Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Carlin, Bradley P.; Quick, Harrison S.; Harwood, Eileen M.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.
Objective: We examined the associations between the density of alcohol establishments and five types of nonviolent crime across urban neighborhoods. Method: Data from the city of Minneapolis, MN, in 2009 were aggregated and analyzed at the neighborhood level. We examined the association between alcohol establishment density and five categories of nonviolent crime: vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, and underage alcohol possession/consumption. A Bayesian approach was used for model estimation accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant neighborhood demographics. Models were estimated for total alcohol establishment density and then separately for off-premise establishments (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premise establishments (e.g., bars and restaurants). Results: We found positive associations between density and each crime category. The association was strongest for public consumption and weakest for vandalism. We estimated that a 3.3%–10.9% increase across crime categories would result from a 20% increase in neighborhood establishment density. Similar results were seen for on- and off-premise establishments, although the strength of the associations was lower for off-premise density. Conclusions: Our results indicate that communities should consider the potential increase in nonviolent crime associated with an increase in the number of alcohol establishments within neighborhoods. PMID:22152658
Anglin, Lise; Giesbrecht, Norman; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Grand, Larry; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet
In Ontario, some court cases have involved attempts to sue social hosts for damage caused by the behaviour of drunken guests. Such legal actions give rise to the question of risks and responsibilities accruing to social hosts who serve alcohol. Using a sample of 1395 male and female adult residents of Ontario, the authors present self-report…
Abler, Laurie; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree
Background In South Africa, alcohol contributes to the HIV epidemic, in part, by influencing sexual behaviors. For some, high levels of alcohol consumption may be driven by previous traumatic experiences that result in traumatic stress. The purpose of this study was to quantify the longitudinal association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex among women who attend drinking venues and to assess whether this association was explained by mediation through alcohol use. Methods Data were collected in four waves over a year from a prospective cohort of 560 women who regularly attended alcohol-serving venues in a Cape Town township. Longitudinal mixed models examined: 1) the relationship between traumatic stress and counts of unprotected sex, and 2) whether alcohol use mediated the association between traumatic stress and unprotected sex. Results Most women reported elevated traumatic stress (80%) and hazardous alcohol use (88%) at least once during the study period. In models adjusted for covariates, traumatic stress was associated with unprotected sex (b=0.28, SE=0.06, t=4.82, p<.001). In addition, traumatic stress was associated with alcohol use (b=0.27, SE=0.02, t=14.25, p<.001), and was also associated with unprotected sex (b=0.20, SE=0.06, t=3.27, p<.01) while controlling for alcohol use (b=0.28, SE=0.07, t=4.25, p<.001). The test for the mediated effect established that alcohol use was a significant mediator, accounting for 27% of the total effect of traumatic stress on unprotected sex. Conclusions These results highlight the need to address traumatic stress among female venue patrons as an important precursor of HIV risk due to alcohol use. PMID:25394191
Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cain, Demetria; Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Eaton, Lisa; Harel, Ofer; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin
Background: South African alcohol-serving establishments (i.e., shebeens) offer unique opportunities to reduce HIV risks among men who drink. Purpose: To test an individual- and a social structural-level HIV prevention intervention for men who drink in shebeens. Methods: Twelve matched pairs of township neighbourhoods were randomized to receive either (i) an HIV prevention intervention (guided by Social Action Theory) to reduce sexual risk and increase risk reduction communication in social networks, or (ii) an attention-matched control intervention that focused on the prevention of relationship violence. At the individual level, the interventions delivered skills building workshops focused on sexual risk reduction. At the social structural level, the intervention aimed to increase conversations about safer sex among men in the shebeens, distributed small media and implemented community educational events. Individual-level outcomes were assessed by following the workshop cohorts for 1 year (N = 984), and community-level outcomes were examined through cross-sectional community surveys conducted for 1 year in the shebeens (N = 9,678). Results: Men in the HIV prevention workshops demonstrated greater condom use, more HIV prevention-oriented conversations and greater perceptions of safer sex norms than men in the comparison workshops. Changes at the community level demonstrated significant differences in condom use, although the pattern was not consistent over time. Conclusions: Multi-level interventions that target men who drink in South African shebeens may help reduce risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24248803
Toomey, Traci L.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Erickson, Darin J.
Background Excessive alcohol consumption at licensed alcohol establishments (i.e., bars and restaurants) has been directly linked to alcohol-related problems such as traffic crashes and violence. Historically, alcohol establishments have had a high likelihood of selling alcohol to obviously intoxicated patrons (also referred to as “overservice”) despite laws prohibiting these sales. Given the risks associated with overservice and the need for up-to-date data, it is critical that we monitor the likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Methods To assess the current likelihood of a licensed alcohol establishment selling alcohol to an obviously intoxicated patron, we conducted pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts (i.e., actors attempt to purchase alcohol while acting out obvious signs of intoxication) at 340 establishments in one Midwestern metropolitan area. We also measured characteristics of the establishments, the pseudo-intoxicated patrons, the servers, the managers, and the neighborhoods to assess whether these characteristics were associated with likelihood of sales of obviously intoxicated patrons. We assessed these associations with bivariate and multivariate regression models. Results Pseudo-intoxicated buyers were able to purchase alcohol at 82% of the establishments. In the fully adjusted multivariate regression model, only one of the characteristics we assessed was significantly associated with likelihood of selling to intoxicated patrons–establishments owned by a corporate entity had 3.6 greater odds of selling alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated buyer compared to independently-owned establishments. Discussion Given the risks associated with overservice of alcohol, more resources should be devoted first to identify effective interventions for decreasing overservice of alcohol and then to educate practitioners who are working in their communities to address this public health problem. PMID:26891204
... established to serve Native American peoples (INA programs) under section 166 of the Workforce Investment Act... LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Purposes and... programs) under section 166 of the Workforce Investment Act? (a) The purpose of WIA INA programs is...
...? 668.100 Section 668.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Policies § 668.100 What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American peoples (INA... support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native and Native...
...? 668.100 Section 668.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Purposes and Policies § 668.100 What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American... programs is to support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native...
...? 668.100 Section 668.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Purposes and Policies § 668.100 What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American... programs is to support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native...
...? 668.100 Section 668.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Purposes and Policies § 668.100 What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American... programs is to support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native...
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria
The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men.
Xing, Huijie; Jia, Kun; He, Jun; Shi, Changzheng; Fang, Meixia; Song, Linliang; Zhang, Pu; Zhao, Yue; Fu, Jiangnan; Li, Shoujun
Currently, the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver diseases (ALDs) is not clear. As a result, there is no effective treatment for ALDs. One limitation is the lack of a suitable animal model for use in studying ALDs. The tree shrew is a lower primate animal, characterized by a high-alcohol diet. This work aimed to establish a fatty liver model using tree shrews and to assess the animals' suitability for the study of ALDs. Tree shrews were treated with alcohol solutions (10% and 20%) for two weeks. Hemophysiology, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolic enzymes and hepatic pathology were checked and assayed with an automatic biochemical analyzer, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot, hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and oil red O staining, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared with the normal group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly enhanced in alcohol-treated tree shrews. However, the activity of reduced glutathione hormone (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) declined. Notable changes in alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH1), aldehyde dehydrogenase(ALDH2), CYP2E1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were observed. HE and oil red O staining showed that hepatocyte swelling, hydropic degeneration, and adipohepatic syndrome occurred in the tree shrews. Alcohol can induce fatty liver-like pathological changes and result in alterations in liver function, oxidative stress factors, alcohol metabolism enzymes and Nrf2. Therefore, the established fatty liver model of tree shrews induced by alcohol should be a promising tool for the study of ALDs.
Giancola, Peter R; Godlaski, Aaron J; Roth, Robert M
The present investigation determined how different component-processes of executive functioning (EF) served as risk factors for intoxicated aggression. Participants were 512 (246 males and 266 females) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. EF was measured using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A) that assesses nine EF components. After the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent. Aggressive behavior was operationalized as the shock intensities and durations administered to the opponent. Although a general BRIEF-A EF construct consisting of all nine components predicted intoxicated aggression, the best predictor involved one termed the Behavioral Regulation Index that comprises component processes such as inhibition, emotional control, flexible thinking, and self-monitoring.
... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...
... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...
... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...
... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...
... use and alcohol misuse program. Each employer shall establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirement to establish an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program. 655.11 Section 655.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...
Erickson, Darin J.; Carlin, Bradley P.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Quick, Harrison S.; Harwood, Eileen M.; Toomey, Traci L.
Although numerous studies have found a positive association between density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, Minnesota with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. Presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with presence of a college attenuating the association between density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes except for presence of a college suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood regardless of its other attributes could result in an increase in a wide range of crime. PMID:24337980
Erickson, Darin J; Carlin, Bradley P; Lenk, Kathleen M; Quick, Harrison S; Harwood, Eileen M; Toomey, Traci L
Although numerous studies have found a positive association between the density of alcohol establishments and various types of crime, few have examined how neighborhood attributes (e.g., schools, parks) could moderate this association. We used data from Minneapolis, MN with neighborhood as the unit of analysis (n = 83). We examined eight types of crime (assault, rape, robbery, vandalism, nuisance crime, public alcohol consumption, driving while intoxicated, underage alcohol possession/consumption) and measured density as the total number of establishments per roadway mile. Neighborhood attributes assessed as potential moderators included non-alcohol businesses, schools, parks, religious institutions, neighborhood activism, neighborhood quality, and number of condemned houses. Using Bayesian techniques, we created a model for each crime outcome (accounting for spatial auto-correlation and controlling for relevant demographics) with an interaction term (moderator × density) to test each potential moderating effect. Few interaction terms were statistically significant. The presence of at least one college was the only neighborhood attribute that consistently moderated the density-crime association, with the presence of a college attenuating the association between the density and three types of crime (assaults, nuisance crime, and public consumption). However, caution should be used when interpreting the moderating effect of college presence because of the small number of colleges in our sample. The lack of moderating effects of neighborhood attributes, except for presence of a college, suggests that the addition of alcohol establishments to any neighborhood, regardless of its other attributes, could result in an increase in a wide range of crime.
Dent, O. F.; Sulway, M. R.; Broe, G. A.; Creasey, H.; Kos, S. C.; Jorm, A. F.; Tennant, C.; Fairley, M. J.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between the average daily alcohol intake of older men in 1982 and cognitive performance and brain atrophy nine years later. SUBJECTS: Random sample of 209 Australian men living in the community who were veterans of the second world war. Their mean age in 1982 was 64.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 18 standard neuropsychological tests measuring a range of intellectual functions. Cortical, sylvian, and vermian atrophy on computed tomography. RESULTS: Compared with Australian men of the same age in previous studies these men had sustained a high rate of alcohol consumption into old age. However, there was no significant correlation, linear or non-linear, between alcohol consumption in 1982 and results in any of the neuropsychological tests in 1991; neither was alcohol consumption associated with brain atrophy on computed tomography. CONCLUSION: No evidence was found that apparently persistent lifelong consumption of alcohol was related to the cognitive functioning of these men in old age. PMID:9180067
Forsyth, Alasdair J.M.; Ellaway, Anne; Davidson, Neil
Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the likely impact of the Scottish Government's proposed alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) policy on community off-sales outlets (convenience stores or corner shops), and, in turn, on the local people who purchase drinks at such premises. This research adds to our knowledge by linking sales of alcohol products which will be affected by MUP (e.g. at the proposed 50 ppu) to the types of communities where these are the ‘drinks-of-choice’. Methods: A survey of independent community off-sales operating within the city of Glasgow, Scotland (n = 271) returned 144 completed questionnaires enquiring about each shop's customer base, best-selling alcohol products and participating shopkeepers' views on MUP. Responses were measured against current alcohol product prices (i.e. whether potentially affected by MUP) and local levels of socio-economic deprivation. Results: Participating shopkeepers were divided in their support for MUP, although more were in favour than against. Support for MUP tended to be rooted in business concerns. A majority reported having at least one best-selling alcohol product which will be affected by the proposed MUP policy at current prices, with the beverages that would be most affected (e.g. white cider) tending to be best-sellers at shops serving deprived communities. Conclusion: MUP is likely to impact most in socio-economically deprived communities. This is also where alcohol-related health and other inequalities are currently greatest. PMID:24293505
Ray, Joel G.; Turner, Linda; Gozdyra, Piotr; Matheson, Flora I.; Robert, Burgess; Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L.
Abstract Alcohol contributes to intentional and unintentional injury. We explored on-premise licensed alcohol establishments (LAEs) and emergency medical service (EMS) ambulance calls. We completed a retrospective population-based study in the Region of Peel, Ontario, 2005 to 2014, where alcohol sales are tightly regulated and healthcare is universally available. We included participants age ≥ 19 years. Longitude–latitude coordinates of all 696 LAEs and all 267,477 EMS ambulance calls were ascertained, and then assigned to 1 of 1568 dissemination areas (DA) in Peel. Relative risks (RRs) described the association between density of on-premise LAEs (by DA deciles) and the rate of EMS calls, adjusted for material deprivation, and density of beer/liquor stores in each DA. There was a curvilinear relation between LAE density and EMS calls for trauma, rising from 45.3 per 1000 in DAs with no LAEs to 381.0 per 1000 in decile-10 (adjusted RR 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.15–9.97). This relation was more pronounced for alcohol-focused LAEs, and highest among younger males. Calls for assault (RR 2.67, 95% CI 1.26–5.65) and intoxication (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.41–11.38) were more likely on the last day of the month and the day thereafter, compared to 1 week prior. At 02:00 hours, when LAEs must stop selling alcohol, there was a considerable rise in assault-related calls in DAs with LAE but not in DAs without LAEs. On-premise LAEs contribute to EMS calls for trauma and assault, especially among young males, around last call, and when monthly pay cheques are cashed. PMID:27175699
Patry, Marc W; Magaletta, Philip R; Diamond, Pamela M; Weinman, Beth A
Although not originally designed for implementation in correctional settings, researchers and clinicians have begun to use the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to assess offenders. A relatively small number of studies have made attempts to validate the alcohol and drug abuse scales of the PAI, and only a very few studies have validated those scales in nonclinical correctional samples. The current study examined evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the substance abuse scales on the PAI in a large, nonclinical sample of offenders. The net sample for the current study consisted of 1,120 federal inmates. Both the drug abuse and alcohol scales showed good convergent validity through high correlations with relevant proximal and distal indicators of substance use across multiple measures from several data sources. Discriminant validity was established as neither scale showed any "erroneous" correlations after controlling for the other scale. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H.; Choi, Karmel W.; Abler, Laurie; Kalichman, Seth C.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa are sites for high-risk behaviours that may lead to HIV transmission. Prevention and treatment interventions are sorely needed in these settings, but HIV-related stigma may limit their effectiveness. This study explored expressions of stigma among alcohol-serving venue patrons in Cape Town and examined the potential impact of stigma on HIV disclosure, testing, and treatment-seeking behaviours. A total of 92 in-depth interviews with male and female, Black and Coloured patrons were conducted. Transcripts were analysed via memo-writing and diagramming techniques. Many participants mentioned knowing other patrons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), and this visibility of HIV impacted expressions of HIV-related stigma. Participants discussed four forms of HIV-related stigma in the venues: fearing PLWH, fearing HIV acquisition, blaming others for spreading HIV, and isolating PLWH. HIV visibility and expressions of HIV-related stigma, particularly fear of isolation, influenced participants’ willingness to disclose their status. HIV-related stigma in the venues also appeared to indirectly influence testing and treatment-seeking behaviour outside the venue. Results suggest that efforts to change norms and reduce expressions of HIV-related stigma in alcohol-serving venues are necessary to successfully deliver tailored HIV prevention interventions and increase uptake of HIV testing and care in this important social setting. PMID:25630531
Torrens Armstrong, Anna
Since 1986, health promotion has had a place within the U.S. Department of Defense. Emphasizing the leading health indicators of Healthy People, the role of health promotion has continued to support the U.S. Armed Forces in perhaps one of the most challenging decades of wartime operations. Serving a sizable population with both typical and mission-related health issues, health promotion plays a critical role in maintaining and improving health. The purpose of this article is to highlight military health promotion by offering insight into the day-to-day life of a "boots on the ground" military health educator, reviewing the challenges and opportunities of working with a unique population. A summary of a variety of military specific initiatives is provided. Additionally, the article highlights the barriers and benefits to military health promotion. Last, the article concludes with a call to action to consider the role of all health educators in serving those that serve.
... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...
Zebroski, Mary Patricia
This practicum study assessed the formation of The Western Pennsylvania Fetal Alcohol Support and Information Network, established to provide assistance to foster and adoptive families of children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAS/E). Priorities for the network were: (1) increasing awareness and knowledge of FAS/E issues…
JONKER, ANNA; KUNTSCHE, EMMANUEL
Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). Results: It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. Discussion and conclusions: This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use. PMID:25592307
... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...
Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.
This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…
Helliwell, D; Reilly, D; Rippingale, C
The response to drug and alcohol problems in a small Australian rural community is described. The town of Nimbin, the centre of this community, is characterized by alternative life-styles. The area has received considerable publicity over illicit drug use, particularly marijuana-growing and a recent increase in injecting drug usage. The town has one medical practice with two general practitioners and this centre has been actively involved in the development of drug and alcohol services. This paper describes the development of a drug and alcohol service from the perspective of a local general practitioner. Reference is made to problems of community resistance, hospital issues and the steps taken to acquire knowledge and skills in the management of patients presenting to the practice. The importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in the development of services which included a needle and syringe exchange and a methadone treatment programme is emphasized.
Patry, Marc W.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Weinman, Beth A.
Although not originally designed for implementation in correctional settings, researchers and clinicians have begun to use the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to assess offenders. A relatively small number of studies have made attempts to validate the alcohol and drug abuse scales of the PAI, and only a very few studies have validated those…
Løhaugen, Gro C. C.; Flak, Marianne Møretrø; Gerstner, Thorsten; Sundberg, Cato; Lerdal, Bjørn; Skranes, Jon
This paper presents a new initiative in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway to establish a regional resource center focusing on services for children and adolescents aged 2–18 years with prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs. In Norway, the prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS) is not known but has been estimated to be between 1 and 2 children per 1000 births, while the prevalence of prenatal exposure to illicit drugs is unknown. The resource center is the first of its kind in Scandinavia and will have three main objectives: (1) provide hospital staff, community health and child welfare personnel, and special educators with information, educational courses, and seminars focused on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of children with a history of prenatal alcohol/drug exposure; (2) provide specialized health services, such as diagnostic services and intervention planning, for children referred from hospitals in the South-Eastern Health Region of Norway; and (3) initiate multicenter studies focusing on the diagnostic process and evaluation of interventions. PMID:26692762
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)
Link, Geoffrey; Beggs, Marjorie; Seiderman, Ethel
Parent Services Project (PSP), the first comprehensive program of resources and mental health activities for parents offered at child care centers in the San Francisco Bay Area (California), has expanded to centers in six states, serving over 19,000 families. This report describes the program's history, aims, and achievements, along with specific…
Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena
Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;9999: 1-11. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J
The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the
Birch, Glynn R.
Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…
Geng, Longlong; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Wenxiang; Wu, Shujie; Jia, Mingjun; Yan, Wenfu; Liu, Gang
Carbon supported γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle (γ-Fe2O3/C) possessing both superparamagnetism and activating molecular oxygen properties were prepared by an ammonia-assisted precipitation method. It could catalyze the selective oxidation of various benzyl alcohols with air as oxidant source, and could be easily recycled with an external magnet separation. The correlation between the intrinsic properties of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles and the catalytic performance was investigated with a series of characterizations. It shows that the oxidation state of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were facile to be changed, which should be related to its inverse spinel type crystal structure with vacant cation sites. These γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles should be the active sites and responsible for the high activity of γ-Fe2O3/C in the air oxidation of alcohols. The formation of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticle was controlled by precipitation agent and carbon support. Using ammonia ethanol solution as precipitation agent, the hydrolysis rate of iron species could be decreased. The surface functional groups of carbon support could act as chelating sites for iron species, controlling the nucleation and growth of the γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the preparation process. Dr. Xiang Wang gratefully acknowledges the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division for the support of this work.
Nguyen-Feng, Viann N; Feng, Steven L; Babbar, Shilpa; Rankins, Nicole Calloway; Blando, James D
Hot yoga establishments have been increasing in popularity in local communities. Studios may support participation among pregnant women though no clinical studies currently exist that examine prenatal hot yoga effects. The pilot study described in this article aimed to assess the spread of prenatal hot yoga and to provide information on the environmental conditions and practices of those who engage in hot yoga within a local community. A thermal environment meter was used to measure ambient air conditions during three 90-minute hot yoga classes. Mothers who practiced prenatal hot yoga were more likely than non-hot yoga practitioners to have someone aside from an obstetrician/gynecologist discuss prenatal exercise safety with them. Prenatal public health education campaigns need to be refined. Public health officials and obstetricians/gynecologists need to be aware that those who engage in a hot yoga practice are more likely to trust someone other than their health care provider or public health professional regarding safety of this practice.
Wang, Dongbo; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Liao, Dexiang; Zeng, Guangming
Recently, a novel operational regime (i.e., the oxic/extended-idle [OEI] regime) has been reported to successfully achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) when employing glucose and volatile fatty acids as the sole substrate. In the OEI regime, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) could get a selective advantage over other populations during the extended-idle period where polyphosphate released but polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen transformations were negligible/low, thus energy requirements for maintenance purposes in the period could be covered by polyphosphate release. This study further evaluated the feasibility of alcohols as external carbon sources for EBPR induced by the OEI regime, as the available substrate in the raw wastewater is often deficient. First, phosphorus removal in the OEI process was compared, respectively, with methanol and ethanol as the sole substrate. The results showed that the ethanol-reactor achieved 90.8 ± 2.3% of phosphorus removal, which was approximate twofold than the methanol-reactor. Further studies displayed that the cells in the ethanol-reactor contained more PAOs, and had higher activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase than those in the methanol-reactor. Also, the aerobic transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen in the ethanol-reactor were, respectively, higher and lower than those in the methanol-reactor, which were consistent with the reactors performances. Then, the feasibility of using ethanol as external substrate to enhance EBPR in the OEI process was confirmed for a municipal wastewater. Finally, EBPR performance and metabolic transformation values between the OEI and the anaerobic/oxic (A/O) regimes with ethanol as the sole substrate were compared. The results showed that EBPR in the ethanol-OEI reactor was higher than that in the ethanol-A/O reactor. All the above results proved that ethanol was a favorable external substrate to the OEI regime for EBPR enhancement.
Anacker, Allison M J; Smith, Monique L; Ryabinin, Andrey E
Dominance hierarchies are an important aspect of group-living as they determine individual access to resources. The existence of dominance ranks in access to space has not been described in socially monogamous, communally nesting prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Here, we tested whether dominance could be assessed using the tube test. We also tested whether dominance related to alcohol intake, similar to what has been demonstrated in nonmonogamous species. Same-sex pairs of unfamiliar peers were tested in a series of three trials of the tube test, then paired and allowed individual access to alcohol and water for 4 days, and then tested again in the tube test. For all pairs, the same subjects won the majority of trials before and after alcohol drinking. The number of wins negatively correlated with alcohol intake on the first day of drinking and positively correlated with levels of Fos in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following the tube test in a separate group of voles. Dominance was not related to Fos levels in other brain regions examined. Together, these results indicate that prairie voles quickly establish stable dominance ranks through a process possibly involving the hypothalamus and suggest that dominance is linked to alcohol drinking.
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
... liquors with meals. 31.42 Section 31.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...
This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…
Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol
Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.
Yao, Chung-Tay; Lai, Ching-Long; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yin, Shih-Jiun
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes oxidation of ingested ethanol to acetaldehyde, the first step in hepatic metabolism. The purpose of this study was to establish an ex vivo rat liver perfusion system under defined and verified steady states with respect to the metabolites and the metabolic rates, and to quantitatively correlate the observed rates with simulations based on the kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of rat liver ADH. Class I ADH1 was isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and characterized by steady-state kinetics in the Krebs-Ringer perfusion buffer with supplements. Nonrecirculating liver perfusion with constant input of ethanol at near physiological hepatic blood flow rate was performed in situ. Ethanol and the related metabolites acetaldehyde, acetate, lactate, and pyruvate in perfusates were determined. Results of the initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies showed that rat ADH1 conformed to the Theorell-Chance Ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Steady-state metabolism of ethanol in the perfused liver maintained up to 3h as evidenced by the steady-state levels of ethanol and metabolites in the effluent, and the steady-state ethanol disappearance rates and acetate production rates. The changes of the metabolic rates were qualitatively and in general quantitatively correlated to the results from simulations with the kinetic rate equations of ADH1 under a wide range of ethanol, in the presence of competitive inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and of uncompetitive inhibitor isobutyramide. Preliminary flux control analysis estimated that apparent C(ADH)(J) in the perfused liver may approximate 0.7 at constant infusion with 1-2 mM ethanol, suggesting that ADH plays a major but not the exclusive role in governing hepatic ethanol metabolism. The reported steady-state rat liver perfusion system may potentially be applicable to other drug or drug-ethanol interaction studies.
Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.
The Establishment of the First Cancer Tissue Biobank at a Hispanic-Serving Institution: A National Cancer Institute–Funded Initiative between Moffitt Cancer Center in Florida and the Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences in Puerto Rico
Flores, Idhaliz; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Matta, Jaime; García, Miosotis; Fenstermacher, David; Gutierrez, Sylvia; Seijo, Edward; Torres-Ruiz, Jose’; Pledger, W. Jack
Population-based studies are important to address emerging issues in health disparities among populations. The Partnership between the Moffitt Cancer Center (MCC) in Florida and the Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences (PSMHS) in Puerto Rico (the PSMHS-MCC Partnership) was developed to facilitate high-quality research, training, and community outreach focusing on the Puerto Rican population in the island and in the mainland, with funding from the National Cancer Institute. We report here the establishment of a Tissue Biobank at PSMHS, modeled after the MCC tissue biorepository, to support translational research projects on this minority population. This facility, the Puerto Rico Tissue Biobank, was jointly developed by a team of basic and clinical scientists from both institutions in close collaboration with the administrators and clinical faculty of the tissue accrual sites. The efforts required and challenges that needed to be overcome to establish the first functional, centralized cancer-related biobank in Puerto Rico, and to ensure that it continuously evolves to address new needs of this underserved Hispanic population, are described. As a result of the collaborative efforts between PSMHS and MCC, a tissue procurement algorithm was successfully established to acquire, process, store, and conduct pathological analyses of cancer-related biospecimens and their associated clinical-pathological data from Puerto Rican patients with cancer recruited at a tertiary hospital setting. All protocols in place are in accordance with standard operational procedures that ensure high quality of biological materials and patient confidentiality. The processes described here provide a model that can be applied to achieve the establishment of a functional biobank in similar settings. PMID:24836632
Rakow, Steven J., Ed.
Features a color poster entitled "Electricity Serves Our Community" and describes how the poster can be used to help teach about energy, electricity concepts, and types of electrical generation. Explains how teachers can obtain other resources such as posters, lesson plans, and kits from the National Energy Foundation. (PR)
Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major…
Juhnke, Gerald A.; Huffman, Shirley B.; Nilsen, Keith A.; Adams, Jennifer R.; Dew, Brain J.; Jordan, Joseph P.; Charkow, Wendy B.; Curtis, Russell C.; Gmutza, Brian M.; Long, Jolie A.; Booth, Caroline S.; Hagedorn, William Bryce; Rubio, Paula; Schroat, David A.
The authors describe the Substance Information Program, a university alcohol and other drug assessment and intervention program. The program is housed in a counseling department's on-site training and research clinic and gives counselors-in-training an opportunity to gain practical addictions training. (Author)
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637
Lindgren, Kristen P; Ramirez, Jason J; Olin, Cecilia C; Neighbors, Clayton
Drinking identity-how much individuals view themselves as drinkers-is a promising cognitive factor that predicts problem drinking. Implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity have been developed (the former assesses more reflexive/automatic cognitive processes; the latter more reflective/controlled cognitive processes): each predicts unique variance in alcohol consumption and problems. However, implicit and explicit identity's utility and uniqueness as predictors relative to cognitive factors important for problem drinking screening and intervention has not been evaluated. Thus, the current study evaluated implicit and explicit drinking identity as predictors of consumption and problems over time. Baseline measures of drinking identity, social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives were evaluated as predictors of consumption and problems (evaluated every 3 months over 2 academic years) in a sample of 506 students (57% female) in their first or second year of college. Results found that baseline identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Further, when compared to each set of cognitive factors, the identity measures predicted unique variance in consumption and problems over time. Findings were more robust for explicit versus implicit identity and in models that did not control for baseline drinking. Drinking identity appears to be a unique predictor of problem drinking relative to social norms, alcohol expectancies, and drinking motives. Intervention and theory could benefit from including and considering drinking identity. (PsycINFO Database Record
Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.
Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)
Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.
Jensen, William B.
The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.
... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...
Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...
Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...
van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian
Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…
... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...
Ponicki, William R.; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Remer, Lillian G.
Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density’s association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999–2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units
Ponicki, William R; Gruenewald, Paul J; Remer, Lillian G
Although past research has linked alcohol outlet density to higher rates of drinking and many related social problems, there is conflicting evidence of density's association with traffic crashes. An abundance of local alcohol outlets simultaneously encourages drinking and reduces driving distances required to obtain alcohol, leading to an indeterminate expected impact on alcohol-involved crash risk. This study separately investigates the effects of outlet density on (1) the risk of injury crashes relative to population and (2) the likelihood that any given crash is alcohol-involved, as indicated by police reports and single-vehicle nighttime status of crashes. Alcohol outlet density effects are estimated using Bayesian misalignment Poisson analyses of all California ZIP codes over the years 1999-2008. These misalignment models allow panel analysis of ZIP-code data despite frequent redefinition of postal-code boundaries, while also controlling for overdispersion and the effects of spatial autocorrelation. Because models control for overall retail density, estimated alcohol-outlet associations represent the extra effect of retail establishments selling alcohol. The results indicate a number of statistically well-supported associations between retail density and crash behavior, but the implied effects on crash risks are relatively small. Alcohol-serving restaurants have a greater impact on overall crash risks than on the likelihood that those crashes involve alcohol, whereas bars primarily affect the odds that crashes are alcohol-involved. Off-premise outlet density is negatively associated with risks of both crashes and alcohol involvement, while the presence of a tribal casino in a ZIP code is linked to higher odds of police-reported drinking involvement. Alcohol outlets in a given area are found to influence crash risks both locally and in adjacent ZIP codes, and significant spatial autocorrelation also suggests important relationships across geographical units
Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.
Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…
Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.
Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244
Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.
In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that…
Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte
Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones-zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus, being
Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte
Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus
... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...
... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...
... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...
... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...
... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.
Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated . The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.
Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…
... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...
The National Rural Water Association, headquartered in Duncan Oklahoma, has been selected through a competitive grants process to establish a regional Environmental Finance Center (EFC) serving EPA Region 8 states.
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.
A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…
Padilla, Mark B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona
The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals. PMID:21859907
Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Godbole, Ramona
The Dominican Republic has high rates of HIV infection and alcohol consumption. Unfortunately, little research has been focused on the broader sources of the synergy between these two health outcomes. We draw on syndemic theory to argue that alcohol consumption and sexual risk behavior are best analyzed within the context of culture and economy in Caribbean tourism spaces, which produce a synergy between apparently independent outcomes. We sampled 32 men and women working in the tourism industry at alcohol-serving establishments in Sosúa, Dominican Republic. Interviewees described alcohol consumption as an implicit requirement of tourism work, tourism industry business practices that foster alcohol consumption, and an intertwining relationship between alcohol and sexual commerce. The need to establish relationships with tourists, combined with the overconsumption of alcohol, contributed to a perceived loss of sexual control, which participants felt could impede condom use. Interventions should incorporate knowledge of the social context of tourism areas to mitigate the contextual factors that contribute to HIV infection and alcohol consumption among locals.
... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...
Bailly, Matthew D; King, Alan R
The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on laboratory-induced aggression among men has been fairly well established. The present study hypothesized that alcohol effects on Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) responding would not be replicated among "low-risk' college men distinguished by their absence of personality disorder features. Participants were assigned to either Alcohol (n=18), Placebo (n=7), or Time (n=8) comparison groups with each completing 25-min. sessions during the baseline, ascent, peak (70 mg%), and descent (40 mg%) phases of absorption and elimination process. Participants assigned to the Alcohol condition received a .80 ml/kg dose of 95% ethanol mixed with soda in a 1:5 ethanol/soda ratio. As hypothesized, alcohol was associated with stable Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm responding across the course of absorption, peak, and elimination for all three groups. Aggression Paradigm responding was least variable among the men administered alcohol. The present procedure served to identify a subset of "low-risk" college men whose Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm responding was not adversely affected by alcohol. The extent to which aggressive personality dispositions contribute to alcohol-induced laboratory aggression remains to be identified. Low-risk college drinkers warrant systematic examination to specify what factors attenuate their reactions to alcohol and other situational provocations.
Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.
A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables
... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...
The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical features help to establish an alcoholic etiology. These features and the use of liver biopsy are discussed, and a practical guideline for diagnosis and follow-up is offered. PMID:21267299
Koposov, Roman A.; Ruchkin, Vladislav V.; Eisemann, Martin; Sidorov, Pavel I.
The relationships between alcohol expectancies, level of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, aggression, and personality factors in 198 Russian male juvenile delinquents were assessed. A clustering procedure was used in order to establish main patterns of alcohol expectancies, yielding three major clusters. Level of alcohol use, alcohol-related…
The basic responsibilities of members of organizational communication groups are to fulfill the needs of those seeking advice, expertise and assistance. That means evaluating their needs, planning methods to meet them, and implementing those methods, all within frequently limited time frames and budgets. In order to fulfill those responsibilities, it is important to establish communication. Because many people who solicit these services are uninformed about the terminology and workings of the profession, the first step often is to educate them. The education process should begin with the first meeting and continue throughout the course of the relationship. It can be divided into four basic steps: (1) opening the lines of communication, (2) establishing what our clients want/need (these are not necessarily the same), outlining responsibilities - ours and theirs, and (4) providing estimates.
nekton animals (predominantly cetaceous and cephalopods ), since it is long ago established that their relative power expenditures for achievement of...depend on mode of life, and in connection with this and from speed of motion. Nature in the process of evolution optimized the DOC - 91123900 PAGE 5...thoracic and caudal fins participate in heat exchange. Cephalopods - marine mollusks (squids, octopi, cuttles) have body, in form close to body of
Amedee, Angela M.; Nichols, Whitney A.; Robichaux, Spencer; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve
The populations at risk for HIV infection, as well as those living with HIV, overlap with populations that engage in heavy alcohol consumption. Alcohol use has been associated with high-risk sexual behavior and an increased likelihood of acquiring HIV, as well as poor outcome measures of disease such as increased viral loads and declines in CD4+ T lymphocytes among those living with HIV-infections. It is difficult to discern the biological mechanisms by which alcohol use affects the virus:host interaction in human populations due to the numerous variables introduced by human behavior. The rhesus macaque infected with simian immunodeficiency virus has served as an invaluable model for understanding HIV disease and transmission, and thus, provides an ideal model to evaluate the effects of chronic alcohol use on viral infection and disease progression in a controlled environment. In this review, we describe the different macaque models of chronic alcohol consumption and summarize the studies conducted with SIV and alcohol. Collectively, they have shown that chronic alcohol consumption results in higher levels of plasma virus and alterations in immune cell populations that potentiate SIV replication. They also demonstrate a significant impact of chronic alcohol use on SIV-disease progression and survival. These studies highlight the utility of the rhesus macaque in deciphering the biological effects of alcohol on HIV disease. Future studies with this well-established model will address the biological influence of alcohol use on susceptibility to HIV, as well as the efficacy of anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:25053367
... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...
... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...
... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft unless the certificate holder operating the aircraft has served that beverage. (b) No certificate...
Incumbent upon those faculty who teach substance abuse courses is the need to integrate elderly alcoholism-related course content to encourage and adequately prepare university students to serve this "hidden" population. Course content would ideally include theories specific to loss-grief, aging, and alcoholism. In addition, field placement…
Kelly, Shirley; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.
Investigated cause of abusive drinking among the elderly and treatment practices and counseling strategies used by professionals who serve them. Structured interviews with six practitioners who were knowledgeable about alcohol abuse among the elderly revealed consensus that alcoholism is a physiological disorder with attendant psychological and…
It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.
... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...
One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.
Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A
Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478
Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen
By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.
Marchant, Nicolas; Sanders, Robert; Sleigh, Jamie; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Brichant, Jean François; Laureys, Steven; Bonhomme, Vincent
Major clinical endpoints of general anesthesia, such as the alteration of consciousness, are achieved through effects of anesthetic agents on the central nervous system, and, more precisely, on the brain. Historically, clinicians and researchers have always been interested in quantifying and characterizing those effects through recordings of surface brain electrical activity, namely electroencephalography (EEG). Over decades of research, the complex signal has been dissected to extract its core substance, with significant advances in the interpretation of the information it may contain. Methodological, engineering, statistical, mathematical, and computer progress now furnishes advanced tools that not only allow quantification of the effects of anesthesia, but also shed light on some aspects of anesthetic mechanisms. In this article, we will review how advanced EEG serves the anesthesiologist in that respect, but will not review other intraoperative utilities that have no direct relationship with consciousness, such as monitoring of brain and spinal cord integrity. We will start with a reminder of anesthestic effects on raw EEG and its time and frequency domain components, as well as a summary of the EEG analysis techniques of use for the anesthesiologist. This will introduce the description of the use of EEG to assess the depth of the hypnotic and anti-nociceptive components of anesthesia, and its clinical utility. The last part will describe the use of EEG for the understanding of mechanisms of anesthesia-induced alteration of consciousness. We will see how, eventually in association with transcranial magnetic stimulation, it allows exploring functional cerebral networks during anesthesia. We will also see how EEG recordings during anesthesia, and their sophisticated analysis, may help corroborate current theories of mental content generation.
All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.
The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…
Miller, Ted R.; Spicer, Rebecca S.
Background Primary data collection has established that alcohol causes injuries treated in the emergency department. No comparable data exist for injuries admitted to hospital. Data on the injury risks of heavy drinkers relative to other drinkers also are sparse. Methods We estimated (1) whether regular heavy drinkers have higher hospitalized injury risks than other people when alcohol negative and (2) how much hospitalized injury risk of regular heavy drinkers and other drinkers rises when alcohol positive. We combined national alcohol consumption data with alcohol metabolism rates to estimate hours spent alcohol positive versus alcohol negative during a year for heavy drinkers versus other people. A literature review provided hospitalized non-fatal injury rates for these groups by alcohol involvement. Results Relative to other alcohol-negative people aged 18 and older, heavy drinkers have an estimated relative risk of hospitalized injury of 1.4 when alcohol negative and 4.3 when alcohol positive. Others have an estimated relative risk of 1.0 when alcohol negative and 6.8 when alcohol positive. Thus alcohol greatly raises injury risk. The excess risk patterns persist for a wide range of sensitivity analysis values. Of hospitalized injuries, an estimated 21% are alcohol attributable including 36% of assaults. Conclusions Drinking alcohol is a major cause of hospitalized injury. Heavy drinkers lead risky lifestyles. They tolerate alcohol better than most drinkers but their injury risks still triple when they drink. Our approach to attribution is a valuable complement to more costly, more precise approaches that rely heavily on primary data collection. It works for any severity of injury. Applying it only requires an existing alcohol consumption survey plus data on alcohol involvement in targeted injuries. PMID:22004026
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Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping
Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.
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... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...
Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...
... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...
Malver, Olaf; Sebastian, Mina J; Oppenheimer, Norman J
A new, acyclic NAD-analog, acycloNAD(+) has been synthesized where the nicotinamide ribosyl moiety has been replaced by the nicotinamide (2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl moiety. The chemical properties of this analog are comparable to those of β-NAD(+) with a redox potential of -324mV and a 341nm λmax for the reduced form. Both yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH) catalyze the reduction of acycloNAD(+) by primary alcohols. With HLADH 1-butanol has the highest Vmax at 49% that of β-NAD(+). The primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect is greater than 3 indicating a significant contribution to the rate limiting step from cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bond. The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in the oxidation of stereospecifically deuterium labeled n-butanol is identical to that for the reaction with β-NAD(+). In contrast to the activity toward primary alcohols there is no detectable reduction of acycloNAD(+) by secondary alcohols with HLADH although these alcohols serve as competitive inhibitors. The net effect is that acycloNAD(+) has converted horse liver ADH from a broad spectrum alcohol dehydrogenase, capable of utilizing either primary or secondary alcohols, into an exclusively primary alcohol dehydrogenase. This is the first example of an NAD analog that alters the substrate specificity of a dehydrogenase and, like site-directed mutagenesis of proteins, establishes that modifications of the coenzyme distance from the active site can be used to alter enzyme function and substrate specificity. These and other results, including the activity with α-NADH, clearly demonstrate the promiscuity of the binding interactions between dehydrogenases and the riboside phosphate of the nicotinamide moiety, thus greatly expanding the possibilities for the design of analogs and inhibitors of specific dehydrogenases.
... foods under $1 into your weekly menu planning. Apples (raw with skin) Great for: Snacks, green salads, ... and fruit salads What's a serving? 1 large apple Nutrition Info per serving: About 116 calories, 5. ...
Taylor, Alexander; Parks, Rodney; Edwards, Ashley
In recent years, veterans have enrolled at higher education institutions in vastly increasingly numbers to utilize their Post-9/11 GI Bill benefits. In response to this influx, universities have established a variety of resources and support systems designed to serve the needs of student veterans. There has also been heightened attention toward…
The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human
... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...
Kastin, B; Mandel, L
Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...
... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...
... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...
Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.
The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.
Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)
Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic
Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff
Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E
Dong, X; Mumper, R J
Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems.
therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve
The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.
... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...
Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.
We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.
Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y
Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.
RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA; RUSSELL, DALE W.
Alcohol messages contained in television programming serve as sources of information about drinking. To better understand the ways embedded messages about alcohol are communicated, it is crucial to objectively monitor and analyze television alcohol depictions. This article presents a content analysis of an eight-week sample of eighteen prime-time programs. Alcohol messages were coded based on modalities of presentation, level of plot connection, and valence. The analysis reveals that mixed messages about alcohol often coexist but the ways in which they are presented differ: whereas negative messages are tied to the plot and communicated verbally, positive messages are associated with subtle visual portrayals. PMID:21188281
The concern about alcohol marketing and underage drinking has been heightened by recent findings in the scientific research community. Studies have established that alcohol advertising exposure influences a young person's beliefs about alcohol and his/her intention to drink. They also suggest that advertising may have a direct impact on youth…
Bayer, Gregory A.; Bayer, Marilyn A.
A family system is intimately affected by the presence of an alcoholic within the system. One symptom of alcoholism is the development of elaborate defenses. In response to the defense of the alcoholic, each family member develops individual well established and unique defenses. The diagnosis of the defenses is essential in determining the nature…
Ward, Rose Marie; Matthews, Molly R.; Weiner, Judith; Hogan, Kathryn M.; Popson, Halle C.
Objective: To establish a short measure of attitudes toward sexual consent in the context of alcohol consumption. Methods: Using a multistage and systematic measurement development process, the investigators developed the Alcohol and Sexual Consent Scale using a sample of college students. Results: The resulting 12-item scale, the Alcohol and…
... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...
... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...
... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... tasting or sampling at retail establishments. An industry member may conduct tasting or...
Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M
Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.
Cunradi, Carol B; Mair, Christina; Ponicki, William; Remer, Lillian
Neighborhood indicators of social disadvantage, such as poverty and unemployment, are associated with intimate partner violence (IPV). Despite the well-established link between heavy drinking and IPV, few studies have analyzed the contribution of alcohol outlet density to the occurrence of IPV. Greater numbers of alcohol outlets in a community may be a sign of loosened normative constraints against violence, promote problem drinking among at-risk couples, and provide environments where groups of persons at risk for IPV may form and mutually reinforce IPV-related attitudes, norms, and problem behaviors. This study used ecological data to determine if alcohol outlet density (number of bars, restaurants serving alcohol, and off-premise outlets per unit area) is related to rates of IPV-related police calls and IPV-related crime reports in Sacramento, California. Separate analyses for IPV calls and crime reports were conducted using Bayesian space-time models adjusted for area characteristics (poverty rate, unemployment rate, racial/ethnic composition). The results showed that each additional off-premise alcohol outlet is associated with an approximate 4% increase in IPV-related police calls and an approximate 3% increase in IPV-related crime reports. Bars and restaurants were not associated with either outcome. The findings suggest that alcohol outlet density, especially off-premise outlets, appear to be related to IPV events. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which neighborhood factors, such as alcohol outlet density, affect IPV behaviors. Understanding these mechanisms is of public health importance for developing environmental IPV prevention strategies, such as changes in zoning, community action, education, and enforcement activities.
Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.
Objective The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a “real world”, non-research setting. Methods Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from a randomized controlled trial of the eARM intervention, which was conducted across 15 communities in a Midwestern metropolitan area. Inputs and their costs were obtained from records maintained during the randomized controlled trial. Total development and testing costs were computed, and implementation costs were estimated with input from the research team. The average implementation cost per establishment was calculated by dividing the total estimated implementation cost by the number of establishments that participated in the study. This provides an estimate of the resources needed to support a broader dissemination of interventions such as eARM. Results Direct development and testing costs were $484,904. Including the University's overhead cost rate of 51 percent, total development and testing costs were $732,205. Total estimated implementation costs were $179,999 over a 12 month period. The average cost per establishment was $1,588. Conclusions Given the large damage liability awards faced by establishments that serve alcohol to drunk drivers, establishments or their insurance companies may be willing to pay the $1,588 estimated implementation cost in order to limit their exposure to these large damage awards. Therefore, making interventions such as eARM available could be an effective and sustainable policy for reducing alcohol-related incidents. PMID:27087708
Lyness, Sarah M
Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316
... Alcoholism § 416.941 Establishment and use of referral and monitoring agencies. We will contract with one or... whose disabilities are based on a determination that drug addiction or alcoholism is a...
... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...
... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...
... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...
Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...
Burstein, Leigh; And Others
A method is presented for determining the content validity of a series of secondary school mathematics tests. These tests are part of the Mathematics Diagnostic Testing Project (MDTP), a collaborative effort by California university systems to develop placement examinations and a means to document student preparation in mathematics. Content…
... Service Members, Veterans, Spouses, and Other Family Members By the authority vested in me as President by... other family members with the information, support, and protections they deserve, it is hereby ordered....S.C. 2007): to provide our service members, veterans, spouses, and other family members...
...), you may electronically serve documents on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents §...
... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35... electronically serve documents on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at...
... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35... electronically serve documents on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at...
... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Serving Documents § 105.35... electronically serve documents on us. (ii) Serve documents electronically through the Internet at...
Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.
Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089
Thombs, Dennis L.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Xuan, Ziming; Aryal, Subhash
Objectives. We examined the associations among zip code demographics, the state alcohol policy environment, and the retail outlet availability of multiple fruit-flavored alcoholic drinks in a can (MFAC). Methods. In a nationally representative sample of zip codes (n = 872), we merged data from 4 sources: publicly available marketing information from 2 major MFAC producers, the US Census Bureau, state alcohol regulatory agencies, and recent research on state alcohol policies. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models to examine MFAC outlet availability in the United States. Results. More than 98% of MFAC outlets were off-premises alcohol establishments. After we controlled for population size and the number of licensed on- and off-premises alcohol outlets within zip codes, more families below the poverty line and weaker state alcohol control policies were associated with greater MFAC outlet availability. Conclusions. Economic conditions and alcohol policy environment appeared to be related to MFAC outlet availability, after adjusting for the general availability of alcohol. Research is needed to determine whether MFACs are disproportionately contributing to alcohol-related harm in socially and economically disadvantaged communities. Policies to better regulate the off-premises sale of alcohol are needed. PMID:26180984
Satterfield, James; Rincones, Rodolfo Delgado
Although there is extensive research pertaining to Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSI), it is primarily framed around the U.S. federal definition of Hispanic Serving Institutions established by Title V of the Higher Education Act of 1965. This law identifies HSI as institutions that have a Hispanic student population of at least 25 percent and…
Saltz, Robert F.; DeJong, William
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism established the Task Force of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to review and report on the existing research on college student drinking, including the evaluation of camps and community policies, prevention programs, and early intervention strategies. This review…
Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…
The National Cancer Institute developed a database to examine dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in terms of servings from each of United States Department of Agriculture's The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups.
Olley, Rivka I.
Randi Brown came to school psychology almost as a family business. Her grandmother was a school psychologist and the first licensed psychologist in the state of New York. Randi graduated with a doctoral degree from Yeshiva University and has served students in Westchester County, New York, for 18 years. She exemplifies the dedication typical of so…
Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.
This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…
Bakshis, Robert D.
Describes a community needs assessment survey conducted by the College of DuPage (Illinois) which served to advertise existing programs, provide public relations for the adult education council, and obtain measures of need for existing or expanded educational and leisure activities. (MB)
College Entrance Examination Board, New York, NY. Future Directions for a Learning Society.
Designed for colleges and universities desiring to serve adult students, this booklet presents new practices that have been effective on campuses throughout the U.S. Listed are 350 practices reported in a telephone survey of approximately fifty representive institutions. The first of nine sections lists practices for assessing needs. Section 2,…
Drea, John T.; Armistead, L. Pendleton
John Wood Community College (JWCC) serves a district population of approximately 90,000 in a predominantly rural section of west-central Illinois. In an effort to address the needs of the rural long-distance learner, JWCC has implemented a variety of instructional delivery techniques. Since its inception, JWCC has contracted with other area…
... technical input on proposed operational incentive scenarios for possible implementation in the 2012-2014... scenarios. The candidate proposals for discussion have been designed to deliver on the best equipped, best performing, best served concept for implementation in the 2012-2014 timeframe. The proposed scenarios...
The Bookmark, 1988
The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to…
Maxwell, Lesli A.
As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…
The Southeastern Oklahoma State University Honors Program serves a unique role in a small, rural setting such as Durant, Oklahoma. The honors program has a traditional mission in a university that offers a nontraditional setting and history within the context of higher education. The program thus offers special rewards to its students and to the…
Harcleroad, Fred F.; And Others
Dedicated to the memory of Raymond E. Schultz, the essays in this monograph discuss the role of the community college in serving minority students. An introductory essay by Fred F. Harcleroad summarizes Schultz's contributions to community college education. John E. Roueche then discusses the provision of equal educational opportunity to…
McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.
In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…
Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.
Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…
Waiters who serve alcoholic beverages at the majority of bars and restaurants in the United States are apt to serve alcohol to patrons who are visually intoxicated, notwithstanding laws prohibiting such service. Adverse effects of this practice include patron injuries, deaths, and law violations resulting in fines, incarceration, and lawsuits.…
... How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? A typical 25-ounce (750 ml) bottle of table wine holds about 5 "standard" drinks, each containing about 5 ounces. This serving size of wine contains about the same amount of alcohol as ...
The presence of alcohol (ethanol) is a common toxicological finding in alleged cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA). Alcohol was identified as the most frequently encountered drug in DFSAs more than a decade ago, and epidemiological studies to date confirm this initial finding. There is no single substance that is uniquely associated with DFSA. Alcohol has been used by humans for thousands of years and its effect on sexual behavior is well established. Despite the fact that alcohol has been the subject of scientific investigation for several hundred years, DFSA casework involving alcohol remains complex and poses numerous challenges. The prevalence of alcohol in DFSAs is reviewed within the context of toxicological findings and blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Pharmacological aspects are briefly presented, including pharmacokinetics and retrograde extrapolation. The effects of alcohol are discussed within the context of the pharmacodynamics of alcohol and the mechanistic issues associated with alcohol's disruption of memory. The amnesic effects of alcohol are reviewed, with particular focus on the two distinct types of alcohol-induced blackout: fragmentary and en bloc. The prevalence of and the BACs associated with this type of alcohol-mediated memory loss are described. Finally, biological specimens (blood, serum, and urine) are reviewed from a toxicological standpoint, and the associated methodology for quantitative alcohol determination is presented.
Testa, M; Leonard, K E
Alcohol has been posited to serve as an "excuse" for deviant behavior, including domestic violence. A recent study suggested that wives hold husbands less responsible for their aggressive behavior when husbands are problem drinkers. To replicate and extend this study, the independent and interactive effects of husband physical aggression and husband alcohol use on wives' marital satisfaction and thoughts of divorce were examined among newlywed couples (n = 387). Husband physical aggression had a significant negative effect on marital satisfaction and a significant positive effect on divorce ideation regardless of the measure of husband alcohol use employed. Alcohol dependence had a negative effect on satisfaction; however, in no case was there an interaction between alcohol and aggression. Results fail to replicate an earlier study supporting an excuse function of alcohol and suggest that alcohol does not mitigate the negative effects of domestic violence on marital functioning.
Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Rbin M.; Burgess, Helen J.; Swanson, Garth R.; Keshavarzian, Ali
The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20–30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyper-permeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in ClockΔ19 mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our
Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Burgess, Helen J; Swanson, Garth R; Keshavarzian, Ali
The circadian clock establishes rhythms throughout the body with an approximately 24 hour period that affect expression of hundreds of genes. Epidemiological data reveal chronic circadian misalignment, common in our society, significantly increases the risk for a myriad of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, infertility and gastrointestinal disease. Disruption of intestinal barrier function, also known as gut leakiness, is especially important in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Several studies have shown that alcohol causes ALD in only a 20-30% subset of alcoholics. Thus, a better understanding is needed of why only a subset of alcoholics develops ALD. Compelling evidence shows that increased gut leakiness to microbial products and especially LPS play a critical role in the pathogenesis of ALD. Clock and other circadian clock genes have been shown to regulate lipid transport, motility and other gut functions. We hypothesized that one possible mechanism for alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability is through disruption of central or peripheral (intestinal) circadian regulation. In support of this hypothesis, our recent data shows that disruption of circadian rhythms makes the gut more susceptible to injury. Our in vitro data show that alcohol stimulates increased Clock and Per2 circadian clock proteins and that siRNA knockdown of these proteins prevents alcohol-induced permeability. We also show that intestinal Cyp2e1-mediated oxidative stress is required for alcohol-induced upregulation of Clock and Per2 and intestinal hyperpermeability. Our mouse model of chronic alcohol feeding shows that circadian disruption through genetics (in Clock(▵19) mice) or environmental disruption by weekly 12h phase shifting results in gut leakiness alone and exacerbates alcohol-induced gut leakiness and liver pathology. Our data in human alcoholics show they exhibit abnormal melatonin profiles characteristic of circadian disruption. Taken together our
Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park
This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures.
Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010
The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…
Garcia, Gina A.
As institutions not founded to "serve" Latina/o students, Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) are criticized for solely being "Hispanic-enrolling," with access and graduation rates being hypothesized as indicators of an organizational identity for HSIs. Drawing from a case study with 88 participants, the purpose of this…
Garcia, Gina A.; Okhidoi, Otgonjargal
As institutions not founded to "serve" Latina/o students, Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) must actively change their curricula and programs to meet the needs of their diverse population, including Latina/o, low income, and first generation students. Using a case study approach, including interviews and focus groups, this study…
Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T
Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.
... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...
Speer, Rita D.
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
Krois, Deborah Helen
Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…
... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...
Smith, D. P.
Patented surface heating devices with a much faster air-to-solid heat transfer rate than previous air ovens were developed. The accelerated surface heating can brown, sear or crisp much more rapidly than in conventional ovens so that partially prepared food can be finished quickly and tastefully immediately before serving. The crisp, freshly browned surfaces result from the faster heat transfer which does not dry out the food. The devices are then compared to convection ovens and microwave heating processes.
de Vargas, Divane; Rocha, Fernanda Mota
ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale facing Alcohol and Alcoholism (EAFAA) and people with disorders related to the use of alcohol in nursing students. Method: a convenience sample (n=420) completed the EAFAA, the data were submitted to Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Results: the EFA resulted in an instrument composed of 48 items divided into four factors. The CFA has established the validity of the factorial structure. The internal consistency of the scale was considered adequate (α=0.85) presenting a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 75%. Conclusion: the EAFAA constitutes a reliable instrument to identify the attitudes of nursing students towards alcohol, alcoholism and persons with disorders related to alcohol use. PMID:27992026
McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.
Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie
Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use.
Balbo, Silvia; Meng, Lei; Bliss, Robin L.; Jensen, Joni A.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.
Background Alcohol consumption is one of the top-10 risks for the worldwide burden of disease and an established cause of head and neck cancer as well as cancer at other sites. Acetaldehyde, the major metabolite of ethanol, reacts with DNA to produce adducts, which are critical in the carcinogenic process and can serve as biomarkers of exposure and possibly of disease risk. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is considered “carcinogenic to humans”. We have previously developed the technology to quantify acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in human tissues, but there are no studies in the literature defining the formation and removal of acetaldehyde-DNA adducts in people who consumed alcohol. Methods We investigated levels of N2-ethylidene-dGuo, the major DNA adduct of acetaldehyde, in DNA from human oral cells at several time points after consumption of increasing alcohol doses. Ten healthy non-smokers were dosed once a week for three weeks. Mouthwash samples were collected before and at several time points after the dose. N2-Ethylidene-dGuo was measured as its NaBH3CN reduction product N2-ethyl-dGuo by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Results N2-ethylidene-dGuo levels increased as much as 100-fold from baseline within 4h after each dose for all subjects and in a dose responsive manner (p = 0.001). Conclusion These results demonstrate an effect of alcohol on oral cell DNA adduct formation, strongly supporting the key role of acetaldehyde in head and neck cancer caused by alcohol drinking. Impact Our results provide some of the first conclusive evidence linking exposure to a lifestyle carcinogen and kinetics of DNA adduct formation in humans. PMID:22301829
Background Alcohol use during adolescence and young adulthood remains a prominent public health problem. Despite growing problems of global alcohol abuse, accurate information on the prevalence and pattern of use in Nigeria remain sparse. This study examines the prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol use among undergraduate students in Owerri, Nigeria. Method The prevalence and perceived health effects of alcohol was estimated for 482 male undergraduates of four higher institutions in Owerri, South-East Nigeria between October 2008 and March 2009. Information was obtained using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Result The mean age of the students was 24.7 years. Majority of the respondents confirmed they were current users of alcohol given a prevalence of 78.4%, with twenty-seven percent of them being heavy drinkers (≥4 drinks per day). Reasons given by respondents for alcohol drinking include: makes them feel high (24.4%); makes them belong to the group of "most happening guys" on campus (6.6%); makes them feel relaxed (52.6%) while (16.4%) drinks it because their best friends do. Perceived health impacts of alcohol use among current users include: it enhances pleasure during moment of sex (51.1%), causes drowsiness and weakness (63.8%), may precipitate defective memory and impaired perception (64.3%) and serves as risk factor for most chronic diseases (68.5%). Conclusion High prevalence of alcohol use was established among study groups. Evaluation of full-scale community-level intervention, including community mobilisation and media advocacy aimed at supporting changes in policies on drinking, access and sales of alcohol to young people, could be helpful in reducing the trend. PMID:21333007
Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.
Whiteside, David; Reid, Machar
This study sought to determine the features of an ideal serve in men's professional tennis. A total of 25,680 first serves executed by 151 male tennis players during Australian Open competition were classified as either aces or returned into play. Spatiotemporal (impact location, speed, projection angles, landing location and relative player locations) and contextual (score) features of each serve were extracted from Hawk-Eye data and used to construct a classification tree model (with decision rules) that predicted serve outcome. k-means clustering was applied to the landing locations to quantify optimal landing locations for aces. The classification tree revealed that (1) serve directionality, relative to the returner; (2) the ball's landing proximity to the nearest service box line and (3) serve speed classified aces with an accuracy of 87.02%. Hitting aces appeared more contingent on accuracy than speed, with serves directed >5.88° from the returner and landing <15.27 cm from a service box line most indicative of an ace. k-means clustering revealed four distinct locations (≈0.73 m wide × 2.35 m deep) in the corners of the service box that corresponded to aces. These landing locations provide empirically derived target locations for players to adhere to during practice and competition.
Donovan, John E
The study of alcohol use by children ages 12 and younger has been very limited. This article summarizes information from U.S. national and statewide surveys on the prevalence of alcohol use among children in grades 6 and lower, data on health conditions wholly attributable to alcohol, the prevalence of children's treatment admissions for alcohol abuse, and their rates of presentation at emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication. Factors hampering the estimation of alcohol burden in this population include the lack of ongoing national surveys of alcohol use and problems in children, the hand-me-down nature of alcohol assessments in this population, and the lack of studies to establish whether there is a causal relationship between childhood-onset drinking and morbidity and mortality in adolescence and later in life that would permit determination of alcohol-attributable fractions. This article concludes that although the alcohol burden in childhood is low, it may be augmented by both referred alcohol burden through parental drinking and alcohol abuse and by deferred alcohol burden from longer-term consequences of early use.
Gauthier, Theresa W
Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.
This paper reports that Florida Gas Transmission Corp. (FGT), Houston, appears to have taken the lead in competition to serve Florida's growing gas markets. Florida Power and Light (FPL), Miami, decided to reserve transportation capacity on FGT's proposed Phase III expansion rather than the Sun Coast pipeline proposed by United Gas Pipe Line Co. (UGPL), Houston, and Coastal Corp. unit ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit (OGJ, Aug. 31, p. 31). Withdrawal of FPL, Florida's largest electric utility, from Sun Coast left the proposed 560 mile, 400 MMcfd intrastate gas transmission pipeline with only one major prospective client, Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg. That forces UGPL and ANR to dissolve the partnership.
Carey, Rebekah E; Carter-Templeton, Heather; Paltzer, Jason
Scant literature exists to describe the global health and collaboration competence of international healthcare professional volunteers. An educational program to prepare volunteers for short-term service in resource-poor settings was developed. Pre- and post- program competence and team collaboration levels were assessed in 18 healthcare professionals. A significant improvement (p < .05) occurred in global health competence after education. Formal educational preparation of international health volunteers can enhance their overall effectiveness when serving in resource-poor settings. Extensive resources for global health education are referenced.
Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.
Rafie, Carlin; Lai, Shenghan; Sales, Sabrina; Page, John Bryan; Campa, Adriana
Abstract The effects of alcohol abuse on HIV disease progression have not been definitively established. A prospective, 30-month, longitudinal study of 231 HIV+ adults included history of alcohol and illicit drug use, adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), CD4+ cell count, and HIV viral load every 6 months. Frequent alcohol users (two or more drinks daily) were 2.91 times (95% CI: 1.23–6.85, p = 0.015) more likely to present a decline of CD4 to ≤200 cells/μl, independent of baseline CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load, antiretroviral use over time, time since HIV diagnosis, age, and gender. Frequent alcohol users who were not on ART also increased their risk for CD4 cell decline to ≤200 cells/mm3 (HR = 7.76: 95% CI: 1.2–49.2, p = 0.03). Combined frequent alcohol use with crack-cocaine showed a significant risk of CD4+ cell decline (HR = 3.57: 95% CI: 1.24–10.31, p = 0.018). Frequent alcohol intake was associated with higher viral load over time (β = 0.259, p = 0.038). This significance was maintained in those receiving ART (β = 0.384, p = 0.0457), but not in those without ART. Frequent alcohol intake and the combination of frequent alcohol and crack-cocaine accelerate HIV disease progression. The effect of alcohol on CD4+ cell decline appears to be independent of ART, through a direct action on CD4 cells, although alcohol and substance abuse may lead to unmeasured behaviors that promote HIV disease progression. The effect of alcohol abuse on viral load, however, appears to be through reduced adherence to ART. PMID:20455765
El-Mawla, Ahmed M A Abd; Farag, Salwa F; Beuerle, Till
Two methyl esters of fatty acids, namely octadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl stearate) and hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (methyl palmitate), in addition to four cinnamyl alcohol derivatives, sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol 4-O-glucoside (coniferin), were isolated from callus cultures of Wedelia prostrata. The structure of coniferin was established by spectroscopic and chemical methods, while the other compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography in comparison with standards.
Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel
Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757
Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten
Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.
Brabant, Christian; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Quertemont, Etienne
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increases motor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism. Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority for establishment, alteration, and distribution of stamps, marks, or labels. 70.311 Section 70.311 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer tasting or sampling at retail establishments. 6.95 Section 6.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.95...
Zwolak, Agnieszka; Szczyrek, Michał; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Skrzydło-Radomańska, Barbara; Daniluk, Jadwiga
Alcohol abuse and dependence are highly prevalent in many cultures and contribute considerably to the global burden of health and social issues. The current inability to accurately characterise long-term drinking behaviours is a major obstacle to alcoholism diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective diagnostic tools to discern subjects with excessive alcohol use and alcoholism or to confirm abstinence. Research over past years has revealed several biochemical compounds with considerable potential for accurate reflection of alcohol intake. This review will address the issue of alcohol biomarker definition, the types of molecules used as so-called traditional biomarkers, and the compounds that can serve as novel biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels. PMID:27350834
Heine, M W
A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
Diamond, I; Messing, R O
Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567
... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...
Giuliano, Chiara; Goodlett, Charles R; Economidou, Daina; García-Pardo, Maria P; Belin, David; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Everitt, Barry J
Distinct environmental and conditioned stimuli influencing ethanol-associated appetitive and consummatory behaviors may jointly contribute to alcohol addiction. To develop an effective translational animal model that illuminates this interaction, daily seeking responses, maintained by alcohol-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs), need to be dissociated from alcohol drinking behavior. For this, we established a procedure whereby alcohol seeking maintained by alcohol-associated CSs is followed by a period during which rats have the opportunity to drink alcohol. This cue-controlled alcohol-seeking procedure was used to compare the effects of naltrexone and GSK1521498, a novel selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist, on both voluntary alcohol-intake and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Rederived alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring, and high-alcohol-drinking replicate 1 line of rats (Indiana University) first received 18 sessions of 24 h home cage access to 10% alcohol and water under a 2-bottle choice procedure. They were trained subsequently to respond instrumentally for access to 15% alcohol under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which a prolonged period of alcohol-seeking behavior was maintained by contingent presentations of an alcohol-associated CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer. This seeking period was terminated by 20 min of free alcohol drinking access that achieved significant blood alcohol concentrations. The influence of pretreatment with either naltrexone (0.1−1−3 mg/kg) or GSK1521498 (0.1–1–3 mg/kg) before instrumental sessions was measured on both seeking and drinking behaviors, as well as on drinking in the 2-bottle choice procedure. Naltrexone and GSK1521498 dose-dependently reduced both cue-controlled alcohol seeking and alcohol intake in the instrumental context as well as alcohol intake in the choice procedure. However, GSK1521498 showed significantly greater effectiveness than naltrexone, supporting its potential use
Giuliano, Chiara; Goodlett, Charles R; Economidou, Daina; García-Pardo, Maria P; Belin, David; Robbins, Trevor W; Bullmore, Edward T; Everitt, Barry J
Distinct environmental and conditioned stimuli influencing ethanol-associated appetitive and consummatory behaviors may jointly contribute to alcohol addiction. To develop an effective translational animal model that illuminates this interaction, daily seeking responses, maintained by alcohol-associated conditioned stimuli (CSs), need to be dissociated from alcohol drinking behavior. For this, we established a procedure whereby alcohol seeking maintained by alcohol-associated CSs is followed by a period during which rats have the opportunity to drink alcohol. This cue-controlled alcohol-seeking procedure was used to compare the effects of naltrexone and GSK1521498, a novel selective μ-opioid receptor antagonist, on both voluntary alcohol-intake and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Rederived alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring, and high-alcohol-drinking replicate 1 line of rats (Indiana University) first received 18 sessions of 24 h home cage access to 10% alcohol and water under a 2-bottle choice procedure. They were trained subsequently to respond instrumentally for access to 15% alcohol under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which a prolonged period of alcohol-seeking behavior was maintained by contingent presentations of an alcohol-associated CS acting as a conditioned reinforcer. This seeking period was terminated by 20 min of free alcohol drinking access that achieved significant blood alcohol concentrations. The influence of pretreatment with either naltrexone (0.1-1-3 mg/kg) or GSK1521498 (0.1-1-3 mg/kg) before instrumental sessions was measured on both seeking and drinking behaviors, as well as on drinking in the 2-bottle choice procedure. Naltrexone and GSK1521498 dose-dependently reduced both cue-controlled alcohol seeking and alcohol intake in the instrumental context as well as alcohol intake in the choice procedure. However, GSK1521498 showed significantly greater effectiveness than naltrexone, supporting its potential use for promoting
The utility no longer has protected status, and the traditional franchise concept is under attack. Exclusive rights once conveyed to the utilities are being denied and not just in the area of gas sales. Exclusive rights once conveyed to utilities will be denied in more areas. State by state, the utilities` franchise is being examined to see which, if any, of its provisions are necessary in a deregulated environment. Can the free market provide everything that`s been provided for many years under monopolistic arrangements? Some of the most critical and difficult of these provisions concern the obligation to serve, which utilities, in most states, have assumed as part of their franchise agreement. Regulators, courts, utilities, marketers and others are busy sorting through these issues, but resolution could take years. The paper discusses deregulation, universal service fee, representation without taxation, suppliers and marketer restrictions.
Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima
Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442
Candon, Paul M; Ward, Judit H; Pandina, Robert J
This article reviews the history of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs as well as the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. Each has its roots in the Yale Laboratory of Applied Physiology and the era shortly after the repeal of National Prohibition in the United States. The journal was founded as the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol in 1940 by Howard W. Haggard, M.D., director of the Yale Laboratory of Physiology. Alcohol, although not originally the sole focus of the laboratory, eventually became the main and then only focus. A Section of Alcohol Studies and later Center of Alcohol Studies formally became components of the laboratory. The faculty grew to include notable figures such as Elvin Morton Jellinek and Mark Keller, among other influential people who helped establish a modern, multidisciplinary, scientific approach to alcohol problems in the United States. The first alcohol education program, originally called the Summer Session of the School of Alcohol Studies, was also founded there in 1943. The center later moved to Rutgers University in New Jersey, becoming the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies in 1962. With it came the summer school and the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, which in 1975 became the Journal of Studies on Alcohol. The journal again changed names in 2007, becoming the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, reflecting an increasing focus among substance use researchers on drugs other than alcohol. This article discusses the influence of the journal and the center in the larger historical context of alcohol studies throughout the 20th century to the modern day.
... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...
Chafetz, Morris E.
It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)
... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...
... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...
Helzer, John E.
Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...
Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.
Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042
Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval
This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.
Du, Ailin; Jiang, Hongbo; Xu, Lei; An, Na; Liu, Hui; Li, Yinsheng; Zhang, Ruiling
Chronic alcoholism can damage the cytoskeleton and aggravate neurological deficits. However, the effect of chronic alcoholism on hippocampal neurons remains unclear. In this study, a model of chronic alcoholism was established in rats that were fed with 6% alcohol for 42 days. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide content and cystathionine-beta-synthase activity in the hippocampus of rats with chronic alcoholism were significantly increased, while F-actin expression was decreased. Hippocampal neurons in rats with chronic alcoholism appeared to have a fuzzy nuclear membrane, mitochondrial edema, and ruptured mitochondrial crista. These findings suggest that chronic alcoholism can cause learning and memory decline in rats, which may be associated with the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-beta-synthase system, mitochondrial damage and reduced expression of F-actin. PMID:25368648
Ciftci, T.; Constantinides, A.; Wang, S.S.
Alcohol fermentation was studied with an emphasis on the separation of cell growth and alcohol production stages. Experiments were conducted to establish the optimal conditions for alcohol production in batch fermentations and to simulate continuous fermentations with cell feeding at various stages. It was found that the glucose concentration should be kept under 10% (w/v), and the temperature should be between 40 and 42.5 degrees C for maximum specific alcohol productivity. If the cell concentration is increased, a decrease in specific alcohol productivity is observed. Higher cell concentrations are needed for higher final alcohol concentrations. Among the cell feeding procedures into alcohol production stages, a cocurrent design was found to be better than recycle and countercurrent designs. (30 Refs.)
Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.
A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
Gilligan, Conor; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard
Early consumption of full servings of alcohol and early experience of drunkenness have been linked with alcohol-related harmful effects in adolescence, as well as adult health and social problems. On the basis of secondary analysis of county-level prevalence data, the present study explored the current pattern of drinking and drunkenness among 15- and 16-year-old adolescents in 40 European and North American countries. Data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Children survey and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs were used. The potential role of alcohol control and policy measures in explaining variance in drinking patterns across countries was also examined. Policy measures and data on adult consumption patterns were taken from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, Eurostat and the indicator of alcohol control policy strength developed by Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA et al. [(2007) Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries. PLoS Med 4:e151.]. We found that a non-significant trend existed whereby higher prices and stronger alcohol controls were associated with a lower proportion of weekly drinking but a higher proportion of drunkenness. It is important that future research explores the causal relationships between alcohol policy measures and alcohol consumption patterns to determine whether strict policies do in fact have any beneficial effect on drinking patterns, or rather, lead to rebellion and an increased prevalence of binge drinking.
Ernst, Lena H; Plichta, Michael M; Dresler, Thomas; Zesewitz, Anna K; Tupak, Sara V; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fischer, Matthias; Polak, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine
An approach bias for alcohol stimuli (i.e. faster approach than avoidance reactions) might facilitate relapses in alcohol dependence. Neurobiological models suggest hypersensitivity in the reward system [inter alia nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] to cause pathologically enhanced approach impulses towards alcohol stimuli. At the same time, in alcohol dependence, these structures are only insufficiently controlled by a hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study investigated the cortical aspects of this model with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in 21 alcohol-dependent in-patients and 21 healthy controls (HC; comparable in age, gender and education) during performance of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for the first time. Complementing previous findings, in reaction times (RTs), patients showed stronger approach preferences for alcohol than non-alcohol stimuli. For non-alcohol stimuli, patients even displayed avoidance preferences. The reversed pattern was found in HC. Group differences in activity of the OFC were identical to those in RTs, revealing patients to assign higher subjective value to approaching alcohol stimuli. In both groups, regulatory activity in the right DLPFC was stronger during avoiding than approaching alcohol pictures. Probable awareness of the behavioural hypotheses due to explicit task instructions and patients' deficient prefrontal function might account for this equally aligned pattern. Results are discussed with regard to recent findings revealing a reduced behavioural approach bias and risk for relapse by applying a retraining version of the AAT. Functional measurements might serve as a method for monitoring the corresponding neurobiological changes and-possibly-predicting the success of such a training.
Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…
Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J
Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.
Covington, Stephanie S.
There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…
Gress, James R.
Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…
Schuckit, Marc A.
Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…
... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…
Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.
Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…
Fotopoulou, Aikaterini; Conway, Martin A; Solms, Mark; Tyrer, Stephen; Kopelman, Michael
Recent studies suggest that the content of confabulation is mainly positive and self-enhancing. In this group study, we aimed to investigate whether this positive bias is specific to self-referent information. Confabulating amnesic patients, amnesic non-confabulating patients and healthy controls were asked to reproduce a series of short stories. We manipulated the emotional valence of the material by including positive, negative and neutral story plots. We also manipulated the self-reference of the material by including self-referent versus other-referent encoding instructions. Confabulating patients were as impaired as a group of amnesic patients in the amount of information they recalled, both groups being worse than healthy controls. Importantly, confabulating patients showed a selective bias in the negative self-referent condition, in that they recalled such information in a manner which portrayed a more positive image of themselves. This positive bias was not present in stories that were not encoded in a self-referent manner and it was not significantly correlated to patients' self-reported mood. We propose that both confabulation and its motivated content result from a deficit in the control and regulation of memory retrieval, which allows motivational factors to acquire a greater role than usual in determining which memories are selected for retrieval. To this extent, the self-enhancing content of confabulation could be explained as a neurogenic exaggeration of normal self-serving memory distortion.
Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.
OVER THE LAST FEW years, the idea of a “European Research Area” (ERA) has gained strong support among science policy makers and, increasingly, among scientists themselves. The goal of the ERA is to establish a single “market” for research on our continent, allowing for better co-ordination of research efforts, synergies between projects, the achievement of “critical mass” (both human and financial) and thus to strengthen the competitiveness of European research. These goals necessitate deep structural changes in the way science is organised, breaking up existing borderlines and barriers between national research systems in Europe.
As community colleges across the country strive to improve completion rates and serve a growing number of students returned home from war, the need for programs that meet the unique needs of veterans--including job training, social acclimation, referral programs for mental health counseling, and academic tutoring, to name a few--is more pressing…
Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee
Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.
Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali
Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334
Reports that the Indian Health Service has identified alcoholism as the most significant health problem affecting American Indian communities. Asserts that education is a key answer to alcoholism--it provides students with a sense of their Indian identity and re-establishes traditional values, beliefs, and practices. (PGS)
Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…
Sallett, Alphonse J.
Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…
Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Bauer, Daniel J.; Ennett, Susan T.
Although numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across Grades 8 through 12, controlling for shared risk factors…
Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...
... public use area or public facility within a park area to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and/or to... superintendent that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open container of an... it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to the consumption...
Szabo, Gyongyi; Lippai, Dora
Chronic excessive alcohol consumption results in inflammation in multiple organs, including the brain. While the contribution of neuroinflammation to alcohol-related cognitive dysfunction and behavioral alterations is established, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers inflammation in the brain are only partially understood. There are acute and long-term alterations in brain function due to intercellular and intracellular changes of different cell types as a result of alcohol consumption. This review focuses on the alcohol-induced proinflammatory cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system. Alcohol passes through the blood-brain barrier and alters neurotransmission. Alcohol use activates microglia and astrocyte, contributing to neurodegeneration and impaired regeneration. Alcohol-induced cell injury in the brain results in release of damage-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box 1, that trigger inflammatory changes through activation of pattern recognition receptors. In addition, alcohol consumption increases intestinal permeability and results in increased levels of pathogen-associated molecular pattern such as endotoxin in the systemic circulation that triggers PRRs and inflammation. The Toll-like receptor-4 pathway that activates nuclear factor-κB and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1-beta, and chemokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1, has been suggested to contribute to alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Alcohol-induced IL-1β secretion also requires Nod-like receptor-mediated inflammasome and caspase-1 activation, and, consistent with this, disruption of IL-1/IL-1-receptor signaling prevents alcohol-induced neuroinflammation. Delicate regulators of inflammatory gene expressions are micro-RNAs (miRs) that have recently been identified in alcohol-related neuroinflammation. Alcohol induces miR155, a regulator of inflammation in the brain, and deficiency in mi
despite recent gains in establishing effective pharmacological and behavioral treatments for alcohol use disorders (AUD), nonremittance and relapse...including PTSD status, moderate medication response. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alcohol Drinking, Drinking Behavior , Naltrexone, Prazosin, Adrenergic Agents...Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Alcohol Drinking Drinking Behavior Alcohol Craving Naltrexone Prazosin Adrenergic Agents
Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Flom, Julie D; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Terry, Mary Beth
Alcohol intake is one of the few modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Current alcohol intake has been associated with mammographic density, a strong intermediate marker of breast cancer risk, though few studies have examined the effect of both current and average lifetime alcohol intake. We interviewed 262 participants from a New York birth cohort (born 1959-1963) and obtained mammograms from 163 (71.5% of participants with a mammogram). We collected information on alcohol intake by beverage type separately for each decade of life. We used multivariable linear models to assess the associations between current and average lifetime alcohol intake and mammographic density using a quantitative measure of density from digitized images. Overall, current alcohol intake was more strongly associated with mammographic density than average lifetime alcohol intake; compared with nondrinkers, those with current intake of seven or more servings per week had on average 12.3% (95% CI: 4.3, 20.4) higher density, adjusted for average lifetime alcohol intake, age, and body mass index. We observed a consistent inverse association for red wine intake and mammographic density, suggesting that the positive association between mammographic density and overall alcohol intake was driven by other types of alcoholic beverages. Our findings support an association between current alcohol intake and increased mammographic density independent of the effect of average lifetime alcohol intake. If replicated, our study suggests that reducing current alcohol consumption, particularly beer and white wine intake, may be a means of reducing mammographic density regardless of intake earlier in life.
Wong, Dean F; Gründer, Gerhard; Brasic, James Robert
Brain imaging represents a potent tool to characterize biomarkers, biological traits that are pathognomonic for specific neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are imaging techniques used to identify alterations in the density and distribution of neurotransmitters, neuroreceptors, and transporters in specific regions of the brains of people with these disorders. Brain imaging research currently facilitates the elucidation of dysfunction of dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and other substances in people with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, schizophrenia, alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and the syndromes of restless legs, Lesch-Nyhan, Rett, and Tourette. Thus, brain imaging research offers great potential for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and cure of neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Brain imaging research also facilitates new drug development and helps establish therapeutic doses of novel drugs. In particular, studies of specific receptors, such as the dopamine D2 receptor, before and after the administration of doses of drugs that occupy these D2 receptors, provide the means to determine receptor occupancy. For example, an optimal dose of D2 antagonist antipsychotics produces occupancy of 65% to 80% of D2 receptors, while a greater dose carries a risk of extrapyramidal side effects.
Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag
Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. Findings The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. Conclusions The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine ‘active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process’. PMID:20078460
Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.
BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.
Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired
... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...
... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...
... taxpaid wine operations. 24.102 Section 24.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Establishment and Operations Premises and Operations § 24.102 Premises established for taxpaid wine operations. A person desiring to...
Berlakovich, Gabriela A
Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key
Oei, T P; Burrow, T
Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.
Blaney, C L
The experience of staff in treating adolescent pregnancy and the formidable problems (medical, educational, nutritional, and emotional) these girls face are discussed. The implementing agency was the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva del Adolescente (CEMERA) in Santiago, Chile. One 15-year old girl is reported to have felt comfortable at CEMERA because of friendships with other similarly pregnant girls. The director, Dr. Ramiro Molina, established CEMERA with a comprehensive approach to adolescent reproductive health; there was also sex education, medical student training, and research. The program began in 1981 as a research project and included a center of 1990. Presently, CEMERA treats about 1800 low-income adolescents/year, of whom 80% are female. The problem of teenage sexuality and pregnancy was identified in a 1988 survey, which revealed that 70% of first births in the 15-24 year old age group were out of wedlock, and 20% or fewer used contraceptives at first premarital intercourse. The program currently not only provides care for adolescents, but also gives workshops and assistance to partners and parents, and contraceptive counseling to young men and women. Most services are free. There has been an increase in clinics addressing adolescent reproductive health from 2 in 1981 to more than 95 presently; most of the health personnel in the current settings have been trained by CEMERA CEMERA is located in converted row houses in central Santiago, and provides an informal setting less threatening to adolescents. The traditional white medical clothes are not used very often.
The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.
Hufford, M R
Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.
Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A
Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.
Lopez, A; Cardoni, F; Bova, M; Simonazzi, S; Romolo, F S; Ricciardi Tenore, G
The problems of the use/abuse of alcohol need a special attention by the Public Authorities, based on the scientific evidences related to the subject. We would like to define in the present paper the procedures for alcohol testing (and drug testing) in the sailors, following the international aviation authorities (ICAO, JAR-OPS-1, FAA) recommendations. A Working Group was established to study both the scientific and the legal aspects of the problems related to alcohol testing in Italy. Experts from the Università "La Sapienza" and from Alitalia studied the alcohol testing issues abroad to set out criteria, guidelines and procedures for random testing in Italy.
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of State blood alcohol... DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.025 Adoption of State blood alcohol concentration levels. (a) This section applies to... established by statute a blood alcohol concentration level for purposes of determining whether a person...
Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.
Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…
Brown, Sandra A.; And Others
Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…
Gleason, Nancy A.
Little attention has been paid to college women's drinking. For women, drinking is often a way of making friends and establishing intimate relationships. Peer influence is a strong persuader. College women who are careless in using alcohol may encounter additional problems like increased stress, depression, and sexual dysfunction. (SM)
Su, Shaobing; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Chen; Qiao, Shan; Zhou, Yeujiao
Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health-risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in social and individual contexts can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSWs were recruited from two cities in southern China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the direct effects of alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence on FSWs' alcohol use. In addition, the mediation effects of refusal self-efficacy were also examined in the SEM model. Results showed that alcohol use by family members and alcohol use by peers significantly predicted FSWs' alcohol use; the prediction effect of alcohol use by peers on FSWs' alcohol use was stronger than that of alcohol use by family members; client-perpetrated pressure or violence directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use and indirectly influenced FSWs' alcohol use through refusal self-efficacy; refusal self-efficacy directly predicted FSWs' alcohol use. Administrators of effective intervention programs focused on alcohol use in China should adopt a multilevel approach to reduce negative social influences, particularly the influence from peer and sex work establishments on FSWs' alcohol use. Meanwhile, training to improve refusal self-efficacy should also be included in the intervention programs to reduce FSWs' alcohol use.
Torok, Natalie J
Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.
Biscay, F; Ghoufi, A; Malfreyt, P
Monte Carlo simulations are reported to predict the dependence of the surface tension of water-alcohol mixtures on the alcohol concentration. Alcohols are modeled using the anisotropic united atom model recently extended to alcohol molecules. The molecular simulations show a good agreement between the experimental and calculated surface tensions for the water-methanol and water-propanol mixtures. This good agreement with experiments is also established through the comparison of the excess surface tensions. A molecular description of the mixture in terms of density profiles and hydrogen bond profiles is used to interpret the decrease of the surface tension with the alcohol concentration and alcohol chain length.
Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I
Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine's pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia.
Clothey, Rebecca A.; Hu, Diya
This paper examines the implementation of Project 985 at Minzu University of China, an ethnic minority serving university in China. As a university established specifically for the education of ethnic minorities, the paper examines in what ways the implementation of a policy uniformly mandated to serve national higher education goals by China's…
Vallee, B L
The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.
Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C
Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.
Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J
Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.
In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…
... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...
Alcohol enhances the activity of many but not of all hepatotoxic agents. Not only high toxic doses but also amounts commonly consumed today by many people are active in this respect. An induction of the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing system leading to an increased metabolism of the hepatotoxic agents to toxic radicals is the best established cause for ethanol-induced potentiation of liver injury. In the case of CCl4, hepatic hypoxia resulting from an ethanol-induced hypermetabolism may participate in the enhanced hepatotoxic response. Changes in the overall pharmacokinetics of the hepatotoxins, depletion of hepatic glutathione, and an increase of lipid peroxidation seem not to be implicated in potentiation of liver injury by ethanol. People regularly consuming alcohol may run a higher risk of being injured by hepatotoxic agents than abstainers. Thus, interactions between ethanol and other hepatotoxic agents should be envisaged as a possible additional factor in ethanol-induced human liver damage explaining, at least partially, the great variation in the sensitivity of man to the hepatotoxic effects of alcohol.
Marques, Paul R
Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways--a workplace for many--provides an example of work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this paper, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average eight months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (driving under the influence; DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programmes log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher programme entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This paper summarizes the potential of selected biomarkers for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cut-off levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context.
Barnett, Nancy P; Meade, E B; Glynn, Tiffany R
The objective of this investigation was to establish the ability of the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) alcohol sensor to detect different levels of self-reported alcohol consumption, and to determine whether gender and body mass index, alcohol dependence, bracelet version, and age of bracelet influenced detection of alcohol use. Heavy drinking adults (N = 66, 46% female) wore the SCRAM for 1-28 days and reported their alcohol use in daily Web-based surveys. Participant reports of alcohol use were matched with drinking episodes identified from bracelet readings. On days when bracelets were functional, 690 drinking episodes were reported and 502 of those episodes (72.8%) were detected using sensor data. Using generalized estimating equations, we found no gender differences in detection of reported drinking episodes (77% for women, 69% for men). In univariate analyses, at the level of fewer than 5 drinks, women's episodes were more likely to be detected, likely because of the significantly higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels of these episodes, whereas at the level of 5 or more drinks, there was no gender difference in detection (92.6% for women, 93.4% for men). In multivariable analyses, no variables other than number of drinks significantly predicted alcohol detection. In summary, the SCRAM sensor is very good at detecting 5 or more drinks; performance of the monitor below this level was better among women because of their higher transdermal alcohol concentration levels. Individual person characteristics and bracelet features were not related to detection after number of drinks was included. Minimal bracelet malfunctions were noted.
Marques, Paul R
Widespread concern about illicit drugs as an aspect of workplace performance potentially diminishes attention on employee alcohol use. Alcohol is the dominant drug contributing to poor job performance; it also accounts for a third of the worldwide public health burden. Evidence from public roadways – a workplace for many – provides an example for work-related risk exposure and performance lapses. In most developed countries, alcohol is involved in 20-35% of fatal crashes; drugs other than alcohol are less prominently involved in fatalities. Alcohol biomarkers can improve detection by extending the timeframe for estimating problematic exposure levels and thereby provide better information for managers. But what levels and which markers are right for the workplace? In this report, an established high-sensitivity proxy for alcohol-driving risk proclivity is used: an average 8 months of failed blood alcohol concentration (BAC) breath tests from alcohol ignition interlock devices. Higher BAC test fail rates are known to presage higher rates of future impaired-driving convictions (DUI). Drivers in alcohol interlock programs log 5-7 daily BAC tests; in 12 months, this yields thousands of samples. Also, higher program entry levels of alcohol biomarkers predict a higher likelihood of failed interlock BAC tests during subsequent months. This report summarizes selected biomarkers’ potential for workplace screening. Markers include phosphatidylethanol (PEth), percent carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gammaglutamyltransferase (GGT), gamma %CDT (γ%CDT), and ethylglucuronide (EtG) in hair. Clinical cutoff levels and median/mean levels of these markers in abstinent people, the general population, DUI drivers, and rehabilitation clinics are summarized for context. PMID:22311827
Jones, Kenneth Lyons
Prenatal exposure to alcohol has profound effects on many aspects of fetal development. Although alterations of somatic growth and specific minor malformations of facial structure are most characteristic, the effects of alcohol on brain development are most significant in that they lead to substantial problems with neurobehavioral development. Since the initial recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a number of important observations have been made from studies involving both humans and animals. Of particular importance, a number of maternal risk factors have been identified, which may well be of relevance relative to the development of strategies for prevention of the FAS as well as intervention for those who have been affected. These include maternal age >30 years, ethnic group, lower socioeconomic status, having had a previously affected child, maternal under-nutrition, and genetic background. The purpose of this review is to discuss these issues as well as to set forth a number of questions that have not adequately been addressed relative to alcohol's effect on fetal development. Of particular importance is the critical need to identify the full spectrum of structural defects associated with the prenatal effects of alcohol as well as to establish a neurobehavioral phenotype. Appreciation of both of these issues is necessary to understand the full impact of alcohol on fetal development.
Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.
Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant. Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280
Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun
Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.
Jagielska-Burduk, Alicja; Jagielska, Iwona; Janicki, Radosław; Grabiec, Marek
Alcoholism is a problem of a social value. About 140 million people worldwide suffer from alcoholism. Research has demonstrated adverse effects of alcohol. In the scientific project were confirmed: increased risk of cancer, liver disease, abnormal course of pregnancy and development of fetus. Among alcoholics are frequent phenomena of criminal behavior, accidents and trauma. The Polish Constitution granted the right to health citizens. The consequence of the above mentioned constitutional guarantee is the duty of the state that consists in caring for the functioning of a society free from addictions and alcohol problems. The basic legal act in this field is the Act on Upbringing in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism. The state policy in the fight against alcoholism is implemented at various levels of both government and local government. The established National Agency for Solving Alcohol Problems drafts a National Programme for Prevention and Solving Alcohol Problems every year. Also important are public awareness campaigns conducted to raise awareness about the negative effects of alcohol.
Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.
Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445
de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G
Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing.
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8718 of September 21, 2011 National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2011... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) Week, we renew our commitment to strengthening and expanding... education institutions serving Hispanic students to provide the best education possible. This week, as...
... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8566 of September 17, 2010 National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2010... stage. This week, we celebrate the contributions of the more than 200 Hispanic-Serving Institutions in... proclaim September 19 through September 25, 2010, as National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week. I...
... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. 105.35 Section 105.35 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Serving documents in PHMSA proceedings. (a) Service by PHMSA. We may serve the document by one of...
Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil
The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja
Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.
Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of
Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.
The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…
Chaney, Beth H.; Cremeens, Jennifer
Background: Past research suggests that parent-child communication can serve as protective factors to reduce alcohol misuse among college-aged children. Purpose: This article presents the methodology used and preliminary findings for developing and validating an instrument to assess parent-college student communication regarding alcohol use.…
Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier
The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…
Kingree, J B; Thompson, Martie
Much research has found that alcohol use is associated with sexual aggression (SA) perpetration among male college students. To increase understanding of this association, the present study examined whether other established risk factors for SA perpetration in this population were associated differentially with incidents that were preceded by alcohol use and incidents that were not preceded by alcohol use. The sample included 638 male college students who completed self-report measures of seven risk factors and SA perpetration during their first and second years of enrollment at a large, public university in the southeastern United States. A multivariate, multinomial logistic regression model revealed none of the seven factors increased risk for both alcohol-involved and alcohol-uninvolved SA perpetration. The model did identify binge drinking as a risk factor for alcohol-involved SA perpetration and impulsivity, rape myth attitudes, and hostility toward women as risk factors for alcohol-uninvolved perpetration. If these results can be replicated, then they would suggest that different risk factors should be targeted to optimize the effect of preventive interventions on the occurrence of the two types of SA perpetration.
... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...
Examines various services available to migrant farmworkers and their families in northwest Ohio, including labor recruiting, welfare services, health services, day care and Head Start, and legal services. Argues that although such services were established ostensibly to help farmworkers, they assist farmers in crucial ways and help perpetuate the…
Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Gaffud, Timothy J B; Barry, Adam E
Currently, there is discrepancy regarding alcohol's impact on Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, the purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether alcohol serves as a protective agent against the development of AD, as well as whether protective effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Adapted versions of the Matrix Method and PRISMA guidelines were used in order to identify, organize, and synthesize relevant research. Overall, there is no consensus regarding alcohol's impact on AD. Specifically, seven articles suggested drinking alcohol decreases the risk of AD, three studies found drinking led to an increased risk of AD, and yet another nine reported alcohol had no impact on AD. Validity and consistency of both alcohol and AD measures across studies represents a severe limitation. Prior to the development of standards and/or clinical recommendations, more investigations into the association between alcohol and AD are necessary. Considering the current evidence base, alcohol should not be used as a means to decrease risk of developing AD.
Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron
Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.
Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael
Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…
Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)
Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…
The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…
Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…
... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...
Davidson, D M
The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174
Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn
Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement.
Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J
Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.
Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron
Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.
Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar
The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.
Sanchez-Pareja, Andrea; Clément, Sophie; Peyrou, Marion; Spahr, Laurent; Negro, Francesco; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Foti, Michelangelo
AIM: To investigate the protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in human liver biopsies of patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: PTEN protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 44) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 25). Liver resections obtained from 3 healthy subjects candidate for partial liver donation served as controls. Histological evaluations were performed by two experienced pathologists, and diagnoses established based on international criteria. The intensity of the PTEN staining in nuclei was compared between steatotic and non-steatotic areas of each liver fragment analyzed. For each liver specimen, the antibody-stained sections were examined and scored blindly by three independent observers, who were unaware of the patients’ clinical history. RESULTS: In healthy individuals, PTEN immunostaining was intense in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of all hepatocytes. However, PTEN was strongly downregulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of hepatocytes from steatotic areas in patients with NAFLD, independently of the disease stage. In contrast, no changes in PTEN protein expression were observed in patients with ALD, regardless of the presence of steatosis or the stage of the disease. The degree of PTEN downregulation in hepatocytes of patients with NAFLD correlated with the percentage of steatosis (r = 0.3061, P = 0.0459) and the BMI (r = 0.4268, P = 0.0043). Hovewer, in patients with ALD, PTEN expression was not correlated with the percentage of steatosis with or without obesity as a confounding factor (P = 0.5574). Finally, PTEN expression level in steatotic areas of ALD patients was significantly different from that seen in steatotic areas of NAFLD patients (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: PTEN protein expression is downregulated early in NAFLD, but not in ALD. PTEN
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
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... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
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Gizer, Ian R; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C
The current study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2nd Edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1,204 first-degree relatives recruited for the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25 to .49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, the scales measuring antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and addictive behavior led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when used as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol-dependence phenotype.
... relate to alcohol use. 1 Racial and Ethnic Minority Stress Stress also can arise as a result of a person’s minority status, especially as it pertains to prejudice and discrimination. Such stress may range from mild (e.g., hassles such ...
Fisher, Deborah A.
This document describes strategies that are used to create healthier campus environments in which alcohol is less available, more responsibly promoted and served, and poses less of a threat to the health, safety, and well-being of all students. The strategies described in this document accomplish these objectives by changing conditions on campus…
Hydock, Chris; Wilson, Anne; Easwar, Karthik
The US Food and Drug Administration recently revealed that it is considering modifying the Nutrition Facts Panels required on packaged foods. One proposed change is increasing serving sizes included on labels, which has two potential implications. Larger serving sizes could increase consumption if consumers use the serving sizes displayed as a reference point for their own consumption (McFerran et al., 2010). Alternatively, larger serving sizes that depict increased values of negative nutrients (e.g. calories) could lead consumers to perceive foods as less healthy, thereby reducing consumption (Russo et al., 1986). In study 1 (Online sample, N = 208, Mage = 32, SDage = 12), participants saw pictures of packaged food items and nutrition labels. The labels, depicted either the existing or larger serving size. Across all foods, larger serving sizes led to lower health perceptions. Labels with larger serving sizes were rated as more representative of typical consumption. Study 2 (Online sample, N = 347, Mage = 31, SDage = 10) used the same design as study 1, but required participants to virtually portion foods. While serving sizes did not impact the amount of food consumers portioned, those who saw labels with larger serving sizes estimated that they portioned out more calories. In study 3 (Student sample, N = 198, Mage = 20, SDage = 1), participants were given M&Ms to eat, paired with a nutritional label depicting either the current or a larger serving size, while participating in unrelated surveys. Participants presented with the larger serving size label consumed less than those presented with the current serving size label. Together, the results suggest that the proposed increase in serving sizes on Nutrition Facts Panels could lower consumption of high-calorie foods.
Jessica, Weafer; Fillmore, Mark T.
Rationale Poor behavioral control and heightened attentional bias toward alcohol-related stimuli have independently received considerable attention in regard to their roles in alcohol abuse. Theoretical accounts have begun to speculate as to potential reciprocal interactions between these two mechanisms that might promote excessive alcohol consumption, yet experimental evidence is lacking. Objectives The objective of the study was to integrate these two lines of research through the development of a novel laboratory task that examines the degree to which alcohol cues serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control. Methods Fifty adult drinkers were recruited to perform the attentional bias–behavioral activation (ABBA) task. The ABBA task, an adaptation of traditional cued go/no-go tasks, is a reaction time model that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can increase behavioral activation of a drinker and reduce the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses. Participants also completed a novel measure of attentional bias, the scene inspection paradigm (SIP), that measures fixation time on alcohol content imbedded in complex scenes. Results As hypothesized, the proportion of inhibitory failures on the ABBA task was significantly higher following alcohol images compared to neutral images. Correlational analyses showed that heightened attentional bias on the SIP was associated with greater response activation following alcohol images on the ABBA task. Conclusions These findings suggest that alcohol stimuli serve to disrupt mechanisms of behavioral control, and that heightened attentional bias is associated with greater disruption of control mechanisms following alcohol images. PMID:22358851
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a new Office of Exploration that will coordinate agency activities that would “expand the human presence beyond Earth,” particularly to the moon and Mars.Sally K. Ride is serving as the office's acting assistant administrator until mid August. Ride, the first U.S. woman in space, has been in charge of a NASA study to determine a possible new major space goal for the United States. Her study group recently identified four major areas for concentrated examination as possible initiatives for a new national space objective: intensive study of Earth systems for better understanding of how to protect Earth's environment,a stepped-up robotic program to explore the planets, moons, and other solar system bodies,the establishment of a scientific base and a permanent human presence on the moon, andintensive exploration of Mars by robot, followed by human exploration of the planet.
...) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Martin Campbell Field Airport. This action enhances the... System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Martin Campbell Field Airport. This... scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Martin Campbell Field...
Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong
Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.
Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo
Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide.
Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri
Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.
Roman, Sonia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Moreno-Luna, Laura Eugenia; Panduro, Arturo
Alcoholism and cirrhosis, which are two of the most serious health problems worldwide, have a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes. Both diseases are influenced by genetic susceptibility and cultural traits that differ globally but are specific for each population. In contrast to other regions around the world, Mexicans present the highest drinking score and a high mortality rate for alcoholic liver disease with an intermediate category level of per capita alcohol consumption. Mexico has a unique history of alcohol consumption that is linked to profound anthropological and social aspects. The Mexican population has an admixture genome inherited from different races, Caucasian, Amerindian and African, with a heterogeneous distribution within the country. Thus, genes related to alcohol addiction, such as dopamine receptor D2 in the brain, or liver alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase class I polypeptide B, cytochrome P450 2E1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase class 2, may vary from one individual to another. Furthermore, they may be inherited as risk or non-risk haplogroups that confer susceptibility or resistance either to alcohol addiction or abusive alcohol consumption and possibly liver disease. Thus, in this era of genomics, personalized medicine will benefit patients if it is directed according to individual or population-based data. Additional association studies will be required to establish novel strategies for the prevention, care and treatment of liver disease in Mexico and worldwide. PMID:24307790
Crews, Fulton T
Human studies have found alcoholics to have a smaller brain size than moderate drinkers; however, these studies are complicated by many uncontrollable factors, including timing and amount of alcohol use. Animal experiments, which can control many factors, have established that alcohol can cause damage to brain cells (i.e., neurons), which results in their loss of structure or function (i.e., neurodegeneration) in multiple brain regions, similar to the damage found in human alcoholics. In addition, animal studies indicate that inhibition of the creation of neurons (i.e., neurogenesis) and other brain-cell genesis contributes to alcoholic neurodegeneration. Animal studies also suggest that neurodegeneration changes cognition, contributing to alcohol use disorders. Risk factors such as adolescent age and genetic predisposition toward alcohol consumption worsen neurodegeneration. Mild impairment of executive functions similar to that found in humans occurs in animals following binge alcohol treatment. Thus, animal studies suggest that heavy alcohol use contributes to neurodegeneration and the progressive loss of control over drinking. Despite the negative consequences of heavy drinking, there is hope of recovery with abstinence, which in animal models can result in neural stem-cell proliferation and the formation of new neurons and other brain cells, indicative of brain growth.
There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563
Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy
Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.
Aşicioğlu, Faruk; Turan, Nurten
Document examiners are often faced with difficulties in evaluating handwriting by persons under the influence of alcohol. Although numerous articles are available on the subject of alcohol influence on handwriting quality, most of them were based on empirical data such as "few" or "increased", without any statistical evaluation. The aim of this research is to determine whether previous observations on reported effects of alcohol on handwriting are valid and to establish the predictability of observing specific effects. A total of 73 participants, who completed all steps of the experiment, were surveyed. Handwriting samples were taken before and after the consumption of alcohol. The test form, including criteria of prior studies used by document examiners, was evaluated with the help of a Olympus X-Tr stereo microscope, direct and oblique angle lighting and a video spectral comparator (VSC 2000). Measurements were done by means of digital caliper, statistics using repeated measures ANOVA, Pearson correlation, Pearson Chi square test, McNemar test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The results revealed that the handwriting parameters such as word lengths, height of upper and lower case letters, height of ascending letter, height of descending letter, spacing between words, number of angularity, number of tremor, and number of tapered ends are all significantly increased under the effect of alcohol. It was also determined that the significant correlation between the alteration of handwriting parameters such as height of upper and lower case letters, number of angularity, number of tapered ends and the amount of alcohol. Furthermore, it does not confirm the conclusions of previous studies stating that alcohol levels are not proper indicators. Our data strongly confirms that handwriting changes can be observed at any level of alcohol. None of the alterations in handwriting can be attributed to the effects of alcohol intake alone. However, the presence of some alterations
Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R
The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.
Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V; Jansen, Thomas L C; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S
Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid--alcohols--has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.
Toomey, Traci L; Komro, Kelli A; Oakes, J Michael; Lenk, Kathleen M
To assess youth's ability to purchase alcohol in a city previously not assessed-Chicago, Illinois-we hired individuals aged 21 and older who appeared to be aged 18-20 (i.e., pseudo-underage buyers) to make alcohol purchase attempts without age identification in off-premise licensed alcohol establishments. We conducted two purchase attempts at each establishment across 44 community areas, resulting in a total of 652 purchase attempts. Our dependent variable was purchase attempt outcome (purchase, no purchase) and we used four categories of independent variables: characteristics of sellers, establishments, purchase attempts, and community areas. We analyzed our data using a logistic regression model, with purchase attempt outcome regressed on the independent variables. The overall purchase rate was 35.1%, ranging from 0% to 72% across community areas. Buyers were less likely to purchase alcohol in community areas that had populations with higher percentages of Hispanics (OR = 0.99; CI = 0.98, 1.0), and more likely to purchase alcohol in establishments that had more expensive beer (OR = 2.0; CI = 1.50, 2.67) and in areas with higher percentages of unemployed individuals (OR = 1.1; CI = 1.07, 1.14). Although progress has been made since the early 1990s in reducing sales to underage youth, youth still have relatively easy access to alcohol from licensed establishments. We recommend increased use of compliance checks-underage youth attempt to purchase alcohol under the supervision of enforcement agents; if alcohol is sold, the server/seller and/or license holder are penalized-which scientific studies have shown to be the most effective strategy in reducing sales to minors.
Zeigler, Donald W
This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.
Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin
State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…
Baltzell, E. Digby
The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)
Carlson, Scott R; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt
Past reports suggest that reduced P300 amplitude is associated with risk for alcoholism. We examined whether visual P300 amplitude could identify familial risk for alcohol disorders in individuals not known to be at risk at the time P300 was recorded. These individuals were twins from pairs where neither twin had an alcohol disorder at age 17 but familial risk was established at age 20 when one twin developed an alcohol disorder whereas the other did not. Of special interest was the P300 of the unaffected twin recorded at age 17 when both twins were alcoholism free. We found reduced P300 in the unaffected twin compared to pairs where both members were continuously disorder free. Hence, P300 was reduced in alcohol disorder-free individuals whose twin siblings subsequently developed alcoholism, further supporting reduced P300 amplitude as an endophenotype indexing familial risk for alcoholism.
Castro-Costa, E; Ferri, C P; Lima-Costa, M F; Zaleski, M; Pinsky, I; Caetano, R; Laranjeira, R
To investigate the alcohol consumption in later life in Brazil and its association with socio-demographic characteristics. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data. A multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to select 3007 individuals of 14 years of age and older from the Brazilian household population. In this study we analyzed data from all 400 participants who were over 60 years old. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Syndrome was established according to DSM-IV and Risky Drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and as binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion). Twelve percent of participants reported heavy drinking behavior while 10.4% and 2.9% were binge drinkers and alcohol dependent respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression only gender was associated with heavy drinking behavior. Males, the youngest and the wealthiest were more likely to report binge drinking behaviors. In conclusion, alcohol related-problems are common but under recognized among older adults. Health professionals should be aware that common definitions of alcohol abuse and dependence may not apply as readily to older people, who have had biological changes for alcohol tolerance and its effects on the Central Nervous System.
Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M
With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the
... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...
Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.
... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...
Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642
... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15201626 . Definitions Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUD is a medical ... or more days in the past month. NIAAA’s Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing AUD: ...
McCullough, Brother Thomas
Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)
... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...
... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...
Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H
A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?
Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T
While numerous studies have established a link between alcohol use and partner violence in adulthood, little research has examined this relation during adolescence. The current study used multivariate growth models to examine relations between alcohol use and dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 controlling for shared risk factors (common causes) that predict both behaviors. Associations between trajectories of alcohol use and dating aggression were reduced substantially when common causes were controlled. Concurrent associations between the two behaviors were significant across nearly all grades but no evidence was found for prospective connections from prior alcohol use to subsequent dating aggression or vice versa. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should target common causes of alcohol use and dating aggression.
Zou, Qiao; Du, Xian-Yuan; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xing-Chun; Li, Yu
In the present research, Raman spectra of 31 fatty alcohols were calculated by B3LYP/6-31G (d) and verified by taking methanol for example. The study results indicate that B3LYP/6-31G (d) is an effective approach for the fatty alcohols Raman spectra calculated. The vibrational assignment and Raman spectra features of 6 unbranched alcohols were discussed and the vibrating peaks derived from stretching vibration by C-O were chosen as the research target selection, and the multiple principal component regression models were established and validated with the parameters including polarizability, thermodynamic and energy parameters of the above unbranched alcohols. There exists significant correlation between the vibrating peaks derived from stretching vibration by C-O of fatty alcohols and the parameters (sig. = 0.015). This study will benefit the Raman spectra research of homologs.
Gizer, Ian R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Seaton-Smith, Kimberly L.; Feiler, Heidi S.; Lee, James V.; Segall, Samantha K.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.
Ample data suggest alcohol dependence represents a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder. In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for alcohol dependence was conducted in a community sample of 565 probands and 1080 first-degree relatives recruited through the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to derive DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses. Although no loci achieved genome-wide significance (i.e., LOD score > 3.0), several linkage peaks of interest (i.e., LOD score > 1.0) were identified. When the strict DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis requiring the temporal clustering of symptoms served as the phenotype, linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22, 2q37.3, 8q24.3, and 18p11.21–p11.2. When the temporal clustering of symptoms was not required, linkage peaks were again identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22 and 8q24.3 as well as novel loci on chromosomes 1p22.3, 2p24.3–p24.1, 9p24.1–p23, and 22q12.3–q13.1. Follow-up analyses were conducted by performing linkage analysis for the 12 alcohol dependence symptoms assessed by the SSAGA across the support intervals for the observed linkage peaks. These analyses demonstrated that different collections of symptoms often assessing distinct aspects of alcohol dependence (e.g., uncontrollable drinking and withdrawal vs. tolerance and drinking despite health problems) contributed to each linkage peak and often yielded LOD scores exceeding that reported for the alcohol dependence diagnosis. Such findings provide insight into how specific genomic regions may influence distinct aspects of alcohol dependence. PMID:20817416
Pal, Indrani; Chaudhari, Sachin R; Suryaprakash, Nagaraja Rao
The manuscript reports two novel ternary ion-pair complexes, which serve as chiral solvating agents, for enantiodiscrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. The protocol for discrimination of secondary alcohols is designed by using one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure mandelic acid, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a chiral alcohol. For discrimination of carboxylic acids, the ternary complex is obtained by one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure chiral alcohol, DMAP and a carboxylic acid. The designed protocols also permit accurate measurement of enantiomeric composition.
Marshal, Michael P.
Two competing hypotheses propose opposite effects for the relation between alcohol use and marital functioning. One hypothesis conceptualizes alcohol use as maladaptive and proposes that it serves as a chronic stressor that causes marital dysfunction and subsequent dissolution. An opposing hypothesis proposes that alcohol use is adaptive and serves to temporarily relieve stressors that cause marital dysfunction, stabilizing the marital relationship, and perhaps preventing dissolution. Sixty studies were reviewed that tested the relation between alcohol use and one of three marital functioning domains (satisfaction, interaction, and violence). Results provide overwhelming support for the notion that alcohol use is maladaptive, and that it is associated with dissatisfaction, negative marital interaction patterns, and higher levels of marital violence. A small subset of studies found that light drinking patterns are associated with adaptive marital functioning; however, more research is necessary to replicate these effects and identify specific conditions under which they occur. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:14624823
Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis
Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445
genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution
BioServe Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), was established in 1987. As is characteristic of each CCDS designated by NASA, the goals of this commercial center are aimed at stimulating high technology research that takes advantage of the space environment and at leading in the development of new products and services which have commercial potential or that contribute to possible new commercial ventures. BioServe's efforts in these areas focus upon space life science studies and the development of enabling devices that will facilitate ground-based experiments as well as the conversion of such to the microgravity environment. A direct result of BioServe's hardware development and life sciences studies is the training of the next generation of bioengineers who will be knowledgeable and comfortable working with the challenges of the space frontier.
Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105
Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J
Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...
... html Fruit Juice for Kids: A Serving a Day OK Review of studies finds 1 glass of 100-percent juice a day not linked with weight gain To use the ... one serving [of 100-percent fruit juice] a day contributes to weight gain in children," said study ...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...
HSIs (Hispanic-Serving Institutions) are important institutions for Latinos, yet little research exists on them. This brief serves as a primer on the conditions and history behind their invention, the processes for identification, and the general institutional characteristics of HSIs. It also offers an overview of how these institutions are…
Knaust, Gretchen; Foster, Irene M.
College students (n=158) used the Food Guide Pyramid to select serving sizes on a questionnaire (73% had been instructed in its use). Overall mean scores (31% correct) indicated they generally did not know recommended serving sizes. Those who had read about or received instruction in the pyramid had higher mean scores. (SK)
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serving documents on other parties. 406.115 Section 406.115 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serving documents on other parties. 406.115 Section 406.115 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Serving documents on other parties. 406.115 Section 406.115 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Serving documents on other parties. 406.115 Section 406.115 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties....
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serving documents on other parties. 406.115 Section 406.115 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Practice in FAA Space Transportation Adjudications § 406.115 Serving documents on other parties....
This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.
... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Assistance in serving process overseas. 516.13 Section 516.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Service of Process § 516.13 Assistance in serving process...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Serving of notice. 791.34 Section 791.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.34 Serving of notice. (a) Each party shall be...
....22 Section 703.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF... Where the Library Is Not a Party § 703.22 Where to serve demands. Requesting parties must serve..., Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library...
... Section 703.22 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS... the Library Is Not a Party § 703.22 Where to serve demands. Requesting parties must serve subpoenas..., Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20540. (b) For Law Library matters: Law Librarian, LM 240, Library...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is the notice served? 639.8 Section 639.8 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR WORKER ADJUSTMENT AND RETRAINING NOTIFICATION § 639.8 How is the notice served? Any reasonable method of delivery to the...
Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Mullen, Carol A.; Allen, Tawannah G.
This commentary brings together the topics of geographically-oriented diversity, minority-serving institutions, and educational leadership programs. The geospatial context for this discussion about school administrator quality focuses on Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United…
Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth
Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the
Cohn, Amy M.; Hunter-Reel, Dorian; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica
Background Interactive and mobile technologies (i.e., smartphones such as Blackberries, iPhones, and palm-top computers) show promise as an efficacious and cost-effective means of communicating health-behavior risks, improving public health outcomes, and accelerating behavior change (Abroms and Maibach, 2008). The present study was conducted as a “needs assessment” to examine the current available mobile smartphone applications (e.g., apps) that utilize principles of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) -- daily self-monitoring or near real-time self-assessment of alcohol use behavior -- to promote positive behavior change, alcohol harm reduction, psycho-education about alcohol use, or abstinence from alcohol. Methods Data were collected and analyzed from iTunes for Apple iPhone©. An inventory assessed the number of available apps that directly addressed alcohol use and consumption, alcohol treatment, or recovery, and whether these apps incorporated empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Results Findings showed that few apps addressed alcohol use behavior change or recovery. Aside from tracking drinking consumption, a minority utilized empirically-based components of alcohol treatment. Some apps claimed they could serve as an intervention, however no empirical evidence was provided. Conclusions More studies are needed to examine the efficacy of mobile technology in alcohol intervention studies. The large gap between availability of mobile apps and their use in alcohol treatment programs indicate several important future directions for research. PMID:21689119
Filgueiras, Fernanda de Marca; Stolarczuk, Dionne de Almeida; Gripp, Alexandre Carlos; Succi, Isabel Cristina Brasil
A 42-year-old male patient, alcoholic, presented showing signs of tumors in the neck and around the shoulders, scaly, erythematous-violaceous lesions and some bullous lesions in sun-exposed areas of upper and lower limbs. Based on clinical features, laboratory tests and imaging studies we have established the diagnosis of pellagra associated with benign symmetrical lipomatosis, both justified by chronic alcoholism. Treated with intravenous B-complex and oriented about the importance of alcohol withdrawal, the patient showed complete remission of skin lesions, but with no change in the lipomatosis.
... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB88 Establishment of the Elkton Oregon...-acre ``Elkton Oregon'' viticultural area in Douglas County, Oregon. The viticultural area lies totally within the Umpqua Valley viticultural area and the multi-county Southern Oregon viticultural area....
Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.
Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094
Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E
The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.
Roese, Neal J.; Olson, James M.
Self-serving judgments, in which the self is viewed more favorably than other people, are ubiquitous. Their dynamic variation within individuals may be explained in terms of the regulation of affect. Self-serving judgments produce positive emotions, and threat increases self-serving judgments (a compensatory pattern that restores affect to a set point or baseline). Perceived mutability is a key moderator of these judgments; low mutability (i.e., the circumstance is closed to modification) triggers a cognitive response aimed at affect regulation, whereas high mutability (i.e., the circumstance is open to further modification) activates direct behavioral remediation. Threats often require immediate response, whereas positive events do not. Because of this brief temporal window, an active mechanism is needed to restore negative (but not positive) affective shifts back to a set point. Without this active reset, an earlier threat would make the individual less vigilant toward a new threat. Thus, when people are sad, they aim to return their mood to baseline, often via self-serving judgments. We argue that asymmetric homeostasis enables optimal vigilance, which establishes a coherent theoretical account of the role of self-serving judgments in affect regulation. PMID:18552989
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T.; Carey, Michael P.
Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d+s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689
Kim, Sunny; Trepka, Mary Jo; De La Rosa, Mario; Dillon, Frank
This study describes the role of place of residence on drinking and driving among students in a large Hispanic-serving institution. The National College Health Assessment survey was administered during the fall of 2004. 1130 randomly selected students completed this anonymous questionnaire. Hispanic students were less likely to drive after drinking compared to non-Hispanic white students, but Hispanic students were more likely to live with parents (55%) compared with non-Hispanic white students (22%). After adjusting for the place of residence, there were no significant differences in drinking and driving between Hispanics and non-Hispanic white students. Therefore, in part, lower levels of driving after drinking among Hispanic students was mediated by current place of residence. However, the impact of living with parents was not significant among heavy alcohol users PMID:20300452
Heit, Claire; Dong, Hongbin; Chen, Ying; Shah, Yatrik M; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis
Alcohol abuse leads to tissue damage including a variety of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms by which this damage occurs remain to be fully understood. The primary enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1, (CYP2E1), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Genetic polymorphisms in human genes encoding these enzymes are associated with increased risks of alcohol-related tissue damage, as well as differences in alcohol consumption and dependence. Oxidative stress resulting from ethanol oxidation is one established pathogenic event in alcohol-induced toxicity. Ethanol metabolism generates free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has been associated with diminished glutathione (GSH) levels as well as changes in other antioxidant mechanisms. In addition, the formation of protein and DNA adducts associated with the accumulation of ethanol-derived aldehydes can adversely affect critical biological functions and thereby promote cellular and tissue pathology. Animal models have proven to be valuable tools for investigating mechanisms underlying pathogenesis caused by alcohol. In this review, we provide a brief discussion on several animal models with genetic defects in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and GSH-synthesizing enzymes and their relevance to alcohol research.
Heit, Claire; Dong, Hongbin; Chen, Ying; Shah, Yatrik M.; Thompson, David C.; Vasiliou, Vasilis
Alcohol abuse leads to tissue damage including a variety of cancers; however, the molecular mechanisms by which this damage occurs remains to be fully understood. The primary enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism include alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1, (CYP2E1), catalase (CAT), and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH). Genetic polymorphisms in human genes encoding these enzymes are associated with increased risks of alcohol-related tissue damage, as well as differences in alcohol consumption and dependence. Oxidative stress resulting from ethanol oxidation is one established pathogenic event in alcohol-induced toxicity. Ethanol metabolism generates free radicals, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has been associated with diminished glutathione (GSH) levels as well as changes in other antioxidant mechanisms. In addition, the formation of protein and DNA adducts associated with the accumulation of ethanol-derived aldehydes can adversely affect critical biological functions and thereby promote cellular and tissue pathology. Animal models have proven to be valuable tools for investigating mechanisms underlying pathogenesis caused by alcohol. In this review, we provide a brief discussion on several animal models with genetic defects in alcohol metabolizing enzymes and GSH synthesizing enzymes and their relevance to alcohol research. PMID:25427919
The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.
Yokoyama, A; Omori, T
Epidemiology has demonstrated that alcoholic beverages are causally related to oropharyngolaryngeal, esophageal, liver, colorectal, and female breast cancer. Among Japanese male alcoholics screened by endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining and immunofecal occult blood tests, 4.2% had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); 1.2%, oropharyngolaryngeal SCC; 1.4%, stomach adenocarcinoma; 1.9%, colorectal adenocarcinoma. The inactive form of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), encoded by the gene ALDH2*1/2*2, which is prevalent in Asians, exposes them to higher levels of acetaldehyde after drinking and was a strong risk factor for these cancers among Japanese heavy drinkers. Inactive ALDH2 was also associated with synchronous and metachronous multiple esophageal cancers. These results suggest a general role of acetaldehyde, an established animal carcinogen, in carcinogenesis of the human alimentary tract. The oropharyngolarynx and esophagus lack ALDH2 activity, suggesting that after exposure to acetaldehyde derived from systemic, mucosal, salivary, or bacterial production or alcoholic beverages, these organs' inefficient degradation of acetaldehyde enhances the chances for local acetaldehyde-associated carcinogenesis. The normal alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (ADH2), encoded by ADH2*1/2*1, is another risk factor for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer in Japanese alcoholics. For patients with both normal ADH2 and inactive ALDH2, the risks for oropharyngolaryngeal and esophageal cancer are enhanced in a multiplicative fashion. The responses to a simple questionnaire about both current and past facial flushing after drinking a glass of beer can indicate an individual's ALDH2 phenotype fairly well. Use of this questionnaire to obtain information on ALDH2-associated cancer susceptibility could contribute to the prevention of alcohol-related cancer in Asians.
Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.
Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.
Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A
For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.
Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C
Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.
... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1160.200 Section 1160... membership. (a) There is hereby established a National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board of 20 members, 15... member for membership on the Board except that such member shall continue to serve on the Board for...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1160.200 Section 1160... membership. (a) There is hereby established a National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board of 20 members, 15... member for membership on the Board except that such member shall continue to serve on the Board for...
... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and membership. 1160.200 Section 1160... membership. (a) There is hereby established a National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board of 20 members, 15... member for membership on the Board except that such member shall continue to serve on the Board for...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...
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....102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any sorghum...
... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any sorghum...
... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any sorghum...
... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum... agreement to: (a) Serve on the Board if appointed; (b) Disclose any relationship with any sorghum...
13. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. EQUIPMENT ROOM SERVING CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA
... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order National Dairy Promotion and Research Board § 1150.134 Nominee's agreement to serve. Any...
... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order National Fluid Milk Processor Promotion Board § 1160.203 Nominee's agreement to serve....
4. 1501-05 PACIFIC AVE. SPRAGUE BUILDING (1889). THIS BUILDING SERVED AS A MODEL FOR MOST OF THE 'JOBBERS' (FOODSTUFF WHOLESALERS) BUILDING IN TACOMA. - Union Depot Area Study, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M
The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.
Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.
Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…
Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang
Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014
The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.
Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B
Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.
Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027
Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M
A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.
Harper, C G; Kril, J J
There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.
Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.
Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.
Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.
An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.
An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.
An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated
Workman, Jane E.
Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…
Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…
Pancratz, Diane R.
This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…
Pike, William A.
In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…
McLarty, Joyce R.
The problem of establishing appropriate passing scores is one of evaluation rather than estimation and not amenable to exact solution. It must therefore be approached by (1) identifying criteria for judging the acceptability of the passing score, (2) collecting the data appropriate to assessing each relevant criterion, and (3) judging how well the…
Meadowcroft, Pamela; Holland, James G.
Investigators in this study looked for conditions that can rapidly establish continuous stimulus control of continuous response variations, or "response mapping." Unlike previous research in stimulus control, where a single stimulus comes to control a single response, 36 5-year-old children received errorless discrimination training at…
Lemish, Donald L.
A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…
Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics-quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.
Shinokita, Keisuke; Cunha, Ana V.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.
Hydrogen-bonded liquids play a significant role in numerous chemical and biological phenomena. In the past decade, impressive developments in multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy and combined molecular dynamics–quantum mechanical simulation have established many intriguing features of hydrogen bond dynamics in one of the fundamental solvents in nature, water. The next class of a hydrogen-bonded liquid—alcohols—has attracted much less attention. This is surprising given such important differences between water and alcohols as the imbalance between the number of hydrogen bonds, each molecule can accept (two) and donate (one) and the very presence of the hydrophobic group in alcohols. Here, we use polarization-resolved pump-probe and 2D infrared spectroscopy supported by extensive theoretical modeling to investigate hydrogen bond dynamics in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol employing the OH stretching mode as a reporter. The sub-ps dynamics in alcohols are similar to those in water as they are determined by similar librational and hydrogen-bond stretch motions. However, lower density of hydrogen bond acceptors and donors in alcohols leads to the appearance of slow diffusion-controlled hydrogen bond exchange dynamics, which are essentially absent in water. We anticipate that the findings herein would have a potential impact on fundamental chemistry and biology as many processes in nature involve the interplay of hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups.
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow ...
... problem, don't blame yourself. continue How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? If you live with a parent ... needs to get help from a treatment center. Alcoholism affects family members just as much as it ...
Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.
New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.
Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.
A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.
... crashes, other injuries, high blood pressure, stroke, violence, suicide, and certain types of cancer. What is a ... than those of male alcoholics, including deaths from suicides, alcohol-related accidents, heart disease and stroke, and ...
Cloninger, C R
Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.
Corbit, Laura H.; Janak, Patricia H.
Previous work has demonstrated that goal-directed control of alcohol-seeking and other drug-related behaviors is reduced following extended self-administration and drug exposure. Here, we examined how the magnitude of stimulus influences on responding changes across similar training and drug exposure. Rats self-administered alcohol or sucrose for 2 or 8 weeks. Previous work has shown that 8 weeks, but not 2 weeks of self-administration produces habitual alcohol seeking. Next, all animals received equivalent Pavlovian conditioning sessions where a discrete stimulus predicted the delivery of alcohol or sucrose. Finally, the impact of the stimuli on ongoing instrumental responding was examined in a Pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT) test. While a significant PIT effect was observed following 2 weeks of either alcohol or sucrose self-administration, the magnitude of this effect was greater following 8 weeks of training. The specificity of the PIT effect appeared unchanged by extended training. While it is well established that evaluation of the outcome of responding contributes less to behavioral control following extended training and/or drug exposure, our data indicate that reward–predictive stimuli have a stronger contribution to responding after extended training. Together, these findings provide insight into the factors that control behavior after extended drug use, which will be important for developing effective methods for controlling and ideally reducing these behaviors. PMID:27777560
Borman, G.L.; Foster, D.E.; Uyehara, O.A.; McCallum, P.W.; Timbario, T.J.
The use of alcohol with diesel fuel has been investigated as a means of extending diesel fuel supplies. The ability to use ethanol in diesel-powered farm equipment could provide the means for increasing the near-term fuels self-sufficiency of the American farmer. In the longer term, the potential availability of methanol (from coal) in large quantities could serve to further decrease the dependency on diesel fuel. This document gives two separate overviews of the use of alcohols in farm equipment. Part I of this document compares alcohol with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels and describes several techniques for using alcohol in farm diesels. Part II of this document discusses the use of aqueous ethanol in diesel engines, spark ignition engines and provides some information on safety and fuel handling of both methanol and ethanol. This document is not intended as a guide for converting equipment to utilize alcohol, but rather to provide information such that the reader can gain insight on the advantages and disadvantages of using alcohol in existing engines currently used in farming applications.
Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min
To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.
Veber, N.V.; Khisamotdinova, A.I.; Tabachova, S.I.
This paper studies the distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate, which has a comparatively low solubility in water (0.5 g in 100 ml of water), forming a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture. Butyl acetate is capable of giving a hydrogen bond at the carbonyl oxygen with hydroxyl compounds, which serves as the basis for its use as an extraction reagent. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate was studied without salting out agents, and also in the presence of sodium chloride. The experiments were conducted with model solutions of freshly redistilled furfuryl alcohol by shaking equal volumes of the phases in a separatory funnel at 18-20 C. An analysis of furfuryl alcohol in experiments without salting out was performed by a titrimetric method. The results of the distribution of furfuryl alcohol without salting out agents are presented in a table. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol in butyl acetate in the presence of sodium chloride was studied in a smaller range of concentrations.
Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Mishra, Lopa; Machida, Keigo
Alcohol abuse and obesity are two known risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) that also synergistically promote HBV/HCV-related carcinogenesis. TLR4, the PAMP for endotoxin participates in inflammatory processes such as M1 activation of hepatic macrophages in alcoholic liver disease. However its role in liver carcinogenesis via ectopic expression and activation, has only recently been revealed in alcohol/HCV-associated HCC models. Alcohol feeding to mice expressing the HCV Ns5a in a hepatocyte specific manner, aggravates liver inflammation via activation of overexpressed TLR4 in the parenchymal cells. Long-term alcohol feeding produces liver tumors in these transgenic mice in a manner dependent on TLR4. From these mice, CD133+/CD49f+ tumor initiating stem cell-like cells (TICs) have been isolated. These TICs exhibit self-renewal and tumorigenic activities driven by TLR4-dependent upregulation of the stem cell factor NANOG. Defective TGF-β tumor suppressor pathway is identified in the TICs and mediated by NANOG target genes Igf2bp3 and Yap1. This TGF-β pathway antagonism is responsible in part for TIC’s tumorigenic activity and chemoresistance. Conversely, mice with attenuated TGF-β pathway due to haploinsufficiency of β2-Spectrin, spontaneously develop liver tumors and alcohol-feeding increases tumor incidence in a TLR4 dependent manner. This reciprocal antagonism between TLR4 and TGF-β pathways may serve as a novel therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26201318
Addo, Paul K.; Arechederra, Robert L.; Minteer, Shelley D.
This research focused on the transition of biofuel cell technology to rechargeable biobatteries. The bioanode compartment of the biobattery consisted of NAD-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) immobilized into a carbon composite paste with butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) ionic liquid serving as the electrolyte. Ferrocene was added to shuttle electrons to/from the electrode surface/current collector. The bioanode catalyzed the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in discharge mode. This bioanode was coupled to a cathode that consisted of Prussian Blue in a carbon composite paste with Nafion 212 acting as the separator between the two compartments. The biobattery can be fabricated in a charged mode with ethanol and have an open circuit potential of 0.8 V in the original state prior to charging or in the discharged mode with acetaldehyde and have an open circuit potential of 0.05 V. After charging it has an open circuit potential of 1.2 V and a maximum power density of 13.0 μW cm -3 and a maximum current density of 35.0 μA cm -3, respectively. The stability and efficiency of the biobattery were studied by cycling continuously at a discharging current of 0.4 mA and the results obtained showed reasonable stability over 50 cycles. This is a new type of secondary battery inspired by the metabolic processes of the living cell, which is an effective energy conversion system.
Bleich, S; Bandelow, B; Javaheripour, K; Müller, A; Degner, D; Wilhelm, J; Havemann-Reinecke, U; Sperling, W; Rüther, E; Kornhuber, J
Chronic alcohol consumption can induce brain atrophy, whereby the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. There is evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid which markedly enhances the vulnerability of neuronal cells to excitotoxic and oxidative injury in vitro and in vivo. The present volumetric magnetic resonance imaging study included 52 chronic alcoholics and 30 non-drinking healthy controls. Patients were active drinkers and had an established diagnosis of alcohol dependence. We investigated the influence of different variables on the hippocampal volume of patients suffering from chronic alcoholism. We observed that pathological raised levels of plasma homocysteine showed the most significant correlation to hippocampal volume reduction (P<0.001, multiple regression analysis). Raised plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with hippocampal (brain) atrophy in alcoholism.
Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin
Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424
de Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Papaseit, E; Pérez-Mañá, C; Mateus, J; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, Kpc; de la Torre, R; Farré, M; Ramaekers, J G
Recreational use of mephedrone, alone and in combination with alcohol, has increased over the past years. Pharmacological properties of mephedrone share similarities with methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but its effect on neurocognitive function has not been well established in humans. The present study assessed the effect of mephedrone alone and after co-administration with alcohol on neurocognitive function. It was hypothesised that mephedrone would improve psychomotor performance but impair memory performance, when administered alone. Neurocognitive performance was expected to be impaired following mephedrone when combined with alcohol. Eleven participants received single doses of 200 mg mephedrone or placebo combined with 0.8 g/kg alcohol or placebo. Neurocognitive performance was assessed at baseline (T0), at one hour (T1) and four hours after (T2) mephedrone administration, by means of the Divided Attention Task (DAT), Critical Tracking Task (CTT), and the Spatial Memory Test (SMT). Mephedrone intoxication impaired short-term spatial memory at T1 and improved critical tracking performance at T2 Mephedrone alone did not affect divided attention, but did show an interaction with alcohol on reaction time at T2 Reaction time decreased when mephedrone was combined with alcohol as compared to alcohol alone. Alcohol intoxication impaired both short- and long-term spatial memory at T1 and divided attention at T1 and T2 Critical tracking performance was not affected by alcohol intoxication. The current findings support the hypothesis that mephedrone improves psychomotor performance, impairs spatial memory and does not affect divided attention performance. Stimulatory effects of mephedrone were not sufficient to compensate for the impairing effects of alcohol on most performance parameters.
Pyszczynski, Adam D; Shahan, Timothy A
In the resurgence preparation, extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increases when food reinforcement introduced into the same context during extinction is also subsequently removed. However, drug and nondrug reinforcers may often be obtained in separate specific contexts. Accordingly, we aimed to determine whether extinguished behavior previously maintained by alcohol would increase upon elimination of nondrug reinforcement within a multiple schedule arranging distinct discriminative stimulus contexts of food and alcohol availability. In Experiment 1, rats earned food or alcohol in alternating stimulus contexts within a multiple schedule. First, alcohol-maintained responding was extinguished and then food deliveries in the alternating component were also discontinued. Extinguished alcohol-maintained responding increased upon discontinuation of food deliveries. However, periods of alcohol availability alternated with periods of extinction during a portion of training; thus, elimination of food reinforcers during the resurgence test may have inadvertently served as a cue for alcohol availability. In Experiment 2, the training phase that complicated interpretation of the results of Experiment 1 was eliminated. Alcohol-maintained responding again increased when food-maintained responding was placed on extinction in the other component. The present results indicate that loss of nondrug reinforcement in one discriminative context can increase extinguished alcohol seeking in another context and that multiple schedules of reinforcement might be useful for examining such effects.
Tretinnikov, O. N.; Sushko, N. I.
In order to obtain linear polyenes in polyvinyl alcohol films via acid-catalyzed thermal dehydration of the polyvinyl alcohol, we used phosphotungstic acid as the catalyst: a safe and heat-stable solid chemical compound. We established that phosphotungstic acid, introduced as solid nanoparticles into polyvinyl alcohol films, is a more effective dehydration catalyst than hydrochloric acid, since in contrast to HCl it does not evaporate from the film during heat treatment.
Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang
Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
Schuckit, Marc A.
This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)