and ROS producing agents cause increased oxidative stress in tumor cells leading to apoptosis. While these therapies are safe and viable alternatives when resection of malignancies is not feasible, they do have associated limitations that prevent their widespread use in clinical applications. To improve the efficacy of these treatments, nanoparticles are being studied in combination with nonsurgical ablation regimens. In addition to better thermal effect on tumor ablation, nanoparticles can deliver anticancer therapeutics that show synergistic anti-tumor effect in the presence of heat and can also be imaged to achieve precision in therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of nanoparticle-mediated tumor ablation could further help engineer nanoparticles of appropriate composition and properties to synergize the ablation effect. This review aims to explore the various types of nonsurgical tumor ablation methods currently used in cancer treatment and potential improvements by nanotechnology applications. PMID:20866097

  5. Radionuclide measurement of right ventricular function in atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect and complete transposition of the great arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.J.; Shubao, C.; Clarke, S.E.; Fogelman, I.; Maisey, M.N.; Tynan, M.

    1986-05-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function was assessed in 80 patients with congenital heart disease by first-pass and gated equilibrium radionuclide angiography. In 30 patients with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) the mean RV ejection fraction (+/- standard deviation) was 64 +/- 7%. In 30 patients with a secundum atrial septal defect it was 61 +/- 9% and in 20 patients with surgically corrected complete transposition of the great arteries it was 49 +/- 13%. These values are in close agreement with values established with cineangiography for similar groups of patients. The mean ejection fraction in the group with transposition of the great arteries was significantly less than in the group with VSD (p less than 0.001). Phase analysis of the equilibrium studies showed that there was delayed RV contraction in many patients in the absence of conduction abnormalities. This delay was significantly greater in patients with atrial septal defect than in those with VSD (p less than 0.05). There was a strong correlation between size of left-to-right shunt and phase delay in patients with VSD (r = -0.72). Thus, first-pass gated radionuclide angiography provides a valid measurement of RV ejection fraction, and delayed RV contraction on phase analysis may be a sensitive index of early RV dysfunction.

  6. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-03-04

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect.

  7. Nasal septal abscess--retrospective analysis of 14 cases from University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Jalaludin, M A

    1993-10-01

    Fourteen patients who presented to the University Hospital of Kuala Lumpur between June 1981 and June 1991 were reviewed retrospectively. Nasal septal abscesses are uncommon and therefore there are limited reports in the medical literature. Early diagnosis and immediate therapy is mandatory to avoid cosmetic nasal deformity or intracranial infection. Two out of the fourteen patients developed saddle nose deformity and septal perforation because of delay in treatment, the cases were misdiagnosed by non-otolaryngologist as turbinates swelling. The leading cause of nasal septal abscess was non-surgical trauma which accounted for about 85.7%. The commonest pathogenic organism isolated from the pus of nasal septal abscess was Staphylococcus aureus.

  8. A case of hybrid closure of a muscular ventricular septal defect: anatomical complexity and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mohsen; Hulsebus, Elise; Murdison, Kenneth; Wiles, Henry

    2012-06-01

    Complex muscular ventricular septal defect poses difficult surgical management and is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite advancements in surgical therapy. Device closure of muscular ventricular septal defect has been encouraging and has been used in hybrid approach at a few centres. However, device closure has some limitations in patients with complex muscular ventricular septal defect. We report a case of perventricular device closure of a complex muscular ventricular septal defect in a beating heart with entrapped right ventricular disc and its surgical management.

  9. Worm load and septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R F; Andrade, Z A

    2001-10-01

    Inocula, varying from 15 to 1,000 embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs, were administered to young adult rats by gastric tube, in an attempt to investigate the influence of worm load in the production of septal fibrosis of the liver. Low doses of 15, 30 or 50 eggs were sufficient to produce septal fibrosis, but it appeared with variable degrees of intensity and always with focal distribution. Septal fibrosis became diffuse, progressive with time, and already well developed 40 days after infection, when 100 eggs or more were administered. However, higher inocula (200, 500 and 1,000 eggs) did not intensify septal fibrosis, although the number of parasitic focal lesions proportionally augmented.

  10. Navigation Systems for Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, B. J.; Kruecker, J.; Abi-Jaoudeh, N; Locklin, J.; Levy, E.; Xu, S.; Solbiati, L.; Kapoor, A.; Amalou, H.; Venkatesan, A.

    2010-01-01

    Navigation systems, devices and intra-procedural software are changing the way we practice interventional oncology. Prior to the development of precision navigation tools integrated with imaging systems, thermal ablation of hard-to-image lesions was highly dependent upon operator experience, spatial skills, and estimation of positron emission tomography-avid or arterial-phase targets. Numerous navigation systems for ablation bring the opportunity for standardization and accuracy that extends our ability to use imaging feedback during procedures. Existing systems and techniques are reviewed, and specific clinical applications for ablation are discussed to better define how these novel technologies address specific clinical needs, and fit into clinical practice. PMID:20656236

  11. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of intractable ventricular tachycardia in an infant following arterial switch operation.

    PubMed

    Costello, John P; He, Dingchao; Greene, Elizabeth A; Berul, Charles I; Moak, Jeffrey P; Nath, Dilip S

    2014-01-01

    A full-term male neonate presented with cyanosis upon delivery and was subsequently diagnosed with d-transposition of the great arteries, ventricular septal defect, and restrictive atrial septal defect. Following initiation of intravenous prostaglandins and balloon atrial septostomy, an arterial switch operation was performed on day 3 of life. The postoperative course was complicated by intractable ventricular tachycardia that was refractory to lidocaine, amiodarone, esmolol, fosphenytoin, and mexiletine drug therapy. Ventricular tachycardia was suppressed with overdrive atrial pacing but recurred upon discontinuation. Seven weeks postoperatively, radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed due to hemodynamically compromising persistent ventricular tachycardia refractory to medical therapy. The ventricular tachycardia was localized to the inferior-lateral right ventricular outlet septum. The procedure was successful without complications or recurrence. Antiarrhythmics were discontinued after the ablation procedure. Seven days after the ablation, a different, slower fascicular rhythm was noted to compete with the infant's sinus rhythm. This was consistent with the preablation amiodarone having reached subtherapeutic levels given its very long half-life. The patient was restarted on oral beta blockers and amiodarone. The patient was subsequently discharged home in predominantly sinus rhythm with intermittent fascicular rhythm. PMID:23647934

  12. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  13. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  15. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  16. Moldable cork ablation material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  17. Laser ablation of concrete.

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M.

    1998-10-05

    Laser ablation is effective both as an analytical tool and as a means of removing surface coatings. The elemental composition of surfaces can be determined by either mass spectrometry or atomic emission spectroscopy of the atomized effluent. Paint can be removed from aircraft without damage to the underlying aluminum substrate, and environmentally damaged buildings and sculptures can be restored by ablating away deposited grime. A recent application of laser ablation is the removal of radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on concrete samples using a high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied on various model systems consisting of Type I Portland cement with varying amounts of either fine silica or sand in an effort to understand the effect of substrate composition on ablation rates and mechanisms. A sample of non-contaminated concrete from a nuclear power plant was also studied. In addition, cement and concrete samples were doped with non-radioactive isotopes of elements representative of cooling waterspills, such as cesium and strontium, and analyzed by laser-resorption mass spectrometry to determine the contamination pathways. These samples were also ablated at high power to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants are removed and captured. The results show that the neat cement matrix melts and vaporizes when little or no sand or aggregate is present. Surface flows of liquid material are readily apparent on the ablated surface and the captured aerosol takes the form of glassy beads up to a few tens of microns in diameter. The presence of sand and aggregate particles causes the material to disaggregate on ablation, with intact particles on the millimeter size scale leaving the surface. Laser resorption mass spectrometric analysis showed that cesium and potassium have similar chemical environments in the

  18. Catheter Ablation to Treat Supraventricular Arrhythmia in Children and Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: What We Know and Where We Are Going

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Patricia E.; Macicek, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Catheter ablation has been used to manage supraventricular arrhythmia in children since 1990. This article reviews the history of catheter ablation used to treat arrhythmia in children and discusses new frontiers in the field. We also address ablation in adult patients with a history of congenital heart disease (CHD) that was diagnosed and initially treated in childhood. Methods: We conducted an evidence-based literature review to gather available data on ablation for supraventricular tachycardia in children and adult patients with CHD. Results: Ablations can be performed safely and effectively in children. Complication rates are higher in children <4 years and <15 kg. In one study, the overall success rate of radiofrequency ablation in pediatrics was 95.7%, with the highest success rate in left free wall pathways (97.8%). Recurrence was higher in septal pathways. Cryoablation has been reported to have a 93% acute success rate for atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia and septal pathways with no risk of AV block and a 5%-9% risk of recurrence. Three-dimensional mapping, intracardiac echocardiography, remote magnetic navigation, and irrigated catheter ablation are new technologies used to treat pediatric and adult patients with CHD. The population of adult patients with CHD is growing, and these patients are at particularly high risk for arrhythmia. A paucity of data is available on ablation in adult patients with CHD. Conclusion: Electrophysiology for pediatric and adult patients with CHD is a rapidly growing and progressing field. We benefit from continuous development of ablation techniques for adults with structurally normal hearts and have the unique challenge and responsibility to ensure the safe and effective application of these techniques in the vulnerable population of pediatric and adult patients with CHD.

  19. Catheter Ablation to Treat Supraventricular Arrhythmia in Children and Adults With Congenital Heart Disease: What We Know and Where We Are Going

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Patricia E.; Macicek, Scott L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Catheter ablation has been used to manage supraventricular arrhythmia in children since 1990. This article reviews the history of catheter ablation used to treat arrhythmia in children and discusses new frontiers in the field. We also address ablation in adult patients with a history of congenital heart disease (CHD) that was diagnosed and initially treated in childhood. Methods: We conducted an evidence-based literature review to gather available data on ablation for supraventricular tachycardia in children and adult patients with CHD. Results: Ablations can be performed safely and effectively in children. Complication rates are higher in children <4 years and <15 kg. In one study, the overall success rate of radiofrequency ablation in pediatrics was 95.7%, with the highest success rate in left free wall pathways (97.8%). Recurrence was higher in septal pathways. Cryoablation has been reported to have a 93% acute success rate for atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia and septal pathways with no risk of AV block and a 5%-9% risk of recurrence. Three-dimensional mapping, intracardiac echocardiography, remote magnetic navigation, and irrigated catheter ablation are new technologies used to treat pediatric and adult patients with CHD. The population of adult patients with CHD is growing, and these patients are at particularly high risk for arrhythmia. A paucity of data is available on ablation in adult patients with CHD. Conclusion: Electrophysiology for pediatric and adult patients with CHD is a rapidly growing and progressing field. We benefit from continuous development of ablation techniques for adults with structurally normal hearts and have the unique challenge and responsibility to ensure the safe and effective application of these techniques in the vulnerable population of pediatric and adult patients with CHD. PMID:27660579

  20. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  1. Optogenetic Activation of Septal Glutamatergic Neurons Drive Hippocampal Theta Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer; Manseau, Frédéric; Ducharme, Guillaume; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Vigneault, Erika; El Mestikawy, Salah; Williams, Sylvain

    2016-03-01

    The medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB) has an essential role for theta rhythm generation in the hippocampus and is critical for learning and memory. The MS-DBB contains cholinergic, GABAergic, and recently described glutamatergic neurons, but their specific contribution to theta generation is poorly understood. Here, we examined the role of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons in theta rhythm using optogenetic activation and electrophysiological recordings performed in in vitro preparations and in freely behaving mice. The experiments in slices suggest that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons provide prominent excitatory inputs to a majority of local GABAergic and a minority of septal cholinergic neurons. In contrast, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic fiber terminals in hippocampal slices elicited weak postsynaptic responses in hippocampal neurons. In the in vitro septo-hippocampal preparation, activation of MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons did increase the rhythmicity of hippocampal theta oscillations, whereas stimulation of septo-hippocampal glutamatergic fibers in the fornix did not have an effect. In freely behaving mice, activation of these neurons in the MS-DBB strongly synchronized hippocampal theta rhythms over a wide range of frequencies, whereas activation of their projections to the hippocampus through fornix stimulations had no effect on theta rhythms, suggesting that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons played a role in theta generation through local modulation of septal neurons. Together, these results provide the first evidence that MS-DBB glutamatergic neurons modulate local septal circuits, which in turn contribute to theta rhythms in the hippocampus. PMID:26961955

  2. [Non-puncture treatment of sinusitis in nasal septal defects].

    PubMed

    Shilenkova, V V; Markov, G I; Shilenkov, A A

    1994-01-01

    The [symbol: see text] sinus-catheter was used to treat purulent sinusitis with septal perforation or defective septum of the sinuses. The procedure described implies simultaneous introduction of two sinus-catheters the functioning channels of which unite into one output by means of T-joint. The method has been successfully tried in the treatment of exudative and aggravated chronic purulent hemisinusitis (6 cases). The authors hold that communication between nasal sinuses is not a contraindication for sinus-catheter application. This fact widely extends potentialities of its use.

  3. Iron deficiency and hemolytic anemia reversed by ventricular septal myectomy.

    PubMed

    Thotakura, Sudhir; Costa, Steven M; Cable, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Hemolytic anemia has been reported to occur in the setting of aortic stenosis and prosthetic heart valves, but much more rarely in association with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Of the few descriptions of hemolytic anemia secondary to HC, all but one case involved bacterial endocarditis contributing to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. We present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent hemolytic anemia and HC, without infective endocarditis. Attempts at iron repletion and augmentation of beta-blocker therapy proved his anemia to be refractory to medical management. Ventricular septal myectomy led to the resolution of hemolysis, anemia, and its coexisting symptoms.

  4. Ventricular Septal Defect: the Three-Dimensional Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Parisi, V; Ratto, E; Silvestri, C; Pastore, F

    This case highlights the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. The diagnosis of inter-ventricular septal defect associated with aortic regurgitation has been performed in a 50-year-old man using 3D echocardiography. This advanced echocardiography could accurately reproduce the anatomy of the defect and provide further insights in the mechanisms of aortic regurgitation showing an unusual non-coronary cusp prolapse. The routinely use of 3D echocardiography in clinics might allow a better characterization of cardiac anatomy, especially of aortic valve disorders. PMID:24251244

  5. Familial pulmonary atresia. Its occurrence with a ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    DiChiara, J A; Pieroni, D R; Gingell, R L; Bannerman, R M; Vlad, P

    1980-05-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pulmonary atresia with a ventricular septal defect that occurred in a father and his son. A multifactorial mode of determination that resulted from an interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors was assumed, since the family history did not show other members with congenital heart defects. Based on the background and on information from the multifactorial theory of inheritance, a counseling plan was formulated for these parents. A similar approach is recommended for the many surgical survivors of previously uncorrectable complex congenital heart defects as they approach reproductive age.

  6. Dysphagia Lusoria with atrial septal defect: Simultaneous repair through midline

    PubMed Central

    Rathnakar, Rithin; Agarwal, Saket; Datt, Vishnu; Satsangi, Deepak K

    2014-01-01

    An aberrant right subclavian artery from the descending aorta is almost always reported as an isolated anomaly. We present the case of a four-year-old child with an anomalous origin of the right subclavian artery from the descending aorta, associated with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect. The patient underwent simultaneous repair of both the anomalies through median sternotomy, with implantation of the subclavian artery into the right common carotid artery. We believe that median sternotomy is the optimal surgical approach for the management of these lesions. Other operative approaches are also discussed. PMID:24701090

  7. Percutaneous closure of atrial septal defect with situs solitus and dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Galal, Mohammed Omar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; El-Segaier, Milad

    2015-02-01

    Percutaneous closure of secundum atrial septal defect associated with situs solitus and dextrocardia has not been reported previously. We describe the technical difficulties encountered during transcatheter closure of a secundum atrial septal defect in a 19-month-old girl with situs solitus and dextrocardia.

  8. Effects of septal lesions on latent inhibition and habituation of the orienting response in rats.

    PubMed

    Weiss, K R; Friedman, R; McGregor, S

    1974-01-01

    In Experiment I, the latent inhibition effect; i.e., retardation of conditioned response acquisition when a previously presented but not reinforced stimulus is subsequently used as the conditioned stimulus, was investigated in normal and septal-lesioned rats. Normal animals subjected to 30 nonreinforced CS presentations prior to CS-shock pairings, were retarded in active avoidance acquisition compared to normal animals given no nonreinforced CS presentations. The same manipulation failed to produce such a difference in septal-lesioned rats. In Experiment II, while drinking, thirsty normal and septal-lesioned rats were exposed to the same stimulus which served as CS in Experiment I. The course of suppression of on-going drinking was used as a measure of orienting response habituation. Since no differences in habituation were found between normal and septal-lesioned subjects, the deficiency of septal-lesioned rats in latent inhibition cannot be due to impairment of orienting response habituation. These results, in addition to other septal deficits, were discussed with respect to a theory of septal deficiency which suggests that septal lesions result in an impairment in situations which involve a discontinuity of response and reinforecement.

  9. Occlutech® muscular ventricular septal defect device: the first reported human use.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth J

    2016-10-01

    Percutaneous closure of muscular ventricular septal defects has been well described and has not attracted the same controversy or scrutiny as perimembranous defect closure. Therefore, the development of specifically designed devices has been limited. We report the first use of the Occlutech® muscular ventricular septal defect device. Does its design add any significant benefit?

  10. Sprayable low density ablator and application process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Hill, W. E.; Simpson, W. G.; Carter, J. M.; Brown, E. L.; King, H. M.; Schuerer, P. H.; Webb, D. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A sprayable, low density ablative composition is described consisting esentially of: (1) 100 parts by weight of a mixture of 25-65% by weight of phenolic microballoons, 0-20% by weight of glass microballoons, 4-10% by weight of glass fibers, 25-45% by weight of an epoxy-modified polyurethane resin, 2-4% by weight of a bentonite dispersing aid, and 1-2% by weight of an alcohol activator for the bentonite; (2) 1-10 parts by weight of an aromatic amine curing agent; and (3) 200-400 parts by weight of a solvent.

  11. [Steam ablation of varicose veins].

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Renate R; Malskat, Wendy S J; Neumann, H A M Martino

    2013-01-01

    In many western countries endovenous thermal ablation techniques have largely replaced classical surgery for the treatment of saphenous varicose veins as they are more effective and patient friendly. Because these treatments can be performed under local tumescent anaesthesia, patients can mobilize immediately after the procedure. A new method of thermal ablation is endovenous steam ablation, which is a fast and easy procedure. Steam ablation may cause less pain than laser ablation and it is also cheaper and more flexible than segmental radiofrequency ablation. PMID:23484513

  12. Ablative therapies for renal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajan; Leveillee, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Owing to an increased use of diagnostic imaging for evaluating patients with other abdominal conditions, incidentally discovered kidney masses now account for a majority of renal tumors. Renal ablative therapy is assuming a more important role in patients with borderline renal impairment. Renal ablation uses heat or cold to bring about cell death. Radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are two such procedures, and 5-year results are now emerging from both modalities. Renal biopsy at the time of ablation is extremely important in order to establish tissue diagnosis. Real-time temperature monitoring at the time of radiofrequency ablation is very useful to ensure adequacy of ablation. PMID:21789083

  13. [The radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways. The initial experience in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Molina, L; Morales, A; Alvarez, L M; Avila, L

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) due to an accessory pathway were submitted to an electrophysiological study and radiofrequency ablation of the Kent bundle. There were 9 males and 4 females. The mean age was 22 years. Other than their SVT, none had any structural heart disease. Ten of them had Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and three had concealed accessory pathways. Two different types of radiofrequency devices were used: one generating damped sinusoid waves, and two other generators producing pure continuous sinusoid waves. With the first type, two attempts were made: one patient with a concealed pathway and one with overt preexcitation. The successful ablation was not achieved because this wave type is 100 times more powerful, it desiccates the tissue, and thus does not produce the right kind of lesion. The other eleven patients were divided in three groups: I) With left overt preexcitation (7 pts) II) Concealed left Kent bundles (2 pts) III) Right Kent bundles. Ablation was 100% successful in group I, while in the other two groups, only one patient of each was successfully ablated. The overall successful rate of these 3 groups was 81.8%. Of the two patients that could not be treated, one had an anterior septal Kent bundle and the other had a concealed left Kent bundle. We believe that catheter ablation is a very promising therapeutic procedure for patients with SVT, besides being a extraordinary instrument that will enable us to be able to understand further clinical electrophysiology. PMID:8466363

  14. Closure of a two-hole secundum atrial septal defect through a transthoracic atrial septal defect occlusion device.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hui-Li; Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Jian-Qun

    2010-04-01

    A simple method to close a 2-hole secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is described. The right atrium was approached through a minithoracotomy. A double-ring purse string suture was made for the introducer shaft of the ASD occlusion device, and another purse string was made for a slim tissue scissors. A slim tissue scissors was introduced to the right atrium, and the bridge of tissue between the 2 holes was cut. The maximum diameter of the neo-ASD was measured. Thus, the ASD occlusion device of appropriate size could be selected and be placed in position.

  15. Redefining the Septal L-Strut to Prevent Collapse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Seob; Lee, Dong Chang; Ha, Dong-Heon; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    During septorhinoplasty, septal cartilage is frequently resected for various purposes but the L-strut is preserved. Numerous materials are inserted into the nasal dorsum during dorsal augmenation rhinoplasty without considering nasal structural safety. This study used a finite element method (FEM) to redefine the septal L-strut, to prevent collapse as pressure moved from the rhinion to the supratip breakpoint on the nasal dorsum and as the contact percentage between the caudal L-strut and the maxillary crest changed. We designed a 1-cm-wide L-strut model based on computed tomography data. At least 45% of the width of the L-strut in the inferior portion of the caudal strut must be preserved during septoplasty to stabilize the septum. In augmentation rhinoplasty, the caudal L-strut must either be preserved perfectly or reinforced to prevent collapse or distortion of the L-strut. The dorsal augmentation material must be fixed in an augmentation pocket to prevent movement of graft material toward the supratip breakpoint, which can disrupt the L-strut. We conducted a numerical analysis using a FEM to predict tissue/organ behavior and to help clinicians understand the reasons for target tissue/organ collapse and deformation. PMID:27073993

  16. Redefining the Septal L-Strut to Prevent Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Dong-Heon; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2016-01-01

    During septorhinoplasty, septal cartilage is frequently resected for various purposes but the L-strut is preserved. Numerous materials are inserted into the nasal dorsum during dorsal augmenation rhinoplasty without considering nasal structural safety. This study used a finite element method (FEM) to redefine the septal L-strut, to prevent collapse as pressure moved from the rhinion to the supratip breakpoint on the nasal dorsum and as the contact percentage between the caudal L-strut and the maxillary crest changed. We designed a 1-cm-wide L-strut model based on computed tomography data. At least 45% of the width of the L-strut in the inferior portion of the caudal strut must be preserved during septoplasty to stabilize the septum. In augmentation rhinoplasty, the caudal L-strut must either be preserved perfectly or reinforced to prevent collapse or distortion of the L-strut. The dorsal augmentation material must be fixed in an augmentation pocket to prevent movement of graft material toward the supratip breakpoint, which can disrupt the L-strut. We conducted a numerical analysis using a FEM to predict tissue/organ behavior and to help clinicians understand the reasons for target tissue/organ collapse and deformation. PMID:27073993

  17. Transient Ablation of Teflon Hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arai, Norio; Karashima, Kei-ichi; Sato, Kiyoshi

    1997-01-01

    For high-speed entry of space vehicles into atmospheric environments, ablation is a practical method for alleviating severe aerodynamic heating. Several studies have been undertaken on steady or quasi-steady ablation. However, ablation is a very complicated phenomenon in which a nonequilibrium chemical process is associated with an aerodynamic process that involves changes in body shape with time. Therefore, it seems realistic to consider that ablation is an unsteady phenomenon. In the design of an ablative heat-shield system, since the ultimate purpose of the heat shield is to keep the internal temperature of the space vehicle at a safe level during entry, the transient heat conduction characteristics of the ablator may be critical in the selection of the material and its thickness. This note presents an experimental study of transient ablation of Teflon, with particular emphasis on the change in body shape, the instantaneous internal temperature distribution, and the effect of thermal expansion on ablation rate.

  18. Advanced Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Early NASA missions (Gemini, Apollo, Mars Viking) employed new ablative TPS that were tailored for the entry environment. After 40 years, heritage ablative TPS materials using Viking or Pathfinder era materials are at or near their performance limits and will be inadequate for future exploration missions. Significant advances in TPS materials technology are needed in order to enable any subsequent human exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. This poster summarizes some recent progress at NASA in developing families of advanced rigid/conformable and flexible ablators that could potentially be used for thermal protection in planetary entry missions. In particular the effort focuses technologies required to land heavy (approx.40 metric ton) masses on Mars to facilitate future exploration plans.

  19. Shuttle subscale ablative nozzle tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, L. B.; Bailey, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Recent subscale nozzle tests have identified new and promising carbon phenolic nozzle ablatives which utilize staple rayon, PAN, and pitch based carbon cloth. A 4-inch throat diameter submerged test nozzle designed for the 48-inch Jet Propulsion Laboratory char motor was used to evaluate five different designs incorporating 20 candidate ablatives. Test results indicate that several pitch and PAN-based carbon phenolic ablatives can provide erosion and char performance equivalent or superior to the present continuous rayon-based SRM ablative.

  20. Thermal ablation in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Cao, Cheng-Song; Yu, Yang; Si, Ya-Meng

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation are alternative forms of therapy used widely in various pathological states, including treatment of carcinogenesis. The reason is that ablation techniques have ability of modulating the immune system. Furthermore, recent studies have applied this form of therapy on tumor microenvironment and in the systematic circulation. Moreover, RFA and cryoablation result in an inflammatory immune response along with tissue disruption. Evidence has demonstrated that these procedures affect carcinogenesis by causing a significant local inflammatory response leading to an immunogenic gene signature. The present review enlightens the current view of these techniques in cancer. PMID:27703520

  1. Pathogenesis of septal fibrosis of the liver. (An experimental study with a new model.).

    PubMed

    Maria De Souza, Márcia; Tolentino, Miguel; Assis, Bárbara C A; Cristina De Oliveira Gonzalez, Ana; Maria Correia Silva, Tânia; Andrade, Zilton A

    2006-01-01

    Septal fibrosis is an important, frequent, and non-specific type of fibrosis associated with chronic liver diseases, but its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. An interesting model of septal fibrosis occurs in rats infected with the nematode Capillaria hepatica. This model was used to investigate the pathogenesis, site of origin, structure, and cell-types of septal fibrosis. Forty young adult Wistar rats were inoculated with 800 embryonated eggs of C. hepatica. Daily liver samples were obtained from the 20th to the 39th day after inoculation to cover the critical period when septal fibrosis usually starts. Routine histology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and indirect immunofluorescence were applied to the study of liver sections. Septal blood vessels were demonstrated by India ink perfusion of the portal vein system. Prominent angiogenesis was observed to precede collagen deposition. Besides angiogenesis and mesenchymal-cell mobilization, septal fibrosis was seen to originate from portal spaces and to course through acinar zone I in between sinusoids, inducing no alterations in them, with no evident participation of stellate hepatic cells. Septal fibrosis appeared as an adaptative type of response of the liver to chronic injury, which resulted in a new structure that is normal to other species and creates accessory vessels that drain portal blood into hepatic sinusoids.

  2. Septal complex of the telencephalon of lizards: III. Efferent connections and general discussion.

    PubMed

    Font, C; Lanuza, E; Martinez-Marcos, A; Hoogland, P V; Martinez-Garcia, F

    1998-11-30

    The projections of the septum of the lizard Podarcis hispanica (Lacertidae) were studied by combining retrograde and anterograde neuroanatomical tracing. The results confirm the classification of septal nuclei into three main divisions. The nuclei composing the central septal division (anterior, lateral, medial, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral nuclei) displayed differential projections to the basal telencephalon, preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsal hypothalamus, mammillary complex, dorsomedial anterior thalamus, ventral tegmental area, interpeduncular nucleus, raphe nucleus, torus semicircularis pars laminaris, reptilian A8 nucleus/substantia nigra and central gray. For instance, only the medial septal nucleus projected substantially to the thalamus whereas the anterior septum was the only nucleus projecting to the caudal midbrain including the central gray. The anterior and lateral septal nuclei also differ in the way in which their projection to the preoptic hypothalamus terminated. The midline septal division is composed of the dorsal septal nucleus, nucleus septalis impar and nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure. The latter two nuclei projected to the lateral habenula and, at least the nucleus of the posterior pallial commissure, to the mammillary complex. The dorsal septal nucleus projected to the preoptic and periventricular hypothalamus and the anterior thalamus, but its central part seemed to project to the caudal midbrain (up to the midbrain central gray). Finally, the ventromedial septal division (ventromedial septal nucleus) showed a massive projection to the anterior and the lateral tuberomammillary hypothalamus. Data on the connections of the septum of P. hispanica and Gecko gekko are discussed from a comparative point of view and used for better understanding of the functional anatomy of the tetrapodian septum.

  3. Atrial Fibrillation in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Is the Extent of Septal Hypertrophy Important?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sang-chol; Park, Seung-jung; Kim, June Soo; On, Young Keun

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a cardiac disease associated with a high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent studies have suggested that interventricular septum thickness may influence the risk stratification of patients with AF. We evaluated the effects of septal hypertrophy on morbidity and mortality in patients with HCM. Patients were followed for a median of 6.1 years and were divided into two groups according to the extent of septal hypertrophy. A total of 1,360 HCM patients were enrolled: 482 (33%) apical or apicoseptal, 415 (28%) asymmetric septal, 388 (27%) basal septal, 38 (2.6%) concentric, and 37 (2.5%) diffuse and mixed type. Ninety-two all-cause deaths and 21 cardiac deaths occurred. The total event rates were significantly higher for patients with HCM with more extensive septal hypertrophy (group A) compared to those with HCM ± focal septal hypertrophy (group B), regardless of type (p<0.001). Arrhythmias occurred in 502 patients, with a significantly higher incidence in group A than in group B (p<0.001). Among patients with arrhythmias, the incidence of AF was significantly higher in group A than group B (p<0.001). In univariate Cox analysis, a greater extent of septal hypertrophy (p<0.001), E/E´ ratio (p = 0.011), and mitral regurgitation grade (p = 0.003) were significantly associated with developing AF. In multivariate Cox analyses, a greater extent of septal hypertrophy [odds ratio (OR) 5.44 (2.29–12.92), p<0.001] in patients with HCM was significantly associated with developing AF. In conclusion, a greater extent of septal hypertrophy is an independent predictor of progression to AF in patients with HCM. PMID:27258035

  4. Comparison of human septal nuclei MRI measurements using automated segmentation and a new manual protocol based on histology.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Li, Jinyu; Wang, Xiuyuan Hugh; Li, Yi; Tsui, Wai; Talos, Delia; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuchna, Izabela; Nowicki, Krzysztof; French, Jacqueline; Kuzniecky, Rubin; Wegiel, Jerzy; Glodzik, Lidia; Rusinek, Henry; deLeon, Mony J; Thesen, Thomas

    2014-08-15

    Septal nuclei, located in basal forebrain, are strongly connected with hippocampi and important in learning and memory, but have received limited research attention in human MRI studies. While probabilistic maps for estimating septal volume on MRI are now available, they have not been independently validated against manual tracing of MRI, typically considered the gold standard for delineating brain structures. We developed a protocol for manual tracing of the human septal region on MRI based on examination of neuroanatomical specimens. We applied this tracing protocol to T1 MRI scans (n=86) from subjects with temporal epilepsy and healthy controls to measure septal volume. To assess the inter-rater reliability of the protocol, a second tracer used the same protocol on 20 scans that were randomly selected from the 72 healthy controls. In addition to measuring septal volume, maximum septal thickness between the ventricles was measured and recorded. The same scans (n=86) were also analyzed using septal probabilistic maps and DARTEL toolbox in SPM. Results show that our manual tracing algorithm is reliable, and that septal volume measurements obtained via manual and automated methods correlate significantly with each other (p<.001). Both manual and automated methods detected significantly enlarged septal nuclei in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in accord with a proposed compensatory neuroplastic process related to the strong connections between septal nuclei and hippocampi. Septal thickness, which was simple to measure with excellent inter-rater reliability, correlated well with both manual and automated septal volume, suggesting it could serve as an easy-to-measure surrogate for septal volume in future studies. Our results call attention to the important though understudied human septal region, confirm its enlargement in temporal lobe epilepsy, and provide a reliable new manual delineation protocol that will facilitate continued study of this critical region.

  5. Down Syndrome with Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, and Pulmonary Vein Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaiah, Guruprasad; Gupta, Manoj; Ashwath, Ravi

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of congenital heart disease in infants with Down syndrome is 40%, compared with 0.3% in children who have normal chromosomes. Atrioventricular and ventricular septal defects are often associated with chromosomal aberrations, such as in trisomy 21, whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is chiefly thought to be secondary to specific gene mutations. We found only one reported case of congenital hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrioventricular septal defect in an infant with Down syndrome. Here, we report atrioventricular septal defect, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vein stenosis in a neonate with Down syndrome-an apparently unique combination. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature.

  6. Late Infection of an Atrial Septal Defect Closure Device: A Possible Complication.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau-Jarry, Nicolas; Ibrahim, Reda; Ducharme, Anique; Sia, Ying Tung

    2015-09-01

    Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart defect. In the late 1990s, percutaneous closure became available and eventually the treatment of choice. The procedure is considered safe because of its low incidence of complications. Infection rate is extremely low and occurs typically early after device implantation. Herein we present a case of late and dramatic infection of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder (St Jude Medical). This case illustrates that infection remains possible a long time after atrial septal defect occlusion despite theoretical device endothelialization.

  7. Down Syndrome with Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect, Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy, and Pulmonary Vein Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Mahadevaiah, Guruprasad; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of congenital heart disease in infants with Down syndrome is 40%, compared with 0.3% in children who have normal chromosomes. Atrioventricular and ventricular septal defects are often associated with chromosomal aberrations, such as in trisomy 21, whereas hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is chiefly thought to be secondary to specific gene mutations. We found only one reported case of congenital hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrioventricular septal defect in an infant with Down syndrome. Here, we report atrioventricular septal defect, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and pulmonary vein stenosis in a neonate with Down syndrome—an apparently unique combination. In addition, we discuss the relevant medical literature. PMID:26504441

  8. Atrial Septal Defects – Clinical Manifestations, Echo Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seth S; Shapiro, Edward P; Mukherjee, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital abnormality that occurs in the form of ostium secundum, ostium primum, sinus venosus, and rarely, coronary sinus defects. Pathophysiologic consequences of ASDs typically begin in adulthood, and include arrhythmia, paradoxical embolism, cerebral abscess, pulmonary hypertension, and right ventricular failure. Two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography with Doppler is a central aspect of the evaluation. This noninvasive imaging modality often establishes the diagnosis and provides critical information guiding intervention. A comprehensive echocardiogram includes evaluation of anatomical ASD characteristics, flow direction, associated abnormalities (eg, anomalous pulmonary veins), right ventricular anatomy and function, pulmonary pressures, and the pulmonary/systemic flow ratio. The primary indication for ASD closure is right heart volume overload, whether symptoms are present or not. ASD closure may also be reasonable in other contexts, such as paradoxical embolism. ASD type and local clinical expertise guide choice of a percutaneous versus surgical approach to ASD closure. PMID:25861226

  9. [Axillary approach for surgical closure of atrial septal defect].

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, J M; Castillo, R; Zabala, J I; Conejo, L; Cuenca, V; Picazo, B

    2013-08-01

    Mid-line sternotomy is the routine approach for surgical repair of congenital heart diseases. However, its noticeable scar is a constant reminder of having undergone heart surgery. Several alternative approaches have been developed for simple cardiac conditions to hide the scar. Our series, consisting of 26 patients with axillary closure of atrial septal defect, is presented. The median age was 5.45 years (range 3-13), and median weight was 19.84 Kg. (range 13-37). The defect was closed directly in 13 cases, and with an autologous pericardial patch in the other 13. The number of surgical steps and time taken were the same as in median sternotomy. Functional recovery, intensive care unit stay, and hospital discharge were also standard. The cosmetic result, assessed both by patients and relatives, was excellent.

  10. [Axillary approach for surgical closure of atrial septal defect].

    PubMed

    Gil-Jaurena, J M; Castillo, R; Zabala, J I; Conejo, L; Cuenca, V; Picazo, B

    2013-08-01

    Mid-line sternotomy is the routine approach for surgical repair of congenital heart diseases. However, its noticeable scar is a constant reminder of having undergone heart surgery. Several alternative approaches have been developed for simple cardiac conditions to hide the scar. Our series, consisting of 26 patients with axillary closure of atrial septal defect, is presented. The median age was 5.45 years (range 3-13), and median weight was 19.84 Kg. (range 13-37). The defect was closed directly in 13 cases, and with an autologous pericardial patch in the other 13. The number of surgical steps and time taken were the same as in median sternotomy. Functional recovery, intensive care unit stay, and hospital discharge were also standard. The cosmetic result, assessed both by patients and relatives, was excellent. PMID:23462094

  11. Intracardiac Echocardiography Evaluation in Secundum Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Zanchetta, Mario; Pedon, Luigi; Rigatelli, Gianluca; Carrozza, Antonio; Zennaro, Marco; Di Martino, Roberta; Onorato, Eustaquio; Maiolino, Pietro

    2003-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the balloon sizing maneuvers and deployment of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO). In addition, intraprocedural balloon sizing was compared with off-line intracardiac echocardiographic measurements. Methods: The intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) measurements were: maximum transverse and longitudinal atrial septal defect (ASD) diameters in the aortic valve and four-chamber planes;area of the ASD and its equivalent circle diameter. Thirteen consecutive patients underwent transcatheter implantation of an ASO device using ICE guidance under local anesthesia. The device matching the balloon sizing diameter of the defect was implanted. Qualitative ICE assessment of the ASO devices implanted was performed off line. Results: The mean equivalent circle diameter predicted by ICE was 24.40 {+-} 5.61 mm and was significantly higher(p 0.027) than the ASD measured by balloonsizing (21.38 {+-} 5.28 mm). Unlike previous studies we did not find any correlation between the two measurements (correlation coefficient = 0.47). Only four of the 13 patients had optimal device positioning as shown by the qualitative ICE evaluation, whereas the remaining nine patients had inadequate device placement. This resulted in a waist diameter that was an average 26.1% undersized in seven patients and 12.7% oversized in two patients. Five of the seven patients with an undersized device had ASO-atrial septum misalignment with leftward device deviation. Conclusion: The ICE images allowed careful measurement of the dimensions of the ASD and accurately displayed the spatial relations of the ASO astride the ASD.Moreover, use of the ICE measurement led to selection of a different size of device in comparison with those of balloon sizing. The clinical benefit of this new approach needs to be rigorously tested.

  12. Does Nasal Septal Deviation Affect the Success of Tympanoplasty Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Kalcioglu, MT; Akarcay, M; Toplu, Y; Karaca, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This paper deals with the investigation of the effects of nasal septal deviation evaluated by acoustic rhinometry (ARM) in the success of tympanoplasty surgery. Subject and Methods: All patients who underwent tympanoplasty surgery by the same surgeon were reviewed. The patients with nasopharyngeal or nasal masses, polyps, symptoms of allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis, or concha bullosa were excluded from the study. Forty patients who underwent tympanoplasty at least one year ago were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the graft success results. Acoustic rhinometry evaluations of the patients were performed. Results: There were 25 and 15 cases in the intact graft (group A) and re-perforated group (group B), respectively. For the same side of the operated ear, ARM values of group A were 0.47 cm 2 at the first narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 1), 0.43 cm2 at the second narrowest cross-sectional area (MCA 2), 1.51 cm3 volume at the first 2 cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 1) and 3.33 cm3 volume between the second and fifth cm of the nasal cavity (Vol 2). Acoustic rhinometry values of group B were 0.50 cm2, 0.47 cm2, 1.60 cm3 and 3.19 cm3 for MCA 1, MCA 2, Vol 1, and Vol 2, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that nasal septal deviation may not affect the success of tympanoplasty surgery, and septoplasty may not be necessary before ear surgery. PMID:26624593

  13. Hybrid approach for closure of muscular ventricular septal defects

    PubMed Central

    Haponiuk, Ireneusz; Chojnicki, Maciej; Jaworski, Radoslaw; Steffek, Mariusz; Juscinski, Jacek; Sroka, Mariusz; Fiszer, Roland; Sendrowska, Aneta; Gierat-Haponiuk, Katarzyna; Maruszewski, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity of ventricular septal defects in early infancy led to development of new mini-invasive techniques based on collaboration of cardiac surgeons with interventional cardiologists, called hybrid procedures. Hybrid therapies aim to combine the advantages of surgical and interventional techniques in an effort to reduce the invasiveness. The aim of this study was to present our approach with mVSD patients and initial results in the development of a mini-invasive hybrid procedure in the Gdansk Hybrid Heartlink Programme (GHHP) at the Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Pomeranian Centre of Traumatology in Gdansk, Poland. Material/Methods The group of 11 children with mVSDs was enrolled in GHHP and 6 were finally qualified to hybrid trans-ventricular mVSD device closure. Mean age at time of hybrid procedure was 8.22 months (range: from 2.7 to 17.8 months, SD=5.1) and mean body weight was 6.3 kg (range: from 3.4 to 7.5 kg, SD=1.5). Results The implants of choice were Amplatzer VSD Occluder and Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (AGA Med. Corp, USA). The position of the implants was checked carefully before releasing the device with both transesophageal echocardiography and epicardial echocardiography. All patients survived and their general condition improved. No complications occurred. The closure of mVSD was complete in all children. Conclusions Hybrid procedures of periventricular muscular VSD closure appear feasible and effective for patients with septal defects with morphology unsuitable for classic surgical or interventional procedures. The modern strategy of joint cardiac surgical and interventional techniques provides the benefits of close cooperation between cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist for selected patients in difficult clinical settings. PMID:23892911

  14. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  15. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  16. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid–base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  17. Capillaria hepatica in rats: focal parasitic hepatic lesions and septal fibrosis run independent courses.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Thereza; Cunha, Liliane Monteiro; Bastos, Carla Guimarães; Medrado, Bruno Frederico; Assis, Bárbara C A; Andrade, Zilton A

    2006-12-01

    Capillaria hepatica causes two main lesions in the liver of rats: multifocal chronic inflammation, directly related to the presence of disintegrating parasites and their eggs, and a process of systematized septal fibrosis. The comparative behavior of these two lesions was investigated in rats experimentally infected with 600 embryonated eggs, following either corticosteroid treatment or specific antigenic stimulation, in an attempt to understand the relationship between these two lesions, and the pathogenesis of septal fibrosis. The two treatments differently modified the morphological aspects of the focal parasitic-related lesions, but did not interfere with the presentation of diffuse septal fibrosis, although a mild decrease in the degree of fibrosis occurred in corticoid-treated animals. These findings indicate that although the two lesions are C. hepatica induced, they are under different pathogenetic control, the induction of septal fibrosis being triggered during early infection to follow an independent pathway.

  18. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    PubMed

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system. PMID:26375653

  19. Budget impact analysis of the percutaneous septal occluder for treatment of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System.

    PubMed

    Senna, Kátia Marie Simões e; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Costa, Márcia Gisele Santos da; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Correia, Marcelo Goulart

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a budget impact analysis on the adoption of percutaneous occlusion of ostium secundum atrial septal defects in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Costs were collected using micro-costing technique from medical records for each treatment technique (conventional surgery versus percutaneous septal occluder) at a public federal hospital specialized in high-complexity cardiology. The analysis showed that expenditures associated with percutaneous occlusion were lower than with conventional surgery, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the cost reduction in several scenarios, showing a significant budget impact with a 30% adoption rate for the percutaneous occluder (savings of approximately 1.5 million dollars per year). The study indicates that the adoption of the percutaneous septal occluder would mean cost savings of approximately 3.5 million dollars for the Brazilian public health system.

  20. Ablation of Martian glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Henry J.; Davis, Philip A.

    1987-01-01

    Glacier like landforms are observed in the fretted terrain of Mars in the latitude belts near + or - 42 deg. It was suggested that sublimation or accumulation-ablation rates could be estimated for these glaciers if their shapes were known. To this end, photoclinometric profiles were obtained of a number of these landforms. On the basis of analyses of these profiles, it was concluded that ice is chiefly ablating from these landforms that either are inactive rock-glaciers or have materials within them that are moving exceedingly slowly at this time. These conclusions are consistent with other geologic information. The analyses were performed using a two-dimensional model of an isothermal glacier.

  1. Total endoscopic robotic atrial septal defect repair in a patient with dextrocardia and situs inversus totalis.

    PubMed

    Iino, Kenji; Watanabe, Go; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Tomita, Shigeyuki

    2012-04-01

    Situs inversus with mirror-image of the heart is a rare condition. The present report describes a case of a patient with dextrocardia with situs inversus who had atrial septal defect with multiple holes in the fossa ovalis. The patient underwent total endoscopic atrial septal defect repair using the da Vinci surgical system. This procedure was achieved safely with good clinical and excellent cosmetic results.

  2. Incomplete endothelialisation of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder device followed by meningitis and late acute bacterial endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Białkowski, Jacek; Pawlak, Szymon; Banaszak, Paweł

    2016-04-01

    A 19-year-old woman with atrial septal defect treated percutaneously with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder 24 months earlier, who presented with a history of bacterial meningitis, was admitted with a diagnosis of endocarditis. After 6 weeks of treatment with antibiotics, the incompletely endothelialised occluder was surgically removed. The present report illustrates the need for long-term follow-up of patients who have received nitinol wire mesh occluders. PMID:26707128

  3. The septal complex of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis: chemoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Endepols, Heike; Mühlenbrock-Lenter, Sabine; Roth, Gerhard; Walkowiak, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate whether chemoarchitecture would support the subdivision of the anuran septum based on cytoarchitectonic and hodological studies, we performed enzyme-histochemical detection of NADPH-diaphorase and immunohistological demonstration of choline-acetyl transferase (ChAT), aspartate, calretinin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), 5-hydroxy-tryptamine, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin, Leu- and Leu + Met-enkephalin, and substance P in the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis. Labeling of cell bodies matched well the previously defined subnuclei: The dorsolateral septal nucleus contains enkephalin-immunoreactive (-ir) and weakly stained GABA-ir neurons; calretinin-ir and weakly labeled GABA-ir neurons are found in the ventrolateral septal nucleus. The medial septal nucleus is characterized by the presence of numerous ChAT-ir and some tyrosine hydroxylase-ir neurons, while the dorsal septal nucleus is outlined by its NPY-ir neurons. Many ChAT-ir and some aspartate-ir and somatostatin-ir neurons are found in the diagonal band of Broca, and the central septal nucleus contains some GABA-ir and ChAT-ir neurons. In contrast, labeled fibers form a pattern which does not match the boundaries of septal subnuclei. Comparing the anuran septal complex with that of other vertebrates reveals that the complexity of the lateral septum has increased during the evolution from anamniote to amniote vertebrates. In spite of this fact, many similarities in chemoarchitecture between anurans and other vertebrates are evident. Some basal septal functions such as involvement in learning and memory formation or inhibition of sexual behavior appear to have persisted during vertebrate evolution.

  4. Interventricular Septal Hematoma and Coronary-Ventricular Fistula: A Complication of Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-karim, Abdul-rahman R.; Main, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventricular septal hematoma is a rare complication of retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a typically benign course. Here we report two cases of interventricular septal hematoma and coronary-cameral fistula development after right coronary artery (RCA) CTO-PCI using a retrograde approach. Both were complicated by development of ST-segment elevation and chest pain. One case was managed actively and the other conservatively, both with a favorable outcome.

  5. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: computerized anatomic study of relashionship between septal and free left ventricle wall

    PubMed Central

    Juliani, Paulo Sérgio; da Costa, Éder França; Correia, Aristides Tadeu; Monteiro, Rosangela; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A feature of dilated cardiomyopathy is the deformation of ventricular cavity, which contributes to systolic dysfunction. Few studies have evaluated this deformation bearing in mind ventricular regions and segments of the ventricle, which could reveal important details of the remodeling process, supporting a better understanding of its role in functional impairment and the development of new therapeutic strategies. Objective To evaluate if, in basal, equatorial and apical regions, increased internal transverse perimeter of left ventricle in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy occurs proportionally between the septal and non-septal segment. Methods We performed an anatomical study with 28 adult hearts from human cadavers. One group consisted of 18 hearts with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and another group with 10 normal hearts. After lamination and left ventricle digital image capture, in three different regions (base, equator and apex), the transversal internal perimeter of left ventricle was divided into two segments: septal and not septal. These segments were measured by proper software. It was established an index of proportionality between these segments, called septal and non-septal segment index. Then we determined whether this index was the same in both groups. Results Among patients with normal hearts and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the index of proportionality between the two segments (septal and non-septal) showed no significant difference in the three regions analyzed. The comparison results of the indices NSS/SS among normal and enlarged hearts were respectively: in base 1.99 versus 1.86 (P=0.46), in equator 2.22 versus 2.18 (P=0.79) and in apex 2.96 versus 3.56 (P=0.11). Conclusion In the idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, the transversal dilatation of left ventricular internal perimeter occurs proportionally between the segments corresponding to the septum and free wall at the basal, equatorial and apical regions of this chamber

  6. Interventricular Septal Hematoma and Coronary-Ventricular Fistula: A Complication of Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-karim, Abdul-rahman R.; Main, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventricular septal hematoma is a rare complication of retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a typically benign course. Here we report two cases of interventricular septal hematoma and coronary-cameral fistula development after right coronary artery (RCA) CTO-PCI using a retrograde approach. Both were complicated by development of ST-segment elevation and chest pain. One case was managed actively and the other conservatively, both with a favorable outcome. PMID:27668097

  7. Interventricular Septal Hematoma and Coronary-Ventricular Fistula: A Complication of Retrograde Chronic Total Occlusion Intervention.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Karim, Abdul-Rahman R; Vo, Minh; Main, Michael L; Grantham, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Interventricular septal hematoma is a rare complication of retrograde chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a typically benign course. Here we report two cases of interventricular septal hematoma and coronary-cameral fistula development after right coronary artery (RCA) CTO-PCI using a retrograde approach. Both were complicated by development of ST-segment elevation and chest pain. One case was managed actively and the other conservatively, both with a favorable outcome. PMID:27668097

  8. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  9. [Ablative and fractional lasers].

    PubMed

    Beylot, C; Grognard, C; Michaud, T

    2009-10-01

    The use of pulsed or scanning Carbon Dioxide, and pulsed Erbium-YAG lasers allows the programmable and reproducible photocoagulation of thin layers of the epidermis and superficial dermis. Thermal damage depends on the type of laser and is greater with CO(2) lasers. The degree of neocollagenesis is proportional to the thermal damage and is better with CO(2) lasers. Their main indication is the correction of photoaged facial skin but they can also be used for corrective dermatology, e.g. for scars and genodermatosis. Results are highly satisfactory but the technique is invasive and the patient experiences a social hindrance of around two weeks. Fractionated techniques treat 25% of the defective skin area at each session in noncontiguous microzones; four sessions are therefore necessary to treat the entire cutaneous surface. The treatment is given under topical anesthesia and is much less invasive, particularly with nonablative fractional laser treatment in which photothermolysis does not penetrate below the epidermis and/or the effects are slight, with no or very little social isolation. However, the results are much less satisfactory than the results of ablative laser and there is no firming effect. Other zones than the face can be treated. With the fractional CO(2) and Erbium ablative lasers, which have multiplied over the past 2 years, the much wider impacts cause perforation of the epidermis and there is a zone of ablation by laser photovaporization, with a zone of thermal damage below. The results are better in correcting photoaging of the face, without, however, achieving the efficacy of ablative lasers, which remain the reference technique. However, the effects are not insignificant, requiring at least 5 days of social isolation.

  10. Histogenesis of alcoholic fibrosis and cirrhosis in the baboon.

    PubMed

    Popper, H; Lieber, C S

    1980-03-01

    Sequential liver specimens of 18 baboons exposed for up to 6 years to alcohol on a nutritionally adequate diet, as well as those of pair-fed controls, were examined by light microscopy. Whereas control animals failed to develop pathologic changes, in all baboons exposed, ethanol produced initial steatosis and subsequently fibrosis. Emphasis was on the pattern of the fiber accumulations as related to lesions of the hepatocytes. Segmented neutrophilic leukocytes were rarely observed, and the picture of frank alcoholic hepatitis was absent, but diffusely increased mononuclear sinusoidal cells and interstitial clusters of such cells with PAS-positive macrophages were abundant. Fibrosis proceeding to septum formation was associated mainly with large-droplet steatosis. Septum formation was initiated by excess layers of reticulin around steatotic hepatocytes or, more frequently, by linking of fiber accumulations around the clusters of mononuclear cells, in both instances with subsequent deposition of collagen fibers. Both processes were prominent in the centrolobular zone, creating a perivenous net-like fibrosis, but septum formation also started within the lobular parenchyma and eventually linked with the barely altered portal tracts. Fifteen alcohol-fed baboons developed septums, with diffuse septal fibrosis in 5; 4 proceeded to septal cirrhosis and 1 each to micronodular and to mixed micromacronodular cirrhosis. Cirrhosis in the baboons thus develops without the conspicuous polymorphonuclear inflammation characteristic of human alcoholic hepatitis. These observations indicate a pathway to cirrhosis over creeping fibrosis that might play a role also in man, instead of (or supplementing) the one proceeding over alcoholic hepatitis.

  11. Collagen immunostains can distinguish capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis and may help stage liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Rock, Jonathan B; Yearsley, Martha M; Hanje, A James; Frankel, Wendy L

    2014-01-01

    Core-needle biopsy remains essential for diagnosis of cirrhosis; however, evaluation of fibrosis in such biopsies is often challenging due to the fragmented nature of cirrhotic liver specimens. It is also common to see portions of liver capsules present in the biopsy which adds to the diagnostic challenge. The distinction between capsular/subcapsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis is critical to avoid potential overstaging of liver fibrosis. We compared the differential immunostaining in liver capsular and septal areas for collagens III, IV, V, VI, vitronectin, laminin, Orcein, and Trichrome in 15 whole sections of explanted cirrhotic livers and 5 simulated liver biopsies. Collagens III, IV, V, VI, Trichrome, and Orcein show distinct staining patterns in capsular fibrous tissue and septal fibrosis. Collagen IV shows strong diffuse septal staining and consistently weak to negative capsular staining. Collagens III and VI stain similar to IV for septal fibrosis, whereas collagen V, Trichrome, and Orcein show strong staining in both areas. Collagen IV, possibly with III or VI in addition to the routine Trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain, is useful in differentiating capsular fibrous tissue from septal fibrosis on challenging and fragmented liver biopsies.

  12. OCDR guided laser ablation device

    DOEpatents

    Dasilva, Luiz B.; Colston, Jr., Bill W.; James, Dale L.

    2002-01-01

    A guided laser ablation device. The device includes a mulitmode laser ablation fiber that is surrounded by one or more single mode optical fibers that are used to image in the vicinity of the laser ablation area to prevent tissue damage. The laser ablation device is combined with an optical coherence domain reflectometry (OCDR) unit and with a control unit which initializes the OCDR unit and a high power laser of the ablation device. Data from the OCDR unit is analyzed by the control unit and used to control the high power laser. The OCDR images up to about 3 mm ahead of the ablation surface to enable a user to see sensitive tissue such as a nerve or artery before damaging it by the laser.

  13. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  14. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  15. The Clinical Course of Patients With Atrial Septal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Golshan, Mohammad; Akhavan-Karbasi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed-Masood; Behjati-Ardakani, Mohammad-Amin; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the clinical course of ASD, as well as its frequency of spontaneous closure and regression of diameter. Methods In a study conducted from 2000 to 2011, 192 consecutive patients with an isolated ASD were followed up regularly with periodic echocardiographic evaluations according to a standardized protocol. The study was conducted in two series of patients: infants and children and adults. Infants were classified into three groups based on ASD diameter: small (≤ 5 mm), medium (6 - 9 mm), and large (> 9 mm). In the same manner, the ASD size in children and adults was categorized into three groups: small (≤ 10), medium (10 - 20 mm), and large (> 20 mm). Results The patients consisted of 76 (39.6%) males and 116 (60.4%) females. The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 16.12 ± 15.66 years (range 1 week - 75 years). The mean follow-up duration was 70 ± 9 months (range: 25 - 119 months). The most prevalent age group was adult patients (> 20 years), and most ASDs were of medium size (1 - 2 cm). The most common complication was mild pulmonary hypertension (31 cases, 16.2%), and Eisenmenger phenomenon was the rarest complication (2 cases, 1%). Overall spontaneous closure of ASD occurred in 42 (21.9%) cases. Spontaneous closure in cases with small defects occurred in 18 of 22 (81%) infants and 24 of 81 children > 1 years of age. Regression of ASD size occurred in 2 (9.5%) infants and 3 (3.7%) children. No spontaneous closure was observed in cases with a defect size > 10 mm, and no spontaneous occlusion was detected in adolescents or adults. Seventy-two percent (n = 139) of patients needed surgical repair or transcatheter closure of the ASD. Conclusions It is concluded that atrial septal defects < 6 mm typically close spontaneously, and ASDs measuring 6 - 9 mm may regress in infants and children. An ASD > 1 cm has little chance of spontaneous

  16. Percutaneous microwave ablation vs radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poulou, Loukia S; Botsa, Evanthia; Thanou, Ioanna; Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Thanos, Loukas

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular cancer ranks fifth among cancers and is related to chronic viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, steatohepatitis and liver autoimmunity. Surgical resection and orthotopic liver transplantation have curative potential, but fewer than 20% of patients are suitable candidates. Interventional treatments are offered to the vast majority of patients. Radiofrequency (RFA) and microwave ablation (MWA) are among the therapeutic modalities, with similar indications which include the presence of up to three lesions, smaller than 3 cm in size, and the absence of extrahepatic disease. The therapeutic effect of both methods relies on thermal injury, but MWA uses an electromagnetic field as opposed to electrical current used in RFA. Unlike MWA, the effect of RFA is partially limited by the heat-sink effect and increased impedance of the ablated tissue. Compared with RFA, MWA attains a more predictable ablation zone, permits simultaneous treatment of multiple lesions, and achieves larger coagulation volumes in a shorter procedural time. Major complications of both methods are comparable and infrequent (approximately 2%-3%), and they include haemorrhage, infection/abscess, visceral organ injury, liver failure, and pneumothorax. RFA may incur the additional complication of skin burns. Nevertheless, there is no compelling evidence for differences in clinical outcomes, including local recurrence rates and survival. PMID:26052394

  17. Intracoronary transplantation of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells, a novel method to close muscular ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Zhang, Juqian; Jiang, Jian

    2011-10-01

    Muscular ventricular septal defects remain a challenge despite the progress in surgical and interventional closure of ventricular septal defects. Our hypothesis was inspired by the fact that more than two thirds of children with muscular ventricular septal defects experienced spontaneous closure. Therefore, we intend to induce the spontaneous closure of muscular ventricular septal defects by means of targeted intracoronary injection of mesenchymal stem cells which are genetically modified to enhance myocardial hypertrophy. The transplantation of bone marrow derived cells has been observed to be effective in improving tissue recovery and ameliorating cardiac function in patients and animal models with ischemic heart disease, acute myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. We expect that the targeted intracoronary transplantation of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells could enhance the tissue generation and myocardial hypertrophy simultaneously, which may lead to the closure of muscular ventricular septal defects in a way that imitate the spontaneous closure of ventricular septal defects.

  18. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  19. Association of interatrial septal abnormalities with cardiac impulse conduction disorders in adult patients: experience from a tertiary center in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Bakalli, Aurora; Pllana, Ejup; Koçinaj, Dardan; Bekteshi, Tefik; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Musliu, Nebih; Gashi, Zaim

    2011-01-01

    Interatrial septal disorders, which include: atrial septal defect, patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm, are frequent congenital anomalies found in adult patients. Early detection of these anomalies is important to prevent their hemodynamic and/or thromboembolic consequences. The aims of this study were: to assess the association between impulse conduction disorders and anomalies of interatrial septum; to determine the prevalence of different types of interatrial septum abnormalities; to assess anatomic, hemodynamic, and clinical consequences of interatrial septal pathologies. Fifty-three adult patients with impulse conduction disorders and patients without ECG changes but with signs of interatrial septal abnormalities, who were referred to our center for echocardiography, were included in a prospective transesophageal echocardiography study. Interatrial septal anomalies were detected in around 85% of the examined patients. Patent foramen ovale was encountered in 32% of the patients, and in combination with atrial septal aneurysm in an additional 11.3% of cases. Atrial septal aneurysm and atrial septal defect were diagnosed with equal frequency in 20.7% of our study population. Impulse conduction disorders were significantly more suggestive of interatrial septal anomalies than clinical signs and symptoms observed in our patients (84.91% vs 30.19%, P=0.002). Right bundle branch block was the most frequent impulse conduction disorder, found in 41 (77.36%) cases. We conclude that interatrial septal anomalies are highly associated with impulse conduction disorders, particularly with right bundle branch block. Impulse conduction disorders are more indicative of interatrial septal abnormalities in earlier stages than can be understood from the patient’s clinical condition. PMID:21977304

  20. Mechanics of breathing in patients with atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Troyer, A D; Yernault, J C; Englert, M

    1977-03-01

    Mechanics of breathing and pulmonary diffusing properties were investigated in 24 adult patients with atrial septal defect. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to mean pulmonary artery pressure: less than 19 mm Hg (group I), 20 to 24 mm Hg (group II), and greater than 25 mm Hg (group III). The only change observed in group I was a marked increase in diffusing capacity. Patients of group II showed not only an increase in diffusing capacity, but also an overt decrease in maximal expiratory flow at all lung volumes and at any given driving pressure. For these two groups, a highly significant inverse correlation was found between changes in diffusing and elastic lung properties (r = -0.71; P less than 0.001). In patients of group III, the expiratory flow remained clearly decreased; furthermore, lung compliance and lung volumes were sharply reduced, airway resistance was elevated, and diffusing capacity was normal. Finally, from group I to group III, the lung elastic recoil became progressively diminished at small lung volumes. These results suggest that an increased pulmonary blood volume induces an increase in diffusing capacity and a slight decrease in lung compliance. Simultaneous existance of high intravascular pressure strengthens the effects of increased pulmonary blood volume on lung mechanics and results in significant abnormalities in the lung mechanical behavior. It is postulated that these effects are due to a competition for space between vessels and airways within the bronchovascular sheaths, with a subsequent compression of small airways. PMID:842953

  1. Electrophysiologic abnormalities of children with ostium secundum atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Khoury, L; Thilenius, O G; Replogle, R L; Arcilla, R A

    1984-06-01

    Sinus node (SN) and atrioventricular node (AVN) function were evaluated in 49 patients with secundum type atrial septal defect (ASD). Automaticity and conduction system function were assessed by intracardiac recording of the AH and HV intervals at rest, corrected SN recovery time, sinoatrial conduction time, AVN refractory period and the ability of the AVN to conduct rapidly paced atrial beats to the ventricles. Electrophysiologic abnormalities were found in 41% of the 34 patients who were studied before surgery. However, no preoperative abnormalities were present in children younger than 2.5 years. If only children older than 2.5 years were analyzed, the incidence of conduction abnormalities was similar for the patients studied before operation (62%) and those studied after operation (71%). The size and ejection fractions of the right and left ventricles, the magnitude of shunt flow and the size of the ASD did not differ between the patients with and those without electrophysiologic abnormalities. AVN dysfunction was present in 40% of the patients who were studied after surgical repair. While this frequency was more than twice the preoperative incidence of AVN dysfunction, it was not statistically significant. The data suggest that patient age is the major factor that influences the presence of conduction system dysfunction in patients with ASD.

  2. Current perspectives in percutaneous atrial septal defect closure devices

    PubMed Central

    Bissessor, N

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) closure has become the treatment of choice in most clinical presentations of ASD. Percutaneous ASD closure has established procedural safety through operator experience and improved device structure and deliverability. There have also been advances in diagnostic capabilities. Devices have evolved from large bulky meshes to repositionable, minimal residual mesh content that easily endothelializes and conforms well to surrounding structures. Biodegradable technology has been introduced and will be closely watched as a future option. The evolution of ASD closure device usage in the last four decades incorporates development that minimizes a wide range of serious side effects that have been reported over the years. Complications reported in the literature include thrombus formation, air embolization, device embolization, erosions, residual shunts, and nickel hypersensitivity. Modern devices have intermediate to long term data with outcomes that have been favorable. Devices are available in multiple sizes with improved delivery mechanisms to recapture, reposition, and safely close simple and complex ASDs amenable to percutaneous closure. In this review, commonly used devices and deployment procedures are discussed together with a look at devices that show promise for the future. PMID:26203289

  3. [Restrictive ventricular septal defect in a dwarf rabbit].

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, N; Leuser, C; Miltz, D; Henrich, E; Schneider, M

    2016-01-01

    A 9-week-old intact female dwarf rabbit was presented for evaluation of a heart murmur. Physical examination revealed a grade IV/VI systolic heart murmur with the maximal intensity over the right heart base. Evidence for a left-sided cardiomegaly was present on lateral and dorsoventral radiographs. An electrocardiogram was recorded in right lateral recumbency, which revealed a sinus tachycardia with a heart rate of 360 beats/minute. Echocardiography showed normal dimensions for the atria and ventricles. Two-dimensional echocardiography confirmed the presence of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) with a diameter of 0.8 mm. Identification of the VSD was possible from a right (long and short axes) and a left parasternal window. Peak flow velocity of the systolic left to right shunt was 5.2 m/s. Additionally, a relative pulmonic stenosis (peak flow in the pulmonary artery of 1.02 m/s, pulsed-wave Doppler) was present. According to these findings, the VSD was classified as restrictive. At this time point, medical treatment was unnecessary. The re-examination after 7 weeks revealed unchanged morphological and haemodynamic findings. The VSD in this dwarf rabbit displayed both in the physical and echocardiographic examinations typical features as seen in dogs and cats as well as in one New Zealand white rabbit. PMID:26763583

  4. Septum Development in Neurospora crassa: The Septal Actomyosin Tangle

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Álvarez, Diego Luis; Bartnicki-García, Salomón; Seiler, Stephan; Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Septum formation in Neurospora crassa was studied by fluorescent tagging of actin, myosin, tropomyosin, formin, fimbrin, BUD-4, and CHS-1. In chronological order, we recognized three septum development stages: 1) septal actomyosin tangle (SAT) assembly, 2) contractile actomyosin ring (CAR) formation, 3) CAR constriction together with plasma membrane ingrowth and cell wall construction. Septation began with the assembly of a conspicuous tangle of cortical actin cables (SAT) in the septation site >5 min before plasma membrane ingrowth. Tropomyosin and myosin were detected as components of the SAT from the outset. The SAT gradually condensed to form a proto-CAR that preceded CAR formation. During septum development, the contractile actomyosin ring remained associated with the advancing edge of the septum. Formin and BUD-4 were recruited during the transition from SAT to CAR and CHS-1 appeared two min before CAR constriction. Actin patches containing fimbrin were observed surrounding the ingrowing septum, an indication of endocytic activity. Although the trigger of SAT assembly remains unclear, the regularity of septation both in space and time gives us reason to believe that the initiation of the septation process is integrated with the mechanisms that control both the cell cycle and the overall growth of hyphae, despite the asynchronous nature of mitosis in N. crassa. PMID:24800890

  5. The septal organ of the rat during postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Elke; Farbman, Albert I

    2003-09-01

    The septal organ of Masera (SO) is a small, isolated patch of olfactory epithelium, located in the ventral part of the nasal septum. We investigated in this systematic study the postnatal development of the SO in histological sections of rats at various ages from the day of birth (P1) to P666. The SO-area increases to a maximum at P66-P105, just as the animals reach sexual maturity, and decreases thereafter, significantly however only in males, indicating a limited neurogenetic capacity for regeneration. In contrast, the main olfactory epithelium area continues to expand beyond P300. The modified respiratory epithelium ('zwischen epithelium') separating the SO and the main olfactory epithelium contains a few olfactory neurons up to age P66. Its length increases postnatally so that the SO becomes more ventral to the OE. Although the position of the SO relative to other anatomical landmarks changes with development it is consistently located just posterior to the opening of the nasopalatine duct (NPAL). Thus, a possible function of the SO is in sensing chemicals in fluids entering the mouth by licking and then delivered to the nasal cavity via the NPAL; therefore the SO may be involved in social/sexual behavior as is the vomeronasal organ (VNO). We suggest that the SO is a separate accessory olfactory organ with properties somewhat different from both OE and VNO and may exist only in species where the NPAL does not open into the VNO. PMID:14578120

  6. Ventricular septal defect: early against late surgical repair

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Waqas J.; Iyer, Praneet; Amba, Samridhi; Muddassir, Salman; Cheboterav, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a rare complication of right ventricular infarction (RVI) which is associated with significant mortality, if not treated appropriately. It typically occurs within the first 10–14 days after myocardial infarction. Surgical repair has been shown to reduce in-hospital mortality from 90% to 33–45%. Early surgical VSD repair has also been associated with high 30-day operative mortality of 34–37%. Furthermore, after an acute MI the friable myocardium enhances the risk of recurrent VSD with early surgical repair. We present a case of a middle-aged woman who developed VSD after an RVI. Her surgical repair was delayed by 2 weeks due to development of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. During this period, she was managed medically and later on underwent percutaneous repair with an amplatzer VSD occluder device. Keeping this patient encounter in mind, we would like to emphasize on the limited recommendations available for early against late surgical repair of VSD. PMID:26908387

  7. Abnormalities of early depolarization in patients with remote anterior myocardial infarction and ventricular septal hypoperfusion. Diagnosis of septal MI by BSM

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, I.; Yamaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Yamaguchi, I.; Tonooka, I.; Tsuiki, K.; Yasui, S. )

    1990-10-01

    The authors conducted this study to find the difference in body surface isopotential maps in 46 patients with previous anterior infarction with and without septal involvement. Thallium-201 myocardial-perfusion imaging identified 25 patients with septal infarction (group P) and 21 without (group N). In contrast to group N, group P had a prominent minimum on the anterior chest during the early phases of the QRS. According to the results obtained, the following criteria for identifying patients with septal infarction (group P) were proposed (1). Criterion 1: The absolute value of the voltage of the minimum is equal to or greater than that of the maximum at 5 ms after the onset of the QRS; (2) Criterion 2: During the early portion of the QRS the voltage of the minimum reaches -0.10 mV at the same time or earlier than the maximum reaches 0.10 mV. Both criteria had higher sensitivities (100% and 100%), specificities (71.4% and 90.5%), and predictive accuracies (87.0% and 95.7%) than either Franklead vectorcardiograms or standard 12-lead electrocardiograms in the study population. Thus, body surface isopotential mapping is considered to be useful for the diagnosis of septal involvement in patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction.

  8. Matricectomy and nail ablation.

    PubMed

    Baran, Robert; Haneke, Eckart

    2002-11-01

    Matricectomy refers to the complete extirpation of the nail matrix, resulting in permanent nail loss. Usually however, matricectomy is only partial, restricted to one or both lateral horns of the matrix. Nail ablation is the definitive removal of the entire nail organ. The most important common denominator in the successful matricectomy is the total removal or destruction of the matrix tissue. Matricectomy may be indicated for the management of onychauxis, onychogryphosis, congenital nail dystrophies, and chronic painful nail, such as recalcitrant ingrown toenail or split within the medial or lateral one-third of the nail.

  9. High temperature ablative foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An ablative foam composition is formed of approximately 150 to 250 parts by weight polymeric isocyanate having an isocyanate functionality of 2.6 to 3.2; approximately 15 to 30 parts by weight reactive flame retardant having a hydroxyl number range from 200-260; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight non-reactive flame retardant; approximately 10 to 40 parts by weight nonhydrolyzable silicone copolymer having a hydroxyl number range from 75-205; and approximately 3 to 16 parts by weight amine initiated polyether resin having an isocyanate functionality greater than or equal to 3.0 and a hydroxyl number range from 400-800.

  10. Late complete atrioventricular block after closure of an atrial septal defect with a gore septal occluder (GSO™)

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, Matthias; Priessmann, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Temporary intermittent complete heart block (CHB) occurred the day after interventional closure of an ASD with a 30 mm Gore Septal Occluder (GSO™) in a 2 years and 11‐month‐old female. CHB disappeared without further treatment and stable sinus rhythm recovered within 3 days. Only short episodes of 2nd degree AV‐block (Wenckebach periodicity) at rare intervals were documented in Holter‐monitors the following 2 months. Eleven months after device implantation the patient suffered from long lasting episodes of CHB. Surgical removal of the device resulted in incomplete recovery of AV‐conduction. Histopathological work‐up of the explanted GSO showed complete endothelialization of the device and regular scar formation. One year after surgery, the child had sinus rhythm during daytime but needed VVI‐pacing while sleeping. Young age, inferior localization of the defect, and use of a large device have been individual risk factors for CHB in this patient. Clinical course and histologic findings indicate that mechanical compression was the only cause for CHB. The cumulative number of reports of CHB after use of different ASD‐devices supports the recommendation to postpone the intervention in asymptomatic patients to preschool‐age. Early removal of a pushing device may increase the chance of complete recovery from CHB. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26354228

  11. Percutaneous Ablation in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Bradford J.; Gervais, Debra A.

    2011-01-01

    Percutaneous ablation in the kidney is now performed as a standard therapeutic nephron-sparing option in patients who are poor candidates for resection. Its increasing use has been largely prompted by the rising incidental detection of renal cell carcinomas with cross-sectional imaging and the need to preserve renal function in patients with comorbid conditions, multiple renal cell carcinomas, and/or heritable renal cancer syndromes. Clinical studies to date indicate that radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation are effective therapies with acceptable short- to intermediate-term outcomes and with a low risk in the appropriate setting, with attention to pre-, peri-, and postprocedural detail. The results following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and cryoablation in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma are reviewed in this article, including those of several larger scale studies of ablation of T1a tumors. Clinical and technical considerations unique to ablation in the kidney are presented, and potential complications are discussed. © RSNA, 2011 PMID:22012904

  12. The effect of elastic modulus on ablation catheter contact area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jon J.; Linte, Cristian A.; Rettmann, Maryam E.; Sun, Deyu; Packer, Douglas L.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac ablation consists of navigating a catheter into the heart and delivering RF energy to electrically isolate tissue regions that generate or propagate arrhythmia. Besides the challenges of accurate and precise targeting of the arrhythmic sites within the beating heart, limited information is currently available to the cardiologist regarding intricate electrodetissue contact, which directly impacts the quality of produced lesions. Recent advances in ablation catheter design provide intra-procedural estimates of tissue-catheter contact force, but the most direct indicator of lesion quality for any particular energy level and duration is the tissue-catheter contact area, and that is a function of not only force, but catheter pose and material elasticity as well. In this experiment, we have employed real-time ultrasound (US) imaging to determine the complete interaction between the ablation electrode and tissue to accurately estimate contact, which will help to better understand the effect of catheter pose and position relative to the tissue. By simultaneously recording tracked position, force reading and US image of the ablation catheter, the differing material properties of polyvinyl alcohol cryogel[1] phantoms are shown to produce varying amounts of tissue depression and contact area (implying varying lesion quality) for equivalent force readings. We have shown that the elastic modulus significantly affects the surface-contact area between the catheter and tissue at any level of contact force. Thus we provide evidence that a prescribed level of catheter force may not always provide sufficient contact area to produce an effective ablation lesion in the prescribed ablation time.

  13. Detection and putative effect of GATA4 gene variants in patients with congenital cardiac septal defects.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzouny, M A; El Ruby, M O; Issa, H A; Behiry, E G; Elsayed, N R; Fayez, A G

    2016-01-01

    The zinc finger transcription factor GATA4, located on chromosome 8p23.1-p22, has been implicated as a critical regulator of cardiac development during embryogenesis. Mutations of GATA4 appear to be responsible for some cardiac septal defects. The aim of this work was to screen for mutations in the GATA4 gene in sample of Egyptian patients affected by isolated and non-isolated cardiac septal defects. We examined 20 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD), ventricle septal defect (VSD), atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) and A-V canal disturbance defect and compared with examined 10 unaffected individuals as normal control. The patients were referred from Congenital Heart Disease Clinic of the Clinical Genetics department at the National Research Centre. All patients were subjected to clinical evaluation, echocardiography and karyotyping. Genomic DNA was extracted from all cases and subjected to PCR followed by direct sequencing. The predicted effect of variants was done by a variety of proper prediction tools. We detected six variants in GATA4 gene, two of them are novel variants. Predicted functional analysis of the relevant variants was performed by In silico analysis. Further confirmatory studies on familial segregation and in vitro / in vivo functional analysis are recommended to support our results. PMID:27064867

  14. Comparison of Modified With Classic Morrow Septal Myectomy in Treating Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bangrong; Dong, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of the classic Morrow septal myectomy with the modified procedure in treating hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). A retrospective study was conducted to compare the outcomes of classic with modified Morrow septal myectomy in 42 patients treated from January 2005 to July 2011. Preoperative and postoperative ventricular septal thickness, left ventricular (LV) outflow tract velocity and gradient were measured echocardiographically. In both groups, the ventricular septal thickness, LV outflow tract velocity, and LV outflow tract gradient were significantly decreased after the operation. The modified Morrow procedure group, however, showed significantly greater reduction in these echocardiographic parameters than the classic procedure group. All patients in the modified procedure group were asymptomatic postoperatively with a postoperative transvalvular pressure gradient <30 mm Hg. In the classic procedure group, only 14 (87.5%) patients, however, were asymptomatic postoperatively with a postoperative transvalvular pressure gradient <30 mm Hg, and 2 patients still had severe LV outflow obstruction postoperatively. The modified Morrow septal myectomy is safe and effective in treating HOCM patients, and is superior to the classic procedure in reducing the LV outflow tract gradient and velocity, restoring normal anatomic atrioventricular size, and alleviating symptoms associated with HOCM. PMID:26765408

  15. Conduction disturbances after surgical correction of ventricular septal defect by the atrial approach.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbins, S M; Izukawa, T; Radford, D J; Williams, W G; Trusler, G A

    1979-01-01

    Conduction disturbances have been documented after correction of ventricular septal defects by the ventricular route. Recently, repair of the ventricular septal defect has been through the right atrium to overcome damage to the conduction system and a right ventriculotomy. Thirty-nine children with ventricular septal defects under the age of 5 years were operated upon by the atrial route (group 1). The incidence of conduction disturbances in this group was compared with that occurring in 19 children of comparable age with a ventricular septal defect repaired via a right ventriculotomy (group 2). Complete right bundle-branch block developed in 13 of 39 children (33.3%) in group 1, compared with 15 of 19 children (78.9%) in group 2. This was a statistically significant reduction in complete right bundle-branch block in group 1. The incidence of left axis deviation occurring with complete right bundle-branch block was similarly statistically reduced. Transient complete heart block and arrhythmias were not statistically different in the two groups. The atrial approach to the repair of the ventricular septal defect significantly reduced the incidence of complete right bundle-branch block alone and occurring with left axis deviation. PMID:426978

  16. Genome-Wide Association Study of Down Syndrome-Associated Atrioventricular Septal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zeng, Zhen; Locke, Adam E.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Bean, Lora J.H.; Rosser, Tracie C.; Dooley, Kenneth J.; Cua, Clifford L.; Capone, George T.; Reeves, Roger H.; Maslen, Cheryl L.; Cutler, David J.; Feingold, Eleanor; Sherman, Stephanie L.; Zwick, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the contribution of common genetic variants to Down syndrome−associated atrioventricular septal defect, a severe heart abnormality. Compared with the euploid population, infants with Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, have a 2000-fold increased risk of presenting with atrioventricular septal defects. The cause of this increased risk remains elusive. Here we present data from the largest heart study conducted to date on a trisomic background by using a carefully characterized collection of individuals from extreme ends of the phenotypic spectrum. We performed a genome-wide association study using logistic regression analysis on 452 individuals with Down syndrome, consisting of 210 cases with complete atrioventricular septal defects and 242 controls with structurally normal hearts. No individual variant achieved genome-wide significance. We identified four disomic regions (1p36.3, 5p15.31, 8q22.3, and 17q22) and two trisomic regions on chromosome 21 (around PDXK and KCNJ6 genes) that merit further investigation in large replication studies. Our data show that a few common genetic variants of large effect size (odds ratio >2.0) do not account for the elevated risk of Down syndrome−associated atrioventricular septal defects. Instead, multiple variants of low-to-moderate effect sizes may contribute to this elevated risk, highlighting the complex genetic architecture of atrioventricular septal defects even in the highly susceptible Down syndrome population. PMID:26194203

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Down Syndrome-Associated Atrioventricular Septal Defects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Dhanya; Zeng, Zhen; Locke, Adam E; Mulle, Jennifer G; Bean, Lora J H; Rosser, Tracie C; Dooley, Kenneth J; Cua, Clifford L; Capone, George T; Reeves, Roger H; Maslen, Cheryl L; Cutler, David J; Feingold, Eleanor; Sherman, Stephanie L; Zwick, Michael E

    2015-07-20

    The goal of this study was to identify the contribution of common genetic variants to Down syndrome-associated atrioventricular septal defect, a severe heart abnormality. Compared with the euploid population, infants with Down syndrome, or trisomy 21, have a 2000-fold increased risk of presenting with atrioventricular septal defects. The cause of this increased risk remains elusive. Here we present data from the largest heart study conducted to date on a trisomic background by using a carefully characterized collection of individuals from extreme ends of the phenotypic spectrum. We performed a genome-wide association study using logistic regression analysis on 452 individuals with Down syndrome, consisting of 210 cases with complete atrioventricular septal defects and 242 controls with structurally normal hearts. No individual variant achieved genome-wide significance. We identified four disomic regions (1p36.3, 5p15.31, 8q22.3, and 17q22) and two trisomic regions on chromosome 21 (around PDXK and KCNJ6 genes) that merit further investigation in large replication studies. Our data show that a few common genetic variants of large effect size (odds ratio >2.0) do not account for the elevated risk of Down syndrome-associated atrioventricular septal defects. Instead, multiple variants of low-to-moderate effect sizes may contribute to this elevated risk, highlighting the complex genetic architecture of atrioventricular septal defects even in the highly susceptible Down syndrome population.

  18. Thermal response and ablation characteristics of light weight ceramic ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Esfahani, Lili

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the thermal performance and ablation characteristics of the NASA-Ames Lightweight Ceramic Ablators (LCAs) in supersonic, high-enthalpy convective environments, which use low density ceramic or carbon fiber matrices as substrates for main structural support, with organic resin fillers. LCA densities are in the 0.224-1.282 g/cu cm range. In-depth temperature data have been obtained to determine thermal penetration depths and conductivity. The addition of SiC and PPMA is noted to significantly improve the ablation performance of LCAs with silica substrates. Carbon-based LCAs are the most mass-efficient at high flux levels.

  19. Epicardial Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Roderick; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial mapping and ablation via a percutaneous subxiphoid technique has been instrumental in improving the working understanding of complex myocardial scars in various arrhythmogenic substrates. Endocardial ablation alone may not be sufficient in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and Chagas disease to prevent recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Multiple observational studies have demonstrated greater freedom from recurrence with adjunctive epicardial ablation compared with endocardial ablation alone. While epicardial ablation is performed predominantly at tertiary referral centers, knowledge of the technical approach, clinical indications, and potential complications is imperative to maximizing clinical success and patient safety. In 1996, Sosa and colleagues modified the pericardiocentesis technique to enable percutaneous access to the pericardial space for mapping and catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia.1 Originally developed for patients with epicardial scarring due to chagasic cardiomyopathy and patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy refractory to endocardial ablationm,2,3 this approach has since become an essential part of the armamentarium for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Myocardial scars are three-dimensionally complex with varying degrees of transmurality, and the ability to map and ablate the epicardial surface has contributed to a greater understanding of scar-related VT in postinfarction cardiomyopathy and nonischemic substrates including idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and chagasic cardiomyopathy. In this review, we highlight the percutaneous approach and discuss clinical indications and potential complications. PMID:26306131

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  2. Retrograde percutaneous repair of aortic coarctation utilizing trans-septal puncture in patients with complex anatomy.

    PubMed

    Misenheimer, Jacob A; Poommipanit, Paul; Amin, Zahid

    2016-02-15

    Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is one of the more common congenital anomalies, occurring in four in ten thousand live births and accounting for five to eight percent of all congenital heart defects. COA lesions can be challenging to treat percutaneously, especially if complex vascular anatomy is a barrier to crossing the lesion. We present two cases of COA that utilized a trans-septal approach to cross the lesion in anterograde fashion, subsequently facilitating retrograde stenting of the lesions after snaring and externalizing the wire. In both cases, the trans-septal approach was employed because traditional femoral and radial approaches failed due to complex anatomy, and the trans-septal approach allowed for effective intervention without the need for surgery.

  3. Production of septal fibrosis of the liver by means of foreign protein injections into rats.

    PubMed

    Gotardo, Bruna Magalhães; Andrade, Rodrigo Guimarães; Oliveira, Ludmila Fernandes; Andrade, Zilton A

    2003-01-01

    Similarities and differences in antigenic humoral responses and electrophoretic patterns between Capillaria hepatica and pig-serum were investigated as a contribution to the understanding of hepatic fibrosis induced by the parenteral administration of foreign proteins. Only two out of 10 rats receiving repeated intraperitoneal injections of an extract of Capillaria hepatica-infected mouse liver presented septal hepatic fibrosis (20%). Under the same experimental conditions, 4 out of 9 rats (44.4%) developed septal fibrosis following whole pig-serum administration. Injections of normal mouse liver extracts did not result in hepatic fibrosis. Since a 100% septal fibrosis rate is observed in experimentally Capillaria hepatica-infected rats, it appeared that Capillaria hepatica products continuously released from inside the liver creates a much more effective fibrosis inducing mechanism than the parenteral administration of such factors. Thus, repeated peritoneal administration of a foreign protein to rats would not reveal the full fibrogenic potential it may have under natural conditions.

  4. Expanding the Limits of Posterior Aortic Translocation: Biventricular Correction of Complex Transposition With Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect and Heterotaxy.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Junya; Bierbach, Benjamin; Hraska, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    This case report describes successful repair of d-transposition of the great arteries with severe left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and complete atrioventricular septal defect associated with heterotaxy by the use of posterior aortic translocation combined with repair of the atrioventricular septal defect and systemic venous anomalies. PMID:26777936

  5. [New techniques of tumor ablation (microwaves, electroporation)].

    PubMed

    de Baere, T

    2011-09-01

    Since the introduction of radiofrequency tumor ablation of liver tumors in the late 1990s, local destructive therapies have been applied to lung, renal and bone lesions. In addition, new techniques have been introduced to compensate for the limitations of radiofrequency ablation, namely the reduced rate of complete ablation for tumors larger than 3 cm and tumors near vessels larger than 3 mm. Microwave ablation is currently evolving rapidly. While it is a technique based on thermal ablation similar to radiofrequency ablation, there are significant differences between both techniques. Electroporation, of interest because of the non-thermal nature of the ablation process, also is under evaluation.

  6. Evaluation of morphological characteristics of septal rims affecting successful transcatheter atrial septal defect closure in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Pac, Feyza Aysenur; Kibar, Ayse Esin; Balli, Sevket; Ece, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Determining other echocardiographic predictors along with the measured atrial septal defect (ASD) size and evaluating the closure together with these predictors would increase the chance of success for transcatheter closure of ASD. Aim To evaluate echocardiographic parameters affecting defect closure in children and adult patients with secundum ASD. Material and methods In all patients, size of ASD, total length of atrial septum (TS), superior-posterior, inferior-posterior, superior-anterior and inferior-anterior rims surrounding the defect were measured by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and several measurement ratios were derived on the basis of TEE parameters. Results A total 216 patients with secundum ASD were included in this study. The device was successfully implanted in 65 children and 65 adults. Both in pediatric and adult cases, the ratio of successful closure was found to be significantly higher when the ratio of defect size to TS was ≤ 0.35, the ratio of superior-anterior (SA) rim to the defect size was > 0.75 and the ratio of inferior-posterior (IP) rim to the defect size was > 1.0. It was found that having more than one of these predictors in a single case increased the chance of closure success significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusions We concluded that a ratio of the defect size to TS ≤ 0.35, a ratio of SA rim to defect size > 0.75 and a ratio of IP rim to defect size > 1.0 were found to be echocardiographic predictors that could be used in successful transcatheter ASD closure both in children and adults. PMID:24570720

  7. Nasal airway and septal variation in unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, John M; Friel, Michael T; Ghoneima, Ahmed; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil; Kula, Katherine

    2014-10-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CLP) affects the dentoalveolar and nasolabial facial regions. Internal and external nasal dysmorphology may persist in individuals born with CLP despite surgical interventions. 7-18 year old individuals born with unilateral and bilateral CLP (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed using cone beam computed tomography. Anterior, middle, and posterior nasal airway volumes were measured on each facial side. Septal deviation was measured at the anterior and posterior nasal spine, and the midpoint between these two locations. Data were evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA), multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), and post-hoc ANOVA tests. PCA results show partial separation in high dimensional space along PC1 (48.5% variance) based on age groups and partial separation along PC2 (29.8% variance) based on CLP type and septal deviation patterns. MANOVA results indicate that age (P = 0.007) and CLP type (P ≤ 0.001) significantly affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation. ANOVA results indicate that anterior nasal volume is significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.001), whereas septal deviation patterns are significantly affected by CLP type (P ≤ 0.001). Age and CLP type affect nasal airway volume and septal deviation patterns. Nasal airway volumes tend to be reduced on the clefted sides of the face relative to non-clefted sides of the face. Nasal airway volumes tend to strongly increase with age, whereas septal deviation values tend to increase only slightly with age. These results suggest that functional nasal breathing may be impaired in individuals born with the unilateral and bilateral CLP deformity. PMID:24976342

  8. An association between left axis deviation and an aneurysmal defect in children with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Farrú-Albohaire, O; Arcil, G; Hernández, I

    1990-01-01

    Conspicuous left axis deviation was found in two thirds (27 patients) of 44 children with a perimembranous ventricular septal defect, echocardiographic signs of apposition of the septal tricuspid valve leaflet, and an aneurysm of the membranous septum. In 10 patients earlier electrocardiograms did not show left axis deviation; this feature appeared when the aneurysm of the membranous septum was first seen on the echocardiogram. None of the 44 controls with perimembranous ventricular septal defect but without an aneurysm had left axis deviation. This study suggests that the appearances of conspicuous left axis deviation in a patient with ventricular septal defect indicate a spontaneous reduction in the defect by apposition of the septal tricuspid valve leaflet and by the formation of an aneurysm of the membranous septum. Images PMID:2393613

  9. A case of ventricular septal defect and mitral insufficiency after blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Ayumu; Kimura, Naritaka; Katogi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Takaaki

    2014-09-01

    Few reports have described traumatic heart injury in children. We describe a case of acute mitral regurgitation associated with papillary muscle rupture, traumatic ventricular septal defect, and impending left ventricular free wall rupture due to blunt trauma in a 2-year-old girl. The papillary muscle was sutured to the left ventricular free wall. The septal defect and surrounding ruptured muscle were covered with a pericardial patch, and a Hemashield patch was used to close the ventriculotomy. A residual defect caused by dehiscence of the pericardial patch necessitated reoperation 10 months later. The patient is currently being observed on an outpatient basis. PMID:24887820

  10. [Pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect: a rare association in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Zampi, Giordano; Pergolini, Amedeo; Celestini, Andrea; Benvissuto, Fabrizio; Tinti, Maria Denitza; Ortenzi, Mariano; Sommariva, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of an elderly woman with persistent unrepaired atrial septal defect and moderate pulmonary stenosis. The diagnostic work-up and the echocardiographic findings of such a rare case are reported, along with a brief description of heart failure pathophysiology in this grown-up congenital heart disease.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case with the greater longevity in an elderly patient with unrepaired atrial septal defect and pulmonary stenosis ever reported in the literature.

  11. Magnetic resonance characterization of septal bounce: findings of blood impact physiology.

    PubMed

    Angheloiu, George O; Rayarao, Geetha; Williams, Ronald; Yamrozik, June; Doyle, Mark; Biederman, Robert W W

    2015-01-01

    'Septal bounce' is a pathognomonic sign of constrictive pericarditis (CP). The objectives of the study are to resolve the etiology of the septal bounce, to generate septal bounce-related diagnostic tools, and to prove that its presence is related to the mechanical interaction between the atrioventricular inflow and the inter-ventricular septum. We compared steady state free precession four-chamber images between 11 CP patients and 11 controls via cardiac magnetic resonance. The septal bounce was composed of two movements observed during every cardiac cycle, simultaneous with the rapid filling and atrial systole respectively. Three parameters (measured at end-systole) were generated: right ventricular (RV) clamp (compression ratio of the RV)-greater in CP (0.88 ± 0.03) than controls (0.85 ± 0.03, p = 0.02), tri-septal angle between the tricuspid valve annulus plane and the interventricular septum (81° ± 9° vs. 91° ± 7°, p = 0.01), and impact angle between the tricuspid inflow vector and septum (8.6° ± 8.7° vs. 0° ± 6.6°, p = 0.01). The accuracy, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of these parameters in differentiating CP from controls ranged from 100 to 82 %. A forth parameter-septal flow ratio, gauging the proportion of tricuspid inflow impacting the septum, was markedly higher in CP than controls (0.38 ± 0.19 vs. 0.01 ± 0.03, p < 0.0001) with 100 % sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. The septal bounce consists of two sequential movements during each cardiac cycle, is time-related with the rapid ventricular filling and atrial systole, and likely represents a result of the tricuspid blood inflow impacting the interventricular septum. Four septal bounce-derived parameters have a good accuracy in differentiating CP from volunteers. PMID:25266227

  12. Ion acceleration enhanced by target ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, S.; Lin, C. Wang, H. Y.; Lu, H. Y.; He, X. T.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.; Cowan, T. E.

    2015-07-15

    Laser proton acceleration can be enhanced by using target ablation, due to the energetic electrons generated in the ablation preplasma. When the ablation pulse matches main pulse, the enhancement gets optimized because the electrons' energy density is highest. A scaling law between the ablation pulse and main pulse is confirmed by the simulation, showing that for given CPA pulse and target, proton energy improvement can be achieved several times by adjusting the target ablation.

  13. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and interatrial communications with a new self expanding nitinol double disc device (Amplatzer septal occluder): multicentre UK experience

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K; Godman, M; Walsh, K; Wilson, N; Redington, A; Gibbs, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To review the safety and efficacy of the Amplatzer septal occluder for transcatheter closure of interatrial communications (atrial septal defects (ASD), fenestrated Fontan (FF), patent foramen ovale (PFO)).
DESIGN—Prospective study following a common protocol for patient selection and technique of deployment in all participating centres.
SETTING—Multicentre study representing total United Kingdom experience.
PATIENTS—First 100 consecutive patients in whom an Amplatzer septal occluder was used to close a clinically significant ASD or interatrial communication.
INTERVENTIONS—All procedures performed under general anaesthesia with transoesophageal echocardiographic guidance. Interatrial communications were assessed by transoesophageal echocardiography with reference to size, position in the interatrial septum, proximity to surrounding structures, and adequacy of septal rim. Stretched diameter of the interatrial communications was determined by balloon sizing. Device selection was based on and matched to the stretched diameter of the communication.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Success defined as deployment of device in a stable position to occlude the interatrial communication without inducing functional abnormality or anatomical obstruction. Occlusion status determined by transoesophageal echocardiography during procedure and by transthoracic echocardiography on follow up. Clinical status and occlusion rates assessed at 24 hours, one month, and three months.
RESULTS—101 procedures were performed in 100 patients (86 ASD, 7 FF, 7 PFO), age 1.7 to 64.3 years (mean (SD), 13.3 (13.9)), weight 9.2 to 100.0 kg (mean 32.5 (23.5)). Procedure time ranged from 30 to 180 minutes (mean 92.4 (29.0)) and fluoroscopy time from 6.0 to 49.0 minutes (mean 16.1 (8.0)). There were seven failures, all occurring in patients with ASD, and one embolisation requiring surgical removal. Immediate total occlusion rate was 20.4%, rising to 84.9% after

  14. Ablative Approaches for Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Matthew J; Ricardi, Umberto; Ball, David; Salama, Joseph K

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary metastases are common in patients with cancer for which surgery is considered a standard approach in appropriately selected patients. A number of patients are not candidates for surgery due to a medical comorbidities or the extent of surgery required. For these patients, noninvasive or minimally invasive approaches to ablate pulmonary metastases are potential treatment strategies. This article summarizes the rationale and outcomes for non-surgical treatment approaches, including radiotherapy, radiofrequency and microwave ablation, for pulmonary metastases.

  15. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Russo, Richard E; Mao, Xianglei; Gonzalez, Jhanis J; Zorba, Vassilia; Yoo, Jong

    2013-07-01

    In 2002, we wrote an Analytical Chemistry feature article describing the Physics of Laser Ablation in Microchemical Analysis. In line with the theme of the 2002 article, this manuscript discusses current issues in fundamental research, applications based on detecting photons at the ablation site (LIBS and LAMIS) and by collecting particles for excitation in a secondary source (ICP), and directions for the technology. PMID:23614661

  16. Bone and Soft Tissue Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Ryan C.B.; Stavas, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Bone and soft tissue tumor ablation has reached widespread acceptance in the locoregional treatment of various benign and malignant musculoskeletal (MSK) lesions. Many principles of ablation learned elsewhere in the body are easily adapted to the MSK system, particularly the various technical aspects of probe/antenna design, tumoricidal effects, selection of image guidance, and methods to reduce complications. Despite the common use of thermal and chemical ablation procedures in bone and soft tissues, there are few large clinical series that show longitudinal benefit and cost-effectiveness compared with conventional methods, namely, surgery, external beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of osteoid osteomas has been evaluated the most and is considered a first-line treatment choice for many lesions. Palliation of painful metastatic bone disease with thermal ablation is considered safe and has been shown to reduce pain and analgesic use while improving quality of life for cancer patients. Procedure-related complications are rare and are typically easily managed. Similar to all interventional procedures, bone and soft tissue lesions require an integrated approach to disease management to determine the optimum type of and timing for ablation techniques within the context of the patient care plan. PMID:25053865

  17. Maternal Hyperglycemia Directly and Rapidly Induces Cardiac Septal Overgrowth in Fetal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Erin E.; Reinking, Benjamin E.; Hu, Shanming; Yao, Jianrong; Kua, Kok L.; Younes, Areej K.; Wang, Chunlin; Segar, Jeffrey L.; Norris, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac septal overgrowth complicates 10–40% of births from diabetic mothers, but perplexingly hyperglycemia markers during pregnancy are not reliably predictive. We thus tested whether fetal exposure to hyperglycemia is sufficient to induce fetal cardiac septal overgrowth even in the absence of systemic maternal diabetes. To isolate the effects of hyperglycemia, we infused glucose into the blood supply of the left but not right uterine horn in nondiabetic pregnant rats starting on gestational day 19. After 24 h infusion, right-sided fetuses and dams remained euglycemic while left-sided fetuses were moderately hyperglycemic. Echocardiograms in utero demonstrated a thickened cardiac septum among left-sided (glucose-exposed, 0.592 ± 0.016 mm) compared to right-sided (control, 0.482 ± 0.016 mm) fetuses. Myocardial proliferation was increased 1.5 ± 0.2-fold among left-sided compared to right-sided fetuses. Transcriptional markers of glucose-derived anabolism were not different between sides. However, left-sided fetuses exhibited higher serum insulin and greater JNK phosphorylation compared to controls. These results show that hyperglycemic exposure is sufficient to rapidly induce septal overgrowth even in the absence of the myriad other factors of maternal diabetes. This suggests that even transient spikes in glucose may incite cardiac overgrowth, perhaps explaining the poor clinical correlation of septal hypertrophy with chronic hyperglycemia. PMID:26064981

  18. Consummatory behavior as a function of ambient temperature in septal-lesioned and control rats.

    PubMed

    Sanes, J; Donovick, P J; Burright, R G

    1975-01-01

    Septal lesions or control operations were produced in male and female rats. Measurements of water and food consumption were carried out while the rats were housed under warm vivarium temperatures (24 degrees C) and when maintained in a cold room (6 degrees C). Examination of the data from the entire week spent in the cold revealed that rats with septal lesions deviated from precold water-comsumption levels less than comparable control rats. Further, whereas rats with septal lesions suppressed intake for the first 24 hr following either shift in environmental temperatures, control animals inhibited drinking only when returned to the warm environment. Both surgical groups elevated food consumption in the cold. The relative amount of food and water consumed during the day (vs night) increased for all groups when maintained in the cold. Differences in degree of reactivity to the manipulations were observed in male and female rats. These findings were interpreted as adding further support to our contention that septal lesions alter the behavioral (rather than direct metabolic) adaptations an animal makes to its environment.

  19. Impact of cardiac magnet resonance imaging on management of ventricular septal rupture after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Gassenmaier, Tobias; Gorski, Armin; Aleksic, Ivan; Deubner, Nikolas; Weidemann, Frank; Beer, Meinrad

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old man was admitted to the cardiac catheterization laboratory with acute myocardial infarction. After successful angioplasty and stent implantation into the right coronary artery, he developed cardiogenic shock the following day. Echocardiography showed ventricular septal rupture. Cardiac magnet resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the critically ill patient and provided detailed information on size and localization of the ruptured septum by the use of fast MRI sequences. Moreover, the MRI revealed that the ventricular septal rupture was within the myocardial infarction area, which was substantially larger than the rupture. As the patient’s condition worsened, he was intubated and had intra-aortic balloon pump implanted, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated. During the following days, the patient’s situation improved, and surgical correction of the ventricular septal defect could successfully be performed. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first description of postinfarction ventricular septal rupture by the use of cardiac MRI in an intensive care patient with cardiogenic shock and subsequent successful surgical repair. PMID:23710303

  20. [Permanent cardiac stimulation in a patient with isolated dextrocardia and ventricular septal defect].

    PubMed

    Słowiński, S; Derlaga, B; Kapusta, J

    A case of pacemaker implantation because of acquired atrioventricular block third degree in woman aged 39 years with rare isolated dextrocardia with inversion of cardiac ventricles, compensatory transposition of both aorta and pulmonary artery, and ventricular septal defect. The end of electrode has wedged in the apex of the arterial ventricle. Following pacemaker implantation, patients clinical course of gynaecological operation was uneventful.

  1. Is there a relationship between atrial septal aneurysm and atrial tachycardia?

    PubMed

    Muser, Daniele; De Biasio, Marzia; Rebellato, Luca; Proclemer, Alessandro

    2011-09-01

    We describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with atrial tachycardia associated to atrial septal aneurysm. We consider a localized reentry mechanism as the pathogenetic mechanism of the arrhythmia as demostrated by means of electrophisiological evaluation and electroanatomical mapping. The treatment by radiofrequency appears as an effective and well tolerated treatment of this unusual left atrial tachycardia.

  2. Pulmonary Atresia with Ventricular Septal Defect and Major Aortopulmonary Collaterals Associated with Left Pulmonary Artery Interruption

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Da-Na; Park, Chun Soo; Kim, Young-Hwue; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2016-01-01

    A multistage plan and multidisciplinary approach are the keys to successful repair in patients with pulmonary atresia (PA) with ventricular septal defect (VSD) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). In this article, we present a multidisciplinary approach adopted to treat a patient with PA with VSD and MAPCAs associated with left pulmonary artery interruption. PMID:27733998

  3. Involvement of the Lateral Septal Area in the Expression of Fear Conditioning to Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Daniel G.; Scopinho, America A.; Guimaraes, Francisco S.; Correa, Fernando M. A.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Considering the evidence that the lateral septal area (LSA) modulates defensive responses, the aim of the present study is to verify if this structure is also involved in contextual fear conditioning responses. Neurotransmission in the LSA was reversibly inhibited by bilateral microinjections of cobalt chloride (CoCl[subscript 2], 1 mM) 10 min…

  4. The role of temporalis fascia for free mucosal graft survival in small nasal septal perforation repair.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eun-Ju; Choi, Jin; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Sung-Won; Nam, In-Chul; Park, Yong-Su; Jin, Sang-Gyun; Cheon, Byung-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Temporalis fascia has been used widely as a interposition graft for mucosal rotation flap in nasal septal perforation repair. However, the exact role of temporalis fascia in healing process has not yet been clarified. For the pedicle of rotation flap has been considered as a major vehicle for nutrition distribution, the role of temporalis fascia has been devaluated. In this study, we experienced small nasal septal perforation repairs using free mucosal graft not having pedicles but covered by temporalis fascia. Three patients with small nasal septal perforations not larger than 1 × 1 cm were included. In 2 patients, the perforations were repaired using free composite grafts from the inferior turbinate mucosa covered by continuous temporalis fascia not divided, and the surgical results were successful with complete healings. In 1 patient, however, the temporalis fascia was divided into 2 parts to better fit the shape of the perforation, and the graft failed to survive. These surgical results suggest that the temporalis fascia might have an important role in healing process of nasal septal defect and could be used as a beneficial options for small mucosal defect repair surgeries using free mucosal grafts.

  5. Virtual Cardiac Surgery Using CFD: Application to Septal Myectomy in Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Vijay; Mittal, Rajat; Abraham, Theodore

    2011-11-01

    Obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is characterized by ventricular wall thickening, diastolic dysfunction, and dynamic outflow tract obstruction, all of which strongly influence the vortex dynamics and pressure distribution in the left ventricle (LV). Severe cases of HCM are usually managed through septal myectomy where the surgeon resects the hypertrophic mass. Surgeons currently try to remove as much tissue as possible in order to optimize the post surgical result. However, excessive debulking increases the chance of ventricular septal defects, bundle branch block or complete heart block, and aneurysmal septal thinning. On the other hand, insufficient tissue removal also leads to unsatisfactory outcomes in terms of reduction of outflow tract pressure gradient. Knowing how much muscle to remove and where to remove it from could reduce the likelihood of complications and suboptimal outcomes. In the present study, we employ an immersed boundary solver to model the effect of septal myectomy for ventricles with HOCM and demonstrate the potential of such an approach for surgical planning. Computational resources were provided by the National Institute of Computational Science under Tergrid grant number TG-CTS100002.

  6. Lupus vulgaris of external nose with septal perforation--a rarity in antibiotic era.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ajay; Wadhera, Raman; Gulati, S P; Singh, Jagjit

    2010-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the commonest morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis. Case of LV of external nose extending to internal nose causing septal perforation is documented here. Histopathology of biopsy taken confirmed the diagnosis of LV. Patient responded well to Anti-tubercular therapy (ATT).

  7. Atrial septal defect with severe pulmonary hypertension in elderly patients: usefulness of transient balloon occlusion.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Recalde, Angel; Oliver, José M; Galeote, Guillermo; González, Ana; Calvo, Luis; Jiménez-Valero, Santiago; Moreno, Raúl; López-Sendón, José L

    2010-07-01

    In patients with an atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension, it is important to determine whether the latter is reversible before percutaneous or surgical closure. In addition to determining pulmonary resistance, one simple technique is to transiently occlude the septal defect using a balloon catheter and to evaluate the hemodynamic response. We defined a positive response as a > or = 25% reduction in mean pulmonary artery pressure during occlusion relative to the basal level, without a fall in systemic pressure or an increase in ventricular end-diastolic pressure. The study included five patients aged over 60 years with an atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension who were referred for percutaneous closure. In one patient, the test gave a negative result and closure of the atrial septal defect was not performed. In the remaining four, closure was indicated. In three patients, closure was performed percutaneously, while the fourth underwent surgery. The drop in pulmonary pressure observed during the test was maintained over the long term at a mean follow-up time of 22 months.

  8. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting.

  9. Gunshot wounds: causing myocardial infarction, delayed ventricular septal defect, and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudeep; Moorthy, Nagaraja; Kapoor, Aditya; Sinha, Nakul

    2012-01-01

    Penetrating chest trauma can cause a wide variety of cardiac injuries, including myocardial contusion, damage to the interventricular septum, laceration of the coronary arteries, and free-wall rupture. Herein, we describe the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with congestive heart failure, which was secondary to an old myocardial infarction and complicated by the delayed formation of a ventricular septal defect. All of these conditions were attributable to multiple gunshot wounds that the patient had sustained 6 months earlier. Left ventricular angiography showed an apical aneurysm; a large, muscular, ventricular septal defect; and 19 gunshot pellets in the chest wall. Three months after aneurysmectomy and surgical closure of the septal defect, the patient had recovered fully and was asymptomatic.This case reaffirms the fact that substantial cardiac injuries can appear months after chest trauma. The possibility of traumatic ventricular septal defect should be considered in all multiple-trauma patients who develop a new heart murmur, even when overt chest-wall injury is absent.

  10. Adverse outcome of using tilmicosin in a lamb with multiple ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulos, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    A 15-day-old, 6.08 kg, lamb was injected subcutaneously with tilmicosin 15 mg/kg body weight. Approximately 15 min later, the lamb died. During necropsy, the heart was found to have multiple ventricular septal defects. Death was attributed to sudden heart failure due to the cardiac effects of tilmicosin in a heart having congenital defects.

  11. Pathogenesis of hepatic septal fibrosis associated with Capillaria hepatica infection of rats.

    PubMed

    Santos, A B; Tolentino, M; Andrade, Z A

    2001-01-01

    Septal fibrosis is a common form of hepatic fibrosis, but its etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica constitute a good experimental model of such fibrosis. To investigate the pathogenetic contribution of the several parasitic factors involved, the following procedures were performed in rats: a) regarding the role of eggs, these were isolated and injected either into the peritoneal cavity or directly into the liver parenchyma; b) for worms alone, 15-day-old infection was treated with mebendazole, killing the parasites before oviposition started; c) for both eggs and worms, rats at the 30th day of infection were treated with either mebendazole or ivermectin. Eggs only originated focal fibrosis from cicatricial granulomas, but no septal fibrosis. Worms alone induced a mild degree of perifocal septal fibrosis. Systematized septal fibrosis of the liver, similar to that observed in the infected controls, occurred only in the rats treated with mebendazole or ivermectin, with dead worms and immature eggs in their livers. Thus, future search for fibrogenic factors associated with C. hepatica infection in rats should consider lesions with both eggs and worms.

  12. Possible new autosomal recessive syndrome of lymphedema, hydroceles, atrial septal defect, and characteristic facial changes.

    PubMed

    Irons, M B; Bianchi, D W; Geggel, R L; Marx, G R; Bhan, I

    1996-12-01

    We describe two brothers with congenital lymphedema of lower limbs, atrial septal defect (ASD), and similar facial appearance. A sister had severe hydrops fetalis, ASD, omphalocele, and other anomalies. This combination of congenital lymphedema and ASD differs from other reported cases of congenital lymphedema and most likely constitutes a previously unrecognized autosomal recessive syndrome.

  13. Dissociation of feeding and hoarding after bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Salgar, D C; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationship between Feeding and Hoarding of food pellets was observed to be disrupted following bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in adult male albino rats. The significance of forebrain areas and neuro-endocrinal connection to hypothalamus is discussed. PMID:2737748

  14. Right ventricular septal pacing- clinical and electrical predictors for LV contraction asynchrony

    PubMed Central

    Iorgulescu, C; Radu, DA; Constantinescu, D; Caldararu, C; Dorobantu, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Prolonged pacing from the right ventricular apex (RV) is associated with the LV dyssynchrony leading to progressive left ventricular dysfunction and increased morbidity and mortality. Alternate RV pacing sites-in particular the mid- RV septum and the RV outflow tract (RVOT) septum were considered, but no clear benefit was proven till now for this pacing sites. This may be due to the heterogeneity of the RV septal positions and to the significant number of leads placed on the RV free wall. The aim of this study is to find a reliable method of septal lead placement and to identify those pacing sites which provide better LV electrical activation Methods: 50 consecutive patients referred for pacemaker implants due to AV block were included. Patients with history of heart failure or LVEF < 50% at the implant were excluded. All patients had RV leads placed in septal position. This was achieved with a double curved stilet with the distal curve aimed posteriorly. RV septum and RVOT were mapped during implant aiming for a narrow paced QRS with an axis as close to normal as possible. Pacing lead position was evaluated during the implant using fluoroscopy (AP and LAO 40 °) and than by 12 lead ECG and echo. IntraLV dyssynchrony was evaluated during pacing using SPWMD in short axis parasternal view and the TDI septal to lateral ∆ t. Paced QRS duration and axis were also recorded. The correlation was sought between lead position evaluated by Rx and by echo and between paced QRS duration and axis and LV dyssynchrony. Results: 92%(46) of the patients had the lead in septal position RV (32 in the mid-septal RV and 14 in RVOT), while 8% (4 pts) had the lead on the RVOT RV free wall as shown by echo. An anterior-oriented lead in the left anterior oblique fluoroscopic projection was specific for free wall position while positive QRS in DI in RVOT position was suggestive for free wall position on the ECG. No correlation was made between paced QRS axis and LV dyssynchrony

  15. Determinants and importance of atrial pressure morphology in atrial septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, D N; Fisher, J; Moses, J W; Goldberg, H L; Levin, A R; Engle, M A; Borer, J S

    1984-01-01

    A prominent "v" wave relative to the "a" wave in the jugular vein and right atrial pressure tracing is considered to be a common haemodynamic sign of atrial septal defect. Since the prevalence, age relation, and haemodynamic determinants of the "v" greater than or equal to "a" wave configuration have not been studied the pressure recordings from 15 adults and 80 children with an isolated secundum atrial septal defect in sinus rhythm and from 40 adults and 55 children in sinus rhythm without structural cardiac abnormalities or with coronary and valvular heart disease were studied to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the "v" greater than or equal to "a" wave configuration in atrial septal defect. Only 20% of adults with an atrial septal defect had prominent right atrial "v" waves compared with 63% of children, although the specificity was quite high for each group. In adults "left atrialisation " of the right atrium ("v" greater than or equal to "a" wave) occurred in younger patients with higher right atrial and right ventricular end diastolic pressures. In contrast, in children no age related or haemodynamic determinants for the "v" greater than or equal to "a" pattern were found. In addition, most adults but few children with an atrial septal defect had "right atrialisation " of the left atrial wave configuration ("a" greater than "v"). This was found in older adults with lower right atrial and right ventricular end diastolic pressures and in older children with larger left to right shunts. Thus in contrast to children adults with an atrial septal defect rarely show a prominent "v" wave in the right atrium. The presence of a prominent right atrial "v" wave in adults with an atrial septal defect is associated with relatively higher left atrial and right heart pressures than is the absence of this sign and may be related to relatively higher systolic transatrial flow in these patients. The relative paucity of prominent right atrial "v" waves in older adults

  16. Percutaneous management of coronary sinus atrial septal defect: two cases representing the spectrum for device closure and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, Nefthi; Slack, Michael C

    2014-10-01

    Coronary sinus atrial septal defects are the rarest defects of the atrial septum comprising <1% of the five different types of atrial septal defects. Despite the widespread adoption of percutaneous device closure of secundum atrial septal defects, the published experience with percutaneous device closure of coronary sinus atrial septal defects is limited to only a few isolated case reports because of uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy. Open-heart surgical repair remains the treatment of choice for coronary sinus atrial septal defects, although this may not be the only treatment option in selected cases. Herein we describe our own experience with two patients with different clinical presentations and our method of successful percutaneous coronary sinus atrial septal defect closure in each. We then present a review of the anatomic spectrum of coronary sinus atrial septal defects along with a review of contemporary surgical and percutaneous device treatment. PMID:24666783

  17. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  18. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  19. Current hot potatoes in atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Roten, Laurent; Derval, Nicolas; Pascale, Patrizio; Scherr, Daniel; Komatsu, Yuki; Shah, Ashok; Ramoul, Khaled; Denis, Arnaud; Sacher, Frédéric; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation has evolved to the treatment of choice for patients with drug-resistant and symptomatic AF. Pulmonary vein isolation at the ostial or antral level usually is sufficient for treatment of true paroxysmal AF. For persistent AF ablation, drivers and perpetuators outside of the pulmonary veins are responsible for AF maintenance and have to be targeted to achieve satisfying arrhythmia-free success rate. Both complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation and linear ablation are added to pulmonary vein isolation for persistent AF ablation. Nevertheless, ablation failure and necessity of repeat ablations are still frequent, especially after persistent AF ablation. Pulmonary vein reconduction is the main reason for arrhythmia recurrence after paroxysmal and to a lesser extent after persistent AF ablation. Failure of persistent AF ablation mostly is a consequence of inadequate trigger ablation, substrate modification or incompletely ablated or reconducting linear lesions. In this review we will discuss these points responsible for AF recurrence after ablation and review current possibilities on how to overcome these limitations. PMID:22920482

  20. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  1. Femtosecond laser ablation of enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Quang-Tri; Bertrand, Caroline; Vilar, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The surface topographical, compositional, and structural modifications induced in human enamel by femtosecond laser ablation is studied. The laser treatments were performed using a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (560 fs and 1030 nm) and fluences up to 14 J/cm2. The ablation surfaces were studied by scanning electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Regardless of the fluence, the ablation surfaces were covered by a layer of resolidified material, indicating that ablation is accompanied by melting of hydroxyapatite. This layer presented pores and exploded gas bubbles, created by the release of gaseous decomposition products of hydroxyapatite (CO2 and H2O) within the liquid phase. In the specimen treated with 1-kHz repetition frequency and 14 J/cm2, thickness of the resolidified material is in the range of 300 to 900 nm. The micro-Raman analysis revealed that the resolidified material contains amorphous calcium phosphate, while grazing incidence x-ray diffraction analysis allowed detecting traces of a calcium phosphate other than hydroxyapatite, probably β-tricalcium phosphate Ca3), at the surface of this specimen. The present results show that the ablation of enamel involves melting of enamel's hydroxyapatite, but the thickness of the altered layer is very small and thermal damage of the remaining material is negligible.

  2. Laser ablation studies of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M.; Xu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Reed, C.; Pellin, M.

    1999-10-20

    Laser ablation was studied as a means of removing radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. The authors present the results of ablation tests on cement and concrete samples using a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied using cement and high density concrete as targets. Ablation efficiency and material removal rates were determined as functions of irradiance and pulse overlap. Doped samples were also ablated to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants were removed and captured in the effluent. The results show that the cement phase of the material melts and vaporizes, but the aggregate portion (sand and rock) fragments. The effluent consists of both micron-size aerosol particles and chunks of fragmented aggregate material. Laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the surface during ablation. Analysis of the effluent showed that contaminants such as cesium and strontium were strongly segregated into different regions of the particle size distribution of the aerosol.

  3. Fragmentation and ablation during entry

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-09-01

    This note discusses objects that both fragment and ablate during entry, using the results of previous reports to describe the velocity, pressure, and fragmentation of entering objects. It shows that the mechanisms used there to describe the breakup of non-ablating objects during deceleration remain valid for most ablating objects. It treats coupled fragmentation and ablation during entry, building on earlier models that separately discuss the entry of objects that are hard, whose high heat of ablation permits little erosion, and those who are strong whose strength prevents fragmentation, which are discussed in ``Radiation from Hard Objects,`` ``Deceleration and Radiation of Strong, Hard, Asteroids During Atmospheric Impact,`` and ``Meteor Signature Interpretation.`` This note provides a more detailed treatment of the further breakup and separation of fragments during descent. It replaces the constraint on mass per unit area used earlier to determine the altitude and magnitude of peak power radiation with a detailed analytic solution of deceleration. Model predictions are shown to be in agreement with the key features of numerical calculations of deceleration. The model equations are solved for the altitudes of maximum radiation, which agree with numerical integrations. The model is inverted analytically to infer object size and speed from measurements of peak power and altitude to provide a complete model for the approximate inversion of meteor data.

  4. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  5. Liver fibrosis in alcoholics: detection by Fab radioimmunoassay of serum procollagen III peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, S.; Nouchi, T.; Worner, T.M.; Lieber, C.S.

    1986-09-19

    Radioimmunoassays were used to measure serum levels of laminin and of procollagen III peptides, both with the intact antibody and with the Fab fragments, within one week of alcohol withdrawal in 83 alcoholics admitted for detoxification and/or treatment of concomitant medical problems. All patients underwent a diagnostic liver biopsy, which revealed simple fatty liver in 22, perivenular fibrosis in 20, septal fibrosis in 21, and cirrhosis in 20. Although all three serum measurements correlated significantly with the degree of fibrosis, only the Fab radioimmunoassay of procollagen III peptides discriminated between simple fatty liver and perivenular fibrosis in a significant number of subjects.

  6. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  7. Image-Guided Ablation of Adrenal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yamakado, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopic adrenalectomy has remained the standard of care for the treatment for adrenal tumors, percutaneous image-guided ablation therapy, such as chemical ablation, radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation, has been shown to be clinically useful in many nonsurgical candidates. Ablation therapy has been used to treat both functioning adenomas and malignant tumors, including primary adrenal carcinoma and metastasis. For patients with functioning adenomas, biochemical and symptomatic improvement is achieved in 96 to 100% after ablation; for patients with malignant adrenal neoplasms, however, the survival benefit from ablation therapy remains unclear, though good initial results have been reported. This article outlines the current role of ablation therapy for adrenal lesions, as well as identifying some of the technical considerations for this procedure. PMID:25049444

  8. Femtosecond lasers for machining of transparent, brittle materials: ablative vs. non-ablative femtosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, F.; Matylitsky, V. V.

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on precision machining of transparent materials by means of ablative and non-ablative femtosecond laser processing. Ablation technology will be compared with a newly developed patent pending non-ablative femtosecond process, ClearShapeTM, using the Spectra-Physics Spirit industrial femtosecond laser.

  9. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  10. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  11. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s’, RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s’, showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  12. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Poggi, Guido; Tosoratti, Nevio; Montagna, Benedetta; Picchi, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Although surgical resection is still the optimal treatment option for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well compensated cirrhosis, thermal ablation techniques provide a valid non-surgical treatment alternative, thanks to their minimal invasiveness, excellent tolerability and safety profile, proven efficacy in local disease control, virtually unlimited repeatability and cost-effectiveness. Different energy sources are currently employed in clinics as physical agents for percutaneous or intra-surgical thermal ablation of HCC nodules. Among them, radiofrequency (RF) currents are the most used, while microwave ablations (MWA) are becoming increasingly popular. Starting from the 90s', RF ablation (RFA) rapidly became the standard of care in ablation, especially in the treatment of small HCC nodules; however, RFA exhibits substantial performance limitations in the treatment of large lesions and/or tumors located near major heat sinks. MWA, first introduced in the Far Eastern clinical practice in the 80s', showing promising results but also severe limitations in the controllability of the emitted field and in the high amount of power employed for the ablation of large tumors, resulting in a poor coagulative performance and a relatively high complication rate, nowadays shows better results both in terms of treatment controllability and of overall coagulative performance, thanks to the improvement of technology. In this review we provide an extensive and detailed overview of the key physical and technical aspects of MWA and of the currently available systems, and we want to discuss the most relevant published data on MWA treatments of HCC nodules in regard to clinical results and to the type and rate of complications, both in absolute terms and in comparison with RFA. PMID:26557950

  13. Transhemangioma Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Pua, Uei

    2012-12-15

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established treatment modality in the treatment of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) [1]. Safe trajectory of the RFA probe is crucial in decreasing collateral tissue damage and unwarranted probe transgression. As a percutaneous technique, however, the trajectory of the needle is sometimes constrained by the available imaging plane. The presence of a hemangioma beside an HCC is uncommon but poses the question of safety related to probe transgression. We hereby describe a case of transhemangioma ablation of a dome HCC.

  14. Photochemical ablation of organic solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingling, Yaroslava G.; Garrison, Barbara J.

    2003-04-01

    We have investigated by molecular dynamics simulations the ablation of material that is onset by photochemical processes. We compare this system with only photochemical processes to a system containing photochemical and photothermal processes. The simulations reveal that ablation by purely photochemical processes is accompanied by the ejection of relatively cold massive molecular clusters from the surface of the sample. The top of the plume exhibits high temperatures whereas the residual part of the sample is cold. The removal of the damaged material through big molecular cluster ejection is consistent with experimental observations of low heat damage of material.

  15. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  16. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    1998-01-01

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  17. Atrial Fibrillation Ablation and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, Philip; Briceno, David; Csanadi, Zoltan; Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Gianni, Carola; Trivedi, Chintan; Nagy-Baló, Edina; Danik, Stephan; Barrett, Conor; Santoro, Francesco; Burkhardt, J David; Sanchez, Javier; Natale, Andrea; Di Biase, Luigi

    2016-05-01

    Catheter ablation has become a widely available and accepted treatment to restore sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation patients who fail antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Although generally safe, the procedure carries a non-negligible risk of complications, including periprocedural cerebral insults. Uninterrupted anticoagulation, maintenance of an adequate ACT during the procedure, and measures to avoid and detect thrombus build-up on sheaths and atheters during the procedure, appears useful to reduce the risk of embolic events. This is a review of the incidence, mechanisms, impact, and methods to reduce catheter ablation related cerebral insults. PMID:27150179

  18. Radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours

    PubMed Central

    Goh, PYT

    2006-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-established local therapy for hepatic malignancies. It is rapidly emerging as an effective treatment modality for small lesions elsewhere in the body, in particular, the kidney and the lung. It is a relatively safe and minimally invasive treatment for small lung malignancies, both primary and secondary. In particular, it is the preferred form of treatment for non-surgical candidates. This paper describes the technique employed for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumours, as well as the protocol established, at the Mount Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore. PMID:21614247

  19. Ablative Therapies for Barrett's Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Garman, Katherine S.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus has gained increased clinical attention because of its association with esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer with increasing incidence and poor survival rates. The goals of ablating Barrett's esophagus are to decrease esophageal cancer rates and to improve overall survival and quality of life. Different techniques have been developed and tested for their effectiveness eradicating Barrett's epithelium. This review assesses the literature associated with different ablative techniques. The safety and efficacy of different techniques are discussed. This review concludes with recommendations for the clinician, including specific strategies for patient care decisions for patients with Barrett's esophagus with varying degrees of dysplasia. PMID:21373836

  20. Tektite ablation - Some confirming calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, J. A., III; Silver, A. D.; Cameron, W. S.; Adams , E. W.; Warmbrod, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The calculation of tektite ablation has been redone, taking into account transient effects, internal radiation, melting and nonequilibrium vaporization of the glass, and the drag effect of the flanges. It is found that the results confirm the earlier calculations of Chapman and his group and of Adams and his co-workers. The general trend of the results is not sensitive to reasonable changes of the physical parameters. The ablation is predominantly by melting rather than by vaporization at all velocities up to 11 km/sec; this is surprising in view of the lack of detectable melt flow in most tektites. Chemical effects have not been considered.

  1. Catheter ablation of parahisian premature ventricular complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Kim, Jeong Su; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, June Hong; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-12-01

    Catheter ablation is performed in selected patients with a symptomatic premature ventricular complex (PVC) or PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Ablation of PVC from the His region has a high risk of inducing a complete atrioventricular block. Here we report successful catheter ablation of a parahisian PVC in a 63-year-old man.

  2. Heart failure after transvenous closure of atrial septal defect associated with atrial standstill and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Vehbi; Senocak, Filiz; Orün, Utku Arman; Ceylan, Ozben

    2013-10-01

    Despite advances in device closure for atrial septal defect, post-closure heart failure remains a clinical problem in adult patients but is seen only rarely in children. An eight-year-old boy, who had been followed by a local pediatrician with the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and congenital heart disease, was consulted to us for cardiac re-evaluation. Electrocardiography demonstrated absent P waves, and echocardiography revealed enlargement of the right ventricle and both atria and secundum atrial septal defect. With the diagnosis of atrial standstill, secundum atrial septal defect and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia, acute heart failure developed after transvenous closure of the atrial septal defect, which improved dramatically with thiamine and supportive treatment. PMID:24164997

  3. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Ding, Hongyu; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Gong, Yuling; Hou, Yinglong

    2015-03-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is characterised by progressive, fibrofatty replacement of myocardium, and ventricular arrhythmias, and its prognosis is usually poor. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with atrial septal defect is very rare, and this combination may make the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis difficult. We present a case of a patient with this association who underwent interventional treatment with a septal defect occluder. Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect in a patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is hitherto unreported. During a 3-year follow-up he remained relatively stable. We also review the cases reported in the medical literature describing this uncommon association between arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale.

  4. Growth activity in human septal cartilage: age-dependent incorporation of labeled sulfate in different anatomic locations

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, U.; Pirsig, W.; Heinze, E.

    1983-02-01

    Growth activity in different areas of human septal cartilage was measured by the in vitro incorporation of /sup 35/S-labeled NaSO/sub 4/ into chondroitin sulfate. Septal cartilage without perichondrium was obtained during rhinoplasty from 36 patients aged 6 to 35 years. It could be shown that the anterior free end of the septum displays high growth activity in all age groups. The supra-premaxillary area displayed its highest growth activity during prepuberty, showing thereafter a continuous decline during puberty and adulthood. A similar age-dependent pattern in growth activity was found in the caudal prolongation of the septal cartilage. No age-dependent variations could be detected in the posterior area of the septal cartilage.

  5. Simultaneous Removal of Right Lung Hydatid Cyst and Repair of Atrial Septal Defect in a Single Session.

    PubMed

    Tong, Guang; Lin, Xi; Ma, Tao; Wang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Weida

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of echinococcosis caused by the canine tapeworm Echinococcus species, and the lung is the most common site of occurrence. Atrial septal defect is a common congenital heart disease with an incidence of 100 per 100,000 live births. To our knowledge, we report for the first time a case of coexistence of right lung hydatid cyst and atrial septal defect that were both treated with one-stage surgery. PMID:26694269

  6. Overexpression of SepJ alters septal morphology and heterocyst pattern regulated by diffusible signals in Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Mariscal, Vicente; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Herrero, Antonia; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous, N2 -fixing, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells that are connected by septal junctions. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the septal protein SepJ is required for filament integrity, normal intercellular molecular exchange, heterocyst differentiation, and diazotrophic growth. An Anabaena strain overexpressing SepJ made wider septa between vegetative cells than the wild type, which correlated with a more spread location of SepJ in the septa as observed with a SepJ-GFP fusion, and contained an increased number of nanopores, the septal peptidoglycan perforations that likely accommodate septal junctions. The septa between heterocysts and vegetative cells, which are narrow in wild-type Anabaena, were notably enlarged in the SepJ-overexpressing mutant. Intercellular molecular exchange tested with fluorescent tracers was increased for the SepJ-overexpressing strain specifically in the case of calcein transfer between vegetative cells and heterocysts. These results support an association between calcein transfer, SepJ-related septal junctions, and septal peptidoglycan nanopores. Under nitrogen deprivation, the SepJ-overexpressing strain produced an increased number of contiguous heterocysts but a decreased percentage of total heterocysts. These effects were lost or altered in patS and hetN mutant backgrounds, supporting a role of SepJ in the intercellular transfer of regulatory signals for heterocyst differentiation.

  7. Bacterial SPOR domains are recruited to septal peptidoglycan by binding to glycan strands that lack stem peptides

    PubMed Central

    Yahashiri, Atsushi; Jorgenson, Matthew A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial SPOR domains bind peptidoglycan (PG) and are thought to target proteins to the cell division site by binding to “denuded” glycan strands that lack stem peptides, but uncertainties remain, in part because septal-specific binding has yet to be studied in a purified system. Here we show that fusions of GFP to SPOR domains from the Escherichia coli cell-division proteins DamX, DedD, FtsN, and RlpA all localize to septal regions of purified PG sacculi obtained from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Treatment of sacculi with an amidase that removes stem peptides enhanced SPOR domain binding, whereas treatment with a lytic transglycosylase that removes denuded glycans reduced SPOR domain binding. These findings demonstrate unequivocally that SPOR domains localize by binding to septal PG, that the physiologically relevant binding site is indeed a denuded glycan, and that denuded glycans are enriched in septal PG rather than distributed uniformly around the sacculus. Accumulation of denuded glycans in the septal PG of both E. coli and B. subtilis, organisms separated by 1 billion years of evolution, suggests that sequential removal of stem peptides followed by degradation of the glycan backbone is an ancient feature of PG turnover during bacterial cell division. Linking SPOR domain localization to the abundance of a structure (denuded glycans) present only transiently during biogenesis of septal PG provides a mechanism for coordinating the function of SPOR domain proteins with the progress of cell division. PMID:26305949

  8. Overexpression of SepJ alters septal morphology and heterocyst pattern regulated by diffusible signals in Anabaena.

    PubMed

    Mariscal, Vicente; Nürnberg, Dennis J; Herrero, Antonia; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Filamentous, N2 -fixing, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as chains of cells that are connected by septal junctions. In the model organism Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, the septal protein SepJ is required for filament integrity, normal intercellular molecular exchange, heterocyst differentiation, and diazotrophic growth. An Anabaena strain overexpressing SepJ made wider septa between vegetative cells than the wild type, which correlated with a more spread location of SepJ in the septa as observed with a SepJ-GFP fusion, and contained an increased number of nanopores, the septal peptidoglycan perforations that likely accommodate septal junctions. The septa between heterocysts and vegetative cells, which are narrow in wild-type Anabaena, were notably enlarged in the SepJ-overexpressing mutant. Intercellular molecular exchange tested with fluorescent tracers was increased for the SepJ-overexpressing strain specifically in the case of calcein transfer between vegetative cells and heterocysts. These results support an association between calcein transfer, SepJ-related septal junctions, and septal peptidoglycan nanopores. Under nitrogen deprivation, the SepJ-overexpressing strain produced an increased number of contiguous heterocysts but a decreased percentage of total heterocysts. These effects were lost or altered in patS and hetN mutant backgrounds, supporting a role of SepJ in the intercellular transfer of regulatory signals for heterocyst differentiation. PMID:27273832

  9. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Topics covered include: Physics of Hypersonic Flow and TPS Considerations. Destinations, Missions and Requirements. State of the Art Thermal Protection Systems Capabilities. Modern Advances in Ablative TPS. Entry Systems Concepts. Flexible TPS for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators. Conformal TPS for Rigid Aeroshell. 3-D Woven TPS for Extreme Entry Environment. Multi-functional Carbon Fabric for Mechanically Deployable.

  10. Reconstruction of an ablated breast.

    PubMed

    Scarfì, A; Ordemann, K; Hüter, J

    1986-01-01

    It is the aim of the reconstruction of an ablated breast to repair the woman's integrity. The technique of this operation, according to Bomert, is the sliding of a flap of skin in the case of a horizontal breast scar. For the reconstruction, a silicone prosthesis is implanted which in most cases is prepectoral.

  11. [Septal perforation in children due to button battery lodged in the nose: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Víctor

    2012-10-01

    Nasal foreign bodies are common in children. Button batteries deserve particular interest due to the severity and precocity of the injuries they cause. The button battery represents a growing danger. Its small size and brilliant appearance make them attractive to children, often being introduced in the nose, ear or mouth. It is imperative that the community and physicians are aware of the risks it poses. Early diagnosis and immediate removal is essential. Their delay can lead to necrosis of the nasal mucosa and septal perforation. We report 10 cases of septal perforation due to button battery. We emphasize the dangers of nasal impaction and the need for quick removal to avoid long-term complications.

  12. Ventricular septal rupture caused by myocardial bridge, solved by interventional closure device

    PubMed Central

    Zóka, András; Andréka, Péter; Becker, Dávid; Fontos, Géza; Merkely, Béla; Szabó, György; Szatmári, András; Bárczi, György

    2012-01-01

    Myocardial bridging is a common coronary anomaly, which is generally described as a benign phenomenon. However, a growing number of studies consider this anomaly a relevant pathophysiological phenomenon with serious pathological consequences. Here we report on the case of an 88-year-old woman suffering from myocardial infarction and ventricular septal rupture, lacking any recognizable coronary disease except for a myocardial bridge causing the systolic compression of the left anterior descending coronary artery. A wide range of diagnostic procedures, including coronarography, echocardiography, and magnetic resonance imaging were used. The septal rupture was finally closed by using a percutaneous closure device. This event indicates that myocardial bridges – at least in some cases – may have notable clinical relevance. PMID:23275329

  13. VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT IN A CRAB-EATING FOX (CERDOCYON THOUS).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; de Córdova, Fabiano Mendes; Ramos, Adriano Tony; Viana, Eduardo Borges; de Castro Conti, Laura Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Congenital heart diseases are not commonly diagnosed in wild animals. It is not surprising that few reports exist in the literature, so that prevalence of these anomalies is unknown in wild species. We report a case of a ventricular septal defect documented in a free-ranging crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). This animal presented with rapid, labored breathing, and on physical examination, pulmonary crackles and a holosystolic murmur were auscultated. The echocardiogram with Doppler showed discontinuity of the dorsal section of the ventricular septum, which allowed a turbulent systolic flow to move from the left to the right ventricle. The postmortem examination confirmed the absence of a dorsal connection between the septum and the atrioventricular junction, and pronounced left ventricular myocardial dilation was observed on histopathology. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect in a crab-eating fox. PMID:27468048

  14. [Septal perforation in children due to button battery lodged in the nose: case series].

    PubMed

    Zanetta, Adrián; Cuestas, Giselle; Rodríguez, Hugo; Quiroga, Víctor

    2012-10-01

    Nasal foreign bodies are common in children. Button batteries deserve particular interest due to the severity and precocity of the injuries they cause. The button battery represents a growing danger. Its small size and brilliant appearance make them attractive to children, often being introduced in the nose, ear or mouth. It is imperative that the community and physicians are aware of the risks it poses. Early diagnosis and immediate removal is essential. Their delay can lead to necrosis of the nasal mucosa and septal perforation. We report 10 cases of septal perforation due to button battery. We emphasize the dangers of nasal impaction and the need for quick removal to avoid long-term complications. PMID:23070186

  15. Percutaneous ventricular septal defect closure with Amplatzer devices resulting in severe tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Matyal, Robina; Wang, Angela; Mahmood, Feroze

    2013-11-15

    While percutaneous intervention is an alternative for patients who are not surgical candidates, the rate of morbidity and mortality is comparable to open repair. Appending the reported complications associated with percutaneous intervention (device mal-positioning, dislodgement, and entrapment in the sub-valvular apparatus), we report mechanical damage to the tricuspid valve (TV). Percutaneous closure with an Amplatzer septal occluder device was attempted on three patients who developed a ventricular septal defects (VSD) after myocardial infarction. In all three cases, damage to the tricuspid leaflet was noted post-procedure. The accompanying severe tricuspid regurgitation led to right ventricular failure, even in the patients where the VSD was considered successfully occluded. Despite successful deployment of the Amplatzer device, complications with catheter manipulation may still arise. Damage to the TV can occur during percutaneous VSD closure with Amplatzer device. Periprocedure TEE monitoring can detect damage to the tricuspid leaflets. PMID:23553968

  16. New and distinct hippocampal place codes are generated in a new environment during septal inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Mark P.; Koenig, Julie; Leutgeb, Jill K.; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Summary The hippocampus generates distinct neural codes to disambiguate similar experiences, a process thought to underlie episodic memory function. Entorhinal grid cells provide a prominent spatial signal to hippocampus, and changes in their firing pattern could thus generate a distinct spatial code in each context. We examined whether we would preclude the emergence of new spatial representations in a novel environment during muscimol inactivation of the medial septal area, a manipulation known to disrupt theta oscillations and grid cell firing. We found that new, highly distinct configurations of place fields emerged immediately and remained stable during the septal inactivation. The new place code persisted when theta oscillations had recovered. Theta rhythmicity and feedforward input from grid cell networks were thus not required to generate new spatial representations in the hippocampus. PMID:24853939

  17. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  18. Congenital isolated cleft mitral valve leaflet and apical muscular ventricular septal defect in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Depenbrock, Sarah M; Visser, Lance C; Kohnken, Rebecca A; Russell, Duncan S; Simpson, Katharine M; Bonagura, John D

    2015-09-01

    A 5-week-old Holstein heifer calf presented for emergency treatment of signs referable to gastrointestinal disease and hypovolemic shock. Fluid resuscitation uncovered clinical signs of primary cardiac disease and echocardiography revealed multiple congenital cardiac defects. Malformations included a cleft anterior mitral valve leaflet resembling an isolated cleft mitral valve and an apically-located muscular ventricular septal defect. The echocardiographic and postmortem findings associated with these defects are presented and discussed in this report.

  19. Anesthetic management of Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device embolization to right ventricular outflow tract

    PubMed Central

    Das, S; Kumar, P; Bhardwaj, V; Palleti, R

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous device closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) is an alternative treatment to surgery with advantages of avoidance of surgery, short procedure time, early discharge from hospital, and lower rates of complications. However, percutaneous device closure is associated with infrequent life-threatening complications such as device embolization. We report a case device embolization of the ASD occlude device into right ventricular outflow tract resulting progressive hypoxia. The role of anesthesiologist as a team leader in managing such emergency is discussed. PMID:27375392

  20. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Unal, Gunes; Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J; Kis, Viktor; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity. PMID:26631464

  1. Esophageal papilloma: Flexible endoscopic ablation by radiofrequency

    PubMed Central

    del Genio, Gianmattia; del Genio, Federica; Schettino, Pietro; Limongelli, Paolo; Tolone, Salvatore; Brusciano, Luigi; Avellino, Manuela; Vitiello, Chiara; Docimo, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Angelo; Docimo, Ludovico

    2015-01-01

    Squamous papilloma of the esophagus is a rare benign lesion of the esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation is an established endoscopic technique for the eradication of Barrett esophagus. No cases of endoscopic ablation of esophageal papilloma by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been reported. We report a case of esophageal papilloma successfully treated with a single session of radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopic ablation of the lesion was achieved by radiofrequency using a new catheter inserted through the working channel of endoscope. The esophageal ablated tissue was removed by a specifically designed cup. Complete ablation was confirmed at 3 mo by endoscopy with biopsies. This case supports feasibility and safety of as a new potential indication for BarrxTM RFA in patients with esophageal papilloma. PMID:25789102

  2. A case of sinus venosus atrial septal defect misdiagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Awadhesh Kr; Nath, Ranjit Kumar; Pandit, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of sinus venosus atrial septal defect in a patient who was previously diagnosed as having primary pulmonary hypertension in a tertiary care center. Our findings are based on 2-dimensional trans-thoracic echocardiography, chest X-ray and surface electrocardiogram. A 26-year-old man, previously diagnosed as a case of primary pulmonary hypertension, presented to the emergency department (ED) with chest pain and breathlessness on exertion. Cardiac biomarkers were within their normal ranges. Surface electrocardiogram showed right atrial and ventricular overload with right axis deviation. Chest imaging noted enlarged central pulmonary vascularity with bilateral plethoric lung fields. Trans-thoracic echocardiography showed a dilated right atria and ventricle with severe tricuspid regurgitation and severe pulmonary artery hypertension with an intact atrial septum. Surprisingly, the transoesophageal echocardiogram revealed the presence of a sinus venous superior vena cava-type atrial septal defect with the right pulmonary vein draining into the right atria. In this full-text version, we present a more detailed discussion of sinus-venous atrial septal defect associated with partial anomalous pulmonary venous return that was wrongly diagnosed as a case of primary pulmonary hypertension in a tertiary care center. PMID:27445029

  3. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Allan K; Palafox, Brian A; Starr, Joanne P; Gates, Richard N; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-06-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  4. Immunological basis of septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Q T; Magalhães-Santos, I F; Andrade, Z A

    2003-09-01

    Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop septal fibrosis of the liver similar to that induced by repeated ip injections of pig serum. Fibrosis starts when the focal parasitic lesions begin to show signs of resorption, thus suggesting an immunologically mediated pathogenesis of this fibrosis. To explore this possibility, the development of C. hepatica-related hepatic fibrosis was observed in rats exposed to worm antigens from the first neonatal day onward. Wistar rats (150 g) were either injected ip with an extract of C. hepatica eggs (protein concentration: 1 mg/ml) or received immature eggs by gavage from the first neonatal day until adult life and were then infected with 500 embryonated eggs. Changes were monitored on the basis of serum levels of anti-worm antibodies and hepatic histopathology. Rats submitted to immunological oral tolerance markedly suppressed C. hepatica-related serum antibodies and septal fibrosis of the liver when infected with the helminth later on. Tolerance trials with ip injections of worm antigens gave essentially negative results. The partial suppression of septal fibrosis of the liver after the induction of immunological tolerance to C. hepatica antigens in rats indicates an immunological basis for the fibrosis and emphasizes the importance of immunological factors in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis.

  5. Endocarditis and Incomplete Endothelialization 12 Years after Amplatzer Septal Occluder Deployment

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Allan K.; Starr, Joanne P.; Gates, Richard N.; Berdjis, Farbouch

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy had a 15-mm atrial septal defect repaired percutaneously with use of an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. At age 16 years, he presented with a week's history of fever, chills, dyspnea, fatigue, and malaise. Cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.25 × 1.5-cm pedunculated mass on the left aspect of the atrial septum just superior to the mitral valve, and a smaller vegetation on the right inferior medial aspect of the septum. At surgery, visual examination of both sides of the septum revealed granulation tissue, the pedunculated mass, the small vegetation, and exposed metal wires that suggested incomplete endothelialization of the occluder. We removed the occluder and patched the septal defect. The patient returned to full activity after 4 months and was asymptomatic 3 years postoperatively. Our report reinforces the need for further investigation into prosthetic device endothelialization, endocarditis prophylaxis, and recommended levels of physical activity in patients whose devices might be incompletely endothelialized. In addition to reporting our patient's case, we review the medical literature on this topic. PMID:27303238

  6. Cobrahead Deformity in the Right Atrial Disc of a New-Generation Occlutech Figulla Flex II Atrial Septal Defect Occluder Device

    PubMed Central

    Ural, Ertan; Sahin, Tayfun

    2015-01-01

    Cobrahead deformity is a known (but uncommon) phenomenon associated with the left atrial disc of the Amplatzer or Occlutech Figulla septal occluder device during percutaneous transcatheter atrial septal defect closure. It has also been postulated that the right atrial disc of the Amplatzer septal occluder device might upon occasion exhibit the cobrahead malformation. To date, only one case report concerning the cobrahead deformity in the right atrial disc of an Amplatzer septal occluder has been published, if we discount a report published as a letter to the manufacturer. Here we present the first report (known to us) of a cobrahead deformity in the right atrial disc of an Occlutech Figulla Flex II atrial septal defect occluder device during transcatheter closure of a complex atrial septal defect. PMID:26504440

  7. [Catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation : pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of fractionated electrograms, stepwise approach or rotor ablation?].

    PubMed

    Scherr, D

    2015-02-01

    Catheter ablation is an established treatment option for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In paroxysmal AF ablation, pulmonary vein isolation alone is a well-defined procedural endpoint, leading to success rates of up to 80% with multiple procedures over 5 years of follow-up. The success rate in persistent AF ablation is significantly more limited. This is partly due to the rudimentary understanding of the substrate maintaining persistent AF. Three main pathophysiological concepts for this arrhythmia exist: the multiple wavelet hypothesis, the concept of focal triggers, mainly located in the pulmonary veins and the rotor hypothesis. However, the targets and endpoints of persistent AF ablation are ill-defined and there is no consensus on the optimal ablation strategy in these patients. Based on these concepts, several ablation approaches for persistent AF have emerged: pulmonary vein isolation, the stepwise approach (i.e. pulmonary vein isolation, ablation of fractionated electrograms and linear ablation), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and rotor-based approaches. Currently, persistent AF ablation is a second-line therapy option to restore and maintain sinus rhythm. Several factors, such as the presence of structural heart disease, duration of persistent AF and dilatation and possibly also the degree of fibrosis of the left atrium should influence the decision to perform persistent AF ablation. PMID:25687615

  8. Microwave Ablation Compared with Radiofrequency Ablation for Breast Tissue in an Ex Vivo Bovine Udder Model

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro; Westphal, Saskia; Isfort, Peter; Braunschweig, Till; Penzkofer, Tobias Bruners, Philipp; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of microwave (MW) ablation with radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treating breast tissue in a nonperfused ex vivo model of healthy bovine udder tissue. Materials and Methods: MW ablations were performed at power outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W using a 915-MHz frequency generator and a 2-cm active tip antenna. RF ablations were performed with a bipolar RF system with 2- and 3-cm active tip electrodes. Tissue temperatures were continuously monitored during ablation. Results: The mean short-axis diameters of the coagulation zones were 1.34 {+-} 0.14, 1.45 {+-} 0.13, and 1.74 {+-} 0.11 cm for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W. For RF ablation, the corresponding values were 1.16 {+-} 0.09 and 1.26 {+-} 0.14 cm with electrodes having 2- and 3-cm active tips, respectively. The mean coagulation volumes were 2.27 {+-} 0.65, 2.85 {+-} 0.72, and 4.45 {+-} 0.47 cm{sup 3} for MW ablation at outputs of 25W, 35W, and 45W and 1.18 {+-} 0.30 and 2.29 {+-} 0.55 cm{sup 3} got RF ablation with 2- and 3-cm electrodes, respectively. MW ablations at 35W and 45W achieved significantly longer short-axis diameters than RF ablations (P < 0.05). The highest tissue temperature was achieved with MW ablation at 45W (P < 0.05). On histological examination, the extent of the ablation zone in MW ablations was less affected by tissue heterogeneity than that in RF ablations. Conclusion: MW ablation appears to be advantageous with respect to the volume of ablation and the shape of the margin of necrosis compared with RF ablation in an ex vivo bovine udder.

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  11. Convolution-Based Forced Detection Monte Carlo Simulation Incorporating Septal Penetration Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shaoying; King, Michael A.; Brill, Aaron B.; Stabin, Michael G.; Farncombe, Troy H.

    2010-01-01

    In SPECT imaging, photon transport effects such as scatter, attenuation and septal penetration can negatively affect the quality of the reconstructed image and the accuracy of quantitation estimation. As such, it is useful to model these effects as carefully as possible during the image reconstruction process. Many of these effects can be included in Monte Carlo (MC) based image reconstruction using convolution-based forced detection (CFD). With CFD Monte Carlo (CFD-MC), often only the geometric response of the collimator is modeled, thereby making the assumption that the collimator materials are thick enough to completely absorb photons. However, in order to retain high collimator sensitivity and high spatial resolution, it is required that the septa be as thin as possible, thus resulting in a significant amount of septal penetration for high energy radionuclides. A method for modeling the effects of both collimator septal penetration and geometric response using ray tracing (RT) techniques has been performed and included into a CFD-MC program. Two look-up tables are pre-calculated based on the specific collimator parameters and radionuclides, and subsequently incorporated into the SIMIND MC program. One table consists of the cumulative septal thickness between any point on the collimator and the center location of the collimator. The other table presents the resultant collimator response for a point source at different distances from the collimator and for various energies. A series of RT simulations have been compared to experimental data for different radionuclides and collimators. Results of the RT technique matches experimental data of collimator response very well, producing correlation coefficients higher than 0.995. Reasonable values of the parameters in the lookup table and computation speed are discussed in order to achieve high accuracy while using minimal storage space for the look-up tables. In order to achieve noise-free projection images from MC, it

  12. Synaptic Targets of Medial Septal Projections in the Hippocampus and Extrahippocampal Cortices of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Abhilasha; Viney, Tim J.; Kis, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Temporal coordination of neuronal assemblies among cortical areas is essential for behavioral performance. GABAergic projections from the medial septum and diagonal band complex exclusively innervate GABAergic interneurons in the rat hippocampus, contributing to the coordination of neuronal activity, including the generation of theta oscillations. Much less is known about the synaptic target neurons outside the hippocampus. To reveal the contribution of synaptic circuits involving the medial septum of mice, we have identified postsynaptic cortical neurons in wild-type and parvalbumin-Cre knock-in mice. Anterograde axonal tracing from the septum revealed extensive innervation of the hippocampus as well as the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, the medial and lateral entorhinal cortices, and the retrosplenial cortex. In all examined cortical regions, many septal GABAergic boutons were in close apposition to somata or dendrites immunopositive for interneuron cell-type molecular markers, such as parvalbumin, calbindin, calretinin, N-terminal EF-hand calcium-binding protein 1, cholecystokinin, reelin, or a combination of these molecules. Electron microscopic observations revealed septal boutons forming axosomatic or axodendritic type II synapses. In the CA1 region of hippocampus, septal GABAergic projections exclusively targeted interneurons. In the retrosplenial cortex, 93% of identified postsynaptic targets belonged to interneurons and the rest to pyramidal cells. These results suggest that the GABAergic innervation from the medial septum and diagonal band complex contributes to temporal coordination of neuronal activity via several types of cortical GABAergic interneurons in both hippocampal and extrahippocampal cortices. Oscillatory septal neuronal firing at delta, theta, and gamma frequencies may phase interneuron activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Diverse types of GABAergic interneurons coordinate the firing of cortical principal cells required for memory

  13. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  15. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  16. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  17. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  18. Characterization of opioid receptor types modulating acetylcholine release in septal regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gazyakan, E; Hennegriff, M; Haaf, A; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Feuerstein, T J; Jackisch, R

    2000-07-01

    Presynaptic opioid receptors of the delta- and mu-types have been shown to inhibit the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the rat striatum and hippocampus, respectively, but it is unknown whether opioid receptors modulate the release of ACh also in the region of origin of the hippocampal cholinergic innervation, the septum. To answer this question, slices (350 microm) of the medial septal area and of the diagonal band of Broca, as well as (for comparison) of the hippocampus, were prepared from adult male Wistar rats. The slices were incubated with [3H]choline, superfused in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (10 microM) and stimulated twice (S1, S2) by electrical fields (360 pulses, 3 Hz, 2 ms, 60 mA); opioid receptor agonists were present during S2. The preferential mu-agonist [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited the evoked ACh release by maximally about 40% in hippocampal slices and acted even more strongly in the medial septal area, or the diagonal band of Broca (about 60% or 75% maximal inhibition, respectively). These effects were reduced or abolished by the preferential mu-antagonist naloxone, which showed no effects when given alone. Using naloxone in the presence of a cocktail of peptidase inhibitors, no evidence for an endogenous tone of opioid peptides was found in the medial septal area, diagonal band of Broca or the hippocampus. Using the preferential delta-agonist [D-Pen2, D-Pen5]enkephalin (DPDPE) and the delta-antagonist naltrindole, a delta-opioid receptor inhibiting evoked ACh release was clearly detectable both in the medial septal area and the diagonal band of Broca, but not in the hippocampus, whereas the preferential kappa-agonist trans-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2(1-pyrrolidinyl)cyclo-hexyl] benzeneacetamide (U50,488H) had only weak or no effects. In addition to the functional experiments, double in-situ hybridization studies were performed, in which cells containing mRNA for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were labeled by an

  19. Characterization of tracked radiofrequency ablation in phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R.; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    In radiofrequency ablation (RFA), successful therapy requires accurate, image-guided placement of the ablation device in a location selected by a predictive treatment plan. Current planning methods rely on geometric models of ablations that are not sensitive to underlying physical processes in RFA. Implementing plans based on computational models of RFA with image-guided techniques, however, has not been well characterized. To study the use of computational models of RFA in planning needle placement, this work compared ablations performed with an optically tracked RFA device with corresponding models of the ablations. The calibration of the tracked device allowed the positions of distal features of the device, particularly the tips of the needle electrodes, to be determined to within 1.4{+-}0.6 mm of uncertainty. Ablations were then performed using the tracked device in a phantom system based on an agarose-albumin mixture. Images of the sliced phantom obtained from the ablation experiments were then compared with the predictions of a bioheat transfer model of RFA, which used the positional data of the tracked device obtained during ablation. The model was demonstrated to predict 90% of imaged pixels classified as being ablated. The discrepancies between model predictions and observations were analyzed and attributed to needle tracking inaccuracy as well as to uncertainties in model parameters. The results suggest the feasibility of using finite element modeling to plan ablations with predictable outcomes when implemented using tracked RFA.

  20. Left ventricular underfilling and not septal bulging dominates abnormal left ventricular filling hemodynamics in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lumens, Joost; Blanchard, Daniel G; Arts, Theo; Mahmud, Ehtisham; Delhaas, Tammo

    2010-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) filling hemodynamics [mitral early passive filling wave velocity/late active filling wave velocity (E/A) < 1]. Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) acutely reduces pulmonary vascular resistance, resulting in an increase of mitral E/A. The abolishment of leftward septal bulging and an increase in right ventricular (RV) output are thought to be responsible for the increase of mitral E/A. In this study, we quantified the separate effects of leftward septal bulging and RV output on LV hemodynamics. In 39 CTEPH patients who underwent PEA, transmitral flow velocities and RV hemodynamic data were obtained pre- and postoperatively. A mathematical model describing the mechanics of ventricular interaction was fitted to the preoperative average values of cardiac output (CO; 4.4 l/min), mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP; 50 mmHg), mitral E/A (0.74), and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP; 9.8 mmHg). Starting from this preoperative reference state with leftward septal bulging, PEA was simulated by changing mPAP and CO to average postoperative values (28 mmHg and 5.7 l/min, respectively). Simulated and postoperatively measured data on E/A (1.27 vs. 1.48), mLAP (12.6 vs. 11.5 mmHg), and septal curvature (both rightward) were consistent. When an exclusive decrease of mPAP was simulated, mitral E/A increased 26%, mLAP decreased 16%, and septal curvature became rightward. When an exclusive increase of CO was simulated, mitral E/A increased 53% and mLAP increased 62%, whereas leftward septal bulging persisted. Thus, our simulations suggest that the increase of mitral E/A with PEA is caused two-thirds by an increase of RV output and one-third by the abolishment of leftward septal bulging.

  1. Effect of sample storage conditions on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel, dentin, and bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selting, Wayne J.

    2007-02-01

    Samples of bone, dentin and enamel were stored in distilled water, 10% neutral buffered formalin, 70% ethyl alcohol or 6% sodium hypochlorite solutions for fifteen days. Other samples were stored in the same solutions for 36 hours and then transferred to distilled water for the remainder of the fifteen day period. Finally, samples than had been stored dry for up to 5 years were rehydrated and ablated. All enamel specimens appeared unaffected by the storage conditions. Dentin samples were very significantly affected by all storage methods. Bone samples were affected by most storage conditions. Samples stored in sodium hypochlorite had as much as a 100 percent increase in ablation rate. Surprisingly, dry stored samples that were reconstituted for 36 hours ablated at virtually the same rate as those stored in distilled water. None of the storage conditions studied produced ablation rates that mirrored in vivo ablation. Sterilization by autoclave is the only reliable and safe method studied but cannot be used on teeth with amalgam fillings for safety reasons. Teeth with fillings should be stored in 10% neutral bufferred formalin for a minimum of one week.

  2. Approach to the difficult septal atrioventricular accessory pathway: the importance of regional anatomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enzhao; Shehata, Michael; Swerdlow, Charles; Amorn, Allen; Cingolani, Eugenio; Kannarkat, Vinod; Chugh, Sumeet S; Wang, Xunzhang

    2012-06-01

    Ablation of accessory tracts in the posteroseptal region can be challenging, as illustrated by these 2 cases. Familiarity of the anatomy of this region and recognition of the ECG patterns can help identify the AP origin and potentially improve success rates of ablation. The isoelectric initial preexcited QRS complex with rSR’ pattern in lead V1 of the surface ECG but not the relatively earlier local ventricular activation at PSMA region may indicate a left-sided ablation approach for these APs.

  3. Analyzing nasal septal deviations to develop a new classification system: a computed tomography study using MATLAB and OsiriX.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jonathan K; Wheatley, Francis C; Handwerker, Jason; Harris, Norman J; Wong, Brian J F

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Accurately characterizing nasal septal deviations is valuable for surgical planning, classifying nasal septal deviations, providing a means to accurately perform outcomes research, and understanding the causes of chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE To determine and quantify regions of septal deformity that can be used to develop a comprehensive classification system. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective case series study was conducted at an academic tertiary care hospital. Sixty-four participants were selected based on a convenience sample of computed tomography (CT) scans of the paranasal sinuses and midface available between June 29, 2011, and August 16, 2012. Exclusion criteria consisted of incomplete or inadequate CT series. The most recent CT scans were chosen for analyses regardless of the indication for imaging. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format bitmap file–formatted data were obtained and analyzed using MATLAB and OsiriX. The line to curve ratio, deviation area, and root mean square (RMS) values of the septal contour vs the ideal straight septum fit were calculated. Analysis was performed to detect significant differences (P < .05) using the 3 measures.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Quantitative analysis of nasal septal deviation.RESULTS The population consisted of 50 male and 14 female patients aged 3 to 83 years(mean, 42 years). Mean line to curve ratios, areas, and RMS values were highest in contours that intersected the perpendicular plate–vomer junction, with a mean line to curve ratio of1.04 and mean deviated area of 627.16 arbitrary units (P = .02). Maximal deviation areas were also seen midway from the perpendicular plate–vomer junction to the nasal spine with a mean area of 577.31 arbitrary units (P = .01). The RMS values were significantly elevated along the crista galli and perpendicular plate–vomer junction (P < .05).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Maximum septal deviation is seen at the perpendicular plate

  4. Echocardiographic Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function, Mass and Wall Stress in Children with Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Waggoner, Alan D.; Nouri, Soraya; Schaffer, Michael S.; Chen, Su-Chiung

    1985-01-01

    M-Mode echocardiography was performed in 22 normal children and 22 children with ventricular septal defects. Left ventricular and left atrial chamber dimensions and wall thicknesses were measured in all patients. Utilizing these data, indices of left ventricular function were derived: shortening fraction, velocity of fiber shortening, peak diastolic fiber lengthening, end-systolic wall stress, radius thickness ratio, and ventricular mass. The results showed that ventricular septal defect was associated with enlarged left ventricular and atrial dimensions and increased shortening fraction, but that velocity of shortening and early diastolic lengthening remained normal. Left ventricular mass was increased, thus maintaining normal wall stress and radius/thickness ratio. Cardiac failure complicating ventricular septal defect was associated with enlarged left ventricular and atrial dimensions (indexed for weight). Ventricular mass, wall stress and function, however, were similar in subjects with ventricular septal defect, with or without cardiac failure. Since left ventricular mass was adequate to maintain wall stress and function in subjects with heart failure, other factors were presumably responsible for heart failure complicating ventricular septal defect. PMID:15227026

  5. A New Perspective for Spreader Graft Use in Severely Deviated Septum: Is Septal Continuity an Obligation for a Stable and Straight Nasal Septum?

    PubMed

    Sirinoglu, Hakan; Yesiloglu, Nebil; Ersoy, Burak

    2016-08-01

    Severe septal deviation is a challenging deformity usually treated using aggressive surgical methods, and extracorporeal septoplasty (ECS) is a commonly used method for this issue. However, this method has severe risks and complications such as the recurrent deformity or nasal saddling. In this article, we present an alternative solution to ECS procedure for the correction of severe septal deviation. Sixteen patients with severe c- or s-shaped septal deviation with a mean age of 26.5 years were included in the study. The entire deviated part of the septal cartilage was resected as a vertical block creating a full-thickness defect between the most cranial and caudal parts of the septal cartilage. After that, two spreader grafts were placed bilaterally facilitating the septal integrity and leaving the full-thickness septal defect unchanged. The surgical results were evaluated using the preoperative and postoperative facial photographs and patient satisfaction was determined using nine relevant questions of DAS-59 scale. The only complication observed in the follow-up period of 19 months was hanging columella deformity which was corrected at the postoperative first year. The mean length of the resected septal segment was 12.4 mm. The mean length of the resultant septal cartilage defect after the vertical resection was 5.9 mm. The mean length of the placed spreader grafts was 25.6 mm. The comparison of the preoperative and postoperative photographs showed significant improvement of the nasal contour and considerable correction of the septal deviation. The statistical evaluation of the answers given to the questions of the DAS-59 scale clearly demonstrates that a significant degree of patient satisfaction was achieved. Severe septal deviation may be successfully corrected by full-thickness resection of the deviated part and reconstruction with bilateral spreader grafts with a low risk of postoperative complications. PMID:27494592

  6. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  7. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  8. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-hung; Brace, Chris L.

    2016-08-01

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm‑1), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm‑1) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm‑1). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility

  9. Analysis of iodinated contrast delivered during thermal ablation: is material trapped in the ablation zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Po-hung; Brace, Chris L.

    2016-08-01

    Intra-procedural contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) has been proposed to evaluate treatment efficacy of thermal ablation. We hypothesized that contrast material delivered concurrently with thermal ablation may become trapped in the ablation zone, and set out to determine whether such an effect would impact ablation visualization. CECT images were acquired during microwave ablation in normal porcine liver with: (A) normal blood perfusion and no iodinated contrast, (B) normal perfusion and iodinated contrast infusion or (C) no blood perfusion and residual iodinated contrast. Changes in CT attenuation were analyzed from before, during and after ablation to evaluate whether contrast was trapped inside of the ablation zone. Visualization was compared between groups using post-ablation contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Attenuation gradients were calculated at the ablation boundary and background to quantitate ablation conspicuity. In Group A, attenuation decreased during ablation due to thermal expansion of tissue water and water vaporization. The ablation zone was difficult to visualize (CNR  =  1.57  ±  0.73, boundary gradient  =  0.7  ±  0.4 HU mm-1), leading to ablation diameter underestimation compared to gross pathology. Group B ablations saw attenuation increase, suggesting that iodine was trapped inside the ablation zone. However, because the normally perfused liver increased even more, Group B ablations were more visible than Group A (CNR  =  2.04  ±  0.84, boundary gradient  =  6.3  ±  1.1 HU mm-1) and allowed accurate estimation of the ablation zone dimensions compared to gross pathology. Substantial water vaporization led to substantial attenuation changes in Group C, though the ablation zone boundary was not highly visible (boundary gradient  =  3.9  ±  1.1 HU mm-1). Our results demonstrate that despite iodinated contrast being trapped in the ablation zone, ablation visibility was

  10. Will Septal Correction Surgery for Deviated Nasal Septum Improve the Sense of Smell? A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neelima; Singh, P. P.; Bagla, Rahul Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Nasal obstruction due to deviated nasal septum is a common problem bringing a patient to an otorhinolaryngologist. Occasionally, these patients may also complain of olfactory impairment. We proposed to study the effect of septal deviation on the lateralised olfactory function and the change in olfaction after surgery of the septum (septoplasty). Methods. Forty-one patients with deviated nasal septum were evaluated for nasal airflow, olfactory score, and nasal symptomatology. Septoplasty was done under local anesthesia. Pre- and postoperative olfactory scores, airflow and olfactory scores, and nasal symptomatology and olfactory scores were compared and correlated. Results. The range of preoperative composite olfactory score (COS) on the side of septal deviation was 4–14 (mean 7.90 ± 2.234) and on the nonobstructed side was 9–18 (mean 14.49 ± 2.378). Severity of deviated nasal septum and preoperative COS of diseased side were correlated and the correlation was found to be significant (rho = −0.690, p = 0.000 (<0.001)). The preoperative mean COS (7.90 ± 2.234) was compared with the postoperative mean COS (12.39 ± 3.687) and the improvement was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.000 (<0.001)). Conclusion. We found improvement in olfactory function in 70.6% patients after surgery, no change in 20.1%, and reduced function in 7.6%. With the limitation of a small sample size and a potential repeat testing bias, we would conclude that correction of nasal septal deviation may lead to improvement in sense of smell. PMID:26491724

  11. Distribution and targets of the relaxin-3 innervation of the septal area in the rat.

    PubMed

    Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco E; Otero-García, Marcos; Sánchez-Pérez, Ana M; Núñez, Angel; Ma, Sherie; Gundlach, Andrew L

    2012-06-15

    Neural tracing studies have revealed that the rat medial and lateral septum are targeted by ascending projections from the nucleus incertus, a population of tegmental GABA neurons. These neurons express the relaxin-family peptide, relaxin-3, and pharmacological modulation of relaxin-3 receptors in medial septum alters hippocampal theta rhythm and spatial memory. In an effort to better understand the basis of these interactions, we have characterized the distribution of relaxin-3 fibers/terminals in relation to different septal neuron populations identified using established protein markers. Dense relaxin-3 fiber plexuses were observed in regions of medial septum containing hippocampal-projecting choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-, and parvalbumin (PV)-positive neurons. In lateral septum (LS), relaxin-3 fibers were concentrated in the ventrolateral nucleus of rostral LS and the ventral nucleus of caudal LS, with sparse labeling in the dorsolateral and medial nuclei of rostral LS, dorsal nucleus of caudal LS, and ventral portion nuclei. Relaxin-3 fibers were also observed in the septofimbrial and triangular septal nuclei. In the medial septum, we observed relaxin-3-immunoreactive contacts with ChAT-, PV-, and glutamate decarboxylase-67-positive neurons that projected to hippocampus, and contacts between relaxin-3 terminals and calbindin- and calretinin-positive neurons. Relaxin-3 colocalized with synaptophysin in nerve terminals in all septal areas, and ultrastructural analysis revealed these terminals were symmetrical and contacted spines, somata, dendritic shafts, and occasionally other axonal terminals. These data predict that this GABA/peptidergic projection modulates septohippocampal activity and hippocampal theta rhythm related to exploratory navigation, defensive and ingestive behaviors, and responses to neurogenic stressors.

  12. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  13. Effect of oxygen tension on tissue-engineered human nasal septal chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Twu, Chih-Wen; Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Sah, Robert L.; Masuda, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered nasal septal cartilage may provide a source of autologous tissue for repair of craniofacial defects. Although advances have been made in manipulating the chondrocyte culture environment for production of neocartilage, consensus on the best oxygen tension for in vitro growth of tissue-engineered cartilage has not been reached. The objective of this study was to determine whether in vitro oxygen tension influences chondrocyte expansion and redifferentiation. Proliferation of chondrocytes from 12 patients expanded in monolayer under hypoxic (5% or 10%) or normoxic (21%) oxygen tension was compared over 14 days of culture. The highest performing oxygen level was used for further expansion of the monolayer cultures. At confluency, chondrocytes were redifferentiated by encapsulation in alginate beads and cultured for 14 days under hypoxic (5 or 10%) or normoxic (21%) oxygen tension. Biochemical and histological properties were evaluated. Chondrocyte proliferation in monolayer and redifferentiation in alginate beads were supported by all oxygen tensions tested. Chondrocytes in monolayer culture had increased proliferation at normoxic oxygen tension (p = 0.06), as well as greater accumulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) during chondrocyte redifferentiation (p < 0.05). Chondrocytes released from beads cultured under all three oxygen levels showed robust accumulation of GAG and type II collagen with a lower degree of type I collagen immunoreactivity. Finally, formation of chondrocyte clusters was associated with decreasing oxygen tension (p < 0.05). Expansion of human septal chondrocytes in monolayer culture was greatest at normoxic oxygen tension. Both normoxic and hypoxic culture of human septal chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads supported robust extracellular matrix deposition. However, GAG accumulation was significantly enhanced under normoxic culture conditions. Chondrocyte cluster formation was associated with hypoxic oxygen tension. PMID:25565047

  14. Ventricular Septal Perforation Caused by the Strut of a Mitral Valve Bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Dagnegård, Hanna H; Ugander, Martin; Liska, Jan; Källner, Göran G

    2016-03-01

    Ventricular rupture is a well-known complication of mitral valve replacement. We report a rare complication in which the strut of a recently implanted mitral bioprosthesis eroded through the ventricular septum. We present the strategy of the reoperation in which the sutures holding the repair patch were also used to support the new prosthesis. In addition to ventricular rupture and obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract by a mitral bioprosthesis, the risk of iatrogenic ventricular septal defect (VSD) should be considered when choosing, sizing, and implanting a mitral bioprosthesis. PMID:26897197

  15. Atrial Septal Defect Closure for Right-to-Left Shunting Following a MitraClip Repair.

    PubMed

    Al'Aref, Subhi J; Bergman, Geoffrey; Wong, S Chiu

    2016-09-01

    Percutaneous repair of the mitral valve has been widely adopted for the treatment of primary, symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation in patients at prohibitive risk for surgical intervention. We present a case of an elderly female patient with moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation who underwent MitraClip procedure, with postprocedural course remarkable for the development of right-to-left shunting and hypoxia, for which the patient underwent a percutaneous repair of the atrial septal defect with immediate recovery of oxygen saturation. PMID:27591693

  16. "Not-so-identical" twins with trisomy 21 and perimembranous ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Batlivala, Sarosh P; Courtney, Kendra S; Ebeid, Makram R; Parnell, Aimee S

    2016-06-01

    While trisomy 21 is a common genetic disorder in singletons, the incidence among identical twins is very rare, occurring in approximately 1-2 per 1000 twin gestations. Trisomy 21 is associated with high incidence of congenital heart defects, and commonly occurs with ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Physiologic burden of VSDs depends on prevalence of anatomic and other circulatory factors. A case of identical twins with trisomy 21 and large VSDs is described in the present report. Though genetically identical, phenotypes varied significantly. One twin was managed medically, while the other developed more significant heart failure, requiring operative repair. PMID:27372623

  17. The potential role of the left atrial septal pouch in cryptogenic stroke.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan M; Fisher, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The left atrial septal pouch (LASP) is an anatomic variant of the atrial septum that forms a blind-ending pouch, communicating exclusively with the left atrium (LA). Case reports have demonstrated thrombus within LASP and in the setting of cryptogenic stroke. Initial epidemiologic results are mixed, one study showing and others not showing an association between LASP and cryptogenic stroke. Additional investigation should take place to determine the clinical significance of LASP and what interventions are required to prevent ischemic stroke in at-risk individuals. PMID:26488338

  18. 'Broken-heart' syndrome: ventricular septal perforation in a takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Martino; Paradies, Valeria; Bortone, Alessandro; De Cillis, Emanuela; Cafaro, Alessandro; Acquaviva, Tommaso; Masi, Filippo; Quagliara, Donato; Favale, Stefano

    2016-05-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is a form of acute left ventricular dysfunction usually reversible and with favorable prognosis. Ventricular septal perforation (VSP) is a very rare life-threatening complication. Percutaneous closure of VSP, despite being challenging, is a possible alternative to surgical repair. We present the first case of an 84-year-old patient with a TTC-related VSP treated by percutaneous approach. The case highlights the need of reconsidering the worldwide accepted consideration of TTC as benignant and allows some speculations on the optimal management of VSP in terms of timing, patient selection and possible alternative interventions. PMID:27091371

  19. Septal lesions impair rats' Morris test performance but facilitate left-right response differentiation.

    PubMed

    Noonan, M; Penque, M; Axelrod, S

    1996-09-01

    Lesions in the septum impaired performance on the Morris test, a task in which the rat locates a hidden escape platform by use of fixed landmarks, but facilitated a water maze-based left-right response differentiation, a task in which the rat finds a hidden escape ramp by means of its internal sense of direction. These results are interpreted as supporting an allocentric/egocentric dichotomy with respect to navigation, and support the notion that rats approach spatial problems with a hierarchy of potential solutions in which allocentric solutions take precedence over egocentric ones. The septal lesions are inferred to disrupt the allocentric mapping system.

  20. Atrioventricular septal defect: From embryonic development to long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Calkoen, Emmeline E; Hazekamp, Mark G; Blom, Nico A; Elders, Bernadette B L J; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Haak, Monique C; Bartelings, Margot M; Roest, Arno A W; Jongbloed, Monique R M

    2016-01-01

    Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) covers a spectrum of heart anomalies with a common atrioventricular connection and has an incidence of 4-5.3 per 10.000 live births. About half of the AVSDs occur in patient with Down syndrome. This review provides a bench to bedside overview of AVSD. Developmental aspects, nomenclature, anatomy, and classification of AVSD are discussed. Furthermore an overview of genetic and maternal risk factors for AVSD is provided, and available literature on (fetal) diagnosis, surgical techniques and follow-up is presented. Special attention is given to differences in developmental, anatomical and prognostic factors of AVSD between non-syndromic and Down syndrome patients. PMID:26476030

  1. Pulmonary mycotic pseudo-aneurysm with a prior history of ventricular septal defect. Case report with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Walasangikar, Vishal; Kumar Dey, Amit; Sharma, Rajaram; Murumkar, Vivek; Gadewar, Rohit; Hira, Priya; Mittal, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    In general aneurysms of the pulmonary arteries are less frequent than intracranial, aortic or other vascular locations. Infectious causes include bacteria such as Staphylococcus sp and Streptococcus sp, mycobacteria, Treponema pallidium (syphilis) and rarely fungi. We report a 7 year old female with two right-sided parahilar pseudo-aneurysm of fungal origin with a prior history of ventricular septal defect. Pulmonary mycotic pseudo-aneurysms are very rare and require a high suspicion to diagnose. If a patient is still symptomatic for fever and cough for a long time, and consolidation on x-ray is not improving on antibiotics, contrast-enhanced computed tomography is indicated. It can be suspected that the "friable mass attached to ventricular septal defect patch" was a source of fungeal emboli to pulmonary arteries thus giving weight to the infective endocarditis etiology. A prior history of ventricular septal defect repair could favour fungal endocarditis. PMID:27238181

  2. Quantitative trait loci modifying cardiac atrial septal morphology and risk of patent foramen ovale in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Edwin P; Hyun, Changbaig; Thomson, Peter C; Lai, Donna; Castro, M Leticia; Biben, Christine; Buckley, Michael F; Martin, Ian C A; Moran, Chris; Harvey, Richard P

    2006-03-17

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease (CHD) occurring in 5 to 7 per 10,000 live births. Mutations in 5 human genes (NKX2.5, TBX5, GATA4, MYHC, ACTC) are known to cause dominant ASD, but these account for a minority of cases. Human and mouse data suggest that ASD exists in an anatomical continuum with milder septal variants patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm, strongly associated with ischemic stroke and migraine. We have previously shown in inbred mice that the incidence of PFO strongly correlates with length of the interatrial septum primum, defining a quantitative trait underlying PFO risk. To better understand genetic causation of atrial septal abnormalities, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing septal morphology using mouse strains (QSi5 and 129T2/SvEms) maximally informative for PFO incidence and 3 quantitative septal anatomical traits including septum primum length. [QSi5x129T2/SvEms]F2 intercross animals (n=1437) were phenotyped and a whole genome scan performed at an average 17-cM interval. Statistical methodology scoring PFO as a binary phenotype was developed as a confirmatory mapping technique. We mapped 7 significant and 6 suggestive QTL modifying quantitative phenotypes, with 4 supported by binary analysis. Quantitative traits, although strongly associated with PFO (P<0.001), correlated poorly with each other and in all but 1 case QTL for different traits were nonoverlapping. Thus, multiple anatomical processes under separate genetic control contribute to risk of PFO. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of modeling the genetic basis of common CHD using animal genetic and genomic technologies.

  3. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of a large metastatic carcinoid tumor: success with a note of caution.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley W; Harvey, Harold A; Dye, Charles E; Dougherty-Hamod, Brandy; Moyer, Matthew T

    2014-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography with fine needle infusion (EUS-FNI) of alcohol is the most reported method for EUS-guided tumor ablation. Several studies have reported successful EUS-guided ablation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, these tumors have been relatively small (< 3 cm). In this report, a 50-year-old man with a metastatic carcinoid tumor with a large porta hepatis mass was referred to our clinic for EUS-guided ethanol ablation. After two separate EUS-FNI ablations, there was a 36 % reduction in tumor size (9.0 × 11.4 cm to 6.7 × 9.8 cm) with associated tumor lysis syndrome. Chromogranin A levels decreased from 460 to 132 ng/mL. The patient reported complete resolution of abdominal pain within 2 weeks, but only mild improvement in flushing and diarrhea. In conclusion, large metastatic neuroendocrine tumors can be successfully treated with EUS-guided ethanol ablation. Evidence-based guidelines are needed with regard to the appropriate volume of ethanol injected in EUS-guided ablation to promote the efficacy and safety of this emerging procedure. PMID:26135103

  5. Septal and amygdalar efferents to the hypothalamus which facilitate hypothalamically elicited intraspecific aggression and associated hissing in the cat. An autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Stoddard-Apter, S L; MacDonnell, M F

    1980-07-01

    Septal and amygdalar sites were identified which facilitated hypothalamically elicited intraspecific agression and associated hissing in cats. Tritiated proline was injected into facilitatory sites through a Hamilton syringe modified to serve as an electrode. Efferents from septal or amygdalar facilitatory sites were traced to the hypothalamus by means of autoradiography. Amygdalar facilitatory sites projected primarily to the core and capsule of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), while septal facilitatory sites projected only lightly to the VMH. Common to all septal facilitatory sites, and not previously reported, was a distinct and considerable projection to the medial hypothalamus, in association with the paraventricular and dorsomedial nuclei. The means by which septal and amygdalar sites may act to facilitate hypothalamically elicited intraspecific aggression are discussed. PMID:7189686

  6. Possible role for cryoballoon ablation of right atrial appendage tachycardia when conventional ablation fails.

    PubMed

    Amasyali, Basri; Kilic, Ayhan

    2015-06-01

    Focal atrial tachycardia arising from the right atrial appendage usually responds well to radiofrequency ablation; however, successful ablation in this anatomic region can be challenging. Surgical excision of the right atrial appendage has sometimes been necessary to eliminate the tachycardia and prevent or reverse the resultant cardiomyopathy. We report the case of a 48-year-old man who had right atrial appendage tachycardia resistant to multiple attempts at ablation with use of conventional radiofrequency energy guided by means of a 3-dimensional mapping system. The condition led to cardiomyopathy in 3 months. The arrhythmia was successfully ablated with use of a 28-mm cryoballoon catheter that had originally been developed for catheter ablation of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cryoballoon ablation without isolation of the right atrial appendage. It might also be an alternative to epicardial ablation or surgery when refractory atrial tachycardia originates from the right atrial appendage.

  7. Management of a large atrial septal occluder embolized to the left ventricular outflow tract without the use of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joshua P; Satler, Lowell F; Slack, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter closure of secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs) using the AMPLATZER™ Septal Occluder (ASO) has been in use for more than a decade since its US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001. Device embolization remains an uncommon complication, which can sometimes occur after the initial deployment. Previous reports of ASO devices embolized to the left ventricle have primarily been managed by open-heart surgical retrieval. We present a case of an ASO device embolized to the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) 18 hr after initial implantation, which was successfully retrieved percutaneously, followed by successful closure of the ASD using a larger device. PMID:24403086

  8. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analyses regarding right ventricular septal pacing: Data from Japanese pacemaker cohort.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Akira; Matsue, Yuya; Naruse, Yoshihisa; Kowase, Shinya; Kurosaki, Kenji; Suzuki, Makoto; Matsumura, Akihiko; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Hashimoto, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    The presented data were obtained from 982 consecutive patients receiving their first pacemaker implantation with right ventricular (RV) lead placement between January 2008 and December 2013 at two centers in Japan. Patients were divided into RV apical and septal pacing groups. Data of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis are presented. Refer to the research article "Implications of right ventricular septal pacing for medium-term prognosis: propensity-matched analysis" (Mizukami et al., in press) [1] for further interpretation and discussion. PMID:27570808

  9. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Demmer, R.L.; Ferguson, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment.

  10. Analysis of the Development of the Nasal Septum and Measurement of the Harvestable Septal Cartilage in Koreans Using Three-Dimensional Facial Bone Computed Tomography Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hee; Jung, Dong Ju; Kim, Hyo Seong; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Background The septal cartilage is the most useful donor site for autologous cartilage graft material in rhinoplasty. For successful nasal surgery, it is necessary to understand the developmental process of the nasal septum and to predict the amount of harvestable septal cartilage before surgery. Methods One hundred twenty-three Korean patients who underwent three-dimensional (3D) facial bone computed tomography (CT) were selected for evaluation of the midsagittal view of the nasal septum. Multiple parameters such as the area of each component of the nasal septum and the amount of harvestable septal cartilage were measured using Digimizer software. Results The area of the total nasal septum showed rapid growth until the teenage years, but thereafter no significant change throughout the lifetime. However, the development of the septal cartilage showed a gradual decline due to ossification changes with aging after puberty in spite of a lack of change in the total septal area. The area of harvestable septal cartilage in young adults was 549.84±151.26 mm2 and decreased thereafter with age. Conclusions A 3D facial bone CT scan can provide valuable information on the septal cartilage graft before rhinoplasty. Considering the developmental process of the septal cartilage identified in this study, septal surgery should not be performed until puberty due to the risk of nasal growth impairment. Furthermore, in elderly patients who show a decreased cartilage area due to ossification changes, septal cartilage harvesting should be performed carefully due to the risk of saddle nose deformity. PMID:24665426

  11. Lung Cancer Ablation: Technologies and Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Erica S.; Dupuy, Damian E.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancers in 2012 is estimated to reach 226,160 new cases, with only a third of patients suitable surgical candidates. Tumor ablation has emerged as an important and efficacious treatment option for nonsurgical lung cancer patients. This localized minimally invasive therapy is best suited for small oligonodular lesions or favorably located metastatic tumors. Radiofrequency ablation has been in use for over a decade, and newer modalities including microwave ablation, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation have emerged as additional treatment options for patients. Ablation therapies can offer patients and clinicians a repeatable and effective therapy for palliation and, in some cases, cure of thoracic malignancies. This article discusses the available technologies and techniques available for tumor ablation of thoracic malignancies including patient selection, basic aspects of procedure technique, imaging follow-up, treatment outcomes, and comparisons between various therapies. PMID:24436530

  12. Ablative shielding for hypervelocity projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A hypervelocity projectile shield which includes a hollow semi-flexible housing fabricated from a plastic like, or otherwise transparent membrane which is filled with a fluid (gas or liquid) is presented. The housing has a inlet valve, similar to that on a tire or basketball, to introduce an ablating fluid into the housing. The housing is attached by a Velcro mount or double-sided adhesive tape to the outside surface of a structure to be protected. The housings are arrayed in a side-by-side relationship for complete coverage of the surface to be protected. In use, when a hypervelocity projectile penetrates the outer wall of a housing it is broken up and then the projectile is ablated as it travels through the fluid, much like a meteorite 'burns up' as it enters the earth's atmosphere, and the housing is deflated. The deflated housing can be easily spotted for replacement, even from a distance. Replacement is then accomplished by simply pulling a deflated housing off the structure and installing a new housing.

  13. Stellar Ablation of Planetary Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    We review observations and theories of the solar ablation of planetary atmospheres, focusing on the terrestrial case where a large magnetosphere holds off the solar wind, so that there is little direct atmospheric impact, but also couples the solar wind electromagnetically to the auroral zones. We consider the photothermal escape flows known as the polar wind or refilling flows, the enhanced mass flux escape flows that result from localized solar wind energy dissipation in the auroral zones, and the resultant enhanced neutral atom escape flows. We term these latter two escape flows the "auroral wind." We review observations and theories of the heating and acceleration of auroral winds, including energy inputs from precipitating particles, electromagnetic energy flux at magnetohydrodynamic and plasma wave frequencies, and acceleration by parallel electric fields and by convection pickup processes also known as "centrifugal acceleration." We consider also the global circulation of ionospheric plasmas within the magnetosphere, their participation in magnetospheric disturbances as absorbers of momentum and energy, and their ultimate loss from the magnetosphere into the downstream solar wind, loading reconnection processes that occur at high altitudes near the magnetospheric boundaries. We consider the role of planetary magnetization and the accumulating evidence of stellar ablation of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Finally, we suggest and discuss future needs for both the theory and observation of the planetary ionospheres and their role in solar wind interactions, to achieve the generality required for a predictive science of the coupling of stellar and planetary atmospheres over the full range of possible conditions.

  14. Successful device closure of a post-infarction ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Si-Wan; Han, Ji Hye; Jin, Seon-Ah; Kim, Mijoo; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Jeong, Jin-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a lethal complication of myocardial infarction. The event occurs 2–8 days after an infarction and patients should undergo emergency surgical treatment. We report on successful device closure of post-infarction VSD. A previously healthy 66-year-old male was admitted with aggravated dyspnea. Echocardiography showed moderate left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction with akinesia of the left anterior descending (LAD) territory and muscular VSD size approximately 2 cm. Coronary angiography showed mid-LAD total occlusion without collaterals. Without percutaneous coronary intervention due to time delay, VSD repair was performed. However, a murmur was heard again and pulmonary edema was not controlled 3 days after the operation. Echocardiography showed remnant VSD, and medical treatment failed. Percutaneous treatment using a septal occluder device was decided on. After the procedure, heart failure was controlled and the patient was discharged without complications. This is the first report on device closure of post-infarction VSD in Korea. PMID:27462148

  15. Altered right ventricular contractile pattern after cardiac surgery: monitoring of septal function is essential.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin; Cao, Long; Movahed, Assad

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is important in the management of various forms of cardiovascular disease. Accurately assessing RV volume and systolic function is a challenge in day-to-day clinical practice due to its complex geometry. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and systolic excursion velocity (S') have been reviewed to further assess their suitability and objectivity in evaluating RV function. Multiple studies have validated their diagnostic and prognostic values in numerous pathologic conditions. Diminished longitudinal contraction after cardiothoracic surgery is a well-known phenomenon, but it is not well validated. Despite significant reduction in RV performance along the long-axis assessed by TAPSE and S' after cardiac surgery, RV ejection fractions did not change as well as the left ventricular parameters and exercise capacity. RV contractile patterns were markedly altered with decreased longitudinal shortening and increased transverse shortening, which are likely resulted from the septal damage during cardiac surgery. The septum is essential for RV performance due to its oblique fiber orientation. This allows ventricular twisting, which is a vital mechanism against increased pulmonary vascular resistance. The septum function along with TAPSE and S' should be adequately assessed during cardiac surgery, and evidence of septal dysfunction should lead to reevaluation of myocardial protection methods. PMID:24919944

  16. Pulmonary stenosis development and reduction of pulmonary arterial hypertension in atrioventricular septal defect: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Emeline; Bouvaist, Hélène; Marlière, Stéphanie; Ninet, Gérard; Vanzetto, Gérald

    2009-01-01

    A 24-year-old patient was admitted for dyspnoea and syncope. He had a previous history of complete atrio-ventricular septal defect and trisomy 21. At the age of 6 months, in 1984, cardiac catheterization revealed a quasi-systemic pulmonary arterial hypertension with a bidirectional shunt corresponding to an Eisenmenger syndrome. Corrective cardiac surgery was not performed at this time because surgical risk was considered too high. Until the age of 20 years old, he showed few symptoms while under medical treatment. But since 2006, his functional status became worse with an increased dyspnoea, syncopes, and severe cyanosis. In these conditions, haemodynamic parameters have been re-evaluated in 2006 and 2008. They highlighted a late and progressive development of a valvular and infundibular pulmonary stenosis leading to a normalisation of pulmonary arterial pressures. At the age of 24 , the patient underwent corrective cardiac surgery which was successful. Late development of both infundibular and valvular pulmonary stenosis have not been described before in non operated congenital ventricular septal defects, but development of one or the other abnormality would be found in 8% of patients. The physiopathological mechanism of this obstruction is unclear. Nevertheless, in unoperated congenital cardiac shunt lesions, reversibility of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension should be reconidered and re-assessed during follow up. PMID:19758423

  17. Comparative transcriptome analysis of atrial septal defect identifies dysregulated genes during heart septum morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenju; Niu, Zhaoyi; Wang, Yi; Li, Yaxiong; Zou, Honglin; Yang, Li; Meng, Mingyao; Wei, Chuanyu; Li, Qinrui; Duan, Le; Xie, Yanhua; Zhang, Yayong; Cao, Yu; Han, Shen; Hou, Zongliu; Jiang, Lihong

    2016-01-10

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of most common birth defects, causing fetal loss and death in newborn all over the world. Atrial and ventricular septal defects were the most common CHD subtypes in most districts. During the past decades, several genes were identified to control atrial septum formation, and mutations of these genes can cause cardiac septation defects. However, the pathogenic mechanism of ASD on transcriptional levels has not been well elucidated yet. Herein, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between normal and atrial septal defect (ASD) patients by Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Advanced bioinformatic analyses were employed to identify dysregulated genes in ASD. The results indicated that cardiac specific transcriptional factors (GATA4 and NKX2-5), extracellular signal molecules (VEGFA and BMP10) and cardiac sarcomeric proteins (MYL2, MYL3, MYH7, TNNT1 and TNNT3) were downregulated in ASD which may affect heart atrial septum formation, cardiomyocyte proliferation and cardiac muscle development. Importantly, cell cycle was dominant pathway among downregulated genes, and decreased expression of the proteins included in cell cycle may disturb cardiomyocyte growth and differentiation during atrial septum formation. Our study provided evidences of understanding pathogenic mechanism of ASD and resource for validation of CHD genomic studies.

  18. Impairment of prosocial sentiments is associated with frontopolar and septal damage in frontotemporal dementia

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Jorge; Zahn, Roland; de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Bramati, Ivanei E.; Krueger, Frank; Tura, Bernardo; Cavanagh, Alyson L.; Grafman, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Poets and philosophers have long acknowledged moral sentiments as key motivators of human social behavior. Prosocial sentiments, which include guilt, pity and embarrassment, enable us to care about others and to be concerned about our mistakes. Functional imaging studies have implicated frontopolar, ventromedial frontal and basal forebrain regions in the experience of prosocial sentiments. Patients with lesions of the frontopolar and ventromedial frontal areas were observed to behave inappropriately and less prosocially, which could be attributed to a generalized emotional blunting. Direct experimental evidence for brain regions distinctively associated with moral sentiment impairments is lacking, however. We investigated this issue in patients with the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, a disorder in which early and selective impairments of social conduct are consistently observed. Using a novel moral sentiment task, we show that the degree of impairment of prosocial sentiments is associated with the degree of damage to frontopolar cortex and septal area, as assessed with 18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glucose-Positron Emission Tomography, an established measure of neurodegenerative damage. This effect was dissociable from impairment of other-critical feelings (anger and disgust), which was in turn associated with dorsomedial prefrontal and amygdala dysfunction. Our findings suggest a critical role of the frontopolar cortex and septal region in enabling prosocial sentiments, a fundamental component of moral conscience. PMID:20728544

  19. Age dependence of biochemical and biomechanical properties of tissue-engineered human septal cartilage.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Nicole; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Tobias, Geoffrey; Lebl, Martin; Roy, Amit K; Vacanti, Charles A

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the biomechanical and biochemical properties of tissue-engineered human septal cartilage vary with donor age and in vitro culture time. Chondrocytes were isolated from human septal cartilage of patients from 15 to 60 year old and maintained in primary monolayer culture for 14 days. Cells were seeded onto 0.5% PLA coated PGA disks and kept in stationary three-dimensional culture for either 1 day or 3 weeks. Specimens were then implanted subcutaneously into athymic nude mice and harvested after either 4 or 8 weeks. Upon harvest, the equilibrium confined compression modulus was measured as to quantify mechanical properties, and the glycosaminoglycan, hydroxyproline, and DNA contents were determined as measures of tissue proteoglycans, collagen, and cell density. This study demonstrated that native nasal cartilage showed distinct changes in these parameters with age, but cartilage engineered using the cells of these specimens showed no significant dependence on the age of the donor. There was little difference in quality of cartilage between samples cultured for 3 weeks in vitro and those implanted directly after seeding. Together, the results of this study suggest that the process of extracellular matrix assembly by chondrocytes on three-dimensional scaffolds may be independent of in vivo conditions experienced by the tissue prior to harvest.

  20. Axolemmal and septal conduction in the impedance of the earthworm medial giant nerve fiber.

    PubMed Central

    Krause, T L; Fishman, H M; Bittner, G D

    1994-01-01

    Ionic conduction in the axolemmal and septal membranes of the medial giant fiber (MGF) of the earthworm (EW) Lumbricus terrestris was assessed by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range 2.5-1000 Hz. Impedance loci in the complex plane were described by two semi-circular arcs, one at a lower characteristic frequency (100 Hz) and the other at a higher frequency (500 Hz). The lower frequency arc had a chord resistance of 53 k omega and was not affected by membrane potential changes or ion channel blockers [tetrodotoxin (TTX), 3,4-diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and tetraethylammonium (TEA)]. The higher frequency arc had a chord resistance of 274 k omega at resting potential, was voltage-dependent, and was affected by the addition of TTX, 3,4-DAP, 4-AP, and TEA to the physiological EW salines. When all four blockers were added to the bathing solution, the impedance locus was described by two voltage-independent arcs. Considering the effects of these and other (i.e., Cd and Ni) ion channel blockers, we conclude that: 1) the higher frequency locus reflects conduction by voltage-sensitive ion channels in the axolemmal membrane, which contains at least four ion channels selective for sodium, calcium, and potassium (delayed rectifier and calcium-dependent), and 2) the lower frequency locus reflects voltage-insensitive channels in the septal membrane, which separates adjacent MGFs. PMID:7524713

  1. The Effect of Nasal Septal Perforation and its Treatment on Objective Sleep and Breathing Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Boynuegri, Suleyman; Cayonu, Melih; Tuna, Evrim Unsal; Kurukahvecioglu, Selma; Ozcan, Kursat Murat; Turkay, Burak; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Background Nasal septal perforation (NSP) may alter nasal airflow patterns and physiology. To the best of our knowledge, no studies in the English literature have investigated the effect of NSP and its treatment on polysomnographic parameters. In this study, we aimed to investigate polysomnographic parameters in patients with NSP as well as changes in those parameters after treatment of NSP. Material/Methods Nineteen patients diagnosed with NSP were included in the study. All patients had baseline and post-procedure polysomnographies (PSG) after insertion of silicone septal button for closure of NSP. Results Both median AHI [5.30 (14.40) vs. 2.40 (14.50)] and median supine AHI [10.00 (42.10) vs. 6.60 (37.00)] decreased after correction of the perforation. There was a large reduction in median supine AHI in patients with a perforation size >66 mm2 [10.10 (34.15) vs. 1.60 (28.30)]. Conclusions We conclude that NSP did not cause any deterioration in objective sleep parameters as determined by PSG, other than a decrease in REM sleep duration and an increase in supine AHI. Correction of NSP did not affect REM duration and supine AHI decreased after treatment. PMID:26878399

  2. FtsZ-independent septal recruitment and function of cell wall remodelling enzymes in chlamydial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Frandi, Antonio; Jacquier, Nicolas; Théraulaz, Laurence; Greub, Gilbert; Viollier, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    The nature and assembly of the chlamydial division septum is poorly defined due to the paucity of a detectable peptidoglycan (PG)-based cell wall, the inhibition of constriction by penicillin and the presence of coding sequences for cell wall precursor and remodelling enzymes in the reduced chlamydial (pan-)genome. Here we show that the chlamydial amidase (AmiA) is active and remodels PG in Escherichia coli. Moreover, forward genetics using an E. coli amidase mutant as entry point reveals that the chlamydial LysM-domain protein NlpD is active in an E. coli reporter strain for PG endopeptidase activity (ΔnlpI). Immunolocalization unveils NlpD as the first septal (cell-wall-binding) protein in Chlamydiae and we show that its septal sequestration depends on prior cell wall synthesis. Since AmiA assembles into peripheral clusters, trimming of a PG-like polymer or precursors occurs throughout the chlamydial envelope, while NlpD targets PG-like peptide crosslinks at the chlamydial septum during constriction. PMID:24953095

  3. FtsZ-independent septal recruitment and function of cell wall remodelling enzymes in chlamydial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Frandi, Antonio; Jacquier, Nicolas; Théraulaz, Laurence; Greub, Gilbert; Viollier, Patrick H

    2014-06-23

    The nature and assembly of the chlamydial division septum is poorly defined due to the paucity of a detectable peptidoglycan (PG)-based cell wall, the inhibition of constriction by penicillin and the presence of coding sequences for cell wall precursor and remodelling enzymes in the reduced chlamydial (pan-)genome. Here we show that the chlamydial amidase (AmiA) is active and remodels PG in Escherichia coli. Moreover, forward genetics using an E. coli amidase mutant as entry point reveals that the chlamydial LysM-domain protein NlpD is active in an E. coli reporter strain for PG endopeptidase activity (ΔnlpI). Immunolocalization unveils NlpD as the first septal (cell-wall-binding) protein in Chlamydiae and we show that its septal sequestration depends on prior cell wall synthesis. Since AmiA assembles into peripheral clusters, trimming of a PG-like polymer or precursors occurs throughout the chlamydial envelope, while NlpD targets PG-like peptide crosslinks at the chlamydial septum during constriction.

  4. Altered right ventricular contractile pattern after cardiac surgery: monitoring of septal function is essential.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tin; Cao, Long; Movahed, Assad

    2014-10-01

    Assessment of right ventricular (RV) function is important in the management of various forms of cardiovascular disease. Accurately assessing RV volume and systolic function is a challenge in day-to-day clinical practice due to its complex geometry. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and systolic excursion velocity (S') have been reviewed to further assess their suitability and objectivity in evaluating RV function. Multiple studies have validated their diagnostic and prognostic values in numerous pathologic conditions. Diminished longitudinal contraction after cardiothoracic surgery is a well-known phenomenon, but it is not well validated. Despite significant reduction in RV performance along the long-axis assessed by TAPSE and S' after cardiac surgery, RV ejection fractions did not change as well as the left ventricular parameters and exercise capacity. RV contractile patterns were markedly altered with decreased longitudinal shortening and increased transverse shortening, which are likely resulted from the septal damage during cardiac surgery. The septum is essential for RV performance due to its oblique fiber orientation. This allows ventricular twisting, which is a vital mechanism against increased pulmonary vascular resistance. The septum function along with TAPSE and S' should be adequately assessed during cardiac surgery, and evidence of septal dysfunction should lead to reevaluation of myocardial protection methods.

  5. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  6. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  7. On the Ablation Models of Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Rozhansky, V.A.; Senichenkov, I.Yu.

    2005-12-15

    The neutral gas shielding model and neutral-gas-plasma shielding model are analyzed qualitatively. The main physical processes that govern the formation of the shielding gas cloud and, consequently, the ablation rate are considered. For the neutral gas shielding model, simple formulas relating the ablation rate and cloud parameters to the parameters of the pellet and the background plasma are presented. The estimates of the efficiency of neutral gas shielding and plasma shielding are compared. It is shown that the main portion of the energy flux of the background electrons is released in the plasma cloud. Formulas for the ablation rate and plasma parameters are derived in the neutral-gas-plasma shielding model. The question is discussed as to why the neutral gas shielding model describes well the ablation rate of the pellet material, although it does not take into account the ionization effects and the effects associated with the interaction of ionized particles with the magnetic field. The reason is that the ablation rate depends weakly on the energy flux of hot electrons; as a result, the attenuation of this flux by the electrostatic shielding and plasma shielding has little effect on the ablation rate. This justifies the use of the neutral gas shielding model to estimate the ablation rate (to within a factor of about 2) over a wide range of parameters of the pellet and the background plasma.

  8. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  9. The positive feedback action of vasopressin on its own release from rat septal tissue in vitro is receptor-mediated.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, R; Ramirez, A D; Ramirez, V D

    1991-04-01

    The effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on its own septal release was evaluated using an in vitro superfusion procedure. As compared to basal release from septal fragments, pulses of synthetic AVP (15 pg/5 min) resulted in a 25-fold augmented release of endogenous AVP, indicating a positive feedback action. Both the basal and stimulated AVP release were significantly increased by 60 mM potassium and markedly reduced by omission of calcium. Preincubation of the septal fragments with the V2/V1 AVP receptor antagonist d(CH2)5 [D-Tyr (Et)2,Val4]AVP resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the positive feedback action of AVP which was nearly completely blocked at doses between 1.25 and 5 ng per 100 microliters incubation medium. As compared to this effect, the V1 antagonist d(CH2)5 Tyr (Me)2 AVP as well as oxytocin were significantly less potent. The results suggest that the positive feedback action of AVP on its own release from septal fragments is potassium-stimulated, calcium-dependent and mainly V2 receptor-mediated. The physiological significance of this phenomenon remains to be shown. PMID:1830507

  10. An extremely rare malformation of an atrial septal defect closure device and use of a new corrective technique.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Korhan; Meriç, Murat; Yıldırım, Ufuk; Gulel, Okan

    2015-06-01

    Tulip malformation is a newly defined complication of transcatheter atrial septal defect closure. This complication, in which the left atrial disc becomes concave, makes it impossible to fully retract the device into the delivery sheath. The case presented is the first report describing a simple new technique which overcomes this novel complication. PMID:26051758

  11. Facilitation and nonfacilitation of active avoidance behavior of rats with septal lesions in the shuttle box and running wheel.

    PubMed

    Blatt, R C

    1976-07-01

    It was hypothesized that facilitation of avoidance performance of rats with septal lesions occurs only in tasks that punish responses having the same topography as the avoidance response, such as intertrial responses, or tasks that have aversive consequences for making the avoidance response, such as a brightly illuminated safe compartment. Twenty-eight male rats were trained in two shuttle box tasks, and 24 were trained in two running-wheel avoidance tasks under conditions of punishment or nonpunishment of intertrial responses. Rats with septal lesions performed better than control rats in both the shuttle box and the wheel tasks when intertrial responses were punished. When intertrial responding was not punished, experimental and control groups did not differ in avoidance performance. Avoidance performance of punished and unpunished rats with septal lesions did not differ from each other or from unpunished control rats in either wheel or shuttle box tasks. These results were discussed in the context of the species-specific defense reaction (SSDR) avoidance theory of Bolles. It was suggested that septal lesions interfere with the suppression of ineffective SSDRs.

  12. [Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries in patient with atrial septal defect and acute inferior segment myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Tosun, Veysel; Korucuk, Necmettin; Karakaş, Mustafa Mustafa; Güntekin, Ünal

    2016-09-01

    Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries is a rare abnormality accounting for approximately 1% of clinically apparent congenital heart disease. Age at time of diagnosis and survival rate vary and depend on associated anomalies, including pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, atrioventricular block, and atrioventricular valve regurgitation. Reported cases of corrected transposition of the great arteries with single coronary ostium anomaly and atrial septal defect are very rare. Described in the present report is the case of a 55-year-old male who presented with acute inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and coincidental single coronary ostium arising from the right sinus of Valsalva, as observed on coronary angiography. Successful balloon angioplasty and stenting of the circumflex artery were performed. Echocardiography demonstrated the corrected transposition of the great arteries with negative contrast enhancement between the atrial chambers. The patient was discharged with medical therapy on the eighth postoperative day. To our knowledge, the present is the first report to describe corrected transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, single coronary ostium, and acute myocardial infarction as comorbidities. PMID:27665336

  13. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  14. Bacterial flora and the epidemiology of staphylococcus aureus in the nose among patients with symptomatic nasal septal perforations.

    PubMed

    Hulterström, Anna Karin; Sellin, Mats; Monsen, Tor; Widerström, Micael; Gurram, Bharath Kumar; Berggren, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions Patients with symptomatic perforations of the nasal septum had a high prevalence of S. aureus in the nasal mucosa. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high genetic heterogeneity of S. aureus among both patients and controls. This indicates that presence of different strains of S. aureus can maintain a chronic inflammation in symptomatic nasal septal perforations. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the microbial flora around nasal septal perforations in patients having severe symptoms regarding bleeding, obstruction, and crustation associated with their perforation. Methods Twenty-five patients with untreated symptomatic nasal septal perforations were included. For culture, swabs around the perforations were collected. Bacteria were identified with standard laboratory techniques including a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Epidemiological analysis was done using PFGE protocols. Bacteriological data were compared with data from a healthy control group. Results Staphylococcus aureus was present in the mucosa surrounding the nasal perforation significantly more often (p < 0.0001) in the patients (88%) compared to a control group (13%). Corynebacterium spp. and Propionibacterium spp. were significantly more frequently identified in the control group. The PFGE analysis of S. aureus strains revealed a high genetic heterogeneity and no specific S. aureus genotypes were associated with septal perforation. PMID:26852671

  15. Infective endocarditis following coil occlusion of perimembranous ventricular septal defect with the Nit-Occlud(®) Le device

    PubMed Central

    El-Sisi, Amal M; Menaissy, Yasser M; Bekheet, Samia A

    2016-01-01

    The Nitinol coil system was recently developed by “PFM” specifically for the transcatheter occlusion of ventricular septal defects (VSD). The device consists of a coil fitted with polyester fibers designated for the closure of perimembranous defects with an aneurysmal septum and some muscular VSDs. We report a case of fatal acute infective endocarditis 10 days following the procedure. PMID:27011695

  16. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho Junior, Sirio; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defects. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 53 consecutive patients 3 years-old and younger presenting with complete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. Median age was 6.7 months; median weight was 5.3 Kg; 86.8% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 26 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (49.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 11.3%; annuloplasty was performed in 34% of the patients. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 21 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (39.6%). After performing a multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was the absence of Down syndrome (P=0.03). Conclusion Absence of Down syndrome was associated with moderate or severe postoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect at our practice. PMID:26313720

  17. Differential expression of genes encoding neurotrophic factors and their receptors along the septal-temporal axis of the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Atsushi; Iio, Wataru; Goto, Tatsuhiko; Koike, Hiroaki; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in learning and emotional regulation. The hippocampus' function varies along its septotemporal axis, with the septal pole being more frequently involved in spatial learning and memory, and the temporal pole playing a greater role in emotional behaviors. In this study, we present findings aimed at checking the expression level of the genes encoding neurotrophins and their receptors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and their receptors (TrkA, TrkB and TrkC) in the hippocampus along the septotemporal axis. Using real-time PCR, several different expression patterns were observed. Remarkably, the expression of both NT-3 and TrkA genes in the septal hippocampus was higher than in the middle and temporal hippocampus. Higher expression of NT-3 and TrkA may implicate active neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the septal hippocampus because more neurogenesis occurs in the septal than the temporal DG of rats. Finally, the results obtained in this study emphasize the importance of choosing the hippocampal portion along its septotemporal axis for any hippocampal molecular and biochemical experimental studies.

  18. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    SciTech Connect

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-03-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt.

  19. Dynamics of mid-infrared femtosecond laser resonant ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Dongqing; Li, Yunxuan; Wang, Qingyue

    2014-06-01

    Resonant ablation is beneficial to avoiding uncontrollable subsurface damages in the laser ablation of polymers. In this paper the dynamics of mid-infrared laser resonant ablation of polylactic acid and toluene was calculated by using fluid dynamic equations. The merits and drawbacks of mid-infrared femtosecond laser resonant ablation of high molecular weight polymers have been discussed.

  20. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  1. Morphology of left ventricular outflow tract structures in patients with subaortic stenosis and a ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Kitchiner, D; Jackson, M; Malaiya, N; Walsh, K; Peart, I; Arnold, R; Smith, A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the incidence and prognosis of subaortic stenosis associated with a ventricular septal defect and to define the morphological basis of subaortic stenosis. DESIGN--Presentation and follow up data on 202 patients with subaortic stenosis seen at the Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital between 1 January 1960 and 31 December 1991 were reviewed. Survivors were traced to assess their current clinical state. Necropsy specimens of 291 patients with lesions associated with subaortic stenosis were also examined. RESULTS--In the clinical study; 65 (32.1%) of the 202 patients with subaortic stenosis had a ventricular septal defect (excluding an atrioventricular septal defect). 32 of these patients had a short segment (fibromuscular) subaortic stenosis. 33 had subaortic stenosis produced by deviation of muscular components of the outflow tracts. In 17 patients (51.5%) this was caused by posterior deviation or extension of structures into the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in obstruction above the ventricular septal defect. In the other 16 patients (48.5%) there was over-riding of the aorta with concordant ventriculoarterial connections, (without compromise to right ventricular outflow) producing subaortic stenosis below the ventricular septal defect. Additional fibrous obstruction occurred in 39% of the patients with deviated structures. The age at presentation was lower (P < 0.01) in patients with deviated structures (median (range) 0.4 (0 to 9.2) months) than in those with short segment obstruction (median (range) 4.2 (0 to 84.9) months). The incidence of aortic arch obstruction was higher (P < 0.002) in patients with deviated structures than in those with short segment obstruction (38%). In the morphological study 35 pathological specimens showed obstructive muscular structures in the left ventricular outflow tract either above or below the ventricular septal defect. 16 had either posterior deviation of the outlet septum or extension of the

  2. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  3. Ablation response testing of aerospace power supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, S. A.; Chan, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was performed to assess the aerothermal ablation response of aerospace power supplies. Full-scale General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) test articles, Graphite Impact Shell (GIS) test articles, and Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) test articles were all tested without nuclear fuel in simulated reentry environments at the NASA Ames Research Center. Stagnation heating, stagnation pressure, stagnation surface temperature, stagnation surface recession profile, and weight loss measurements were obtained for diffusion-limited and sublimation ablation conditions. The recession profile and weight loss measurements showed an effect of surface features on the stagnation face. The surface features altered the local heating which in turn affected the local ablation.

  4. Sinonasal Headaches and Post-Operative Outcomes after Septoplasty in Patients with Nasal Septal Deviation

    PubMed Central

    Ghazipour, Ali; Abshirini, Hassan; Hekmat shoar, Mahmood; Pursalehan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Investigators believe that anatomical abnormalities in the sinonasal region can be the cause of some chronic and refractory headaches that may respond well to surgical intervention. This study presents the prevalence of headache in patients with nasal septal deviation and their response to surgical treatment over a 2-year follow-up period. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and prospective study was conducted on 98 patients with nasal septal deviation who underwent septoplasty surgery in the Imam Hospital in Ahwaz. Preoperative information was acquired by asking the patients and by completing SNOT-20 questionnaires by patients. After the surgery, information about changes in the quality of headache in patients with dominant contact points in preoperative nasal endoscopy whose headache responded to topical anaesthesia with lidocaine 2%+naphazoline 0.5% was collected over a 2-year follow-up. Final data were analyzed by SPSS and descriptive statistics. Results: Ninety-eight patients were studied, comprising 58.2% men and 41.8% women. They ranged in age between 18 and 46 years (mean=24). Nasal obstruction (72.4%), snoring (58.1%), headache (46%) and epistaxis (17.3%) were the most frequent preoperative symptoms. The most common site of the headache was the frontal region (68.8%). Patients' headache was bilateral in 71.1% of cases. In 82.2% of patients, headache lasted less than four hours a day. The headache was pulsatile in 53.3%, sharp in 31.2% and compressive in 15.5% of cases. In the post-operative assessment, despite gradual decline in the referral patients for follow-up, a notable and gradual recovery in patients’ headache was seen with 82.8% of the patients reporting complete or partial recovery of the headache at the end of the 2-year follow-up. Conclusion: Headache is one of the most common symptoms in patients with nasal anatomical abnormalities such as septal deviation and usually responds well to surgical treatment. More studies with

  5. Visualization of Anatomic Variation of the Anterior Septal Vein on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhengzhen; Qiao, Huihuang; Guo, Yu; Li, Jiance; Miao, Huizhong; Wen, Caiyun; Wen, Xindong; Zhang, Xiaofen; Yang, Xindong; Chen, Chengchun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Understanding the anatomy of the anterior septal vein (ASV) is critical for minimally invasive procedures to the third ventricle and for assessing lesion size and venous drainage in the anterior cranial fossa. Accordingly, this study evaluated topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). Methods Sixty volunteers were examined using a 3.0T MR system. The diameter of the ASV and distance between bilateral septal points were measured. ASVs were divided into types 1 (only drains frontal lobe) and 2 (drains both frontal lobe and head of the caudate nucleus). We evaluated the ASV-internal cerebral vein (ICV) junction based on its positional relationship with the appearance of a venous angle or a false venous angle and the foramen of Monro. Fused SW and T1-weighted images were used to observe positional relationships between the course of the ASV and the surrounding brain structures. Results The ASV and its small tributaries were clearly visualized in 120 hemispheres (100%). The average diameter of ASVs was 1.05±0.17 mm (range 0.9–1.6 mm). The average distance between bilateral septal points was 2.23±1.03 mm (range 1.3–6.6 mm). The ASV types 1 and 2 were in 77 (64.2%) and 43 (35.8%) hemispheres, respectively. In 83 (69.2%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated at the venous angle and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. In 37 (30.8%) hemispheres, the ASV-ICV junction was situated beyond the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro. The average distance between the posteriorly located ASV-ICV junction and the posterior margin of the foramen of Monro was 6.41±3.95 mm (range 2.4–15.9 mm). Conclusion Using SWI, the topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV were clearly demonstrated. Preoperative assessment of anatomic variation of the ASV may be advantageous for minimally invasive neurosurgical procedures. PMID:27716782

  6. The Peptidoglycan-Binding Protein SjcF1 Influences Septal Junction Function and Channel Formation in the Filamentous Cyanobacterium Anabaena

    PubMed Central

    Rudolf, Mareike; Tetik, Nalan; Ramos-León, Félix; Flinner, Nadine; Ngo, Giang; Stevanovic, Mara; Burnat, Mireia; Pernil, Rafael; Flores, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Filamentous, heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria exchange nutrients and regulators between cells for diazotrophic growth. Two alternative modes of exchange have been discussed involving transport either through the periplasm or through septal junctions linking adjacent cells. Septal junctions and channels in the septal peptidoglycan are likely filled with septal junction complexes. While possible proteinaceous factors involved in septal junction formation, SepJ (FraG), FraC, and FraD, have been identified, little is known about peptidoglycan channel formation and septal junction complex anchoring to the peptidoglycan. We describe a factor, SjcF1, involved in regulation of septal junction channel formation in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120. SjcF1 interacts with the peptidoglycan layer through two peptidoglycan-binding domains and is localized throughout the cell periphery but at higher levels in the intercellular septa. A strain with an insertion in sjcF1 was not affected in peptidoglycan synthesis but showed an altered morphology of the septal peptidoglycan channels, which were significantly wider in the mutant than in the wild type. The mutant was impaired in intercellular exchange of a fluorescent probe to a similar extent as a sepJ deletion mutant. SjcF1 additionally bears an SH3 domain for protein-protein interactions. SH3 binding domains were identified in SepJ and FraC, and evidence for interaction of SjcF1 with both SepJ and FraC was obtained. SjcF1 represents a novel protein involved in structuring the peptidoglycan layer, which links peptidoglycan channel formation to septal junction complex function in multicellular cyanobacteria. Nonetheless, based on its subcellular distribution, this might not be the only function of SjcF1. PMID:26126850

  7. Production of CeO2 Nanoparticles by Method of Laser Ablation of Bulk Metallic Cerium Targets in Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlichnyi, V. A.; Lapin, I. N.

    2016-03-01

    The method of pulsed laser ablation in liquid was used to synthesize dispersions of cerium oxide nanoparticles when subjecting a metallic cerium target in water and alcohol to basic frequency radiation of the nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 7 ns, 20 Hz). Researchers have studied the effect of laser radiation parameters, duration of impact, and optical scheme of experiment on the ablation process. The average rate of nanoparticle production was 50 mg/h in water and 25 mg/h in alcohol. Researchers have studied the size characteristics and crystalline structure of the nanoparticles produced. The particles have bimodal size distribution with 6 nm and 25 nm maximums. The average crystallite size is 17-19 nm. The crystalline structure of nanoparticles, namely cubic cerium oxide (fluorite structure), space group Fm-3m, is confirmed by the X-ray diffraction data, as well as optical absorption spectra and Raman spectroscopy.

  8. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  9. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  10. Femtosecond laser ablation of dentin and enamel: relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hu; Liu, Jing; Li, Hong; Ge, Wenqi; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Yong; Lü, Peijun

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between laser fluence and ablation efficiency of a femtosecond laser with a Gaussian-shaped pulse used to ablate dentin and enamel for prosthodontic tooth preparation. A diode-pumped thin-disk femtosecond laser with wavelength of 1025 nm and pulse width of 400 fs was used for the ablation of dentin and enamel. The laser spot was guided in a line on the dentin and enamel surfaces to form a groove-shaped ablation zone under a series of laser pulse energies. The width and volume of the ablated line were measured under a three-dimensional confocal microscope to calculate the ablation efficiency. Ablation efficiency for dentin reached a maximum value of 0.020 mm3/J when the laser fluence was set at 6.51 J/cm2. For enamel, the maximum ablation efficiency was 0.009 mm3/J at a fluence of 7.59 J/cm2. Ablation efficiency of the femtosecond laser on dentin and enamel is closely related to the laser fluence and may reach a maximum when the laser fluence is set to an appropriate value.

  11. Formation of nanoparticles during laser ablation of an iron target in a liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhov, I A; Simakin, Aleksandr V; Shafeev, Georgii A; Viau, G; Garcia, C

    2012-05-31

    Formation of nanoparticles during laser ablation of a bulk iron target in water and isopropyl alcohol by pulsed near-IR laser radiation has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed using a 3-ns neodymium laser and a 100-ns ytterbium fibre laser. A size distribution function is obtained for the nanoparticles, which is peaking near 15 nm. The diffraction patterns of the nanoparticles exhibit pronounced peaks of metallic iron. An analysis of the nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy shows that in some cases they have a core - shell structure. The nanoparticles formed by laser ablation have pronounced magnetic properties. The absorption spectra of colloids with iron nanoparticles contain peaks, which presumably correspond to the electron plasmon resonance in these particles.

  12. Formation of nanoparticles during laser ablation of an iron target in a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, I. A.; Simakin, Aleksandr V.; Shafeev, Georgii A.; Viau, G.; Garcia, C.

    2012-05-01

    Formation of nanoparticles during laser ablation of a bulk iron target in water and isopropyl alcohol by pulsed near-IR laser radiation has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were performed using a 3-ns neodymium laser and a 100-ns ytterbium fibre laser. A size distribution function is obtained for the nanoparticles, which is peaking near 15 nm. The diffraction patterns of the nanoparticles exhibit pronounced peaks of metallic iron. An analysis of the nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy shows that in some cases they have a core — shell structure. The nanoparticles formed by laser ablation have pronounced magnetic properties. The absorption spectra of colloids with iron nanoparticles contain peaks, which presumably correspond to the electron plasmon resonance in these particles.

  13. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  14. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  15. Anaesthetic management of a patient with erythropoietic protoporphyria for ventricular septal defect closure.

    PubMed

    Asokumar, B; Kierney, C; James, T W; Amato, J; Tumanmd, K J

    1999-01-01

    Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is due to a deficiency in ferrochelatase required for haem synthesis. We describe the anaesthetic management of a seven-year-old with EPP undergoing closure of a haemodynamically significant ventricular septal defect. Photosensitivity in EPP patients is triggered at wavelengths near 400 nm and light-excited porphyrins generate free radicals and singlet oxygen that lead to erythrocyte deformity and haemolysis. Stimuli that could trigger a porphyric crisis during anaesthesia and surgery were reduced by avoiding exposure to the sensitive 400 nm spectrum and using light sources covered with yellow acrylate filters in the operating room. Anaesthetic agents not previously associated with porphyric crisis were chosen. Whole blood priming of the extracorporeal circuit was performed to ensure adequate haemoglobin concentrations during the perioperative period.

  16. Effect of Water Content on Enthalpic Relaxations in Porcine Septal Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Y.; Protsenko, D.; Lavernia, E. J.; Wong, B. J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage thermoforming is an emerging surgical technology which uses heat to accelerate stress relaxation in mechanically deformed tissue specimens. Heat induced shape change in cartilage is associated with complex thermo mechanical behavior of which the mechanisms are still a subject of debate. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to characterize the threshold temperatures and enthalpies in cartilage as a function of water content. The DSC identified two enthalpic events in porcine nasal septal cartilage, which depend on the water content. The change in the water content of cartilage impacts the interactions between matrix macromolecules and water molecules, which may be associated with a bound-free water transformation (reversible process) and a denaturation of cartilage (irreversible process). PMID:25425960

  17. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the pulmonary veins in atrial septal defect.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Mohty, Dania; Aldawood, Wafa; Dahdouh, Ziad; Di Salvo, Giovanni

    2015-06-01

    The various components of the pulmonary venous (PV) flow are linked to physiological and pathological changes that predominantly occur in the left heart. Thus, spectral Doppler interrogation of the PVs provides hemodynamic insight mainly into left-sided cardiac function. An exception to the dependence of PV flow on left heart events occurs in the setting of an atrial septal defect (ASD). The latter causes a portion of the PV blood flow, intended to cross the mitral valve, to be channeled into the more compliant right heart. This phenomenon makes the PV flow more dependent on the left-to-right interatrial shunt. The identification on the PV Doppler of a pattern that suggests uncoupling with left heart hemodynamics should raise the suspicion of an underlying ASD.

  18. Tulip deformity with Cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device.

  19. Atrial septal defect: a coincidental finding on a screening medical.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    An otherwise fit, healthy medical practitioner who was a recreational diver underwent a medical assessment for a remote posting as an Antarctic Medical Practitioner at which a coincidental finding of an atrial septal defect (ASD) was made. ASDs can have health implications in extreme environments such as high altitude and is contraindicated in scuba diving. ASDs are common, being present in 1:1,500 live births and comprise 10% of all cardiac abnormalities. In this case, a percutaneous occlusive device was inserted under general anaesthetic with subsequent improvements in the practitioner's exercise capacity, return to diving and full employment, including Antarctic deployment, and right-sided heart remodelling 18 months post closure. PMID:26165535

  20. Tulip deformity with Cera atrial septal defect devices: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Vikas

    2015-02-01

    Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is the treatment of choice when anatomy is favourable. Amplatzer device has remained the gold standard for closure of ASD. Cobra deformity is a well-reported problem with devices. Recently, Tulip deformity has been reported in a single case. We report a series of cases where we noted Tulip deformity along with inability to retract the device in the sheath in Cera Lifetech devices. This resulted in prolongation of procedure, excessive fluoroscopic exposure and additional interventional procedures not usually anticipated in ASD device closure. We believe that the problem is due to the stiffness of the device resulting in its inability to be retracted into the sheath. We also report a unique way of retrieving the device. PMID:25179458

  1. Numerical investigation of the flow field in realistic nasal septal perforation geometry.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Baradaranfar, Mohammad Hossein; Abouali, Omid; Atighechi, Saeid; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Farhadi, Pejman; Keshavarzian, Erfan; Behniafard, Nasim; Baradaranfar, Amin

    2014-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to evaluate the physiological function of the nose. We evaluated the aerodynamics of the nasal cavity in a patient with septal perforation (SP), pre- and postvirtual repair. Three-dimensional nasal models were reconstructed, and then a wide range of the pressure drops and flow rates were analyzed. The airflow velocity is higher in the central region and is lower around the boundary of the SP. The air velocity in the SP increases as the pressure drop increases. Furthermore, at the anterior part of the SP, the shear stress is higher in the upper part. In addition, the repair of SP does not affect the total nasal airflow rate and the velocity contour patterns. The potential usage of the CFD technique as a predictive technique to explore the details and a preoperative assessment tool to help in clinical decision making in nasal surgery is emphasized. PMID:24988523

  2. Atrial septal defect: a coincidental finding on a screening medical.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    An otherwise fit, healthy medical practitioner who was a recreational diver underwent a medical assessment for a remote posting as an Antarctic Medical Practitioner at which a coincidental finding of an atrial septal defect (ASD) was made. ASDs can have health implications in extreme environments such as high altitude and is contraindicated in scuba diving. ASDs are common, being present in 1:1,500 live births and comprise 10% of all cardiac abnormalities. In this case, a percutaneous occlusive device was inserted under general anaesthetic with subsequent improvements in the practitioner's exercise capacity, return to diving and full employment, including Antarctic deployment, and right-sided heart remodelling 18 months post closure.

  3. Optogenetic activation of septal GABAergic afferents entrains neuronal firing in the medial habenula

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuhyun; Lee, Youngin; Lee, Changwoo; Hong, Seokheon; Lee, Soonje; Kang, Shin Jung; Shin, Ki Soon

    2016-01-01

    The medial habenula (MHb) plays an important role in nicotine-related behaviors such as nicotine aversion and withdrawal. The MHb receives GABAergic input from the medial septum/diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), yet the synaptic mechanism that regulates MHb activity is unclear. GABA (γ -aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter activating both GABAA receptors and GABAB receptors. Depending on intracellular chloride concentration, however, GABAA receptors also function in an excitatory manner. In the absence of various synaptic inputs, we found that MHb neurons displayed spontaneous tonic firing at a rate of about ~4.4 Hz. Optogenetic stimulation of MS/DB inputs to the MHb evoked GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, which produced stimulus-locked neuronal firing. Subsequent delayed yet lasting activation of GABAB receptors attenuated the intrinsic tonic firing. Consequently, septal GABAergic input alone orchestrates both excitatory GABAA and inhibitory GABAB receptors, thereby entraining the firing of MHb neurons. PMID:27703268

  4. Onychomycosis due to Candida parapsilosis in a Child with Ventricular Septal Defect: An Unusual Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Hosuru Subramanya, Supram; Hamal, Deependra; Nayak, Niranjan; Gokhale, Shishir

    2016-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is emerging as a potential pathogen for onychomycosis. A 4-year-old male child with perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD) was admitted with features of cystitis and was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Two weeks later, he developed yellowish discoloration of nails of both hands. The sloughed out nail, on microscopy, showed numerous yeast forms that were identified as Candida parapsilosis by both phenotypic and genotypic methods. Antifungal sensitivity testing of the isolate was performed by microbroth dilution method in accordance with CLSI guidelines. Patient was successfully treated with topical amphotericin B and oral fluconazole. Thus, one should have a high index of suspicion of C. parapsilosis onychomycosis, especially when the patient is in the paediatric age group, presenting with unusual predisposing condition like congenital heart disease, and is on broad spectrum antibiotics. PMID:27195165

  5. Numerical investigation of the flow field in realistic nasal septal perforation geometry

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Abouali, Omid; Atighechi, Saeid; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Farhadi, Pejman; Keshavarzian, Erfan; Behniafard, Nasim; Baradaranfar, Amin

    2014-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to evaluate the physiological function of the nose. We evaluated the aerodynamics of the nasal cavity in a patient with septal perforation (SP), pre- and postvirtual repair. Three-dimensional nasal models were reconstructed, and then a wide range of the pressure drops and flow rates were analyzed. The airflow velocity is higher in the central region and is lower around the boundary of the SP. The air velocity in the SP increases as the pressure drop increases. Furthermore, at the anterior part of the SP, the shear stress is higher in the upper part. In addition, the repair of SP does not affect the total nasal airflow rate and the velocity contour patterns. The potential usage of the CFD technique as a predictive technique to explore the details and a preoperative assessment tool to help in clinical decision making in nasal surgery is emphasized. PMID:24988523

  6. Device closure in adults with atrial septal defect in Shiraz, a single center registry

    PubMed Central

    Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Kojuri, Javad; Dehghani, Pooyan; Razazi, Vida; Moarref, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Successful closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) improves patients’ functional class and exercise capacity. In this study we evaluate the safety and feasibility of percutaneous device closure of ASDs. Methods: Two hundred fifty six patients with significant ASD according to our criteria were enrolled. The patients were treated using nitinol wire mesh transcatheter devices. Complications were followed for a median of 2.5 years. Results: Success rate was 98.4% with 3 unsuccessful cases and a mean hospital stay of 1.007 ± 0.0004 days. Complication rate was 7.42%. Size of the right ventricle (RV) annulus was significantly decreased 24 hours after intervention (P = 0.005). Conclusion: The present report demonstrates that transcatheter closure of ASD is safe and effective. PMID:27069566

  7. Ventricular septal defects in cattle: A retrospective study of 25 cases

    PubMed Central

    Fecteau, Gilles; DiFruscia, Rocky

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Clinical and complementary examination, pathological findings, and outcome were reviewed for 25 heifers diagnosed with ventricular septal defect (VSD). Age at presentation ranged from 36 h to 21 mo. The most common reasons for consultation were chronic respiratory problems (11 cases; 44%) or assessment of heart murmur (5 cases; 20%). A pansystolic murmur on the right thoracic side was audible in 20 cases (80%). Pneumonia that interfered with adequate cardiac auscultation was found in 15 calves (60%). Echocardiography was useful in establishing the final diagnosis of VSD (sensitivity of 94%). Prognosis was poor: only 10 calves were discharged and no heifer out of the 6 cases for which follow-up information was available had a productive life in the herd. Inadequate reproductive performance was owners’ most common complaint (4 of 6 heifers). PMID:16604981

  8. Femtosecond laser ablation of the stapes

    PubMed Central

    McCaughey, Ryan G.; Sun, Hui; Rothholtz, Vanessa S.; Juhasz, Tibor; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2014-01-01

    A femtosecond laser, normally used for LASIK eye surgery, is used to perforate cadaveric human stapes. The thermal side effects of bone ablation are measured with a thermocouple in an inner ear model and are found to be within acceptable limits for inner ear surgery. Stress and acoustic events, recorded with piezoelectric film and a microphone, respectively, are found to be negligible. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and optical coherence tomography are used to confirm the precision of the ablation craters and lack of damage to the surrounding tissue. Ablation is compared to that from an Er:YAG laser, the current laser of choice for stapedotomy, and is found to be superior. Ultra-short-pulsed lasers offer a precise and efficient ablation of the stapes, with minimal thermal and negligible mechanical and acoustic damage. They are, therefore, ideal for stapedotomy operations. PMID:19405768

  9. Simple spherical ablative-implosion model

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, F.J.; Steele, J.T.; Larsen, J.T.

    1980-06-23

    A simple model of the ablative implosion of a high-aspect-ratio (shell radius to shell thickness ratio) spherical shell is described. The model is similar in spirit to Rosenbluth's snowplow model. The scaling of the implosion time was determined in terms of the ablation pressure and the shell parameters such as diameter, wall thickness, and shell density, and compared these to complete hydrodynamic code calculations. The energy transfer efficiency from ablation pressure to shell implosion kinetic energy was examined and found to be very efficient. It may be possible to attach a simple heat-transport calculation to our implosion model to describe the laser-driven ablation-implosion process. The model may be useful for determining other energy driven (e.g., ion beam) implosion scaling.

  10. Nanosecond laser ablation of silver nanoparticle film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jaewon; Han, Sewoon; Lee, Daeho; Ahn, Sanghoon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Moon, Jooho; Ko, Seung H.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosecond laser ablation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected silver nanoparticle (20 nm diameter) film is studied using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG nanosecond laser (532 nm wavelength, 6 ns full width half maximum pulse width). In the sintered silver nanoparticle film, absorbed light energy conducts well through the sintered porous structure, resulting in ablation craters of a porous dome shape or crown shape depending on the irradiation fluence due to the sudden vaporization of the PVP. In the unsintered silver nanoparticle film, the ablation crater with a clean edge profile is formed and many coalesced nanoparticles of 50 to 100 nm in size are observed inside the ablation crater. These results and an order of magnitude analysis indicate that the absorbed thermal energy is confined within the nanoparticles, causing melting of nanoparticles and their coalescence to larger agglomerates, which are removed following melting and subsequent partial vaporization.

  11. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry - A review

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Richard E.; Mao, Xianglei; Liu, Haichen; Gonzalez, Jhanis; Mao, Samuel S.

    2001-10-10

    Laser ablation is becoming a dominant technology for direct solid sampling in analytical chemistry. Laser ablation refers to the process in which an intense burst of energy delivered by a short laser pulse is used to sample (remove a portion of) a material. The advantages of laser ablation chemical analysis include direct characterization of solids, no chemical procedures for dissolution, reduced risk of contamination or sample loss, analysis of very small samples not separable for solution analysis, and determination of spatial distributions of elemental composition. This review describes recent research to understand and utilize laser ablation for direct solid sampling, with emphasis on sample introduction to an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Current research related to contemporary experimental systems, calibration and optimization, and fractionation is discussed, with a summary of applications in several areas.

  12. Neocuproine ablates melanocytes in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly-Pol, Thomas; Johnson, Stephen L

    2008-12-01

    The simplest regeneration experiments involve the ablation of a single cell type. While methods exist to ablate the melanocytes of the larval zebrafish,(1,2) no convenient method exists to ablate melanocytes in adult zebrafish. Here, we show that the copper chelator neocuproine (NCP) causes fragmentation and disappearance of melanin in adult zebrafish melanocytes. Adult melanocytes expressing eGFP under the control of a melanocyte-specific promoter also lose eGFP fluorescence in the presence of NCP. We conclude that NCP causes melanocyte death. This death is independent of p53 and melanin, but can be suppressed by the addition of exogenous copper. NCP is ineffective at ablating larval melanocytes. This now provides a tool for addressing questions about stem cells and the maintenance of the adult pigment pattern in zebrafish.

  13. Photodynamic therapy toward selective endometrial ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadir, Yona; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Berns, Michael W.

    1993-05-01

    Potential applications of photodynamic therapy for endometrial disease are discussed. Experimental models that may lead to diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis as well as selective endometrial ablation are summarized.

  14. Nanoscale ablation through optically trapped microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardel, Romain; McLeod, Euan; Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Arnold, Craig B.

    2010-10-01

    The ability to directly create patterns with size scales below 100 nm is important for many applications where the production or repair of high resolution and density features is needed. Laser-based direct-write methods have the benefit of being able to quickly and easily modify and create structures on existing devices, but ablation can negatively impact the overall technique. In this paper we show that self-positioning of near-field objectives through the optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN) method allows for ablation without harming the objective elements. Small microbeads are positioned in close proximity to a substrate where ablation is initiated. Upon ablation, these beads are temporarily displaced from the trap but rapidly return to the initial position. We analyze the range of fluence values for which this process occurs and find that there exists a critical threshold beyond which the beads are permanently ejected.

  15. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A general thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in the ablation simulation of the meteoroid and the glassy ablator for spacecraft Thermal Protection Systems. Time-dependent axisymmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. The predicted mass loss rates will be compared with available data for model validation, and parametric studies will also be performed for meteoroid earth entry conditions.

  16. Genetic analysis of an enhancer of the NKX2-5 gene in ventricular septal defects.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xianyun; Xing, Qining; Ma, Liming; Meng, Haihong; Liu, Yumei; Pang, Shuchao; Yan, Bo

    2012-10-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects in humans. Mutations in cardiac transcription factor genes, such as GATA4, NKX2-5 and TBX5 genes, have been associated to a small portion of familial and isolated CHD cases. NKX2-5, a highly conserved homeobox gene, is expressed in the developing heart. During embryonic development, NKX2-5 plays pivotal roles in specifying cardiac progenitors, cardiac morphogenesis, cardiomyocyte differentiation and conduction system development. Numerous mutations in NKX2-5 gene have been reported in CHD patients, including atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (VSD) and tetrology of Fallot. We have previously identified the sequence variants within the NKX2-5 gene promoter in VSD patients. As several studies have revealed that the NKX2-5 gene is regulated by a complex module involving promoter and multiple independent cardiac enhancers, one of which is located between -3500 bp and -2500 bp upstream to the transcription start site, we hypothesized that the variants within the cardiac enhancer may contribute to CHD. In this study, we genetically analyzed the enhancer of NKX2-5 gene in large cohorts of VSD patients (n=322) and controls (n=336). The results showed that three novel variants, g.1467G>A, g.1487 Ins with a 13 bp insertion and g.1515 Ins with a 6 bp insertion, were identified within the enhancer element in both VSD patients and controls with similar frequencies (P>0.05). Therefore, our data suggested that the enhancer of NKX2-5 gene may not be a contributor to the VSD etiology. Other regulatory elements of the NKX2-5 gene will be further analyzed in CHD patients.

  17. Allelic Interaction between CRELD1 and VEGFA in the Pathogenesis of Cardiac Atrioventricular Septal Defects

    PubMed Central

    Redig, Jennifer K.; Fouad, Gameil T.; Babcock, Darcie; Reshey, Benjamin; Feingold, Eleanor; Reeves, Roger H.; Maslen, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) are highly heritable, clinically significant congenital heart malformations. Genetic and environmental modifiers of risk are thought to work in unknown combinations to cause AVSD. Approximately 5–10% of simplex AVSD cases carry a missense mutation in CRELD1. However, CRELD1 mutations are not fully penetrant and require interactions with other risk factors to result in AVSD. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is a well-characterized modulator of heart valve development. A functional VEGFA polymorphism, VEGFA c.–634C, which causes constitutively increased VEGFA expression, has been associated with cardiac septal defects suggesting it may be a genetic risk factor. To determine if there is an allelic association with AVSD we genotyped the VEGFA c.–634 SNP in a simplex AVSD study cohort. Over-representation of the c.–634C allele in the AVSD group suggested that this genotype may increase risk. Correlation of CRELD1 and VEGFA genotypes revealed that potentially pathogenic missense mutations in CRELD1 were always accompanied by the VEGFA c.–634C allele in individuals with AVSD suggesting a potentially pathogenic allelic interaction. We used a Creld1 knockout mouse model to determine the effect of deficiency of Creld1 combined with increased VEGFA on atrioventricular canal development. Morphogenic response to VEGFA was abnormal in Creld1-deficient embryonic hearts, indicating that interaction between CRELD1 and VEGFA has the potential to alter atrioventricular canal morphogenesis. This supports our hypothesis that an additive effect between missense mutations in CRELD1 and a functional SNP in VEGFA contributes to the pathogenesis of AVSD. PMID:25328912

  18. Secondary correction of unsatisfactory blepharoplasty: removing multilaminated septal structures and grafting of preaponeurotic fat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y W; Park, H J; Kim, S

    2000-11-01

    Oriental blepharoplasty, commonly known as a "double eyelid operation," is the most frequently practiced cosmetic procedure in Orientals, who have probably become more fold conscious because of social westernization and an influx of Caucasians into their society. Anatomically, the upper eyelids of an Oriental are considerably different from those of a white person, and nearly half of Orientals have single eyelids. When performing blepharoplasty, an appropriate design and operative technique must be carefully selected, taking into consideration the anatomical characteristics of Koreans to obtain an aesthetically pleasing result. However, the incidence of complications is high. Patients who are faced with unsatisfactory results are often perplexed by the fact that such a commonly performed procedure could have a very high rate of dissatisfaction and that an improvement is not easy. An unfavorable result need not imply a postoperative complication, but only that the result is not acceptable to the patient, whose goal may not be based on good aesthetic principles. The most common sources of dissatisfaction are postoperative asymmetry and high placement of the lid fold. From 1991 to 1998, secondary blepharoplasty was performed on 72 patients by slitting transversely, removing the multilaminated septal structures exposed to the previous operative scar, spreading the preaponeurotic fat that extruded, and removing the septal structures into a space where the scar was eliminated to prevent secondary adhesion. The average age of the patients was 26.5 years, and the average follow-up period was 2 years. No remarkable complication was encountered after operation with this method, and the desired aesthetic improvements were achieved in the majority of the patients.

  19. Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats.

    PubMed

    Dashniani, M G; Burjanadze, M A; Naneishvili, T L; Chkhikvishvili, N C; Beselia, G V; Kruashvili, L B; Pochkhidze, N O; Chighladze, M R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the medial septal (MS) lesions on exploratory activity in the open field and the spatial and object recognition memory has been investigated. This experiment compares three types of MS lesions: electrolytic lesions that destroy cells and fibers of passage, neurotoxic - ibotenic acid lesions that spare fibers of passage but predominantly affect the septal noncholinergic neurons, and immunotoxin - 192 IgG-saporin infusions that only eliminate cholinergic neurons. The main results are: the MS electrolytic lesioned rats were impaired in habituating to the environment in the repeated spatial environment, but rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS did not differ from control ones; the MS electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed an increase in their exploratory activity to the objects and were impaired in habituating to the objects in the repeated spatial environment; rats with immunolesions of the MS did not differ from control rats; electrolytic lesions of the MS disrupt spatial recognition memory; rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS were normal in detecting spatial novelty; all of the MS-lesioned and control rats clearly reacted to the object novelty by exploring the new object more than familiar ones. Results observed across lesion techniques indicate that: (i) the deficits after nonselective damage of MS are limited to a subset of cognitive processes dependent on the hippocampus, (ii) MS is substantial for spatial, but not for object recognition memory - the object recognition memory can be supported outside the septohippocampal system; (iii) the selective loss of septohippocampal cholinergic or noncholinergic projections does not disrupt the function of the hippocampus to a sufficient extent to impair spatial recognition memory; (iv) there is dissociation between the two major components (cholinergic and noncholinergic) of the septohippocampal pathway in exploratory behavior assessed in the open

  20. Real-Time MRI Guided Laser Atrial Septal Puncture in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Elagha, Abdalla A.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Guttman, Michael A.; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Kim, Ann H.; Burton, George W.; Kim, June H.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Raval, Amish N.; Wright, Victor J.; Schenke, William H.; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Even in experienced hands, X-ray guided needle atrial septal puncture risks non-target perforation and pericardial tamponade. Real-time MRI offers potentially superior target imaging and multiplanar device tracking. We report initial preclinical experience with real-time MRI-guided atrial septal puncture using a MRI-conspicuous blunt laser catheter that perforates only when energized. Materials and Methods We customized a clinical excimer laser catheter (0.9mm Clirpath, Spectranetics) with a receiver coil to impart MRI visibility at 1.5T. Seven swine underwent laser transseptal puncture under real-time MRI. MRI signal-to-noise profiles were obtained of the device in vitro. Tissue traversal force was tested with a calibrated meter. Position was corroborated by pressure, oximetry, angiography, and necropsy. Intentional non-target perforation simulated serious complication. Results Embedded MRI-antennae accurately reflected the position of the laser catheter tip and profile in vitro and in vivo. Despite increased profile from the microcoil, the 0.9mm laser catheter traversed in vitro targets with similar force (0.22 ± 0.03N) compared with the unmodified laser. Laser puncture of the atrial septum was successful and accurate in all animals. The laser was activated an average 3.8 ± 0.4 seconds before traversal. There were no sequelae after 6 hour observation. Necropsy revealed 0.9mm holes in the fossa ovalis in all animals. Intentional perforation of the aorta and of the atrial free wall was evident immediately. Conclusion MRI-guided laser puncture of the interatrial septum is feasible in swine, and offers controlled delivery of perforation energy using an otherwise blunt catheter. Instantaneous soft-tissue imaging provides immediate safety feedback. PMID:18725098

  1. Echocardiographic diagnosis and necropsy findings of a congenital ventricular septal defect in a stranded harbor porpoise.

    PubMed

    Szatmári, Viktor; Bunskoek, Paulien; Kuiken, Thijs; van den Berg, Annemarie; van Elk, Cornelis

    2016-03-30

    A live-stranded harbor porpoise Phocoena phocoena was found on the west coast of the Dutch island Texel (North Sea) and transported to a rehabilitation center for small cetaceans, where it underwent a veterinary health check. Cardiac auscultation revealed a systolic cardiac murmur with the point of maximal intensity in the right hemithorax with an intensity of IV out of VI. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a congenital ventricular septal defect with left-to-right shunting. Because the left atrium was not dilated according to the reference range of canine left atrium to aortic ratio, the presence of congestive heart failure was considered very unlikely. Therefore, this congenital cardiac anomaly was thought to be a clinically non-relevant incidental finding and would not explain the weakness, coughing, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Because the animal was still unable to swim or eat by itself after 2 wk of supportive care, it was euthanized. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a ventricular septal defect. The weight of the heart relative to the animal's length was greater than expected, using linear regression analysis on the lengths and cardiac weights of 71 other stranded wild harbor porpoises without macroscopic cardiac pathologic changes. This finding suggests that the left ventricle had an eccentric hypertrophy because of volume overload resulting from the intracardiac shunt. This is the first report of a congenital cardiac anomaly and its ante-mortem diagnosis in this species. Data presented for the other 71 harbor porpoises may provide reference values for this species. PMID:27025305

  2. Transthoracic echocardiographic guidance during transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Abdullah; Sarıtas, Turkay; Zeybek, Cenap; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Erol, Nurdan; Demır, Halil; Odemıs, Ender; Yalcın, Yalim; Celebı, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure guided by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Since 2004, ASD closure was performed successfully in total 337 patients. Transthoracic echocardiography guidance was used in 206 patients (61.1%) (group 1). Closure was guided by transesophageal echocardiography under general anesthesia in patients with poor transthoracic acoustic windows, defects with aneurysmatic septum and/or multiple defects in 131 patients (38.9%) (group 2). The median age (9 vs. 16 years, P < 0.001), mean defect diameter (14.9 ± 4 vs. 17.2 ± 5 mm, P < 0.001), ratio of complex atrial septal defect (14 vs. 34%, P = 0.01), the median balloon stretch dimensions (21 vs. 18.7 mm, P = 0.003) and the median device diameters (22 vs. 19 mm, P < 0.001) were significantly greater in group 2 compared to group 1. Both the median procedure time and the median fluoroscopy time was significantly shorter in group 1 (60 vs. 75; and 13 vs. 16.5 min; P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The incidence of residual shunt did not differ significantly in two groups during follow up. Transthoracic echocardiography guidance during transcatheter ASD closure is safe and effective in children and in many adults. Even complex ASDs could be closed with TTE in patients with good acoustic windows. Performing the procedure under TTE guidance significantly reduces procedure time and also provides increased patient's comfort.

  3. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  4. Principles of the radiative ablation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saillard, Yves; Arnault, Philippe; Silvert, Virginie

    2010-12-01

    Indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) rests on the setting up of a radiation temperature within a laser cavity and on the optimization of the capsule implosion ablated by this radiation. In both circumstances, the ablation of an optically thick medium is at work. The nonlinear radiation conduction equations that describe this phenomenon admit different kinds of solutions called generically Marshak waves. In this paper, a completely analytic model is proposed to describe the ablation in the subsonic regime relevant to ICF experiments. This model approximates the flow by a deflagrationlike structure where Hugoniot relations are used in the stationary part from the ablation front up to the isothermal sonic Chapman-Jouguet point and where the unstationary expansion from the sonic point up to the external boundary is assumed quasi-isothermal. It uses power law matter properties. It can also accommodate arbitrary boundary conditions provided the ablation wave stays very subsonic and the surface temperature does not vary too quickly. These requirements are often met in realistic situations. Interestingly, the ablated mass rate, the ablation pressure, and the absorbed radiative energy depend on the time history of the surface temperature, not only on the instantaneous temperature values. The results compare very well with self-similar solutions and with numerical simulations obtained by hydrodynamic code. This analytic model gives insight into the physical processes involved in the ablation and is helpful for optimization and sensitivity studies in many situations of interest: radiation temperature within a laser cavity, acceleration of finite size medium, and ICF capsule implosion, for instance.

  5. Principles of the radiative ablation modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Saillard, Yves; Arnault, Philippe; Silvert, Virginie

    2010-12-15

    Indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) rests on the setting up of a radiation temperature within a laser cavity and on the optimization of the capsule implosion ablated by this radiation. In both circumstances, the ablation of an optically thick medium is at work. The nonlinear radiation conduction equations that describe this phenomenon admit different kinds of solutions called generically Marshak waves. In this paper, a completely analytic model is proposed to describe the ablation in the subsonic regime relevant to ICF experiments. This model approximates the flow by a deflagrationlike structure where Hugoniot relations are used in the stationary part from the ablation front up to the isothermal sonic Chapman-Jouguet point and where the unstationary expansion from the sonic point up to the external boundary is assumed quasi-isothermal. It uses power law matter properties. It can also accommodate arbitrary boundary conditions provided the ablation wave stays very subsonic and the surface temperature does not vary too quickly. These requirements are often met in realistic situations. Interestingly, the ablated mass rate, the ablation pressure, and the absorbed radiative energy depend on the time history of the surface temperature, not only on the instantaneous temperature values. The results compare very well with self-similar solutions and with numerical simulations obtained by hydrodynamic code. This analytic model gives insight into the physical processes involved in the ablation and is helpful for optimization and sensitivity studies in many situations of interest: radiation temperature within a laser cavity, acceleration of finite size medium, and ICF capsule implosion, for instance.

  6. Flexible Ablators: Applications and Arcjet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, James O.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin A S.; Mcguire, Kathy; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Gorbunov, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Flexible ablators were conceived in 2009 to meet the technology pull for large, human Mars Exploration Class, 23 m diameter hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerators. As described elsewhere, they have been recently undergoing initial technical readiness (TRL) advancement by NASA. The performance limits of flexible ablators in terms of maximum heat rates, pressure and shear remain to be defined. Further, it is hoped that this emerging technology will vastly expand the capability of future NASA missions involving atmospheric entry systems. This paper considers four topics of relevance to flexible ablators: (1) Their potential applications to near/far term human and robotic missions (2) Brief consideration of the balance between heat shield diameter, flexible ablator performance limits, entry vehicle controllability and aft-body shear layer impingement of interest to designers of very large entry vehicles, (3) The approach for developing bonding processes of flexible ablators for use on rigid entry bodies and (4) Design of large arcjet test articles that will enable the testing of flexible ablators in flight-like, combined environments (heat flux, pressure, shear and structural tensile loading). Based on a review of thermal protection system performance requirements for future entry vehicles, it is concluded that flexible ablators have broad applications to conventional, rigid entry body systems and are enabling to large deployable (both inflatable and mechanical) heat shields. Because of the game-changing nature of flexible ablators, it appears that NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) will fund a focused, 3-year TRL advancement of the new materials capable of performance in heat fluxes in the range of 200-600 W/sq. cm. This support will enable the manufacture and use of the large-scale arcjet test designs that will be a key element of this OCT funded activity.

  7. Resonant laser ablation: mechanisms and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.; Allen, T.M.; Garrett, A.W.; Gill, C.G.; Hemberger, P.H.; Kelly, P.B.; Nogar, N.S.

    1996-10-01

    We report on aspects of resonant laser ablation (RLA) behavior for a number of sample types: metals, alloys, thin films, zeolites and soil. The versatility of RLA is demonstrated, with results on a variety of samples and in several mass spectrometers. In addition, the application to depth profiling of thin films is described; absolute removal rates and detection limits are also displayed. A discussion of possible mechanisms for low-power ablation is presented.

  8. Laser Ablated Carbon Nanodots for Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Delfino; Camacho, Marco; Camacho, Miguel; Mayorga, Miguel; Weathers, Duncan; Salamo, Greg; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots-like nanostructures (CNDs) obtained through the laser ablation of a carbon solid target in liquid environment is reported. The ablation process was induced in acetone with laser pulses of 1064, 532, and 355 nm under different irradiation times. Close-spherical amorphous CNDs with sizes between 5 and 20 nm, whose abundance strongly depends on the ablation parameters were investigated using electron microscopy and was confirmed using absorption and emission spectroscopies. The π- π* electronic transition at 3.76 eV dominates the absorption for all the CNDs species synthesized under different irradiation conditions. The light emission is most efficient due to excitation at 3.54 eV with the photoluminescence intensity centered at 3.23 eV. The light emission from the CNDs is most efficient due to ablation at 355 nm. The emission wavelength of the CNDs can be tuned from the near-UV to the green wavelength region by controlling the ablation time and modifying the ablation and excitation laser wavelength.

  9. Femtosecond laser lithotripsy: feasibility and ablation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinze; Teichman, Joel M. H.; Wang, Tianyi; Neev, Joseph; Glickman, Randolph D.; Chan, Kin Foong; Milner, Thomas E.

    2010-03-01

    Light emitted from a femtosecond laser is capable of plasma-induced ablation of various materials. We tested the feasibility of utilizing femtosecond-pulsed laser radiation (λ=800 nm, 140 fs, 0.9 mJ/pulse) for ablation of urinary calculi. Ablation craters were observed in human calculi of greater than 90% calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), cystine (CYST), or magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MAPH). Largest crater volumes were achieved on CYST stones, among the most difficult stones to fragment using Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) lithotripsy. Diameter of debris was characterized using optical microscopy and found to be less than 20 μm, substantially smaller than that produced by long-pulsed Ho:YAG ablation. Stone retropulsion, monitored by a high-speed camera system with a spatial resolution of 15 μm, was negligible for stones with mass as small as 0.06 g. Peak shock wave pressures were less than 2 bars, measured by a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) needle hydrophone. Ablation dynamics were visualized and characterized with pump-probe imaging and fast flash photography and correlated to shock wave pressures. Because femtosecond-pulsed laser ablates urinary calculi of soft and hard compositions, with micron-sized debris, negligible stone retropulsion, and small shock wave pressures, we conclude that the approach is a promising candidate technique for lithotripsy.

  10. Laser Ablated Carbon Nanodots for Light Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Delfino; Camacho, Marco; Camacho, Miguel; Mayorga, Miguel; Weathers, Duncan; Salamo, Greg; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots-like nanostructures (CNDs) obtained through the laser ablation of a carbon solid target in liquid environment is reported. The ablation process was induced in acetone with laser pulses of 1064, 532, and 355 nm under different irradiation times. Close-spherical amorphous CNDs with sizes between 5 and 20 nm, whose abundance strongly depends on the ablation parameters were investigated using electron microscopy and was confirmed using absorption and emission spectroscopies. The π- π* electronic transition at 3.76 eV dominates the absorption for all the CNDs species synthesized under different irradiation conditions. The light emission is most efficient due to excitation at 3.54 eV with the photoluminescence intensity centered at 3.23 eV. The light emission from the CNDs is most efficient due to ablation at 355 nm. The emission wavelength of the CNDs can be tuned from the near-UV to the green wavelength region by controlling the ablation time and modifying the ablation and excitation laser wavelength.

  11. Pulsed HF laser ablation of dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papagiakoumou, Eirini I.; Papadopoulos, Dimitris N.; Makropoulou, Mersini I.; Khabbaz, Maruan G.; Serafetinides, Alexander A.

    2005-03-01

    The interaction of a TEA (Transversally Excited Atmospheric pressure) corona preionized oscillator double amplifier HF (hydrogen fluoride) laser beam with dentin tissue is reported. Pulses of 39 ns in the wavelength range of 2.65-3.35 μm and output energies in the range of 10-45 mJ, in a predominantly TEM00 beam were used to interact with dentin tissue. Ablation experiments were conducted with the laser beam directly focused on the tissue. Several samples of freshly extracted human teeth were used, cut longitudinally in facets of about 1mm thick and stored in phosphate buffered saline after being cleaned from the soft tissue remains. The experimental data (ablation thresholds, ablation rates) are discussed with respect to the ablation mechanism(s). Adequate tissue removal was observed and the ablation behavior was, in the greates part of the available fluences, almost linear. From the microscopic examination of teh samples, in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the irradiated surfaces displayed oval craters (reflecting the laser beam shape) with absence of any melting or carbonization zone. It is suggested that the specific laser removes hard tissue by a combined photothermal and plasma mediated ablation mechanism, leaving a surface free from thermal damage and with a well-shaped crater.

  12. Basic ablation phenomena during laser thrombolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyam, Ujwal S.; Shearin, Alan; Prahl, Scott A.

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents studies of microsecond ablation phenomena that take place during laser thrombolysis. The main goals were to optimize laser parameters for efficient ablation, and to investigate the ablation mechanism. Gelatin containing an absorbing dye was used as the clot model. A parametric study was performed to identify the optimal wavelength, spot size, pulse energies, and repetition rate for maximum material removal. The minimum radiant exposures to achieve ablation at any wavelength were measured. The results suggest that most visible wavelengths were equally efficient at removing material at radiant exposures above threshold. Ablation was initiated at surface temperatures just above 100 degrees Celsius. A vapor bubble was formed during ablation. Less than 5% of the total pulse energy is coupled into the bubble energy. A large part of the delivered energy is unaccounted for and is likely released partly as acoustic transients from the vapor expansion and partly wasted as heat. The current laser and delivery systems may not be able to completely remove large clot burden that is sometimes encountered in heart attacks. However, laser thrombolysis may emerge as a favored treatment for strokes where the occlusion is generally smaller and rapid recanalization is of paramount importance. A final hypothesis is that laser thrombolysis should be done at radiant exposures close to threshold to minimize any damaging effects of the bubble dynamics on the vessel wall.

  13. Laser Ablation for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Francica, Giampiero; Di Costanzo, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and is increasingly detected at small size (<5 cm) owing to surveillance programmes in high-risk patients. For these cases, curative therapies such as resection, liver transplantation, or percutaneous ablation have been proposed. When surgical options are precluded, image-guided tumor ablation is recommended as the most appropriate therapeutic choice in terms of tumor local control, safety, and improvement in survival. Laser ablation (LA) represents one of currently available loco-ablative techniques: light is delivered via flexible quartz fibers of diameter from 300 to 600 μm inserted into tumor lesion through either fine needles (21g Chiba needles) or large-bore catheters. The thermal destruction of tissue is achieved through conversion of absorbed light (usually infrared) into heat. A range of different imaging modalities have been used to guide percutaneous laser ablation, but ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are most widely employed, according to local experience and resource availability. Available clinical data suggest that LA is highly effective in terms of tumoricidal capability with an excellent safety profile; the best results in terms of long-term survival are obtained in early HCC so that LA can be proposed not only in unresectable cases but, not differently from radiofrequency ablation, also as the first-line treatment. PMID:22191028

  14. Optical modeling of laser ablated microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gower, M. C.; Davies, E.; Holmes, A. S.

    2012-11-01

    From only an a priori knowledge of the optical parameters of a laser beam, the delivery system together with a substrate's material properties, a ray-tracing model capable of predicting the 3-D topology of micro/nanostructures machined by pulsed laser ablation has been developed. The model includes secondary illumination effects produced by the microstructure created by successive pulses (wall reflections, refraction, wave guiding, shadowing, etc.) as well as the complete optical properties of the beam delivery system. We have used material ablation by pulsed excimer lasers and associated beam delivery systems to demonstrate some of the capabilities of the model. Good agreement is obtained between computations and experimental results in terms of the predicted ablation depth per pulse and the wall taper angle of channels and holes. The model can predict ablated profiles of holes and indicate the most efficient drilling strategy in terms of material removal rates. The model also shows diffraction effects are not required to explain the tapering vertical walls observed when ablating microstructures. Finally, the model has been used to demonstrate aberrations in an optical imaging system limiting the creation of submicron features in an ablated microstructure. Provided photons are absorbed linearly in a substrate according to Beer's law with negligible thermal diffusion effects, the model is equally applicable to using other types of pulsed laser sources and systems with imaged or focused beams.

  15. Micrometeoroid ablation simulated in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Thomas, Evan W.; DeLuca, Michael; Horanyi, Mihaly; Janches, Diego; Munsat, Tobin L.; Plane, John M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A facility is developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions, which also allows measuring the ionization probability of the ablated material. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron and meteoric analog particles with velocities 10-50 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a cell filled with nitrogen, air or carbon dioxide gas with pressures adjustable in the 0.02 - 0.5 Torr range, where the partial or complete ablation of the particle occurs over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes is used to collect the ionized products with spatial resolution along the ablating particles' path, allowing thus the study of the temporal resolution of the process. A simple ablation model is used to match the observations. For completely ablated particles the total collected charge directly yields the ionization efficiency for. The measurements using iron particles in N2 and air are in relatively good agreement with earlier data. The measurements with CO2 and He gases, however, are significantly different from the expectations.

  16. Laser Ablated Carbon Nanodots for Light Emission.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Delfino; Camacho, Marco; Camacho, Miguel; Mayorga, Miguel; Weathers, Duncan; Salamo, Greg; Wang, Zhiming; Neogi, Arup

    2016-12-01

    The synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots-like nanostructures (CNDs) obtained through the laser ablation of a carbon solid target in liquid environment is reported. The ablation process was induced in acetone with laser pulses of 1064, 532, and 355 nm under different irradiation times. Close-spherical amorphous CNDs with sizes between 5 and 20 nm, whose abundance strongly depends on the ablation parameters were investigated using electron microscopy and was confirmed using absorption and emission spectroscopies. The π- π* electronic transition at 3.76 eV dominates the absorption for all the CNDs species synthesized under different irradiation conditions. The light emission is most efficient due to excitation at 3.54 eV with the photoluminescence intensity centered at 3.23 eV. The light emission from the CNDs is most efficient due to ablation at 355 nm. The emission wavelength of the CNDs can be tuned from the near-UV to the green wavelength region by controlling the ablation time and modifying the ablation and excitation laser wavelength. PMID:27659953

  17. Novel Laser Ablation Technology for Surface Decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chung H.

    2004-06-01

    Laser ablation for surface cleaning has been pursued for the removal of paint on airplanes. It has also been pursued for the cleaning of semiconductor surfaces. However, all these approaches have been pursued by laser ablation in air. For highly contaminated surface, laser ablation in air can easily cause secondary contamination. Thus it is not suitable to apply to achieve surface decontamination for DOE facilities since many of these facilities have radioactive contaminants on the surface. Any secondary contamination will be a grave concern. The objective of this project is to develop a novel technology for laser ablation in liquid for surface decontamination. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary contamination and to evaluate the economic feasibility for large scale surface decontamination with laser ablation in liquid. When laser ablation is pursued in the solution, all the desorbed contaminants will be confined in liquid. The contaminants can be precipitated and subsequently contained in a small volume for disposal. It can reduce the risk of the decontamination workers. It can also reduce the volume of contaminants dramatically.

  18. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  19. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  20. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  1. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  2. Plans and status of the Beryllium ablator campaign on NIF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, J. L.; Yi, S. A.; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Kyrala, G. A.; Perry, T. S.; Batha, S. H.; Dewald, E. L.; Edwards, M. J.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Meezan, N. B.

    2014-10-01

    Beryllium has long been known to have excellent properties for indirectly driven ICF implosions including enhanced ablation pressure, implosion velocity, and mass ablation rate. The high ablation velocity leads to stabilization of ablative hydrodynamic instabilities and higher ablation pressures. Recent ``high foot'' experiments have shown ablative Rayleigh-Taylor to be a leading cause of degraded performance for ICF implosions. While Beryllium ablators have these advantages, there are also risks associated with Beryllium target designs. A campaign is underway to design and to test these advantages for comparison with other ablator options and determine which provides the best path forward for ICF. Experiments using Beryllium ablators are expected to start in the late summer of 2014. This presentation will discuss the status of the experiments and layout the plans/goals for the campaign. This work is supported by the US DOE.

  3. Radiofrequency Ablation Beyond the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Neeman, Ziv; Wood, Bradford J.

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has begun to show promise for extrahepatic indications. Although much of the reported work on image-guided RFA of liver neoplasms is quite promising, it is even earlier in the evaluation and validation process for extrahepatic RFA, with few short-term and no long-term studies reported. Although there are much more data for liver RFA with almost 3,000 cases reported in the literature, there are a number of ongoing investigations of RFA for tumors in the kidney, lung, bone, breast, bone, and adrenal gland. Debulking and pain control with RFA present palliative options becoming increasingly popular weapons in the interventionalist's oncology arsenal. Metastatic disease with a wide variety of primary histologies in a myriad of locations may be treated with RFA after a careful consideration of the risk-to-benefit ratio balance. The RFA technique can be slightly different outside the liver. Specifically, differing dielectric tissue characteristics may markedly alter the RFA treatment. Each different RFA system has a unique risk and advantage profile. Extrahepatic indications and contraindications will be suggested. Treatment tips and the unique complications and considerations will be introduced for some of the more common extrahepatic locations. PMID:12524646

  4. Dust Ablation in Pluto's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurements by in situ dust detectors onboard the Pioneer and New Horizon spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Kuiper belt can be estimated to be on the order of 5 x 10 ^3 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 micron. These particles slowly migrate inward due to Poynting - Robertson drag and their spatial distribution is shaped by mean motion resonances with the gas giant planets in the outer solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto's atmosphere is on the order of 50 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that, if the particles are rich in volatiles, they can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in a narrow layer. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles, as well as on our newly developed models of Pluto's atmosphere that can be learned by matching the altitude where haze layers could be formed.

  5. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  6. Magnetocardiographically-guided catheter ablation.

    PubMed

    Fenici, R R; Covino, M; Cellerino, C; Di Lillo, M; De Filippo, M C; Melillo, G

    1995-12-01

    After more than 30 years since the first magnetocardiographic (MCG) recording was carried out with induction coils, MCG is now approaching the threshold of clinical use. During the last 5 years, in fact, there has been a growing interest of clinicians in this new method which provides an unrivalled accuracy for noninvasive, three-dimensional localization of intracardiac source. An increasing number of laboratories are reporting data validating the use of MCG as an effective method for preoperative localization of arrhythmogenic substrates and for planning the best catheter ablation approach for different arrhythmogenic substrates. In this article, available data from literature have been reviewed. We consider the clinical use of MCG to localize arrhythmogenic substrates in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome and in patients with ventricular tachycardia in order to assess the state-of-the-art of the method on a large number of patients. This article also addresses some suggestions for industrial development of more compact, medically oriented MCG equipments at reasonable cost.

  7. Lip Reconstruction after Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimi, Azin; Kazemi, Mohammad; Shams, Amin; Hashemzadeh, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all oral cavity carcinomas involve the lips, and the primary management of these lesions is complete surgical resection. Loss of tissue in the lips after resection is treated with a variety of techniques, depending on the extension and location of the defect. Here we review highly accepted techniques of lip reconstruction and some of new trials with significant clinical results. Reconstruction choice is primarily depend to size of the defect, localization of defect, elasticity of tissues. But patient’s age, comorbidities, and motivation are also important. According to the defect location and size, different reconstruction methods can be used. For defects involved less than 30% of lips, primary closures are sufficient. In defects with 35–70% lip involvement, the Karapandzic, Abbe, Estlander, McGregor or Gillies’ fan flaps or their modifications can be used. When lip remaining tissues are insufficient, cheek tissue can be used in Webster and Bernard advancement flaps and their various modifications. Deltopectoral or radial forearm free flaps can be options for large defects of the lip extending to the Jaws. To achieve best functional and esthetic results, surgeons should be able to choose most appropriate reconstruction method. Considering defects’ size and location, patients’ expects and surgeon’s ability and knowledge, a variety of flaps are presented in order to reconstruct defects resulted from tumor ablation. It’s necessary for surgeons to trace the recent innovations in lip reconstruction to offer best choices to patients. PMID:27308236

  8. A systematic review of surgical ablation versus catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Katherine; Stephenson, Rowan; Phan, Kevin; Chan, Wei Yen; Huang, Min Yin

    2014-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly prevalent condition in the ageing population, with significantly associated morbidity and mortality. Surgical and catheter ablative strategies both aim to reduce mortality and morbidity through freedom from AF. This review consolidates all currently available comparative data to evaluate these two interventions. Methods A systematic search was conducted across MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from January 2000 until August 2013. All studies were critically appraised and only those directly comparing surgical and catheter ablation were included. Results Seven studies were deemed suitable for analysis according to the inclusion criteria. Freedom from AF was significantly higher in the surgical ablation group versus the catheter ablation group at 6-month, 12-month and study endpoint follow-up periods. Subgroup analysis demonstrated similar trends, with higher freedom from AF in the surgical ablation group for paroxysmal AF patients. The incidence of pacemaker implantation was higher, while no difference in stroke or cardiac tamponade was demonstrated for the surgical versus catheter ablation groups. Conclusions Current evidence suggests that epicardial ablative strategies are associated with higher freedom from AF, higher pacemaker implantation rates and comparable neurological complications and cardiac tamponade incidence to catheter ablative treatment. Other complications and risks were poorly reported, which warrants further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adequate power and follow-up duration. PMID:24516794

  9. Online monitoring of nanoparticles formed during nanosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nováková, Hana; Holá, Markéta; Vojtíšek-Lom, Michal; Ondráček, Jakub; Kanický, Viktor

    2016-11-01

    The particle size distribution of dry aerosol originating from laser ablation of glass material was monitored simultaneously with Laser Ablation - Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analysis and two aerosol spectrometers - Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The unique combination of LA-ICP-MS and FMPS offers the possibility of measuring the particle size distribution every 1 s of the ablation process in the size range of 5.6-560 nm. APS extends the information about particle concentration in the size range 0.54-17 μm. Online monitoring of the dry aerosol was performed for two ablation modes (spot and line with a duration of 80 s) with a 193 nm excimer laser system, using the glass reference material NIST 610 as a sample. Different sizes of laser spot for spot ablation and different scan speeds for line ablation were tested. It was found that the FMPS device is capable of detecting changes in particle size distribution at the first pulses of spot laser ablation and is suitable for laser ablation control simultaneously with LA-ICP-MS analysis. The studied parameters of laser ablation have an influence on the resulting particle size distribution. The line mode of laser ablation produces larger particles during the whole ablation process, while spot ablation produces larger particles only at the beginning, during the ablation of the intact layer of the ablated material. Moreover, spot ablation produces more primary nano-particles (in ultrafine mode size range < 100 nm) than line ablation. This effect is most probably caused by a reduced amount of large particles released from the spot ablation crater. The larger particles scavenge the ultrafine particles during the line ablation mode.

  10. Atrial Septal Aneurysm and Patent Foramen Ovale as Risk Factors for Cryptogenic Stroke in Patients Less Than 55 Years of Age: A Study using Transesophageal Echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabanes, L.; Mas, J. L.; Cohen, A.; Amarenco, P.; Cabanes, P. A.; Oubary, P.; Chedru, F.; Guerin, F.; Bousser, M. G.; deRecondo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: An association between atrial septal aneurysm and embolic events has been suggested. Atrial septal aneurysm has been shown to be associated with patent foramen ovale and,.in some reports, with mitral valve prolapse. These two latter cardiac disorder; have been identified as potential risk factors for ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of atrial septal aneurysm as an independent risk factor for stroke, especially for cryptogenic stroke. Methods: We studied the prevalence of atrial septal aneurysm, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve prolapse in 100 consecutive patients <55 years of age with ischemic stroke who underwent extensive etiological investigations. We compared these results with those in a control group of 50 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale relied on transesophageal echocardiography with a contrast study and that of mitral valve prolapse, on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that atrial septal aneurysm (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.6; P=.01) and patent foramen ovale (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10; P=.003) but not mitral valve prolapse were significantly associated with the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The stroke odds of a patient with both atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale were 33.3 times (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 270) the stroke odds of a patient with neither of these cardiac disorders. For a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of >lo-mm excursion, the stroke odds were approximately 8 times the stroke odds of a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of <10 mm. Conclusions: This study shows that atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale are both significantly associated with cryptogenic stroke and that their association has a marked synergistic effect. Atrial septal aneurysms of >lo-mm excursion are

  11. Alcohol and hepatocellular carcinoma: A review and a point of view

    PubMed Central

    Testino, Gianni; Leone, Silvia; Borro, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that one cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is alcohol consumption. Research in Italy and the United States concludes that the most common cause of HCC (responsible for 32% to 45% of HCC) is alcohol. It has recently been shown that a significant relationship between alcohol intake, metabolic changes, and hepatitis virus infection does exist. Alcohol may be a factor in the development of HCC via direct (genotoxic) and indirect mechanisms (cirrhosis). There is only one way of diagnosing HCC, which is early identification through surveillance, when curative treatments become possible. After stopping alcohol intake the risk of liver cancer decreases by 6% to 7% a year, and an estimated time period of 23 years is also needed. Therefore, surveillance is also important in former drinkers and, in our opinion, independently from the presence of compensated cirrhosis. In cases of very early stage (VES) and early stage with portal hypertension, liver transplantation is the optimal option; and in cases of associated disease, percutaneous ethanol injections, radiofrequency and microwave ablation are the ideal treatments. Despite the possibility of detecting microvascular invasion with HR, several studies and some randomized controlled trials revealed that overall survival and DSF rates in patients with VES HCC are much the same after ablation and HR. Therefore, ablation can be regarded as a first-line choice for patients with VES HCC. It is important to emphasize that the choice of treatment should be weighed carefully in the context of a multidisciplinary cancer team. PMID:25473148

  12. Ultraviolet femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of silicon: Ablation efficiency and laser-induced plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xianzhong; Mao, Xianglei; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2004-03-23

    Femtosecond laser ablation of silicon in air was studied and compared with nanosecond laser ablation at ultraviolet wavelength (266 nm). Laser ablation efficiency was studied by measuring crater depth as a function of pulse number. For the same number of laser pulses, the fs-ablated crater was about two times deeper than the ns-crater. The temperature and electron number density of the pulsed laser-induced plasma were determined from spectroscopic measurements. The electron number density and temperature of fs-pulse plasmas decreased faster than ns-pulse plasmas due to different energy deposition mechanisms. Images of the laser-induced plasma were obtained with femtosecond time-resolved laser shadowgraph imaging. Plasma expansion in both the perpendicular and the lateral directions to the laser beam were compared for femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation.

  13. Femtosecond ultraviolet laser ablation of silver and comparison with nanosecond ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Toftmann, B.; Schou, J.; Doggett, B.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Lunney, J. G.

    2013-02-28

    The ablation plume dynamics arising from ablation of silver with a 500 fs, 248 nm laser at {approx}2 J cm{sup -2} has been studied using angle-resolved Langmuir ion probe and thin film deposition techniques. For the same laser fluence, the time-of-flight ion signals from femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation are similar; both show a singly peaked time-of-flight distribution. The angular distribution of ion emission and the deposition are well described by the adiabatic and isentropic model of plume expansion, though distributions for femtosecond ablation are significantly narrower. In this laser fluence regime, the energy efficiency of mass ablation is higher for femtosecond pulses than for nanosecond pulses, but the ion production efficiency is lower.

  14. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  15. Device closure of secundum atrial septal defect in a 4.5 kilogram infant: Novel use of the Amplatzer DuctOccluder II device.

    PubMed

    McCrossan, B A; Walsh, K P

    2016-02-01

    Modest secundum atrial septal defects (2°ASD) may cause significant pulmonary over perfusion during infancy, particularly in conjunction with left heart obstructive lesions. Amplatzer Septal Occluders are not ideal in this setting especially given recent concerns regarding device erosion. We report the first use of the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II device (ADO2) to close a 2°ASD in a 4.5 kg infant.

  16. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  17. UV-laser ablation of ionic liquid matrices.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Nils; Thrun, Alexander; Muskat, Tassilo; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2009-12-01

    Ionic liquid matrices are a new class of matrices used in MALDI mass spectrometry. The ablation process of several ionic liquid matrices was studied by determining the velocity distribution of ablated neutral matrix molecules. This was done by a postionization approach, where the neutrals were ionized in the ablation plume by a second laser pulse. It was found that a second, time-delayed ablation event occurs consisting completely of neutral molecules. To explain this, the reflected-shockwave model is used, which assumes that the shockwave emerging from the laser ablation is reflected at the sample holder surface. When the shockwave arrives at the sample surface it causes a second ablation.

  18. Ablation threshold and ablation mechanism transition of polyoxymethylene irradiated by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Gan; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) decomposes gradually as it is heated up by the irradiation of CO2 laser; the long-chain molecules of POM are broken into short chains, which leads to the lowering of the melting point and the critical temperature of the ablation products. When the product temperature is above the melting point, ablation comes up in the way of vaporization; when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature, all liquid products are transformed into gas instantly and the ablation mechanism is changed. The laser fluence at which significant ablation is observed is defined as the ablation threshold, and the fluence corresponding to the ablation mechanism changing is denoted as the flyover threshold. In this paper, random pyrolysis is adopted to describe the pyrolytic decomposition of POM, and consequently, the components of the pyrolysis products under different pyrolysis rates are acquired. The Group Contribution method is used to count the thermodynamic properties of the pyrolysis products, and the melting point and the critical temperature of the product mixture are obtained by the Mixing Law. The Knudsen layer relationship is employed to evaluate the ablation mass removal when the product temperature is below the critical temperature. The gas dynamics conservation laws associated with the Jouguet condition are used to calculate the mass removal when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature. Based on the model, a set of simulations for various laser intensities and lengths are carried out to generalize the relationships between the thresholds and the laser parameters. Besides the ablated mass areal density, which fits the experimental data quite well, the ablation temperature, pyrolysis rate, and product components are also discussed for a better understanding of the ablation mechanism of POM.

  19. Ablation threshold and ablation mechanism transition of polyoxymethylene irradiated by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Gan; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) decomposes gradually as it is heated up by the irradiation of CO2 laser; the long-chain molecules of POM are broken into short chains, which leads to the lowering of the melting point and the critical temperature of the ablation products. When the product temperature is above the melting point, ablation comes up in the way of vaporization; when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature, all liquid products are transformed into gas instantly and the ablation mechanism is changed. The laser fluence at which significant ablation is observed is defined as the ablation threshold, and the fluence corresponding to the ablation mechanism changing is denoted as the flyover threshold. In this paper, random pyrolysis is adopted to describe the pyrolytic decomposition of POM, and consequently, the components of the pyrolysis products under different pyrolysis rates are acquired. The Group Contribution method is used to count the thermodynamic properties of the pyrolysis products, and the melting point and the critical temperature of the product mixture are obtained by the Mixing Law. The Knudsen layer relationship is employed to evaluate the ablation mass removal when the product temperature is below the critical temperature. The gas dynamics conservation laws associated with the Jouguet condition are used to calculate the mass removal when the product temperature is higher than the critical temperature. Based on the model, a set of simulations for various laser intensities and lengths are carried out to generalize the relationships between the thresholds and the laser parameters. Besides the ablated mass areal density, which fits the experimental data quite well, the ablation temperature, pyrolysis rate, and product components are also discussed for a better understanding of the ablation mechanism of POM. PMID:27607281

  20. Fetal rat septal cells adhere to and extend processes on basement membrane, laminin, and a synthetic peptide from the laminin A chain sequence.

    PubMed

    Jucker, M; Kleinman, H K; Ingram, D K

    1991-04-01

    Responses of rat embryonic septal cells to reconstituted basement membrane, laminin, and laminin A chain-derived synthetic peptides were studied in culture. Dissociated fetal E16/17 septal cells were grown for three days on differently coated plastic substrata. Reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel), laminin, and a 19-amino acid synthetic peptide CSRARKQAASIKVAVSADR-NH2 (PA22-2) from the laminin A chain sequence mediated cell-substratum adhesion and promoted neurite outgrowth. In contrast, cells did not attach to or form processes on uncoated plastic or on plastic substrata coated with synthetic, laminin-derived control peptides. Polyethylenimine (PEI) supported the adhesion and survival of fetal septal cells; however, when laminin was added to the medium during cell plating or 18 hr afterward, a dose-dependent increase was observed in neurite outgrowth of cells attached to this substratum. Cells grown for 6 days on PEI in the presence of laminin showed a determined increase in the number of cholinergic neurons as marked by acetylcholinesterase staining. These data suggest that the subpopulation of cholinergic septal neurons present in the septal cells studied here were also responding to laminin. The results of this in vitro study suggest potential uses for basement membrane, laminin, or synthetic peptides, such as PA22-2, in fetal septal grafts to enhance regeneration in the damaged septo-hippocampal system.

  1. [Electrophysiological and behavioral features of septal seizures in cats--experimental sham-rage seizures induced by injection of kainic acid].

    PubMed

    Hashizume, K; Tanaka, T; Yonemasu, Y

    1994-07-01

    The septal nucleus has close connections with the hippocampus and amygdala and is known to be involved in emotional behavior. We analyzed the electrophysiological and behavioral features of seizures induced by an injection of kainic acid into the lateral septal nucleus of the cat. Stereotactic surgery was performed to implant a cannula into the lateral septal nucleus to make the injection, and deep electrodes were implanted into the hippocampus and amygdala bilaterally. Seven days post operatively kainic acid, 0.5 microgram/0.5 microliter, was injected via the cannula, and three to five minutes later the cats began to exhibit head turning to the contralateral side. The seizures subsequently progressed limbic seizure status. The electroencephalogram revealed that the spike discharges started in the lateral septal nucleus, extended to the ipsilateral hippocampus and amygdala, then propagated to the contralateral side. Spontaneous sham-rage seizures occurred more than seven days after the injection. These seizure were characterized by sudden onset of aggressive and violent behavior which included hissing, biting and scratching. The electroencephalogram showed synchronization of rhythmic spikes in the ipsilateral septal nucleus, hippocampus and amygdala during such seizures. Further study of this model is important not only to understand the relationship between the septal nucleus and the hippocampus and amygdala but to understand the mechanism of sham-rage seizures. In addition, this model may be useful in understanding the emotional features of intractable complex partial seizures in man. PMID:7946621

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  4. Novel Mutations in the Transcriptional Activator Domain of the Human TBX20 in Patients with Atrial Septal Defect

    PubMed Central

    Monroy-Muñoz, Irma Eloisa; Rodríguez-Pérez, José Manuel; Muñoz-Medina, José Esteban; Angeles-Martínez, Javier; García-Trejo, José J.; Morales-Ríos, Edgar; Massó, Felipe; Sandoval-Jones, Juan Pablo; Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge; García-Montes, José Antonio; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Background. The relevance of TBX20 gene in heart development has been demonstrated in many animal models, but there are few works that try to elucidate the effect of TBX20 mutations in human congenital heart diseases. In these studies, all missense mutations associated with atrial septal defect (ASD) were found in the DNA-binding T-box domain, none in the transcriptional activator domain. Methods. We search for TBX20 mutations in a group of patients with ASD or ventricular septal defect (VSD) using the High Resolution Melting (HRM) method and DNA sequencing. Results. We report three missense mutations (Y309D, T370O, and M395R) within the transcriptional activator domain of human TBX20 that were associated with ASD. Conclusions. This is the first association of TBX20 transcriptional activator domain missense mutations with ASD. These findings could have implications for diagnosis, genetic screening, and patient follow-up. PMID:25834824

  5. LEFT VENTRICULAR INFLOW OBSTRUCTION BY GIANT ATRIAL SEPTAL ANEURYSM IN A NEONATE WITH HYPOPLASTIC RIGHT HEART SYNDROME: CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Yuko-Jowi, C; Okello, C A

    2013-02-01

    Atrial septal aneurysm remains a rare congenital cardiac malformation. In the neonatal age group it can occur as an isolated cardiac malformation or in association with complex hypoplastic cardiac malformations of the right and left heart. In the adult population most aneurysms have been described in association with stroke. Baby H.N delivered on 10/05/2008 by C/S, was cyanosed at birth with systemic desaturation. Chest X-ray showed oligaemic lung fields while two dimensional echocardiograms showed tricuspid atresia with hypoplastic right ventricle, large secundum atrial septal defect, and highly mobile gigantic aneurysms of the atrial septum obstructing the inflow of the mitral valve and entering the left ventricle in diastole. Surgical intervention was not possible and child died on second day.

  6. A large, dominant pedigree of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD): Exclusion from the Down syndrome critical region on chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.; Curtis, A.; Stephenson, A.; Goodship, J.; Burn, J. ); Korenberg, J.R.; Schipper, R.D. ); Allan, L. ); Chenevix-Trench, G. )

    1993-12-01

    The authors describe a large pedigree of individuals with autosomal dominant atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). The pedigree includes affected individuals and individuals who have transmitted the defect but are not clinically affected. AVSDs are a rare congenital heart malformation that occurs as only 2.8% of isolated cardiac lesions. They are the predominant heart defect in children with Down syndrome, making chromosome 21 a candidate for genes involved in atrioventricular septal development. The authors have carried out a linkage study in the pedigree by using 10 simple-sequence polymorphisms from chromosome 21. Multipoint linkage analysis gives lod scores of less than [minus]2 for the region of trisomy 21 associated with heart defects, which excludes a locus within this region as the cause of the defect in this family. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Retraction: Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion under mild hypothermia during primary repair for aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    The following article from Artificial Organs, "Selective Cerebro-Myocardial Perfusion Under Mild Hypothermia During Primary Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect" by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, published online on 2 November 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor-in-Chief, Paul S. Malchesky, the International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed due to simultaneous publication of a substantially similar article, "Continuous Cerebral and Myocardial Perfusion During One-Stage Repair for Aortic Coarctation With Ventricular Septal Defect", by Huiwen Chen, Haifa Hong, Zhongqun Zhu and Jinfen Liu, in Pediatric Cardiology 7 November 2012 [Epub ahead of print].

  8. Effect of Laser Wavelength and Ablation Time on Pulsed Laser Ablation Synthesis of AL Nanoparticles in Ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladi, A.; Mamoory, R. Sarraf

    Aluminum nanoparticles were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation of Al targets in ethanol for 5-15 minutes using the 1064 and 533 nm wavelengths of a Nd:YAG laser with energies of 280-320 mJ per pulse. It has been found that higher wavelength leads to significantly higher ablation efficiency, and finer spherical nanoparticles are also synthesized. Besides, it was obvious that higher ablation time resulted in higher ablated mass, while lower ablation rate was observed. Finer nanoparticles, moreover, are synthesized in higher ablation times.

  9. [Radiofrequency transcatheter ablation in atrial tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Velázquez Rodríguez, E; Morales Hernández, J A

    2000-01-01

    Incessant atrial tachycardia is an infrequent arrhythmia. Specially difficult to treat medically. Radiofrequency catheter ablation has been used successfully to cure a variety of supraventricular tachycardias. The purpose of this work is to report our initial experience in the treatment of atrial tachycardia. Ten patients, mean age 28.7 +/- 15 year with conventional drug-resistant symptomatic atrial tachycardia were treated with selective ablation of the focus using radiofrequency energy. It was found an abnormal automaticity in 10 tachycardias and in only one patient intra-atrial reentrant was supported. Radiofrequency energy was successful in 10 of 11 tachycardias with a mean of 9.3 +/- 6.8 applications using the technique of local atrial electrogram activation time with a mean value of -54 +/- -31 milliseconds at the successful ablation sites. No complications were observed and one patient had an early clinical recurrence. All patients with successful ablation are symptom-free, in sinus rhythm and without antiarrhythmic medications after 1 to 28 months of follow-up. Our initial experience support that radiofrequency catheter ablation is a safe and effective therapeutic option for incessant atrial tachycardia. PMID:10855411

  10. Fracture in Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Parul; Chavez-Garcia, Jose; Pham, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a novel technique to understand the failure mechanisms inside thermal protection materials. The focus of this research is on the class of materials known as phenolic impregnated carbon ablators. It has successfully flown on the Stardust spacecraft and is the thermal protection system material chosen for the Mars Science Laboratory and SpaceX Dragon spacecraft. Although it has good thermal properties, structurally, it is a weak material. To understand failure mechanisms in carbon ablators, fracture tests were performed on FiberForm(Registered TradeMark) (precursor), virgin, and charred ablator materials. Several samples of these materials were tested to investigate failure mechanisms at a microstructural scale. Stress-strain data were obtained simultaneously to estimate the tensile strength and toughness. It was observed that cracks initiated and grew in the FiberForm when a critical stress limit was reached such that the carbon fibers separated from the binder. However, both for virgin and charred carbon ablators, crack initiation and growth occurred in the matrix (phenolic) phase. Both virgin and charred carbon ablators showed greater strength values compared with FiberForm samples, confirming that the presence of the porous matrix helps in absorbing the fracture energy.

  11. Design Calculations for NIF Convergent Ablator Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Hicks, D. G.; Landen, O. L.; Langer, S. H.; Meezan, N. B.; Spears, B. K.; Widmann, K.; Kline, J. L.; Wilson, D. C.; Petrasso, R. D.; Leeper, R. J.

    2010-11-01

    Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics -- 1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, 2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, 3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and 4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning. *SNL, LLNL, and LANL are operated under US DOE contracts DE-AC04-94AL85000. DE-AC52-07NA27344, and DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Callahan, Debra; Leeper, Ramon Joe; Spears, B. K.; Zylstra, A.; Seguin, F.; Landen, Otto L.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rinderknecht, H.; Kline, J. L.; Frenje, J.; Wilson, D. C.; Langer, S. H.; Widmann, K.; Meezan, Nathan B.; Hicks, Damien G.; Olson, Richard Edward

    2010-11-01

    Design calculations for NIF convergent ablator experiments will be described. The convergent ablator experiments measure the implosion trajectory, velocity, and ablation rate of an x-ray driven capsule and are a important component of the U. S. National Ignition Campaign at NIF. The design calculations are post-processed to provide simulations of the key diagnostics: (1) Dante measurements of hohlraum x-ray flux and spectrum, (2) streaked radiographs of the imploding ablator shell, (3) wedge range filter measurements of D-He3 proton output spectra, and (4) GXD measurements of the imploded core. The simulated diagnostics will be compared to the experimental measurements to provide an assessment of the accuracy of the design code predictions of hohlraum radiation temperature, capsule ablation rate, implosion velocity, shock flash areal density, and x-ray bang time. Post-shot versions of the design calculations are used to enhance the understanding of the experimental measurements and will assist in choosing parameters for subsequent shots and the path towards optimal ignition capsule tuning.

  13. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  14. Banding of Nonrestrictive Large Hypertensive Aortopulmonary Collaterals in Patients With Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Atresia Presenting in Suboptimal Condition.

    PubMed

    Dutta Baruah, Sudip; Singh, Vishal Kamalaprasad; Marwah, Ashutosh; Sharma, Rajesh

    2016-09-01

    Infants with pulmonary atresia and nonrestrictive ventricular septal defect with large hypertensive aortopulmonary collaterals demand early surgical intervention. This presentation in the extremely low-weight child or in the moribund septic child may preclude single-stage repair even if anatomically suited. We propose that such infants may be temporized by means of banding of individual aortopulmonary collaterals as a means of bridging to a second-stage complete repair. Two such cases are presented. PMID:27587500

  15. Perventricular device closure of residual muscular ventricular septal defects after repair of complex congenital heart defects in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Da; Tao, Kaiyu; An, Qi; Luo, Shuhua; Gan, Changping; Lin, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Residual muscular ventricular septal defects are surgical challenges, especially after the repair of complex congenital heart defects. We investigated perventricular device closure as a salvage technique in pediatric patients who had postoperative residual muscular ventricular septal defects. From February 2009 through June 2011, 14 pediatric patients at our hospital had residual muscular ventricular septal defects after undergoing surgical repair of complex congenital heart defects. Ten patients met our criteria for perventricular device closure of the residual defects: significant left-to-right shunting (Qp/Qs >1.5) or substantial hemodynamic instability (a defect ≥2 mm in size). The patients' mean age was 20.4 ± 13.5 months, and their mean body weight was 10 ± 3.1 kg. The median diameter of the residual defects was 4.2 mm (range, 2.5-5.1 mm). We deployed a total of 11 SQFDQ-II Muscular VSD Occluders (Shanghai Shape Memory Alloy Co., Ltd.; Shanghai, China) in the 10 patients, in accord with conventional techniques of perventricular device closure. The mean procedural duration was 31.1 ±9.1 min. We recorded the closure and complication rates perioperatively and during a 12-month follow-up period. Complete closure was achieved in 8 patients; 2 patients had persistent trivial residual shunts. No deaths, conduction block, device embolism, or other complications occurred throughout the study period. We conclude that perventricular device closure is a safe, effective salvage treatment for postoperative residual muscular ventricular septal defects in pediatric patients. Long-term studies with larger cohorts might further confirm this method's feasibility.

  16. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; de Godoy, Moacyr Fernandes; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defect. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 51 consecutive patients 14 years-old and younger presenting with incomplete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. The median age was 4.1 years; the median weight was 13.4 Kg; 37.2% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 23 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (45.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 17.6%; annuloplasty was performed in 21.6%. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 12 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (23.5%). The variation between pre- and postoperative grades of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation of patients with atrioventricular valve malformation did not reach significance (P=0.26), unlike patients without such abnormalities (P=0.016). During univariate analysis, only absence of Down syndrome was statistically significant (P=0.02). However, after a multivariate analysis, none of the factors reached significance. Conclusion None of the factors studied was determinant of a moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within the first 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect in the sample. Patients without abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve benefit more of the operation. PMID:26107451

  17. Reverse Szabo technique for stenting a single major aorto-pulmonary collateral vessel in pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Breinholt, John P.; Rao, Sri O.; Buchneva, Olga V.

    2016-01-01

    Management of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) in the neonatal period presents numerous challenges. Endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus or of a collateral vessel in ductal-dependent pulmonary circulation as an alternative to the Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt has become increasingly popular in the last decades. The utilization of the reverse Szabo (anchor-wire) technique for single collateral vessel stenting in a case of PA-VSD is described.

  18. Anaesthetic Management of Caesarean Section in a Term Pregnancy with Ventricular Septal Defect and Pulmonary Hypertension with Severe Pulmonary Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rohan; Kaeley, Nidhi; Bhatia, Ruby

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy with pulmonary hypertension - WHO risk class IV cardiac disease is associated with significant haemodynamic burden due to cardiocirculatory changes which is a significant indirect cause of maternal mortality. We report a very rare case - primigravida term pregnancy with pulmonary hypertension, large ventricular septal defect (2.4 cm(2)), bidirectional shunt mainly left to right with severe pulmonary stenosis with peak gradient of 144mmHg. Caesarean section was done under general anaesthesia with successful maternal and neonatal outcome. PMID:27504386

  19. Parachute tricuspid valve in a patient with atrial septal defect detected by two- and three-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Demirkol, Sait; Balta, Sevket; Unlu, Murat; Bozlar, Ugur; Arslan, Zekeriya; Karaman, Bulent

    2012-11-01

    Atrioventricular valve parachute deformity was generally seen in the mitral position, which is called parachute mitral valve. Parachute deformity is also seen in the tricuspid position, but this has rarely been reported as sporadic cases. All of these cases were associated with other congenital defects, such as double outlet right ventricle, left to right shunt. We herein present two- and three-dimensional echocardiographic features of a parachute tricuspid valve in a patient with atrial septal defect and prominent eustachian valve.

  20. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  1. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  2. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  3. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  4. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  5. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  6. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  7. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  8. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  9. Pyramidal neurons in the septal and temporal CA1 field of the human and hedgehog tenrec hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Liagkouras, Ioannis; Michaloudi, Helen; Batzios, Christos; Psaroulis, Dimitrios; Georgiadis, Marios; Künzle, Heinz; Papadopoulos, Georgios C

    2008-07-01

    The present study examines comparatively the cellular density of disector-counted/Nissl-stained CA1 pyramidal neurons and the morphometric characteristics (dendritic number/length, spine number/density and Sholl-counted dendritic branch points/20 microm) of the basal and apical dendritic systems of Golgi-impregnated CA1 neurons, in the septal and temporal hippocampus of the human and hedgehog tenrec brain. The obtained results indicate that in both hippocampal parts the cellular density of the CA1 pyramidal neurons is lower in human than in tenrec. However, while the human pyramidal cell density is higher in the septal hippocampal part than in the temporal one, in the tenrec the density of these cells is higher in the temporal part. The dendritic tree of the CA1 pyramidal cells, more developed in the septal than in temporal hippocampus in both species studied, is in general more complex in the human hippocampus. The basal and the apical dendritic systems exhibit species related morphometric differences, while dendrites of different orders exhibit differences in their number and length, and in their spine density. Finally, in both species, as well as hippocampal parts and dendritic systems, changes of dendritic morphometric features along ascending dendritic orders fluctuate in a similar way, as do the number of dendritic branch points in relation to the distance from the neuron soma.

  10. Requirement of Essential Pbp2x and GpsB for Septal Ring Closure in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39

    PubMed Central

    Land, Adrian D.; Tsui, Ho-Ching T.; Kocaoglu, Ozden; Vella, Stephen A.; Shaw, Sidney L.; Keen, Susan K.; Sham, Lok-To; Carlson, Erin E.; Winkler, Malcolm E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacterial cell shapes are manifestations of programs carried out by multi-protein machines that synthesize and remodel the peptidoglycan (PG) mesh and other polymers surrounding cells. GpsB protein is conserved in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria and is not essential in rod-shaped Bacillus subtilis, where it plays a role in shuttling penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) between septal side-wall sites of PG synthesis. In contrast, we report here that GpsB is essential in ellipsoid-shaped, ovococcal Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), and depletion of GpsB leads to formation of elongated, enlarged cells containing unsegregated nucleoids and multiple, unconstricted rings of fluorescent-vancomycin staining, and eventual lysis. These phenotypes are similar to those caused by selective inhibition of Pbp2x by methicillin that prevents septal PG synthesis. Dual-protein 2D and 3D-SIM (structured illumination) immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) showed that GpsB and FtsZ have overlapping, but not identical, patterns of localization during cell division and that multiple, unconstricted rings of division proteins FtsZ, Pbp2x, Pbp1a, and MreC are in elongated cells depleted of GpsB. These patterns suggest that GpsB, like Pbp2x, mediates septal ring closure. This first dual-protein 3D-SIM IFM analysis also revealed separate positioning of Pbp2x and Pbp1a in constricting septa, consistent with two separable PG synthesis machines. PMID:24118410

  11. Amniotic Fluid or Its Fatty Acids Produce Actions Similar to Diazepam on Lateral Septal Neurons Firing Rate

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G.; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana Idania

    2013-01-01

    Human amniotic fluid (AF) contains eight fatty acids (FATs), and both produce anxiolytic-like effects in adult rats and appetitive responses in human newborns. The medial amygdala and lateral septal nucleus function are related to social behavior, but the action of AF or its FATs in this circuit is known. We obtained 267 single-unit extracellular recordings in Wistar rats treated with vehicle (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), human AF (1 mL, s.c.; n = 12), a FAT mixture (1 mL, s.c.; n = 13), diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.; n = 11), and fluoxetine (1 mg/kg, p.o.; n = 12). Compared with the vehicle group, the spontaneous septal firing rate in the AF, FAT mixture, and diazepam groups was the lowest and in the fluoxetine group the highest. Cumulative peristimulus histograms indicated that the significant change in septal firing occurred only in the AF and FAT mixture groups and exclusively in those neurons that increased their firing rate during amygdala stimulation. We conclude that human AF and its FATs produce actions comparable to anxiolytic drugs and are able to modify the responsivity of a circuit involved in social behavior, suggesting facilitation of social recognition processes by maternal-fetal fluids. PMID:23864826

  12. The effects of various lesions and knife-cuts on septal and amygdala kindling in the rat.

    PubMed

    Racine, R J; Paxinos, G; Mosher, J M; Kairiss, E W

    1988-06-28

    Large bilateral aspiration lesions of the hippocampus had no significant effect on septal kindling, whereas large bilateral DC lesions of the pyriform lobe resulted in a small but significant increase in the number of septal stimulations required to complete kindling. Bilateral aspiration lesions of the dorsal hippocampus or large bilateral DC lesions of the ventral hippocampus had no effect on amygdala kindling. Small DC lesions of the stria terminalis significantly facilitated amygdala kindling. Unilateral or bilateral ventral knife-cuts delivered in a coronal plane anterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with anterior pyriform structures, produced a small but nearly significant increase in the number of stimulations required for amygdala kindling. Similar cuts placed posterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with the hippocampus, significantly facilitated kindling. Cuts that were medially placed, to disrupt the ventral amygdala-fugal pathway, had no effect on amygdala kindling. These results show that the hippocampus is not critical for either septal or amygdala kindling. The pyriform lobe structures appear to play a facilitatory role in kindling, but none of the lesions or knife-cuts were capable of blocking or even severely retarding kindling.

  13. Septal flip flap for anterior skull base reconstruction after endoscopic resection of sinonasal cancers: preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, P; Turri-Zanoni, M; De Bernardi, F; Dehgani Mobaraki, P; Karligkiotis, A; Leone, F; Castelnuovo, P

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade surgery for sinonasal malignancies encroaching into the anterior skull base (ASB) has evolved from open craniofacial resection to the use of minimally invasive transnasal endoscopic approaches. Using these techniques, ASB reconstruction is most often performed in a multilayer fashion with autologous free grafts (fascia lata or iliotibial tract) which leads to the production of abundant nasal crusting in the postoperative months and discomfort for patients. In carefully selected cases, we propose harvesting a flap from the contralateral nasal septum based on the septal branches of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal arteries (Septal Flip Flap, SFF), which can be rotated to resurface the ASB defect. The exclusion criteria for using the SFF were as follows: cases where the tumour extended to both ethmoid complexes; cases where there was nasal septum or planum spheno-ethmoidalis involvement by the disease; cases of sinonasal malignant tumour with multifocal histology. In our tertiary care referral centre, skull base reconstruction using the SFF was performed in four patients; one was affected by ethmoidal teratocarcinosarcoma, one by persistence of sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma after radio-chemotherapy, another by olfactory cleft esthesioneuroblastoma and the fourth by ethmoidal squamous cell carcinoma. Successful skull base reconstruction was obtained in all four cases without any intra- or post-operative complications. Post-operatively, nasal crusting was significantly reduced with faster healing of the surgical cavity. No recurrences of disease have been observed after a mean follow-up of 15 months. The SFF can be considered as a safe and effective technique for ASB reconstruction with high success rates similar to those obtained with other pedicled flaps. This flap also ensured a faster healing process with reduction of nasal crusting and improvement in the quality of life of patients in the postoperative period. This technique appears

  14. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  15. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  16. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  17. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  18. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  19. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  20. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  1. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  2. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  3. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  4. Excimer laser ablation of aluminum: influence of spot size on ablation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaheen, M. E.; Gagnon, J. E.; Fryer, B. J.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of ablation rate of an Al alloy on laser beam spot size (10–150 µm) was investigated using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm and pulse width less than 4 ns. Ablation was conducted in air at a fluence of 11 J cm‑2 and at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Surface morphology and depth of craters produced by a variable number of laser pulses were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used as an additional diagnostic technique to estimate the amount of material ablated from craters produced by a laser beam of different diameters. Laser beam spot size and number of laser pulses applied to the same spot were found to influence crater morphology, ablation rate, shape and amount of particles deposited at or around the crater rim. Ablation rate was found to be less dependent on spot size for craters greater than 85 µm. A four-fold increase in ablation rate was observed with decreasing crater size from 150 µm to 10 µm.

  5. Depth Profiling of Polymer Composites by Ultrafast Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Christopher; Clayton, Clive; Longtin, Jon

    2009-03-01

    Past work has shown femtosecond laser ablation to be an athermal process at low fluences in polymer systems. The ablation rate in this low fluence regime is very low, allowing for micro-scale removal of material. We have taken advantage of this fact to perform shallow depth profiling ablation on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Neat composite and resin samples were studied to establish reference ablation profiles. These profiles and the effects of the heterogeneous distribution of carbon fibers were observed through confocal laser profilometry and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Weathered materials that have been subjected to accelerated tests in artificial sunlight or water conditions were ablated to determine the correlation between exposure and change in ablation characteristics. Preliminary Raman and micro-ATR analysis performed before and after ablation shows no chemical changes indicative of thermal effects. The low-volume-ablation property was utilized in an attempt to expose the sizing-matrix interphase for analysis.

  6. Radiofrequency catheter ablation in pediatric patients with supraventricular arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L A; Lobban, J H; Schmidt, S B

    1995-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of foci leading to abnormal cardiac rhythms is rapidly becoming the procedure of choice in the management of arrhythmias in adults. This report reviews our initial experience with RF ablation in the pediatric population. PMID:8533398

  7. Specific Impulse Definition for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Herren, Kenneth A.

    2005-04-01

    The term "specific impulse" is so ingrained in the field of rocket propulsion that it is unlikely that any fundamental argument would be taken seriously for its removal. It is not an ideal measure but it does give an indication of the amount of mass flow (mass loss/time), as in fuel rate, required to produce a measured thrust over some time period. This investigation explores the implications of being able to accurately measure the ablation rate and how the language used to describe the specific impulse results may have to change slightly, and recasts the specific impulse as something that is not a time average. It is not currently possible to measure the ablation rate accurately in real time so it is generally just assumed that a constant amount of material will be removed for each laser pulse delivered. The specific impulse dependence on the ablation rate is determined here as a correction to the classical textbook definition.

  8. Simulation of Double-Pulse Laser Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Povarnitsyn, Mikhail E.; Khishchenko, Konstantin V.; Levashov, Pavel R.; Itina, Tatian E.

    2010-10-08

    We investigate the physical reasons of a strange decrease in the ablation depth observed in femtosecond double-pulse experiments with increasing delay between the pulses. Two ultrashort pulses of the same energy produce the crater which is less than that created by a single pulse. Hydrodynamic simulation shows that the ablation mechanism is suppressed when the delay between the pulses exceeds the electron-ion relaxation time. In this case, the interaction of the second laser pulse with the expanding target material leads to the formation of the second shock wave suppressing the rarefaction wave created by the first pulse. The modeling of the double-pulse ablation for different delays between pulses confirms this explanation.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Ablation Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Mark E.; Laker, Travis S.; Walker, David T.

    2013-01-01

    A unique numerical method has been developed for solving one-dimensional ablation heat transfer problems. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the method, along with detailed derivations of the governing equations. This methodology supports solutions for traditional ablation modeling including such effects as heat transfer, material decomposition, pyrolysis gas permeation and heat exchange, and thermochemical surface erosion. The numerical scheme utilizes a control-volume approach with a variable grid to account for surface movement. This method directly supports implementation of nontraditional models such as material swelling and mechanical erosion, extending capabilities for modeling complex ablation phenomena. Verifications of the numerical implementation are provided using analytical solutions, code comparisons, and the method of manufactured solutions. These verifications are used to demonstrate solution accuracy and proper error convergence rates. A simple demonstration of a mechanical erosion (spallation) model is also provided to illustrate the unique capabilities of the method.

  10. Performance of Conformable Ablators in Aerothermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, J.; Fan, W.; Skokova, K.; Stackpoole, M.; Beck, R.; Chavez-Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Conformable Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator, a cousin of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA), was developed at NASA Ames Research Center as a lightweight thermal protection system under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program. PICA is made using a brittle carbon substrate, which has a very low strain to failure. Conformable PICA is made using a flexible carbon substrate, a felt in this case. The flexible felt significantly increases the strain to failure of the ablator. PICA is limited by its thermal mechanical properties. Future NASA missions will require heatshields that are more fracture resistant than PICA and, as a result, NASA Ames is working to improve PICAs performance by developing conformable PICA to meet these needs. Research efforts include tailoring the chemistry of conformable PICA with varying amounts of additives to enhance mechanical properties and testing them in aerothermal environments. This poster shows the performance of conformable PICA variants in arc jets tests. Some mechanical and thermal properties will also be presented.

  11. Deep Dive Topic: Choosing between ablators

    SciTech Connect

    Hurricane, O. A.; Thomas, C.; Olson, R.

    2015-07-14

    Recent data on implosions using identical hohlraums and very similar laser drives underscores the conundrum of making a clear choice of one ablator over another. Table I shows a comparison of Be and CH in a nominal length, gold, 575 μm-diameter, 1.6 mg/cc He gas-fill hohlraum while Table II shows a comparison of undoped HDC and CH in a +700 length, gold, 575 μm diameter, 1.6 mg/cc He gas fill hohlraum. As can be seen in the tables, the net integrated fusion performance of these ablators is the same to within error bars. In the case of the undoped HDC and CH ablators, the hot spot shapes of the implosions were nearly indistinguishable for the experiments listed in Table II.

  12. Effects of endocardial microwave energy ablation

    PubMed Central

    Climent, Vicente; Hurlé, Aquilino; Ho, Siew Yen; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián

    2005-01-01

    Until recently the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) consisted primarily of palliation, mostly in the form of pharmacological intervention. However because of recent advances in nonpharmacologic therapies, the current expectation of patients and referring physicians is that AF will be cured, rather than palliated. In recent years there has been a rapid expansion in the availability and variety of energy sources and devices for ablation. One of these energies, microwave, has been applied clinically only in the last few years, and may be a promising technique that is potentially capable of treating a wide range of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. The purpose of this study was to review microwave energy ablation in surgical treatment of AF with special interest in histology and ultrastructure of lesions produced by this endocardial ablation procedure. PMID:16943871

  13. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, W. II; Balooch, M.; Siekhaus, W.J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10--20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode. 12 figs.

  14. Laser ablated hard coating for microtools

    DOEpatents

    McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.

    1998-05-05

    Wear-resistant coatings composed of laser ablated hard carbon films, are deposited by pulsed laser ablation using visible light, on instruments such as microscope tips and micro-surgical tools. Hard carbon, known as diamond-like carbon (DLC), films produced by pulsed laser ablation using visible light enhances the abrasion resistance, wear characteristics, and lifetimes of small tools or instruments, such as small, sharp silicon tips used in atomic probe microscopy without significantly affecting the sharpness or size of these devices. For example, a 10-20 nm layer of diamond-like carbon on a standard silicon atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, enables the useful operating life of the tip to be increased by at least twofold. Moreover, the low inherent friction coefficient of the DLC coating leads to higher resolution for AFM tips operating in the contact mode.

  15. Image-Guided Spinal Ablation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia; Koch, Guillaume; Caudrelier, Jean; Garnon, Julien; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Edalat, Faramarz; Gangi, Afshin

    2016-09-01

    The image-guided thermal ablation procedures can be used to treat a variety of benign and malignant spinal tumours. Small size osteoid osteoma can be treated with laser or radiofrequency. Larger tumours (osteoblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst and metastasis) can be addressed with radiofrequency or cryoablation. Results on the literature of spinal microwave ablation are scarce, and thus it should be used with caution. A distinct advantage of cryoablation is the ability to monitor the ice-ball by intermittent CT or MRI. The different thermal insulation, temperature and electrophysiological monitoring techniques should be applied. Cautious pre-procedural planning and intermittent intra-procedural monitoring of the ablation zone can help reduce neural complications. Tumour histology, patient clinical-functional status and life-expectancy should define the most efficient and least disabling treatment option. PMID:27329231

  16. Specific Impulse Definition for Ablative Laser Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2004-01-01

    The term "specific impulse" is so ingrained in the field of rocket propulsion that it is unlikely that any fundamental argument would be taken seriously for its removal. It is not an ideal measure but it does give an indication of the amount of mass flow (mass loss/time), as in fuel rate, required to produce a measured thrust over some time period This investigation explores the implications of being able to accurately measure the ablation rate and how the language used to describe the specific impulse results may have to change slightly, and recasts the specific impulse as something that is not a time average. It is not currently possible to measure the ablation rate accurately in real time so it is generally just assumed that a constant amount of material will be removed for each laser pulse delivered The specific impulse dependence on the ablation rate is determined here as a correction to the classical textbook definition.

  17. Ablation therapy for left atrial autonomic modification.

    PubMed

    Malcolme-Lawes, Louisa; Sandler, Belinda C; Sikkel, Markus B; Lim, Phang Boon; Kanagaratnam, Prapa

    2016-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system is implicated in the multifactorial pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF) but few studies have attempted neural targeting for therapeutic intervention. We have demonstrated that short bursts of stimulation, at specific sites of left atrial ganglionated plexi (GPs), trigger fibrillation-inducing atrial ectopy and importantly continuous stimulation of these sites may not induce AV block, the 'conventional' marker used to locate GPs. We have shown that these ectopy-triggering GP (ET-GP) sites are anatomically stable and can be rendered inactive by either ablation at the site or by ablation between the site and the adjacent pulmonary vein (PV). This may have important implications for planning patient specific strategies for ablation of paroxysmal AF in the future. PMID:27595199

  18. Ultrafast laser ablation of transparent materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Lara; Russ, Simone; Kaiser, Myriam; Kumkar, Malte; Faißt, Birgit; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The present work investigates the influence of the pulse duration and the temporal spacing between pulses on the ablation of aluminosilicate glass by comparing the results obtained with pulse durations of 0.4 ps and 6 ps. We found that surface modifications occur already at fluences below the single pulse ablation threshold and that laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) emerge as a result of those surface modifications. For 0.4 ps the ablation threshold fluences is lower than for 6 ps. Scanning electron micrographs of LIPSS generated with 0.4 ps exhibit a more periodic and less coarse structure as compared to structures generated with 6 ps. Furthermore we report on the influence of temporal spacing between the pulses on the occurrence of LIPSS and the impact on the quality of the cutting edge. Keywords: LIPSS,

  19. Tumor Ablation: Common Modalities and General Practices

    PubMed Central

    Knavel, Erica M.; Brace, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor ablation is a minimally invasive technique that is commonly used in the treatment of tumors of the liver, kidney, bone, and lung. During tumor ablation, thermal energy is used to heat or cool tissue to cytotoxic levels (less than −40°C or more than 60°C). An additional technique is being developed that targets the permeability of the cell membrane and is ostensibly nonthermal. Within the classification of tumor ablation, there are several modalities used worldwide: radiofrequency, microwave, laser, high-intensity focused ultrasound, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation. Each technique, although similar in purpose, has specific and optimal indications. This review serves to discuss general principles and technique, reviews each modality, and discusses modality selection. PMID:24238374

  20. Thermal Ablation Modeling for Silicate Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq

    2016-01-01

    A thermal ablation model for silicates is proposed. The model includes the mass losses through the balance between evaporation and condensation, and through the moving molten layer driven by surface shear force and pressure gradient. This model can be applied in ablation simulations of the meteoroid or glassy Thermal Protection Systems for spacecraft. Time-dependent axi-symmetric computations are performed by coupling the fluid dynamics code, Data-Parallel Line Relaxation program, with the material response code, Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal Ablation simulation program, to predict the mass lost rates and shape change. For model validation, the surface recession of fused amorphous quartz rod is computed, and the recession predictions reasonably agree with available data. The present parametric studies for two groups of meteoroid earth entry conditions indicate that the mass loss through moving molten layer is negligibly small for heat-flux conditions at around 1 MW/cm(exp. 2).