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Sample records for alcohol serving venues

  1. The relationship between attending alcohol serving venues nearby versus distant to one’s residence and sexual risk taking in a South African township

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Cain, Demetria N.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND South Africa remains a country with one of the highest prevalence rates of HIV/AIDS at 18% among 15–49 year olds. Underdeveloped urban areas, or townships, are particularly hard hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Alcohol use in these townships has been established as an important risk factor for HIV transmission. Likewise, alcohol serving venues (shebeens) have been identified as sites where substance abuse and sexual risk taking occur. However, little is known about how proximity of alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) to one's residence may be related to sexual risk-taking. METHODS We surveyed 3,261 men and women attending shebeens in a township located in Cape Town, South Africa. We investigated the relationships between attending nearby (< 15 minute walk) versus distant (>15 minute walk) shebeens, and sex and substance abuse related risk-taking. RESULTS Women who attended distant shebeens versus nearby shebeens relative to their residence were approximately twice as likely to report HIV positive status. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that these women were also more likely to report other sexually transmitted infections, greater numbers of sex partners, higher rates of alcohol and drug use, and seeking out new sex partners at shebeen. No differences in sex behavior, substance use or HIV/STI were identified among men. DISCUSSION Proximity of shebeens appears to be an important contextual factor in explaining HIV/STI transmission risk-taking. Future studies should focus on how anonymity may be related to sexual risk and substance use behaviors among women in South African townships. PMID:23404137

  2. Reducing HIV Risks in the Places Where People Drink: Prevention Interventions in Alcohol Venues.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244

  3. Taxonomy of Caribbean Tourism Alcohol Venues: Implications for HIV Transmission*

    PubMed Central

    GUILAMO-RAMOS, Vincent; JACCARD, James; MCCARTHY, Katharine; QUIÑONES, Zahira; LUSHIN, Viktor; SKINNER-DAY, Molly; PADILLA, Mark; MEISTERLIN, Leah

    2013-01-01

    Background Tourism areas represent ecologies of heightened HIV vulnerability characterized by a disproportionate concentration of alcohol venues. Limited research has explored how alcohol venues facilitate HIV transmission. Methods We spatially mapped locations of alcohol venues in a Dominican tourism town and conducted a venue-based survey of key informants (n=135) focused on three facets of alcohol venues: structural features, type of patrons, and HIV risk behaviors. Using latent class analysis, we identified evidence-based typologies of alcohol venues for each of the three facets. Focused contrasts identified the co-occurrence of classes of structural features, classes of types of patrons, and classes of HIV risk behavior, thus elaborating the nature of high risk venues. Results We identified three categories of venue structural features, three for venue patrons, and five for HIV risk behaviors. Analysis revealed that alcohol venues with the greatest structural risks (e.g., sex work on site with lack of HIV prevention services) were most likely frequented by the venue patron category characterized by high population-mixing between locals and foreign tourists, who were in turn most likely to engage in the riskiest behaviors. Conclusion Our results highlight the stratification of venue patrons into groups who engage in behaviors of varying risk in structural settings that vary in risk. The convergence of high-risk patron groups in alcohol venues with the greatest structural risk suggests these locations have potential for HIV transmission. Policymakers and prevention scientists can use these methods and data to target HIV prevention resources to identified priority areas. PMID:23478154

  4. Venues, Patrons, and Alcohol Use Dynamics: The Creation of a High Risk Sexual Environment

    PubMed Central

    Balán, Iván C.; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Ávila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  5. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:24691922

  6. Venues, patrons, and alcohol use dynamics: the creation of a high risk sexual environment.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Barreda, Victoria; Marone, Rubén; Avila, María Mercedes; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2014-11-01

    Venue-based HIV prevention interventions, especially in sex on premise venues, can disrupt high-risk sexual networks. However, prior to intervening, it is essential to understand the person-venue dynamics that contribute to HIV risk. As such, we conducted five ethnographic observations at each of six venues where alcohol is sold and sex occurs onsite (2 each porn theaters, sex clubs, and dance clubs) frequented by gay and other men who have sex with men (G&MSM) in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. Alcohol use, sexual behavior, and person-venue dynamics differed markedly across venue types. In dance clubs, substantial alcohol consumption often preceded visits to the darkroom for sex which, at times, included unprotected anal and vaginal intercourse. Condoms, although available, were not easily accessible. HIV prevention messaging was generally non-existent. These venues are in critical need of interventions to reduce HIV transmission risk.

  7. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.S. gay bars, but these effects have not generalized to gay bars elsewhere or to other populations. Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers. Finally, a small number of studies have examined multilevel approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments. PMID:23584060

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  9. Risky Alcohol Use Among Migrant Women in Entertainment Venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Nickolas; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Dong, YanYan; Song, Dandan; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study are to describe the prevalence of hazardous drinking among migrant women working in entertainment venues in an urban setting in China and to identify specific risk factors and locations where hazardous drinking occurs. Methods: From March to July 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in the capital city of Hefei, Anhui Province, China. Participants were asked about information regarding their demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, mental health, alcohol use and drug use. Results: Overall, 203 (57%) participants had an AUDIT score ≥8 (risky drinking) and 95 (27%) women had an AUDIT ≥16 (probable dependence). Greater likelihood of probable alcohol dependence was associated with being younger (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.76–0.95), working at an affluent venue (OR = 2.46, 95% CI: 1.13–5.36) and depressive symptoms during the past week (OR = 2.74, 95% CI = 1.10–6.83). Conclusion: Our study documents risky drinking practices among female migrants, irrespective of whether or not women reported engaging in commercial sex, working in entertainment venues. Our data suggest that entertainment venues, particularly those that are higher end (i.e. affluent) venues, should be targeted for public health interventions aimed to reduce harmful drinking practices. PMID:24452724

  10. Drinking Reasons and Alcohol Problems by Work Venue among Female Sex Workers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Alcohol use is a key determinant of sexual risk behaviors but pathways to alcohol use in the context of commercial sex still remain unclear. The present study explores reasons for drinking and their roles on alcohol use problems among female sex workers (FSWs) in different types of commercial sex venues. Method In 2009, a sample of 1,022 FSWs from Guangxi, China completed a survey containing a 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a 28-item measure of reasons for drinking. Factor analysis revealed five reasons for drinking: suppression, disinhibition, work requirement, sexual enhancement, and confidence booster. Results All identified reasons except for confidence booster appeared to be related to a higher tendency of developing alcohol use problems among FSWs. Types of commercial sex venues moderated the relationship between work requirement and alcohol use problems. Conclusions: Alcohol-risk reduction interventions among this population need to provide them with alternative approaches to regulate emotions and modify their misconceptions about alcohol’s sexual enhancing function. More attention is needed to FSWs’ vulnerability to the negative influence of occupational drinking. PMID:25594829

  11. A Venue Analysis of Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Sexual Intercourse among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P.; Levy, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Female sex workers' (FSWs') use of alcohol, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior, has been largely understudied. Knowledge of how various sex work venues influence FSW's alcohol consumption before engaging in commercial sex is even rarer. Our analysis identifies those factors across three types of sex-work venues that predict alcohol use among FSWs prior to paid sexual intercourse with clients. Our data were collected through structured interviews with FSWs engaging in commercial sex in Senggigi Beach, Lombok Island in the eastern Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara. Methods Employing a cross sectional and multilevel design, three categories of venues where FSWs meet clients in Senggigi were sampled: (1) discotheques and bars (freelance), (2) brothels, and (3) recreational enterprises such as karaoke establishments and massage parlors. The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues. The FSWs reported on 326 clients interactions. Results Results show that FSWs consumed alcohol before commercial sex with 157 (48%) of the 326 clients interactions. Alcohol use varied by differences in HIV policies and services offered at the sex work venue, the FSW's educational level and age, and client characteristics. Conclusion Alcohol use is common prior to sexual intercourse among FSWs and their clients in Senggigi, and the venue where FSWs meet their clients influences the women's alcohol use. Freelancers were likelier to use alcohol than those who work at brothels and recreational enterprises. Given the recognized links between alcohol use prior to sex and high risk behavior, HIV prevention programs that discourage alcohol use should be introduced to both women who engage in commercial sex and also sex-work venue managers, owners, and clients. PMID:20956075

  12. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  13. Gender-based Violence, Alcohol use, and Sexual Risk Among Female Patrons of Drinking Venues in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior. PMID:22526526

  14. “Because he has bought for her, he wants to sleep with her”: Alcohol as a currency for sexual exchange in South African drinking venues

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Aunon, Frances M.; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Pieterse, Desiree

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented the practice of transactional sex in sub-Saharan Africa and its association with gender-based violence, gender inequalities and HIV risk. At the same time, it has been suggested that women may use transactional sex to obtain a greater sense of control over their lives and their sexualities, and to garner access to resources. The aim of this study was to better understand the practice of exchanging alcohol for sex in alcohol-serving venues in a township in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were collected between June 2009 and October 2010. Six venues were included and observations were conducted in each for four one-week periods over the course of a year. In-depth qualitative interviews included 31 women and 13 men whom interviewers had observed as regular venue customers. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 24 respondents to explore emerging themes. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Using a grounded theory approach, Atlas.ti was used to code transcripts, field notes, and analytical memos written about each document. Results revealed that alcohol was commonly used as a currency of sexual exchange in this setting, and both women and men understood that accepting alcohol from a man implied consent for sexual favors. Women reported a sense of agency in participating in the transactional sex dynamic, especially when they were able to manipulate it to meet their own ends without fulfilling the men’s sexual expectations. At the same time, data revealed that the norm of transactional sex reinforced the undervaluing and commoditization of women. As identified elsewhere, transactional sex put both women and men at greater risk of HIV through multiple partners and inconsistent use of condoms, and the possibility of rape. Interventions are needed to address sexual risk behaviors and substance use within this context to prevent new HIV infections. PMID:22326304

  15. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use.

  16. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. PMID:22832324

  17. Gender differences in the prediction of parental servings of alcohol to adolescents and youth drunkenness.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Anna K; Bodin, Maria C; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-12-01

    This longitudinal study, funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health, explored gender differences in predictors of parental servings of alcohol to youth and youth drunkenness. Data were collected from 1,752 Swedish 7th-grade youth and their parents, at three occasions between 2007 and 2010. Measurements included youth alcohol use, parental warmth, and parental control. Two-level logistic regressions showed that 15-year-old girls are more likely to be served alcohol at home compared to boys, and that there are some gender differences in predictors of drunkenness. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed and areas for future research identified.

  18. Serving Alcohol at Home: What Do Most People Do? Findings from a 2001 Ontario Adult Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Lise; Giesbrecht, Norman; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Grand, Larry; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet

    2004-01-01

    In Ontario, some court cases have involved attempts to sue social hosts for damage caused by the behaviour of drunken guests. Such legal actions give rise to the question of risks and responsibilities accruing to social hosts who serve alcohol. Using a sample of 1395 male and female adult residents of Ontario, the authors present self-report…

  19. Cities, Counties and Universities Look for Ways to Prevent Underage Drinking--Social Host Laws Make Adults Responsible for Alcohol Served on Their Property to Those Under 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Glynn R.

    2008-01-01

    Municipalities and colleges are adding Social Host ordinances to their list of tactics to prevent underage drinking. The ordinances, which focus on the locations where underage drinking takes place, hold property owners responsible for making sure those under 21 don't consume alcohol in their home, apartment or any venue they own. MADD (Mothers…

  20. Poly(vinyl alcohol) physical hydrogels: new vista on a long serving biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Alves, Marie-Helene; Jensen, Bettina E B; Smith, Anton A A; Zelikin, Alexander N

    2011-10-10

    Poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, and physical hydrogels derived thereof have an excellent safety profile and a successful history of biomedical applications. However, these materials are hardly in the focus of biomedical research, largely due to poor opportunities in nano- and micro-scale design associated with PVA hydrogels in their current form. In this review we aim to demonstrate that with PVA, a (sub)molecular control over polymer chemistry translates into fine-tuned supramolecular association of chains and this, in turn, defines macroscopic properties of the material. This nano- to micro- to macro- translation of control is unique for PVA and can now be accomplished using modern tools of macromolecular design. We believe that this strategy affords functionalized PVA physical hydrogels which meet the demands of modern nanobiotechnology and have a potential to become an indispensable tool in the design of biomaterials.

  1. Accessibility of Catering Service Venues and Adolescent Drinking in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shijun; Du, Songming; Ren, Zhoupeng; Zhao, Jing; Chambers, Christina; Wang, Jinfeng; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the association between accessibility of catering service venues and adolescents’ alcohol use over the previous 30 days. The data were collected from cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2014, 2223 students at 27 high schools in Chaoyang and Xicheng districts, Beijing using self-administered questionnaires to collect the adolescents information on socio-demographic characteristics and recent alcohol experiences. The accessibility of, and proximity to, catering service venues were summarized by weights, which were calculated by multiplication of the type-weight and the distance-weight. All sampled schools were categorized into three subgroups (low, middle, and high geographic density) based on the tertile of nearby catering service venues, and a multi-level logistic regression analysis was performed to explore variance between the school levels. Considering the setting characteristics, the catering service venues weighted value was found to account for 8.6% of the school level variance of adolescent alcohol use. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of drinking over the past 30-days among adolescents with medium and high accessibility of catering service venues were 1.17 (0.86, 1.57) and 1.47 (1.06, 2.02), respectively (p < 0.001 for trend test). This study addressed a gap in the adolescent drinking influence by the catering service venues around schools in China. Results suggest that the greater accessibility of catering service venues around schools is associated with a growing risk of recent drinking. PMID:26132475

  2. How Might the Alcohol Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) Impact upon Local Off-Sales Shops and the Communities Which They Serve?

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Alasdair J.M.; Ellaway, Anne; Davidson, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study was to assess the likely impact of the Scottish Government's proposed alcohol minimum unit pricing (MUP) policy on community off-sales outlets (convenience stores or corner shops), and, in turn, on the local people who purchase drinks at such premises. This research adds to our knowledge by linking sales of alcohol products which will be affected by MUP (e.g. at the proposed 50 ppu) to the types of communities where these are the ‘drinks-of-choice’. Methods: A survey of independent community off-sales operating within the city of Glasgow, Scotland (n = 271) returned 144 completed questionnaires enquiring about each shop's customer base, best-selling alcohol products and participating shopkeepers' views on MUP. Responses were measured against current alcohol product prices (i.e. whether potentially affected by MUP) and local levels of socio-economic deprivation. Results: Participating shopkeepers were divided in their support for MUP, although more were in favour than against. Support for MUP tended to be rooted in business concerns. A majority reported having at least one best-selling alcohol product which will be affected by the proposed MUP policy at current prices, with the beverages that would be most affected (e.g. white cider) tending to be best-sellers at shops serving deprived communities. Conclusion: MUP is likely to impact most in socio-economically deprived communities. This is also where alcohol-related health and other inequalities are currently greatest. PMID:24293505

  3. Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse as Coexisting Disabilities: Considerations for Counselors Serving Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, D. Shane; Nelipovich, Michael; Sneed, Zach

    2002-01-01

    This article identifies the potential affect of alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) on people who are blind or visually impaired, the barriers to providing effective AODA services for those people, and strategies for improving services for people with coexisting blindness or visual impairments and AODA. (Contains references.) (CR)

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Alcohol

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  6. Alcohol

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    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. How important are venue-based HIV risks among male clients of female sex workers? A mixed methods analysis of the risk environment in nightlife venues in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Gallardo, Manuel; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, 400 males ≥18 years old who paid or traded for sex with a female sex worker (FSW) in Tijuana, Mexico, in the past 4 months completed surveys and HIV/STI testing; 30 also completed qualitative interviews. To analyze environmental sources of HIV vulnerability among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, we used mixed methods to investigate correlates of clients who met FSWs in nightlife venues and clients' perspectives on venue-based HIV risk. Logistic regression identified micro-level correlates of meeting FSWs in nightlife venues, which were triangulated with clients' narratives regarding macro-level influences. In a multivariate model, offering increased pay for unprotected sex and binge drinking were micro-level factors that were independently associated with meeting FSWs in nightlife venues versus other places. In qualitative interviews, clients characterized nightlife venues as high risk due to the following macro-level features: social norms dictating heavy alcohol consumption; economic exploitation by establishment owners; and poor enforcement of sex work regulations in nightlife venues. Structural interventions in nightlife venues are needed to address venue-based risks. PMID:21396875

  8. How important are venue-based HIV risks among male clients of female sex workers? A mixed methods analysis of the risk environment in nightlife venues in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Shira; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Gallardo, Manuel; Nguyen, Lucie; Lozada, Remedios; Semple, Shirley J.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, 400 males ≥ 18 years old who paid or traded for sex with a female sex worker (FSW) in Tijuana, Mexico, in the past 4 months completed surveys and HIV/STI testing; 30 also completed qualitative interviews. To analyze environmental HIV vulnerability among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico, we used mixed methods to investigate correlates of clients who met FSWs in nightlife venues and clients’ perspectives on venue-based risks. Logistic regression identified micro-level correlates of meeting FSWs in nightlife venues, which were triangulated with clients’ narratives regarding macro-level influences. In a multivariate model, offering increased pay for unprotected sex and binge drinking were micro-level factors that were independently associated with meeting FSWs in nightlife venues versus other places. In qualitative interviews, clients characterized nightlife venues as high risk due to the following macro-level features: social norms dictating heavy alcohol consumption; economic exploitation by establishment owners; and poor enforcement of sex work regulations in nightlife venues. Structural interventions in nightlife venues are needed to address venue-based risks. PMID:21396875

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  10. 22 CFR 92.26 - Venue on affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Venue on affidavit. 92.26 Section 92.26 Foreign... Acts § 92.26 Venue on affidavit. The venue must always be given and should precede the body of the affidavit. (See § 92.14 regarding venue on notarial certificates generally.)...

  11. 22 CFR 92.26 - Venue on affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Venue on affidavit. 92.26 Section 92.26 Foreign... Acts § 92.26 Venue on affidavit. The venue must always be given and should precede the body of the affidavit. (See § 92.14 regarding venue on notarial certificates generally.)...

  12. 22 CFR 92.26 - Venue on affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Venue on affidavit. 92.26 Section 92.26 Foreign... Acts § 92.26 Venue on affidavit. The venue must always be given and should precede the body of the affidavit. (See § 92.14 regarding venue on notarial certificates generally.)...

  13. 22 CFR 92.26 - Venue on affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Venue on affidavit. 92.26 Section 92.26 Foreign... Acts § 92.26 Venue on affidavit. The venue must always be given and should precede the body of the affidavit. (See § 92.14 regarding venue on notarial certificates generally.)...

  14. 22 CFR 92.26 - Venue on affidavit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Venue on affidavit. 92.26 Section 92.26 Foreign... Acts § 92.26 Venue on affidavit. The venue must always be given and should precede the body of the affidavit. (See § 92.14 regarding venue on notarial certificates generally.)...

  15. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  16. Could music potentially serve as a functional alternative to alcohol consumption? The importance of music motives among drinking and non-drinking adolescents

    PubMed Central

    JONKER, ANNA; KUNTSCHE, EMMANUEL

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical powerlessness, frequency of being bullied and bullying others and evenings spent out with friends). It also looked at whether associations between music motives and health-related outcomes remained significant when drinking motives were included among drinkers. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were estimated based on data from 4,481 adolescents from Switzerland (mean age 14.5, SD = 0.9). Results: It was confirmed that the four music motives and the four drinking motives obtained by crossing the valence (positive–negative) and the source (internal–external) of expected change in affect form distinct dimensions (i.e. the 8-factor model best fitted the data). Drinkers and non-drinkers differed in the various links between music motives and health-related outcomes. For example, almost all the links between conformity music motives and the health-related outcomes were significant for non-drinkers but not for drinkers. Enhancement music motives, by contrast, were often significant for drinkers but not for non-drinkers. Coping music motives were significant among both drinkers and non-drinkers. These links were basically unchanged when drinking motives were taken into account. Discussion and conclusions: This study indicates that music serves important functions in the lives of adolescents, even among those who use alcohol for different motives. This makes listening to music a promising potential alternative to alcohol use. PMID:25592307

  17. Readings on L2 Reading: Publications in Other Venues 2014-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmeier, Cindy, Ed.; Dolosic, Haley, Ed.; Schultz, Lyndsie, Ed.; Aquino-Sterling, Cristian, Ed.; Van Bishop, Tracy, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This feature offers an archive of articles published in other venues during the past year and serves as a valuable tool to readers of "Reading in a Foreign Language" ("RFL"). It treats any topic within the scope of "RFL" and second language reading. The articles are listed in alphabetical order, each with a complete…

  18. The Role of Focus Group Venue: A Comparative Study of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Video-Based Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the equivalence or non-inferiority for comparisons of telephone focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, Internet video-based focus group venue to face-to-face focus group venue, and Internet video-based focus group venue to telephone focus group venue. Research questions examined the…

  19. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    PubMed

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums.

  20. New journal to provide venue for rigorous surface process work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Shermonta

    Robert S. Anderson, an AGU member (Hydrology) since 1987, has been selected as editor of a new section of JGR, titled Earth Surface, scheduled to begin in the spring of 2003. This new section will focus on surficial processes; in particular, the physical, chemical, and biological processes that affect the form and function of the surface of the solid Earth over all temporal and spatial scales.Anderson told Eos, "I want this journal to serve as an outlet for science that applies rigorous quantitative methods to surface process problems; and through publication, to promote this approach to such problems," emphasizing that the section could be a primary venue for science performed by individuals or small teams. Currently articles related to this discipline are printed in various publications, including some AGU journals. But with an increase in the number of scientists working in this area, a publication designated to this subject is critical.

  1. Exploring “Wine Shops” as a Venue for HIV Prevention Interventions in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sethulakshmi; Bentley, Margaret E.; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl A.; Go, Vivian F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.

    2007-01-01

    Addressing male heterosexual risk is a high priority for HIV prevention efforts in India. Particularly in urban India, which draws men for employment opportunities, these efforts are gaining momentum with a focus on understanding possible risk facilitators such as alcohol use. However, little is known about venues where such efforts might be targeted. In this paper, we explore community-based alcohol outlets or “wine shops” in Chennai, India, as potential venues. We conducted ethnographic research with wine shop staff and clients to understand alcohol use and sexual behaviors. We then surveyed 118 wine shop patrons to quantify these risk behaviors and plan an appropriate intervention. Our results show that wine shops are a venue where social and sexual networks converge. Reports and observations of regular and heavy drinking were frequent. Over 50% of patrons surveyed reported three or more sexual partners in the past 3 months, and 71% of all patrons reported a history of exchanging sex for money. Condom use history was low overall but, in the adjusted analyses, was significantly higher (OR = 20.1) among those who reported that their most recent partner was a sex worker and lower (OR = 0.28) among those who reported they drank to feel disinhibited. The data suggest that wine shops may be an appropriate location to target men for HIV prevention interventions. We discuss how these findings helped design such an intervention in Chennai. PMID:17486455

  2. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  3. Virtual venue management users manual : access grid toolkit documentation, version 2.3.

    SciTech Connect

    Judson, I. R.; Lefvert, S.; Olson, E.; Uram, T. D.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2007-10-24

    An Access Grid Venue Server provides access to individual Virtual Venues, virtual spaces where users can collaborate using the Access Grid Venue Client software. This manual describes the Venue Server component of the Access Grid Toolkit, version 2.3. Covered here are the basic operations of starting a venue server, modifying its configuration, and modifying the configuration of the individual venues.

  4. Paving the future: finding suitable ISMB venues.

    PubMed

    Rost, Burkhard; Gaasterland, Terry; Lengauer, Thomas; Linial, Michal; Markel, Scott; Morrison McKay, B J; Schneider, Reinhard; Horton, Paul; Kelso, Janet

    2012-10-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology, ISCB, organizes the largest event in the field of computational biology and bioinformatics, namely the annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, the ISMB. This year at ISMB 2012 in Long Beach, ISCB celebrated the 20th anniversary of its flagship meeting. ISCB is a young, lean and efficient society that aspires to make a significant impact with only limited resources. Many constraints make the choice of venues for ISMB a tough challenge. Here, we describe those challenges and invite the contribution of ideas for solutions.

  5. Paving the future: finding suitable ISMB venues

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Burkhard; Gaasterland, Terry; Lengauer, Thomas; Linial, Michal; Morrison McKay, B.J.; Schneider, Reinhard; Horton, Paul; Kelso, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The International Society for Computational Biology, ISCB, organizes the largest event in the field of computational biology and bioinformatics, namely the annual international conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology, the ISMB. This year at ISMB 2012 in Long Beach, ISCB celebrated the 20th anniversary of its flagship meeting. ISCB is a young, lean and efficient society that aspires to make a significant impact with only limited resources. Many constraints make the choice of venues for ISMB a tough challenge. Here, we describe those challenges and invite the contribution of ideas for solutions. Contact: assistant@rostlab.org PMID:22796959

  6. Serving Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Les, Ed.

    This book contains 15 articles about various aspects of community further education (FE) programs in Great Britain, including program rationales/benefits, administration, and delivery. The following articles are included: "Foreword" (Bradshaw); "Commitment to Community Is Good Business and Practical Politics" (Brook); "Can We Serve Communities in…

  7. 8 CFR 1003.20 - Change of venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.20 Change of venue. (a) Venue shall lie at the Immigration Court where jurisdiction vests pursuant to § 1003.14. (b)...

  8. 8 CFR 1003.20 - Change of venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.20 Change of venue. (a) Venue shall lie at the Immigration Court where jurisdiction vests pursuant to § 1003.14. (b)...

  9. 8 CFR 1003.20 - Change of venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.20 Change of venue. (a) Venue shall lie at the Immigration Court where jurisdiction vests pursuant to § 1003.14. (b)...

  10. 8 CFR 1003.20 - Change of venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.20 Change of venue. (a) Venue shall lie at the Immigration Court where jurisdiction vests pursuant to § 1003.14. (b)...

  11. 8 CFR 1003.20 - Change of venue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.20 Change of venue. (a) Venue shall lie at the Immigration Court where jurisdiction vests pursuant to § 1003.14. (b)...

  12. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  13. 22 CFR 92.14 - Venue on notarial certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... characteristic of a typical venue, in the order of their appearance in the certificate, are as follows: (1) Name..., consulate, or consular agency should bear the notation “American Consular Service” in place of the post name....

  14. 22 CFR 92.14 - Venue on notarial certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... characteristic of a typical venue, in the order of their appearance in the certificate, are as follows: (1) Name..., consulate, or consular agency should bear the notation “American Consular Service” in place of the post name....

  15. 22 CFR 92.14 - Venue on notarial certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... characteristic of a typical venue, in the order of their appearance in the certificate, are as follows: (1) Name..., consulate, or consular agency should bear the notation “American Consular Service” in place of the post name....

  16. 22 CFR 92.14 - Venue on notarial certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... characteristic of a typical venue, in the order of their appearance in the certificate, are as follows: (1) Name..., consulate, or consular agency should bear the notation “American Consular Service” in place of the post name....

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility of alcohols serving as external carbon sources for biological phosphorus removal induced by the oxic/extended-idle regime.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Zheng, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Liao, Dexiang; Zeng, Guangming

    2013-03-01

    Recently, a novel operational regime (i.e., the oxic/extended-idle [OEI] regime) has been reported to successfully achieve enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) when employing glucose and volatile fatty acids as the sole substrate. In the OEI regime, polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) could get a selective advantage over other populations during the extended-idle period where polyphosphate released but polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen transformations were negligible/low, thus energy requirements for maintenance purposes in the period could be covered by polyphosphate release. This study further evaluated the feasibility of alcohols as external carbon sources for EBPR induced by the OEI regime, as the available substrate in the raw wastewater is often deficient. First, phosphorus removal in the OEI process was compared, respectively, with methanol and ethanol as the sole substrate. The results showed that the ethanol-reactor achieved 90.8 ± 2.3% of phosphorus removal, which was approximate twofold than the methanol-reactor. Further studies displayed that the cells in the ethanol-reactor contained more PAOs, and had higher activities of exopolyphosphatase and polyphosphate kinase than those in the methanol-reactor. Also, the aerobic transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates and glycogen in the ethanol-reactor were, respectively, higher and lower than those in the methanol-reactor, which were consistent with the reactors performances. Then, the feasibility of using ethanol as external substrate to enhance EBPR in the OEI process was confirmed for a municipal wastewater. Finally, EBPR performance and metabolic transformation values between the OEI and the anaerobic/oxic (A/O) regimes with ethanol as the sole substrate were compared. The results showed that EBPR in the ethanol-OEI reactor was higher than that in the ethanol-A/O reactor. All the above results proved that ethanol was a favorable external substrate to the OEI regime for EBPR enhancement.

  18. Risk factors associated with smoking behaviour in recreational venues: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey

    PubMed Central

    Li, X; Li, Q; Dong, L; Sun, B; Chen, J; Jiang, Y; Yang, Y; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the determinants of smoking behaviour in recreational venues and to provide scientific bases for establishing smoke-free measures applying to these locations. Methods The International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey—a face-to-face cross-sectional survey of representative adult smokers from six cities (Shenyang, Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Changsha and Yinchuan) was conducted between April and August 2006. A total of 4815 smokers were selected using multistage sampling methods, and final analyses were conducted on 2875 smokers who reported patronising recreational venues at least once in the last six months. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors influencing the smoking behaviour within recreational settings. Outcome measure Whether a smoker reported smoking in recreational venues during the last 6 months. Results 84% subjects reported smoking in recreational venues. Analyses showed that smoke-free laws had been exempted, 32.0% of the patrons reporting bans on smoking in these locations. The following factors were significant predictors of smoking in recreational venues: absence of bans on smoking, support for non-bans, being aged 18–24 years, positive smoking-related attitudes, low number of health effects reported and not living in Beijing. Conclusions The findings point to the importance of informing Chinese smokers about the active smoking and passive smoking harmfulness in both building support for smoke-free laws and in reducing smokers’ desire to smoke within recreational venues. They also point to the importance of good enforcement of smoke-free laws when implemented. Such strategies could also serve to de-normalise smoking in China, a key strategy for reducing smoking in general. PMID:19671537

  19. Color constrasts in advertising: facade colors of food and drink consumption venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, John

    2002-06-01

    The building facade has a visually defined impact and there are numerous forces driving the choice of colors used. Commercial premises such as pubs, restaurants and bars are normally but not always clearly marked as such. Although we human beings can have the option of free choice in the colors we use around the home there are numerous positive driving forces dictating those we use in business life. Many of these factors have been identified. They depend on the type of population these venues serve, their geography and their traditions.

  20. The organization of sex work in low- and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2014-02-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in low and high-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid- and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues.

  1. The organization of sex work in low and high-priced venues with a focus on the experiences of ethnic minority women working in these venues

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Liu; Zhuang, Kongshao; Henderson, Gail E.; Shenglong, Quzhen; Fang, Jingwen; Yao, Huiqin; Qin, Jingxin; Yang, Yanzhen; Abler, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on female sex workers (FSW) in China, and their risk for HIV and STI, neglects the nuanced experiences of ethnic minority FSW. We conducted participant observations and in-depth interviews with 33 FSW and six venue bosses to describe the experiences of FSW and management structures in high and low-priced sex work venues in Liuzhou, China. In low-priced venues, FSW had more autonomy and stronger relationships with their ethnic minority peers. Mid and high-priced venues had more formal management structures. Ethnic minority FSW working in higher priced venues experienced less support and kinship with their peers. HIV/STI prevention outreach activities occurred in all of the venues, but they were not tailored for different venue types or for ethnic minority FSW. Our findings provide guidance for tailoring public health programs that meet the needs of ethnic minority women working in different types of sex work venues. PMID:23912337

  2. Non-daily Smoking and Alcohol Use, Hazardous Drinking, and Alcohol Diagnoses among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L.R.; Desai, Rani A.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2008-01-01

    for DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses. No differences across college student status were observed. Conclusions The increased risk of hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders conferred by non-daily smoking supports findings that non-daily smoking and drinking are highly concomitant behaviors. Results such as these suggest that interventions disengaging alcohol and cigarette use patterns (e.g., smoking bans in alcohol venues) might serve to limit the occurrence of hazardous drinking among young adults at heightened risk for this behavior. PMID:18828805

  3. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE). PMID:23639690

  4. Tritium as an indicator of venues for nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Mulgin, S I; Zhdanov, S V

    2013-10-01

    Currently, due to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons there is a highly topical issue of an accurate verification of nuclear explosion venues. This paper proposes to consider new method for verification by using tritium as an indicator. Detailed studies of the tritium content in the air were carried in the locations of underground nuclear tests - "Balapan" and "Degelen" testing sites located in Semipalatinsk Test Site. The paper presents data on the levels and distribution of tritium in the air where tunnels and boreholes are located - explosion epicentres, wellheads and tunnel portals, as well as in estuarine areas of the venues for the underground nuclear explosions (UNE).

  5. Multiple abortions and sexually transmitted infections among young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanyan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Yongyang; Tao, Haidong; Xu, Song; Xia, Junrui; Huang, Wen; He, Huan; Zaller, Nickolas; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a survey of 358 young migrant women working in entertainment venues in China to explore the prevalence of and factors associated with two indicators of sexual and reproductive health: (i) multiple abortions and (ii) the dual risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and abortion history. One quarter (25.4%) of the women in this sample had multiple abortions during their lifetime and, of those with any abortion history, 18.3% had had an abortion outside of a regulated health clinic. One-third (33.0%) of the sample had had a STI during the past year, and approximately one-fourth (23.7%) of those women did not receive STI treatment in a public hospital. Approximately one-fourth (23.5%) of the sample reported both a history of abortion and an STI during the past year. Women with a history of multiple abortions had significantly lower income levels, were more likely to have sex with clients and with husbands, and tended more to use alcohol before sex. Women who experienced both abortion and STI risks were more likely to report having had unprotected sex, genitourinary tract infections symptoms, anxiety, illicit drug use, and suicidal ideation. Enhanced efforts are needed to improve reproductive and sexual health for female migrants in urban China, particularly those working in entertainment venues. PMID:25902189

  6. Exploring the venue's role in risky sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men: an event-level analysis from a national online survey in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Hirshfield, Sabina; Remien, Robert H; Humberstone, Mike; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-02-01

    Venue-based characteristics (e.g., alcohol in bars, anonymous chat online, dark/quiet spaces in bathhouses) can impact how men who have sex with men (MSM) negotiate sex and HIV-associated risk behavior. We sought to determine the association between HIV-associated risk factors and the venues where MSM met their most recent new (first-time) male sex partner, using data from a 2004 to 2005 national online anonymous survey of MSM in the U.S. (n = 2,865). Most men (62%) met their partner through the Internet. Among those reporting anal sex during their last encounter (n = 1,550), half had not used a condom. In multivariate modeling, and among men reporting anal sex during their last encounter, venue where partner was met was not significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Nevertheless, venue was related to other factors that contextualized men's sexual encounters. For example, HIV status disclosure was lowest among men who met their most recent partner in a park, outdoors, or other public place and highest among men who met their most recent partner online. Alcohol use prior to/during the last sexual encounter was highest among men who met their most recent partner in a bathhouse or a bar/club/party/event. These data suggest it is possible to reach men online who seek sex in many different venues, thus potentially broadening the impact of prevention messages delivered in virtual environments. Although not associated with UAI, venues are connected to social-behavioral facets of corresponding sexual encounters, and may be important arenas for differential HIV and STI education, treatment, and prevention. PMID:22012413

  7. Playesque: Plays for Amateur and Scholastic Venues, Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Joan

    2006-01-01

    "Playesque" (in the manner of a play), Volume 1 features original plays for performances in high school, junior college, and other amateur venues. The plays are reproducible and royalty free for educational and nonprofit performance. They are easily duplicated and performed, and provide complete directions for costuming and staging. Each volume of…

  8. Evaluating Conflicts of Interest in Research Presented in CME Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Nancy L.; Galliher, James M.; Spano, Mindy S.; Main, Deborah S.; Brannigan, Michael; Pace, Wilson D.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: There is much in the literature regarding the potential for commercial bias in clinical research and in continuing medical education (CME), but no studies were found regarding the potential for bias in reporting original research in CME venues. This pilot study investigated the presence of perceived bias in oral and print content of…

  9. Toward zero waste: Composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events

    SciTech Connect

    Hottle, Troy A.; Bilec, Melissa M.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Landis, Amy E.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Venues have billions of customers per year contributing to waste generation. • Waste audits of four university baseball games were conducted to assess venue waste. • Seven scenarios including composting were modeled using EPA’s WARM. • Findings demonstrate tradeoffs between emissions, energy, and landfill avoidance. • Sustainability of handling depends on efficacy of collection and treatment impacts. - Abstract: This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO{sub 2} eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO{sub 2} eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night

  10. Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Leckenby, Nicola; Quigg, Zara; Hardcastle, Katherine; Sharples, Olivia; Llewellyn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Background By measuring alcohol retailers’ propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. Methods 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problematic (PMP) bars. Results 83.6% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale of alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated actor. Alcohol sales increased with the number of PMP markers bars had, yet even in those with no markers, 66.7% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale. Bar servers often recognised signs of drunkenness in actors, but still served them. In 18% of alcohol sales, servers attempted to up-sell by suggesting actors purchase double rather than single vodkas. Conclusions UK law preventing sales of alcohol to drunks is routinely broken in nightlife environments, yet prosecutions are rare. Nightlife drunkenness places enormous burdens on health and health services. Preventing alcohol sales to drunks should be a public health priority, while policy failures on issues, such as alcohol pricing, are revisited. PMID:24430583

  11. HIV prevalence varies between female sex workers from different types of venues in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Liang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Qian-Qiu; Yin, Yue-Ping; Jiang, Ning; Zhou, Yu-Jiao; Yang, Li-Gang; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Hong-Chun; Wang, Baoxi

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study on prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis among female sex workers (FSWs) recruited from different types of venues in 6 cities in China. Among 5322 FSWs (1379 were from high-tier venues, 2482 from middle-tier venues, and 1461 from low-tier venues, respectively), overall HIV prevalence was 0.54% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37%- 0.76%). By typology of venues where FSWs solicited clients, the prevalence was 1.37% (95% CI, 0.89%-2.11%) in low-tier venues, 0.28% (95% CI, 0.14%- 0.58%) in middle-tier venues, and 0.07% (95% CI, 0.01%-0.41%) in high-tier venues. The final logistic regression model showed an association of having had HIV infection with working in low-tier venues (adjusted odds ratio 2.73; 95% CI, 1.12-6.67) and coming from Guangxi Province (adjusted odds ratio, 7.89; 95% CI, 1.65-37.64). It can be concluded that FSWs working in low-tier venues (on the streets or public outdoor places) had higher risk of HIV infection than other venues. Such subgroup of FSWs should be efficiently covered by the current HIV/STD surveillance and intervention programs in China. PMID:23064536

  12. Social venues that protect against and promote HIV risk for young men in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Yamanis, Thespina Jeanne; Maman, Suzanne; Mbwambo, Jessie K.; Earp, JoAnne; Kajula, Lusajo

    2010-01-01

    Developing effective place-based health interventions requires understanding of the dynamic between place and health. The therapeutic landscape framework explains how place-based social processes and physical geography interact and influence health behavior. This study applied this framework to examine how venues, or social gathering places, influenced HIV risk behavior among young, urban men in Tanzania. Eighty-three public venues where men ages 15–19 met new sexual partners were identified by community informants in one city ward. The majority (86%) of the venues were called ‘camps’, social gathering places that had formal leaders and members. Observations were conducted at 23 camps and in-depth interviews were conducted with 36 camp members and 10 camp leaders in 15 purposively selected camps. Geographic and social features of camps were examined to understand their contributions to men’s behaviors. Camps were characterized by a geographic space claimed by members, a unique name and a democratic system of leadership and governance. Members were mostly men and socialized daily at their camp. They reported strong social bonds and engaging in health-promoting activities such as playing sports and generating income. Members also engaged in HIV risk behaviors, such as meeting new sexual partners and having sex in or around the camp at night. Some members promoted concurrent sexual partnerships with their friends and resisted camp leaders’ efforts to change their sexual risk behavior. We conclude that camps are strategic venues for HIV prevention programs for young Tanzanian men. They served as both protective and risk landscapes, illustrating three domains of the therapeutic landscape framework: the built environment; identities of landscape occupants; and sites for collective efficacy. The framework and data suggest HIV intervention components that might augment the protective features of the camps, while changing environmental features to reduce risk

  13. Exploring College Students' Use of General and Alcohol-Related Social Media and Their Associations with Alcohol-Related Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…

  14. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  15. Particle Deposition onto People in a Transit Venue.

    PubMed

    Liljegren, James C; Brown, David F; Lunden, Melissa M; Silcott, David

    2016-01-01

    Following the release of an aerosolized biological agent in a transit venue, material deposited on waiting passengers and subsequently shed from their clothing may significantly magnify the scope and consequences of such an attack. Published estimates of the relevant particle deposition and resuspension parameters for complex indoor environments such as a transit facility are nonexistent. In this study, measurements of particle deposition velocity onto cotton fabric samples affixed to stationary and walking people in a large multimodal transit facility were obtained for tracer particle releases carried out as part of a larger study of subway airflows and particulate transport. Deposition velocities onto cotton and wool were also obtained using a novel automated sampling mechanism deployed at locations in the transit facility and throughout the subway. The data revealed higher deposition velocities than have been previously reported for people exposed in test chambers or office environments. The relatively high rates of deposition onto people in a transit venue obtained in this study suggest it is possible that fomite transport by subway and commuter/regional rail passengers could present a significant mechanism for rapidly dispersing a biological agent throughout a metropolitan area and beyond.

  16. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  17. Building Xperience: a multilevel alcohol and drug prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah; Schensul, Jean J; Snyder, Leslie B; Bermudez, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Nicole; Morgan, Damion Sincere

    2009-06-01

    "Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age youth by addressing multiple factors at the individual, peer, community and city level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of building the different levels of this intervention during the 3-year formative phase. We will explain: (1) Why we chose to adopt a multilevel and participatory strategy, (2) Formative research leading to the intervention model, (3) The theoretical framework underlying the methodology, (4) Pilot intervention development (Years One and Two), (5) Current program methods and outcome goals, and lastly, (6) Some of the lessons learned, goals achieved, and plans for the future. This descriptive account of building a multilevel intervention aims to serve as a useful guide for others wishing to develop similar approaches, and for theorizing about some of the common challenges involved in this process. PMID:19381797

  18. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  19. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  20. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  1. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  2. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  3. A Helpful Serving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  4. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    PubMed

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game.

  5. Secondhand Smoke in Waterpipe Tobacco Venues in Istanbul, Moscow, and Cairo

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine A.; Magid, Hoda; Torrey, Christine; Rule, Ana M.; Ferguson, Jacqueline; Susan, Jolie; Sun, Zhuolu; Abubaker, Salahaddin; Levshin, Vladimir; Çarkoğlu, Aslı; Radwan, Ghada Nasr; El-Rabbat, Maha; Cohen, Joanna; Strickland, Paul; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking has risen in recent decades. Controlled studies suggest that waterpipe secondhand smoke (SHS) contains similar or greater quantities of toxicants than cigarette SHS, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Few studies have examined SHS from waterpipe tobacco in real-world settings. The purpose of this study was to quantify SHS exposure levels and describe the characteristics of waterpipe tobacco venues. Methods In 2012-2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys of 46 waterpipe tobacco venues (9 in Istanbul, 17 in Moscow, and 20 in Cairo). We administered venue questionnaires, conducted venue observations, and sampled indoor air particulate matter (PM2.5) (N=35), carbon monoxide (CO) (N=23), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PAHs) (N=31), 4-methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) (N=43), and air nicotine (N=46). Results Venue characteristics and SHS concentrations were highly variable within and between cities. Overall, we observed a mean (standard deviation (SD)) of 5 (5) waterpipe smokers and 5 (3) cigarette smokers per venue. The overall median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) of venue mean air concentrations was 136 (82, 213) μg/m3 for PM2.5, 3.9 (1.7, 22) ppm for CO, 68 (33, 121) ng/m3 for p-PAHs, 1.0 (0.5, 1.9) ng/m3 for NNK, and 5.3 (0.7, 14) μg/m3 for nicotine. PM2.5, CO, and p-PAHs concentrations were generally higher in venues with more waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers, although associations were not statistically significant. Conclusion High concentrations of SHS constituents known to cause health effects indicate that indoor air quality in waterpipe tobacco venues may adversely affect the health of employees and customers. PMID:26298558

  6. "It's better for me to drink, at least the stress is going away": perspectives on alcohol use during pregnancy among South African women attending drinking establishments.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Eaton, Lisa A; Choi, Karmel W; Velloza, Jennifer; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2014-09-01

    The Western Cape of South Africa has one of the highest rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) globally. Reducing alcohol use during pregnancy is a pressing public health priority for this region, but insight into the experiences of women who drink during pregnancy is lacking. Convenience sampling in alcohol-serving venues was used to identify women who were currently pregnant (n = 12) or recently post-partum (n = 12) and reported drinking during the pregnancy period. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted between April and August 2013. Interviews explored drinking narratives, with textual data analyzed for themes related to factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy. All but one woman reported her pregnancy as unplanned. The majority sustained or increased drinking after pregnancy recognition, with patterns typically including multiple days of binge drinking per week. Analysis of the textual data revealed five primary factors that contributed to drinking during pregnancy: 1) women used alcohol as a strategy to cope with stressors and negative emotions, including those associated with pregnancy; 2) women drank as a way to retain social connection, often during a difficult period of life transition; 3) social norms in women's peer groups supported drinking during pregnancy; 4) women lacked attachment to the pregnancy or were resistant to motherhood; and 5) women were driven physiologically by alcohol addiction. Our data suggest that alcohol-serving settings are important sites to identify and target women at risk of drinking during pregnancy. Intervention approaches to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy should include counseling and contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies, mental health and coping interventions targeting pregnant women, peer-based interventions to change norms around perinatal drinking, and treatment for alcohol dependence during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that innovative interventions that go beyond the

  7. Food venue choice, consumer food environment, but not food venue availability within daily travel patterns are associated with dietary intake among adults, Lexington Kentucky 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95

  8. Serving the Undocumented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Undocumented immigrant students in California are eligible to receive only private scholarships that "[aren't] enough to support a very expensive education," says CCLC CEO Scott Lay. Dr. Gerardo E. de los Santos, CEO of the League for Innovation in the Community College, calls "serving the undocumented" one of the major challenges community…

  9. Electricity Serves Our Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    Features a color poster entitled "Electricity Serves Our Community" and describes how the poster can be used to help teach about energy, electricity concepts, and types of electrical generation. Explains how teachers can obtain other resources such as posters, lesson plans, and kits from the National Energy Foundation. (PR)

  10. 75 FR 69475 - Notice Regarding Changed Venue for Public Hearing On a Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION.../Overseas Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice regarding changed venue for public hearing. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the...

  11. Sex Work Venue and Condom Use among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Levy, Judith A.; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the structural influence of sex work venues on condom use among female sex workers in the Senggigi area of Lombok, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design employing ethnographic observation, structured interviews and hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine condom use among female sex workers who solicited clients at three types of sex work venues: freelance, brothels, and entertainment places (karaoke bars and massage parlours). The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues drawn from the three venue types. Rate (39%) of condom use varied across sex work venues. Perceived management style, HIV/AIDS-related policies, and risk-reduction services differed by venue, but this variation did not explain differences in condom use. At the individual level, higher condom use was associated with female sex workers having ever been married. At the client level, condoms were more likely to be used with foreign rather than domestic/local Indonesian clients. Low rates of condom use among Indonesian female sex workers during commercial sex suggests the need for increased HIV prevention efforts that acknowledge sex worker characteristics and relationships with clients that place them at risk. Future research into the effects of social context on HIV risk should also be considered. PMID:23472595

  12. Seeking Male Sexual Partners via Internet and Traditional Venues among Chinese Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for HIV Risk Reduction Interventions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Juan; Qian, Han-Zhu; Liu, Hongjie; Yin, Lu; Lu, Hongyan; Zhang, Chen; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-10-01

    The dynamic nature of finding male sexual partners (sex-finding) among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) may play a substantial role in the HIV epidemic. We compared characteristics and behaviors of MSM who mostly sought sex via the Internet versus traditional venues in a cross-sectional survey among 3588 Chinese MSM. We assessed the sociodemographic predictors and compared high-risk behaviors of using Internet versus traditional venues for sex-finding. Compared to non-Internet MSM, Internet-user MSM were more likely to have been: younger, currently single, better educated, health-insured, with higher income, with Beijing residency ('Hukou'), living longer in the city, HIV-positive, ever using drug and engaging in condomless receptive anal sex. Internet sex-finding users were less likely to be sexually active for longer duration, drink alcohol, drink alcohol before sex, or ever have sex with women. Knowledge of differential characteristics of various sex-finding MSM can help design targeted interventions.

  13. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  14. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

  15. Toward zero waste: composting and recycling for sustainable venue based events.

    PubMed

    Hottle, Troy A; Bilec, Melissa M; Brown, Nicholas R; Landis, Amy E

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated seven different waste management strategies for venue-based events and characterized the impacts of event waste management via waste audits and the Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The seven waste management scenarios included traditional waste handling methods (e.g. recycle and landfill) and management of the waste stream via composting, including purchasing where only compostable food service items were used during the events. Waste audits were conducted at four Arizona State University (ASU) baseball games, including a three game series. The findings demonstrate a tradeoff among CO2 equivalent emissions, energy use, and landfill diversion rates. Of the seven waste management scenarios assessed, the recycling scenarios provide the greatest reductions in CO2 eq. emissions and energy use because of the retention of high value materials but are compounded by the difficulty in managing a two or three bin collection system. The compost only scenario achieves complete landfill diversion but does not perform as well with respect to CO2 eq. emissions or energy. The three game series was used to test the impact of staffed bins on contamination rates; the first game served as a baseline, the second game employed staffed bins, and the third game had non staffed bins to determine the effect of staffing on contamination rates. Contamination rates in both the recycling and compost bins were tracked throughout the series. Contamination rates were reduced from 34% in the first game to 11% on the second night (with the staffed bins) and 23% contamination rates at the third game. PMID:25666546

  16. Guide to Alcohol Programs for Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Susan K.

    This program guide was prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to assist program planners in the development of strategies to minimize the abuse of alcoholic beverages by youths. It provides information and direction to: (1) youth-serving organizations…

  17. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  18. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  19. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  20. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  1. 14 CFR 135.121 - Alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcoholic beverages. 135.121 Section 135... Operations § 135.121 Alcoholic beverages. (a) No person may drink any alcoholic beverage aboard an aircraft... may serve any alcoholic beverage to any person aboard its aircraft if that person appears to...

  2. Environmental secondhand smoke exposure and policy assessment at five venues in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue; Wu, QingQing; Xu, ShuiYang; Xu, JinHang; Wan, Xia; Guo, YuJie

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental secondhand smoke exposure and tobacco control policy at 5 venues. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 134 settings and 2727 adults in Zhejiang, China. The results show that the proportions of venues that had complete smoking ban were as follows: health administrative organizations (71.9%), hospitals (70.0%), schools (66.7%), public transportation vehicles (24.0%), and government agencies (11.8%). The proportions of venues where smoking was noticed were as follows: public transportation vehicles (88.0%), government agencies (47.1%), hospitals (46.7%), health administrative organizations (40.6%), and schools (30.0%). Venues with completely indoor smoking ban were 5 times more likely to be smoke-free at the time of survey than other venues without smoking ban (odds ratio = 5.39, 95% confidence interval = 1.92-15.14). It indicated that implementation of indoor smoking ban can reduce indoor secondhand smoke exposure.

  3. HIV-related risk among female migrants working in entertainment venues in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen; Operario, Don; Dong, Yanyan; Zaller, Nickolas; Song, Dandan; He, Huan; Tao, Haidong; Xia, Junrui; Zhang, Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    China has experienced a surge in internal migration during the past decade and migrant populations have been identified as a high-risk group for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young female migrants often find employment in entertainment venues (bars, karaoke parlors, massage parlors) located in metropolitan cities, and sex work transactions frequently occur in these venues. We examined factors associated with risk for HIV, other STIs, and reproductive health challenges in a cross-sectional study of 358 young female migrants, ages 18-29, working in entertainment venues in a rapidly growing urban city in China. Results indicate high levels of behavioral risk for HIV and other STIs, low rates of HIV testing, and high prevalence of problem drinking and mental health problems, including recent depression symptoms and suicidal ideation. Factors associated with increased STIs and genitourinary tract infections included commercial sex work, early sexual debut, abortion history, illicit drug use, and anxiety. Factors associated with increased HIV testing included employment in an affluent entertainment venue, education level, knowledge about where to obtain free HIV tests, condom use, and general HIV/AIDS knowledge. Findings of this study highlight the insufficient coverage of current public health services to female migrants working in entertainment venues, and call for more assertive prevention interventions to mitigate risk for sexual, reproductive, behavioral and mental health problems in this mobile population. PMID:23921562

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  8. NASA Science Served Family Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel-Storr, Jacob; Mitchell, S.; Drobnes, E.

    2010-01-01

    Family oriented innovative programs extend the reach of many traditional out-of-school venues to involve the entire family in learning in comfortable and fun environments. Research shows that parental involvement is key to increasing student achievement outcomes, and family-oriented programs have a direct impact on student performance. Because families have the greatest influence on children's attitudes towards education and career choices, we have developed a Family Science program that provides families a venue where they can explore the importance of science and technology in our daily lives by engaging in learning activities that change their perception and understanding of science. NASA Family Science Night strives to change the way that students and their families participate in science, within the program and beyond. After three years of pilot implementation and assessment, our evaluation data shows that Family Science Night participants have positive change in their attitudes and involvement in science.  Even after a single session, families are more likely to engage in external science-related activities and are increasingly excited about science in their everyday lives.  As we enter our dissemination phase, NASA Family Science Night will be compiling and releasing initial evaluation results, and providing facilitator training and online support resources. Support for NASA Family Science Nights is provided in part through NASA ROSES grant NNH06ZDA001N.

  9. Impact of post-event avoidance behavior on commercial facilities sector venues-literature review.

    SciTech Connect

    Samsa, M. E.; Baldwin, T. E.; Berry, M. S.; Guzowski, L. B.; Martinez-Moyano, I.; Nieves, A. L.; Ramarasad, A.

    2011-03-24

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11), focused a great deal of interest and concern on how individual and social perceptions of risk change behavior and subsequently affect commercial sector venues. Argonne conducted a review of the literature to identify studies that quantify the direct and indirect economic consequences of avoidance behaviors that result from terrorist attacks. Despite a growing amount of literature addressing terrorism impacts, relatively little is known about the causal relationships between risk perception, human avoidance behaviors, and the economic effects on commercial venues. Nevertheless, the technical and academic literature does provide some evidence, both directly and by inference, of the level and duration of post-event avoidance behaviors on commercial venues. Key findings are summarized in this Executive Summary. Also included as an appendix is a more detailed summary table of literature findings reproduced from the full report.

  10. Venue-Based Networks May Underpin HCV Transmissions amongst HIV-Infected Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Daniel; Raghwani, Jayna; Jacka, Brendan; Sacks-Davis, Rachel; Lamoury, Francois; Down, Ian; Prestage, Garrett; Applegate, Tanya L.; Hellard, Margaret; Sasadeusz, Joe; Dore, Gregory J.; Pybus, Oliver G.; Matthews, Gail V.; Danta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the potential influence of venue-based networks on HCV transmission in HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM). Methods This was a prospectively recruited cohort of HIV-infected GBM with recently-acquired HCV infection resident in Melbourne and Sydney. Clinical and demographic data were collected together with blood samples for HCV sequencing. Phylogenies were inferred and clusters of individuals infected with HCV with genetic sequence homology were identified. Venues used for sourcing sexual partners were identified; sourcing partners from the same venue was considered a potential social link. Using the Jaccard similarity coefficient, associations were identified between the network of sites where men sourced sex partners and transmission relationships as defined by phylogenetic clustering. Results Forty individuals were recruited, of whom 62.5% were considered to have sexually- and 37.5% IDU-acquired HCV. Venue use was consistent with men being members of a more sexually adventurous gay community subculture. Six phylogenetically-determined pairs or clusters were identified, comprising fifteen (15/28, 53.6%) individuals. Participants belonging to phylogenetic clusters were observed within the same networks. There was a significant correlation between the network and phylogenetic clustering when both cities were considered simultaneously (p = 0.005), raising the possibility that social connections may be important for HCV transmissions. Conclusions Venue-based network elicitation is a promising approach for elucidating HCV transmissions amongst HIV-infected GBM. Public health approaches targeting individuals and venues prominent within networks may reduce onward HCV transmission. PMID:27584149

  11. Use of multiple sex venues and prevalence of HIV risk behavior: identifying high risk MSM

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Pollack, Lance M.; Woods, William J.; Blair, Johnny; Binson, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy emphasizes the importance of bringing prevention to the most at-risk populations. Interventions targeting all men who have sex with men (MSM) fail in that respect because only a minority engages in behavior that is likely to lead to HIV infection. Previous studies have shown that MSM who seek male sexual partners in more than one venue type (e.g., bathhouse, cruising area, online) are most likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), compared to men who only meet partners in any one of these setting types or who do not use venues. The present study reports differences in prevalence of UAI among MSM by their use of venue sites to meet sexual partners. A probability sample of 459 bathhouse patrons completed exit surveys. In the three months before the current bathhouse visit, 63.5% visited a bathhouse (not including the visit at which they were recruited), 46.7% visited a cruising area, 46.5% used online cruise sites to find sex partners, and 30.9% reported UAI. While UAI was associated with online cruise site use, prevalence of UAI with men met online was relatively low. The odds of UAI among men who used all three venues was significantly higher compared to men using zero [Odds Ratio (OR)=4.4; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.6, 12.1)] one (OR=5.3; 95% CI: 2.2, 12.8) or two venues (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.6). The findings suggest that prevention would benefit from screening for venue use to help identify men with the greatest behavioral risk. PMID:25245930

  12. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  13. Validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke in hospitality venues.

    PubMed

    Galán, Iñaki; Mayo, Elga; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Moncada, Albert; Montes, Agustín; Nebot, Manel; Fernández, Esteve

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to assess the validity of self-reported exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in 50 hospitality venues of Madrid (Spain) in 2010, taking as a reference vapour-phase nicotine measured by active sampling. The questions posed in the questionnaire permitted distinguishing between the different levels of SHS. However, the moderate relationship found (Spearman׳s correlation=0.387, p<0.001) suggests that intensity of exposure to SHS in hospitality venues, based solely on self-reported information, should be used with caution.

  14. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  15. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS)

    PubMed Central

    Golin, C.; Wang, J.; Hughes, J.; Justman, J.; Haley, D.; Kuo, I.; Adimora, A.; Chege, W.; Hodder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had “high” risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types. PMID:25863466

  16. Venues for Meeting Sex Partners and Partner HIV Risk Characteristics: HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN064) Women's HIV Seroincidence Study (ISIS).

    PubMed

    Roman Isler, M; Golin, C; Wang, J; Hughes, J; Justman, J; Haley, D; Kuo, I; Adimora, A; Chege, W; Hodder, S

    2016-06-01

    Identifying venues where women meet sexual partners, particular partners who increase women's risk of acquiring HIV, could inform prevention efforts. We categorized venues where women enrolled in HPTN 064 reported meeting their last three sex partners as: (1) Formal, (2) Public, (3) Private, and (4) Virtual spaces. We used multinomial logistic regression to assess the association between these venues and women's individual characteristics and reports of their partners' HIV risk characteristics. The 2099 women reported meeting 3991 partners, 51 % at Public, 30 % Private, 17 % Formal and 3 % at Virtual venues. Women meeting partners at Formal venues reported more education and condom use than women meeting partners at other venues. Fewer partners met through Formal venues had "high" risk characteristics for HIV than through other venues and hence may pose less risk of HIV transmission. HIV prevention interventions can help women choose partners with fewer risk characteristics across all venue types.

  17. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  18. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  19. Derivation and Implementation of a Model Teaching the Nature of Science Using Informal Science Education Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.; Burkett, Ruth; Leard, Cyndy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a model for using informal science education venues as contexts within which to teach the nature of science. The model was initially developed to enable university education students to teach science in elementary schools so as to be consistent with "National Science Education Standards" (NSES) (1996) and "A Framework for…

  20. Gambling and the Multidimensionality of Accessibility: More than Just Proximity to Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anna Christina; Bates, Glen; Moore, Susan; Kyrios, Michael; Meredyth, Denise; Jessop, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility to gambling has been linked to gambling behaviour but remains poorly understood. This study used data from semi-structured focus groups and interviews with 38 participants (Median age 42 years) to explore wider aspects of accessibility. People preferred venues which were open long hours and located close to home, work or regular…

  1. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed

    Muhib, F B; Lin, L S; Stueve, A; Miller, R L; Ford, W L; Johnson, W D; Smith, P J

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures.

  2. Playing match venue does not affect resting salivary steroids in elite Futsal players.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ademir F S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miloski, Bernardo; Freitas, Camila G; Moura, Nivaldo R; Moreira, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses in elite Futsal players. Twenty-one males (age, 19.3 ± 0.7 years; height, 174.2 ± 4.1cm; body mass, 71.8 ± 7.9 kg) from two Futsal teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Saliva sampling was conducted before (pre) and after (post) each match. The concentration of salivary steroids (testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) was assessed by ELISA. Resting concentration of salivary steroid (T and C) hormones was not affected by playing venue (home and away). Both Futsal matches promoted a significant increase in T and C from pre--to post-matches (p<0.05), with a higher post-C concentration for playing at home (p<0.05). No effect of playing venue on T was observed. In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that the playing venue did not elicit a significant change in resting concentration of salivary steroid hormones. However, playing home induced a greater post-match C response, suggesting that the pressure for positive results in front of supporters, families and friends may impose a higher level of stress on the players at their own facility.

  3. Factors Affecting Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Availability in Competitive Venues of US Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study explores sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in US secondary school competitive venues during the first 3 years following the school wellness policy requirement (2007-2009). Furthermore, analyses examine associations with school policy and SSB availability. Methods: Analyses use questionnaire data from 757 middle and…

  4. A venue-based method for sampling hard-to-reach populations.

    PubMed Central

    Muhib, F. B.; Lin, L. S.; Stueve, A.; Miller, R. L.; Ford, W. L.; Johnson, W. D.; Smith, P. J.

    2001-01-01

    Constructing scientifically sound samples of hard-to-reach populations, also known as hidden populations, is a challenge for many research projects. Traditional sample survey methods, such as random sampling from telephone or mailing lists, can yield low numbers of eligible respondents while non-probability sampling introduces unknown biases. The authors describe a venue-based application of time-space sampling (TSS) that addresses the challenges of accessing hard-to-reach populations. The method entails identifying days and times when the target population gathers at specific venues, constructing a sampling frame of venue, day-time units (VDTs), randomly selecting and visiting VDTs (the primary sampling units), and systematically intercepting and collecting information from consenting members of the target population. This allows researchers to construct a sample with known properties, make statistical inference to the larger population of venue visitors, and theorize about the introduction of biases that may limit generalization of results to the target population. The authors describe their use of TSS in the ongoing Community Intervention Trial for Youth (CITY) project to generate a systematic sample of young men who have sex with men. The project is an ongoing community level HIV prevention intervention trial funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The TSS method is reproducible and can be adapted to hard-to-reach populations in other situations, environments, and cultures. PMID:11889287

  5. Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lee; Glasscock, Herlinda M.; Glasscock, Ronnie L.; Fulton-Calkins, Patsy J.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines student tuition, ad valorem property taxes, and state appropriations utilizing a revenue-per-contact-hour model to identify disparities in the Texas' community college funding mechanism. Methodology is presented to identify differences between and among Caucasian-serving, African-American-serving, Hispanic-serving, and other…

  6. Virtual and physical venues as contexts for HIV risk among rural men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Keith J; Bowen, Anne M; Williams, Mark L

    2006-03-01

    Rural men who have sex with men (MSM) have few identifiable venues in which to congregate and meet potential sex partners. The Internet provides a venue for rural MSM to meet, and this is potentially troubling because studies of urban MSM suggest that HIV risk is higher for men who date online. The goals of this study were to identify venues where rural MSM meet their sexual partners and to examine their association with high-risk sexual practices. Six hundred sixty-three predominantly single, gay, Caucasian MSM completed an online survey of their sexual activities. Results showed that the Internet and bars were the most popular venues for meeting sex partners. Highest rates of risk behaviors were associated with Internet dating and venues in which immediate sexual encounters typically occur, suggesting that prevention in rural areas should target multiple-risk environments.

  7. Time-Site Survey of Substance Use, Sexual Behaviours and Hiv-Testing Practices Among Women Attending Social Venues in Prague

    PubMed Central

    Stemmler, M. Susan; Hall, Timothy M.; Prokopík, Petr; Shoptaw, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The rates of HIV acquired through heterosexual contact are increasing in the Czech Republic. This study explored potential HIV risk associations with alcohol, illicit drugs and sexual behaviours among adults from a community-based sample attending gay- and non-gay venues in Prague. Methods Women attending bars, cafes and beer gardens in central Prague responded to the self-administered, time-site survey. Alcohol use was measured by the AUDIT-C and CAGE questionnaires. Sexual network structuring identified number, gender and coital frequency with current and recent sexual partners. Statistical analysis included central tendency, chi-square and logistic regression. Female participants (n = 124) ranged from 18 to 67 years of age (mean 29 years); 25% self-identified as non-heterosexual. Results We found alcohol to be the preferred drug of choice. Younger heterosexual women with new and casual sexual partners were more likely to use alcohol excessively. Women with children reported the least alcohol use. Sixty percent of the sample had never used condoms; condom-use was associated with longer relationship duration and discussions about HIV status with a sexual partner; non-use tended to occur among unmarried women with multiple male partners in short, serial sexual relationships. Women who sought HIV testing tended to be younger and more self-identified as non-heterosexual. Protective practices were rarely reported even when HIV transmission increases via heterosexual sexual partnering. Conclusion Further research is recommended regarding cultural and contextual influences on HIV risk behaviours among Czech women. PMID:26851424

  8. Students Serving Arizona. 1994 "Serve-America" Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    Arizona's Serve-America program, administered by the Arizona Department of Education (ADE), began in fiscal year 1992-93 under the auspices of the National and Community Service Act of 1990. Serve-America links community service projects with schools and youths in grades K-12. This second annual report documents the second year of project…

  9. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that currently do not meet the…

  10. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  11. Venue-Mediated Weak Ties in Multiplex HIV Transmission Risk Networks Among Drug-Using Male Sex Workers and Associates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Ross, Michael W.; Williams, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the structural characteristics of a multiplex HIV transmission risk network of drug-using male sex workers and their associates. Methods. Using a sample of 387 drug-using male sex workers and their male and female associates in Houston, Texas, we estimated an exponential random graph model to examine the venue-mediated relationships between individuals, the structural characteristics of relationships not linked to social venues, and homophily. We collected data in 2003 to 2004. The network comprised social, sexual, and drug-using relationships and affiliations with social venues. Results. Individuals affiliated with the same social venues, bars, or street intersections were more likely to have nonreciprocated (weak) ties with others. Sex workers were less likely than were other associates to have reciprocated (strong) ties to other sex workers with the same venues. Individuals tended to have reciprocated ties not linked to venues. Partner choice tended to be predicated on homophily. Conclusions. Social venues may provide a milieu for forming weak ties in HIV transmission risk networks centered on male sex workers, which may foster the efficient diffusion of prevention messages as diverse information is obtained and information redundancy is avoided. PMID:25880956

  12. Genetic studies in alcohol research

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, R.W.

    1994-12-15

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.

  13. Health promotion within a sex on premises venue: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    Debattista, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Despite their historical controversy as perceived public health risks, sex on premises venues (SOPV) such as saunas and sex clubs can afford structured opportunities for on-site sexual health interventions within a supportive, regulated and confidential environment. Building upon previous interventions to deliver on-site clinical and health promotion programmes, an education and referral outreach service was established at one particular SOPV within the inner Brisbane city area. This report outlines the experiences of that on-site education/referral outreach over a five-year period. The service did afford opportunities for a minority of patrons to discuss concerns, resolve misunderstandings, obtain advice and referral, and would suggest that a health promotion presence within such a venue is a useful mechanism for engaging with highly sexually active men.

  14. Health promotion within a sex on premises venue: notes from the field.

    PubMed

    Debattista, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Despite their historical controversy as perceived public health risks, sex on premises venues (SOPV) such as saunas and sex clubs can afford structured opportunities for on-site sexual health interventions within a supportive, regulated and confidential environment. Building upon previous interventions to deliver on-site clinical and health promotion programmes, an education and referral outreach service was established at one particular SOPV within the inner Brisbane city area. This report outlines the experiences of that on-site education/referral outreach over a five-year period. The service did afford opportunities for a minority of patrons to discuss concerns, resolve misunderstandings, obtain advice and referral, and would suggest that a health promotion presence within such a venue is a useful mechanism for engaging with highly sexually active men. PMID:25630533

  15. The role of diffusive architectural surfaces on auditory spatial discrimination in performance venues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip W; Pätynen, Jukka; Lokki, Tapio; Jang, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Jin Yong; Xiang, Ning

    2013-06-01

    In musical or theatrical performance, some venues allow listeners to individually localize and segregate individual performers, while others produce a well blended ensemble sound. The room acoustic conditions that make this possible, and the psycho-acoustic effects at work are not fully understood. This research utilizes auralizations from measured and simulated performance venues to investigate spatial discrimination of multiple acoustic sources in rooms. Signals were generated from measurements taken in a small theater, and listeners in the audience area were asked to distinguish pairs of speech sources on stage with various spatial separations. This experiment was repeated with the proscenium splay walls treated to be flat, diffusive, or absorptive. Similar experiments were conducted in a simulated hall, utilizing 11 early reflections with various characteristics, and measured late reverberation. The experiments reveal that discriminating the lateral arrangement of two sources is possible at narrower separation angles when reflections come from flat or absorptive rather than diffusive surfaces.

  16. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Christopher; Castilla-Sanchez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009) for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70%) in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (<30%) and not enforced by most venues. The understanding of the hazard posed by noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements. PMID:22517309

  17. Using "Bud World Party" Attendance to Predict Adolescent Alcohol Use and Beliefs about Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where…

  18. Making licensed venues safer for patrons: what environmental factors should be the focus of interventions?

    PubMed

    Homel, Ross; Carvolth, Russell; Hauritz, Marge; McIlwain, Gillian; Teague, Rosie

    2004-03-01

    The Queensland Safety Action Projects operationalized a problem-focused responsive regulatory model in order to make nightclubs and other venues safer. A problem-focused approach requires a careful analysis of the total environment of licensed venues, including drinking and its controls but also the social and physical environments, patron mix and management practices. We present new analyses of observational data collected in 1994 and 1996 in the north Queensland cities of Cairns, Townsville and Mackay. Major reductions in aggression and violence were observed, as well as improvements in many aspects of the venue environment and management practices. We do not argue in this paper that the interventions caused the environmental and management changes, although we believe this to be true. Rather, our assumption is that whatever caused them, some of the environmental and management changes were critical to the reductions in aggression. Regression techniques were used to identify those factors that best explained the declines in aggression. For reduced physical violence four key predictors were identified: improved comfort, availability of public transport, less overt sexual activity and fewer highly drunk men. For reduced non-physical aggression, four key predictors were: fewer Pacific Islander patrons, less male swearing, fewer intoxicated patrons requiring that management be called and more chairs with armrests. The analyses are consistent with the argument that the control of drinking is necessary but not sufficient to reduce aggression and violence.

  19. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers.

  20. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (P<0.001). We conclude that the existing tobacco law in Austria is ineffective to protect customers in non-smoking rooms of hospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  1. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S; Zavodny, Madeline

    2010-12-01

    A large literature has documented relationships between state clean indoor air laws (SCIALs) and smoking-related outcomes in the United States. These laws vary within states over time and across venues such as schools, government buildings, and bars. Few studies, however, have evaluated whether the effects of SCIALs are plausibly concentrated among workers who should have been directly affected because they worked at locations covered by the venue-specific restrictions. We fill this gap in the literature using data on private sector workers, government employees, school workers, eating and drinking place workers, and bartenders from the 1992-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Our quasi-experimental models indicate robust effects of SCIALs restricting smoking in bars: these laws significantly increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions as reported by bartenders and reduced the fraction of bartenders who smoke. We do not, however, find that SCIALs in private workplaces, government workplaces, schools, or restaurants increased the presence of workplace smoking restrictions among groups of workers working in venues covered by these laws. This suggests that the smoking reductions associated with SCIALs in previous research are unlikely to have been directly caused by effects of workplace smoking restrictions on workers. PMID:19998352

  2. Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: use of farm-to-consumer venues among US adults.

    PubMed

    Blanck, Heidi M; Thompson, Olivia M; Nebeling, Linda; Yaroch, Amy L

    2011-03-01

    Improvements to the food environment including new store development and more farm-to-consumer approaches (ie, farmers' markets, roadside stands, pick-your-own produce farms, or community-supported agriculture programs) may aid Americans in making healthier dietary choices. We analyzed data from a subset of respondents (N = 1,994) in the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, a mail survey of US adults. We determined associations between primary grocery shoppers' region and sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of purchasing fruits and vegetables in the summer from farm-to-consumer venues. A little more than one-quarter (27%) of grocery shoppers reported a frequency of at least weekly use of farm-to-consumer approaches. Older adults and respondents who live in the Northeast were most likely to shop farm-to-consumer venues at least weekly, and no differences were found by sex, race/ethnicity, education, or annual household income. These findings suggest that farm-to-consumer venues are used by many Americans and could be expanded to increase access to fruits and vegetables. PMID:21324263

  3. Observable indicators and behaviors for the identification of problem gamblers in venue environments.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims In many jurisdictions, where gambling services are provided, regulatory codes require gambling operators to apply a duty of care toward patrons. A common feature of these provisions is some expectation that venue staff identify and assist patrons who might be experiencing problems with their gambling. The effectiveness of such measures is, however, predicated on the assumption that there are reliable and observable indicators that might be used to allow problem gamblers to be distinguished from other gamblers. Methods In this study, we consolidate the findings from two large Australian studies (n = 505 and n = 680) of regular gamblers that were designed to identify reliable and useful indicators for identifying problem gambling in venues. Results It was found that problem gamblers are much more likely to report potentially visible emotional reactions, unusual social behaviors, and very intense or frenetic gambling behavior. Discussion and conclusions This study shows that there are a range of indicators that could potentially be used to identify people experiencing problems in venues, but that decisions are most likely to be accurate if based on an accumulation of a diverse range of indicators. PMID:27670713

  4. Observable indicators and behaviors for the identification of problem gamblers in venue environments.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims In many jurisdictions, where gambling services are provided, regulatory codes require gambling operators to apply a duty of care toward patrons. A common feature of these provisions is some expectation that venue staff identify and assist patrons who might be experiencing problems with their gambling. The effectiveness of such measures is, however, predicated on the assumption that there are reliable and observable indicators that might be used to allow problem gamblers to be distinguished from other gamblers. Methods In this study, we consolidate the findings from two large Australian studies (n = 505 and n = 680) of regular gamblers that were designed to identify reliable and useful indicators for identifying problem gambling in venues. Results It was found that problem gamblers are much more likely to report potentially visible emotional reactions, unusual social behaviors, and very intense or frenetic gambling behavior. Discussion and conclusions This study shows that there are a range of indicators that could potentially be used to identify people experiencing problems in venues, but that decisions are most likely to be accurate if based on an accumulation of a diverse range of indicators.

  5. Venue-based Network Analysis to Inform HIV Prevention Efforts Among Young Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Ian W.; Rice, Eric; Kipke, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In the United States, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates continue to increase among young gay, bisexual and other men have sexual intercourse with men. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) indicate interest in HIV prevention programming that is implemented in the social venues that they frequent when they want to socialize with other men. We sought to understand YMSM venues as a networked space to provide insights into venue-based HIV prevention intervention delivery. Methods The present study used survey data reported by 526 YMSM (ages 18–24) in 2005 to conduct a venue-based social network analysis. The latter sought to determine if the structure and composition of the networks in Los Angeles could be used to facilitate the delivery of HIV prevention messages to YMSM. Degree of person sharing between venues was used to demonstrate interconnectivity between venues classified as low-risk (e.g., coffee shops) and high-risk (e.g., bars, clubs) by a Community Advisory Board. Results Sixty-five percent of the 110 venues nominated were bars and clubs. Nearly all YMSM were connected by a single venue and over 87% were connected by the 6 most central venues. A handful of highly connected low-risk venues were central to the venue network and connected to popular high-risk venues. Conclusions Venue-based network analysis can inform tailored HIV prevention messaging for YMSM. Targeted delivery of prevention messaging at low-risk centralized venues may lead to widespread diffusion among venue-attending YMSM. PMID:24464324

  6. Venue-based network analysis to inform HIV prevention efforts among young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Ian W; Rice, Eric; Kipke, Michele D

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates continue to increase among young gay, bisexual, and other men have sexual intercourse with men. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) indicate interest in HIV prevention programming that is implemented in the social venues that they frequent when they want to socialize with other men. We sought to understand YMSM venues as a networked space to provide insights into venue-based HIV prevention intervention delivery. The present study used survey data reported by 526 YMSM (ages 18-24) in 2005 to conduct a venue-based social network analysis. The latter sought to determine if the structure and composition of the networks in Los Angeles could be used to facilitate the delivery of HIV prevention messages to YMSM. Degree of person sharing between venues was used to demonstrate interconnectivity between venues classified as low risk (e.g., coffee shops) and high risk (e.g., bars and clubs) by a Community Advisory Board. Sixty-five percent of the 110 venues nominated were bars and clubs. Nearly all YMSM were connected by a single venue and over 87 % were connected by the six most central venues. A handful of highly connected low-risk venues was central to the venue network and connected to popular high-risk venues. Venue-based network analysis can inform tailored HIV prevention messaging for YMSM. Targeted delivery of prevention messaging at low-risk centralized venues may lead to widespread diffusion among venue-attending YMSM. PMID:24464324

  7. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  8. Comparing internet-based and venue-based methods to sample MSM in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    PubMed

    Raymond, H Fisher; Rebchook, Greg; Curotto, Alberto; Vaudrey, Jason; Amsden, Matthew; Levine, Deb; McFarland, Willi

    2010-02-01

    Methods of collecting behavioral surveillance data, including Web-based methods, have recently been explored in the United States. Questions have arisen as to what extent Internet recruitment methods yield samples of MSM comparable to those obtained using venue-based recruitment methods. We compare three recruitment methods among MSM with respect to demographic and risk behaviors, one sample was obtained using time location sampling at venues in San Francisco, one using a venue based like approach on the Internet and one using direct-marketing advertisements to recruit participants. The physical venue approach was most successful in completing interviews with approached men than both Internet approaches. Respondents recruited via the three methods reported slight differences in risk behavior. Direct marketing internet recruitment can obtain large samples of MSM in a short time. PMID:19160034

  9. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  10. Correlates of Concurrent Energy Drink and Alcohol Use among Socially Active Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Brooke E.; Kelly, Brian C.; Pawson, Mark; LeClair, Amy; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Golub, Sarit A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research indicates that energy drink consumption and the combined use of energy drinks and alcohol are popular among young adults, although this research has typically focused on college students. Because of the potential for harms associated with this combination, it is critical to understand use among adults in nightlife scenes who may be most at risk for harms associated with combined energy drink and alcohol consumption. Objectives By focusing our sample on individuals in a range of nightlife scenes, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the demographic factors associated with energy drink use and combined energy drink and alcohol consumption to benefit the targeting of intervention and prevention efforts beyond college campuses. Methods Using a field-based survey in New York City to survey adults active in various nightlife scenes, this study reports on the survey results of 1476 venue patrons at venues in five nightlife scenes in addition to college bar scenes Results Men, younger individuals, Latinos, and sexual minority individuals reported higher prevalence of recent energy drink consumption. Younger individuals, men, and those recruited in gay venues reported higher prevalence of combining alcohol and energy drinks. Conclusion These findings provide information useful to target education and prevention efforts. They also suggest the need for additional research to understand differences in motivations for use and in the behavioral and alcohol-related outcomes associated with consuming energy drinks and combining them with alcohol. PMID:23030475

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  12. 60 FR 39766 - Supplement to Renovate the Alcohol Detention Center, Page, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1995-08-03

    ... and alcohol treatment activities. The facility is currently being used to serve individuals targeted... treatment and counseling interventions. Alcohol related deaths, accidents, injuries, illness, violence, and... HUMAN SERVICES Supplement to Renovate the Alcohol Detention Center, Page, Arizona AGENCY: Center...

  13. Utility of the Determine Syphilis TP rapid test in commercial sex venues in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Campos, P E; Buffardi, A L; Chiappe, M; Buendía, C; Garcia, P J; Carcamo, C P; Garnett, G; White, P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to evaluate the utility of the Determine Syphilis TP test performed in Peruvian commercial sex venues for the detection of active syphilis; and determine the feasibility of integrating rapid syphilis testing for female sex workers (FSW) into existing health outreach services. Methods We tested 3586 female sex workers for syphilis by Determine in the field using whole blood fingerstick, and by rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) in a central laboratory in Lima using sera. Results 97.4% of the FSW offered rapid syphilis testing participated; and among those who tested positive, 87% visited the local health centre for treatment. More than twice as many specimens were RPR reactive using serum in Lima (5.7%) than tested positive by whole blood Determine in the field (2.8%), and although most were confirmed by TPHA, only a small proportion (0.7%) were RPR reactive at ⩾1:8 dilutions, and likely indicating active syphilis. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of the Determine Syphilis TP test in whole blood when compared to serum RPR reactivity at any dilution confirmed by TPHA as the gold standard were 39.3%, 99.2% and 71.4%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 64.0% when using serum RPR ⩾1:8 confirmed by TPHA. Invalid tests were rare (0.3%). Conclusions Rapid syphilis testing in sex work venues proved feasible, but Determine using whole blood obtained by fingerstick was substantially less sensitive than reported in previous laboratory‐based studies using serum. Although easy to perform in outreach venues, the utility of this rapid syphilis test was relatively low in settings where a large proportion of the targeted population has been previously tested and treated. PMID:17116642

  14. Commercial sex venues, syphilis and methamphetamine use among female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dianming; Liao, Meizhen; Jiang, Zhenxia; Zhang, Xijiang; Mao, Wenwen; Zhang, Ning; Tao, Xiaorun; Huang, Tao; Bi, Zhenqiang; Aliyu, Muktar; Wu, Pingsheng; Jiang, Baofa; Jia, Yujiang

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the factors associated with methamphetamine (MA) use, syphilis, and unprotected sex among female sex workers from different type of venues in Qingdao City, Shandong Province of China. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided information on demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV-related services. Of 1187 participants, 3.0% were infected with syphilis; 30.2% ever used MA; 58.3% ever had unprotected commercial sex in the past month. The prevalence rates of syphilis and MA use were 2.5% and 33.0% for participants recruited from saunas, night clubs, bars or hotels; 2.7% and 28.3% for hair/beauty salon-based participants; and 4.5% and 15.8% for street-based participants. Street-based MA users were more likely to be single, non-Shandong residents, have first lifetime sex act at younger age, and recruited in 2008 (vs. 2006). Saunas, night clubs, bars, or hotels-based MA users were more likely to be younger, sex debut at younger age, have longer duration of sex work, have unprotected commercial sex, and be syphilis-infected. Hair/beauty salon-based MA users were more likely to be non-Shandong residents, younger, and to have unprotected commercial sex. Syphilis among the sauna-, night club-, bar-, or hotel-based participants was associated with MA use and ever receipt of HIV testing. Syphilis among the hair/beauty salon-based participants was associated with longer duration of sex work. MA users who frequent commercial sex venues are engaging in high-risk behaviors and are at risk for syphilis/other sexually transmitted diseases. Better-targeted intervention efforts to curtail the epidemics of MA use and HIV/syphilis should therefore take cognizance of the role of commercial sex venues as focal points of MA use and syphilis/sexually transmitted disease transmission.

  15. Examining Differences in Types and Location of Recruitment Venues for Young Males and Females from Urban Neighborhoods: Findings from a Multi-Site HIV Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Ziff, Mauri; Auerswald, Colette; Castillo, Marné; McFadden, Antionette

    2008-01-01

    Finding and accessing members of youth subpopulations, such as young men who have sex with men (YMSM) of color or young females of color, for behavioral or disease surveillance or study recruitment, pose particular challenges. Venue-based sampling strategies—which hinge on where individuals congregate or “hang out” rather than where they live—appear to be effective alternatives. Methods used to identify venues focus on engaging members of social networks to learn where targeted populations congregate. However, it is not always clear if and how these methods differ according to gender, whether the youth accessed at a venue are actually from neighborhoods in which the venues are found, and whether the location of venues relative to neighborhoods of residence is different for young men and young women. This study illustrates the gender differences in venue type and venue location where eligible youth study participants from high-risk neighborhoods could be accessed for HIV research across 15 research sites (sites). The findings indicate that the study’s method led to identifying venues where one quarter or more of the youth were eligible study participants and from the high-risk neighborhoods. Sites targeting young women of color had a higher proportion of eligible study participants who were also from the high-risk neighborhoods than sites targeting YMSM. Clubs were most commonly identified by sites targeting YMSM as recruitment venues, whereas neighborhood-based service or commercial centers were more common venues for young women of color. This study reveals how venue-based recruitment strategies can be tailored and resources maximized by understanding the key differences in the types of venues preferred by males and females and by recognizing that female-preferred venues are more likely to be closer to home. PMID:18972210

  16. Offer Versus Serve. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Health and Drug Education and Services.

    A growing awareness about food supplies, food shortages, and conservation of natural resources has resulted in public concern over food waste within the National School Lunch Program. Prior to 1976, all participating students were required to take all five items offered on a planned menu. In October 1975, the Offer v. Serve Provision was enacted…

  17. Meals Served in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivigal, Lisa

    The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) contacted public school districts around the United States to determine if they offered low-fat, healthful meals. The PCRM ranked the schools according to whether they served low-fat and vegetarian meals daily, whether these meals varied through the week, and whether children needed to…

  18. Warning: attending a sport, racing or arts venue may be beneficial to your health.

    PubMed

    Corti, B; Holman, C D; Donovan, R J; Frizzell, S k; Carroll, A M

    1997-01-01

    Concerted efforts to create health-promoting sport, racing and arts venues have become possible since the advent of health promotion foundations in four of Australia's eight states and territories. Large numbers of Australians attend sport, racing and arts venues in pursuit of leisure activities. There is evidence that sport and racing participants and spectators, and certain subgroups of the arts community, have adverse risk-factor profiles that make them an ideal target for health promotion interventions. Through the use of sponsorship, health promotion foundations 'purchase' health-promoting policies in sport, racing and arts settings-policies that have the potential to become institutionalised once sponsorship dollars are depleted. This paper discusses the policies 'purchased' by the foundations and outlines a comprehensive surveillance and evaluation system developed for the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation. The system monitors the implementation of health-promoting environments at the micro level (sponsorship project); intermediate level (sponsored group); and macro level (community). The article concludes by outlining some of the lessons learned in Western Australia. These provide the basis for development of best practice in working with sport, racing and arts groups, and other sectors outside health, to create health-promoting environments.

  19. Modelling gambling time and economic assignments to weekly trip behaviour to gambling venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. G. V.; Marshall, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    The study of gambling and its socio-economic structures should be an area of growing interest to a society-relevant geography. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have diffused through the urban hierarchy, there is a growing recognition that EGM distribution often correlates with levels of socio-economic status. Marshall and Baker (2002) showed that a similar EGM socio-economic assignment model evolved in the capital cities of Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, even though these cities have substantially different historical and legislative EGM environments. This paper looks at a related space-time model in the context of trip-making to gaming venues, relative to an Index of Economic Resources from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A simulation of the model predicts different types of gambling behaviour. It also shows that venue hours can affect time-economic trip behaviour. The model is then applied to EGM gambling data gathered in an urban hierarchy on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia. The results define a gaussian-type low involvement ‘recreational random’ gambling for patrons, whereas for more involved gamblers (in terms of time spent gambling), there are discrete behavioural periods over the week for a wider economic cohort. This leads to the possibility of a spectrum of time-economic EGM gambling assignments for participating households in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas.

  20. Blaming the building: How venue quality influences consumer bias against stigmatized leaders.

    PubMed

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Volpone, Sabrina D

    2016-08-01

    Because stigmatized individuals are viewed as incongruent with commonly held implicit leadership theories, they are often deemed less fit to lead than their nonstigmatized counterparts (Eagly & Karau, 2002). This suggests consumers might use such views to discredit not only stigmatized leaders, but also the companies they represent. However, cognition based on social categories (1 potential form of stigma) may be more likely when there are readily available alternative factors to account for one's decisions via casuistry. Across 2 complementary studies (field and experiment), we find that customers react negatively to stigmatized leaders only when the physical state of the company venue provides an ostensible defense to mask their biased behavior. When facilities are of lower quality, consumers appear to use a leader's stigma to infer lower product quality, coinciding in less patronage for companies with stigmatized as opposed to nonstigmatized leaders. Thus, consumers penalize companies with stigmatized leaders only when doing so can easily be attributed to an alternative factor (e.g., a lower quality venue) not involving the leader's stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners. PMID:25729023

  2. Blaming the building: How venue quality influences consumer bias against stigmatized leaders.

    PubMed

    Avery, Derek R; McKay, Patrick F; Volpone, Sabrina D

    2016-08-01

    Because stigmatized individuals are viewed as incongruent with commonly held implicit leadership theories, they are often deemed less fit to lead than their nonstigmatized counterparts (Eagly & Karau, 2002). This suggests consumers might use such views to discredit not only stigmatized leaders, but also the companies they represent. However, cognition based on social categories (1 potential form of stigma) may be more likely when there are readily available alternative factors to account for one's decisions via casuistry. Across 2 complementary studies (field and experiment), we find that customers react negatively to stigmatized leaders only when the physical state of the company venue provides an ostensible defense to mask their biased behavior. When facilities are of lower quality, consumers appear to use a leader's stigma to infer lower product quality, coinciding in less patronage for companies with stigmatized as opposed to nonstigmatized leaders. Thus, consumers penalize companies with stigmatized leaders only when doing so can easily be attributed to an alternative factor (e.g., a lower quality venue) not involving the leader's stigma. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123696

  3. The gross anatomy laboratory: a novel venue for critical thinking and interdisciplinary teaching in dental education.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Kevin C; Joy, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Reports on the status of dental education have concluded that there is a need for various types of curricular reform, making recommendations that include better integration of basic, behavioral, and clinical sciences, increased case-based teaching, emphasis on student-driven learning, and creation of lifelong learners. Dental schools faced with decreasing contact hours, increasing teaching material, and technological advancements have experimented with alternate curricular strategies. At Southern Illinois University School of Dental Medicine, curricular changes have begun with a series of integrated biomedical sciences courses. During the process of planning and implementing the integrated courses, a novel venue-the gross anatomy laboratory-was used to introduce all Year 1 students to critical thinking, self-directed learning, and the scientific method. The venture included student-driven documentation of anatomical variations encountered in the laboratory using robust scientific methods, thorough literature review, and subsequent presentation of findings in peer review settings. Students responded positively, with over 75% agreeing the experience intellectually challenged them. This article describes the process of re-envisioning the gross anatomy laboratory as an effective venue for small group-based, student-driven projects that focus on key pedagogical concepts to encourage the development of lifelong learners.

  4. EGM Jackpots and Player Behaviour: An In-venue Shadowing Study.

    PubMed

    Browne, Matthew; Langham, Erika; Rockloff, Matthew J; Li, En; Donaldson, Phillip; Goodwin, Belinda

    2015-12-01

    Although electronic gaming machine (EGM) jackpots are widespread, little research has yet considered the impact of this feature on gamblers' behaviour. We present the results of an in-venue shadowing study, which provided measures of player investment and persistence (e.g. number of spins, time-on-machine) from participants undertaking one or more EGM sessions on their choice of machines. 234 participants (162 female) were recruited in-venue, with half (stratified by age and gender) primed by answering questions encouraging 'big-win' oriented ideation. Primed participants were more likely to select jackpot-oriented EGMs, and primed at-risk [Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) > 4] gamblers tended to select machines with a higher median jackpot prize amount than others ([Formula: see text]). Neither PGSI nor priming was associated with the rate at which participants switched machines. EGM jackpots were associated with great spend overall, and PGSI score was associated with a greater spend per play. Positive interactions were found between jackpots and PGSI, and PGSI and priming in terms of predicting greater persistence. Finally a structural model of session level variables is presented, that incorporates positive feedback between money won and number of plays in an EGM session. PMID:25063990

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  7. Adolescent alcoholism in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Pela, O A

    1986-01-01

    The consumption of alcohol by Nigerian adolescents is investigated. Adolescence and alcoholism as applied in this study are defined, and the financial costs and physical and mental effects of alcohol use are described. The author used unobtrusive methods to gather data, visiting three nightclubs and an amusement park where alcohol is served in order to observe and interview adolescents. The findings show that adolescents begin drinking at an early age and consume large quantities of beer. The findings are consistent with those of other epidemiological studies. Finally, recommendations for controlling adolescent alcohol use are made.

  8. [Preventive intervention in venues for interaction used by men who have sex with men].

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Isabel; Alastrue, Ignacio; García de Olalla, Patricia; Albiach, Damián; Martín, Marian; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    An intervention in venues for interaction used by men who have sex with men in Valencia (Spain) was performed to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or avoid delay in diagnosis and to facilitate contact with the health circuit. Information was provided on prevention and a rapid test for HIV and syphilis was performed. We contacted 500 men and the intervention was performed in 171; 37% of the subjects in saunas and one in four of those in prostitution apartments had never been tested. The prevalence of HIV was 1.6% (n=2) in the saunas, and 11% (n=5) in the apartments (n=5). For syphilis, these percentages were 5% and 2.3% respectively. The intervention revealed the existence of highly exposed population groups with low compliance and facilitated access to the health system in these groups.

  9. A New Venue Toward Predicting the Role of Hydrogen Embrittlement on Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Burak; Sahin, Ibrahim; Uzun, Alper; Canadinc, Demircan

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new crystal plasticity formulation to predict the role of hydrogen embrittlement on the mechanical behavior of metallic materials. Specifically, a series of experiments were carried out to monitor the role of hydrogen interstitial content on the uniaxial tensile deformation response of iron alloyed with hydrogen, and the classical Voce hardening scheme was modified to account for the shear stresses imposed on arrested dislocations due to the surrounding hydrogen interstitials. The proposed set of physically grounded crystal plasticity formulations successfully predicted the deformation response of iron in the presence of different degrees of hydrogen embrittlement. Moreover, the combined experimental and modeling effort presented herein opens a new venue for predicting the alterations in the performance of metallic materials, where the hydrogen embrittlement is unavoidable.

  10. Engaging spaces: Intimate electro-acoustic display in alternative performance venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahn, Curtis; Moore, Stephan

    2001-05-01

    In past presentations to the ASA, we have described the design and construction of four generations of unique spherical speakers (multichannel, outward-radiating geodesic speaker arrays) and Sensor-Speaker-Arrays, (SenSAs: combinations of various sensor devices with outward-radiating multichannel speaker arrays). This presentation will detail the ways in which arrays of these speakers have been employed in alternative performance venues-providing presence and intimacy in the performance of electro-acoustic chamber music and sound installation, while engaging natural and unique acoustical qualities of various locations. We will present documentation of the use of multichannel sonic diffusion arrays in small clubs, ``black-box'' theaters, planetariums, and art galleries.

  11. Providing earplugs to young adults at risk encourages protective behaviour in music venues.

    PubMed

    Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Nielsen, Lillian; Gilliver, Megan

    2016-06-01

    For some young people, nightclubs and other music venues are a major source of noise exposure, arising from a combination of very high noise levels; relatively long attendance duration; and frequent, sustained participation over several years. Responsibility for hearing protection is largely left to individuals, many of whom choose not to wear earplugs. In order to encourage earplug use in these settings, a new approach is needed. The aim of the study was to examine whether presentation of hearing health information would result in increased use of earplugs, or whether provision of earplugs alone would be sufficient to change behaviour. A total of 51 regular patrons of music venues were allocated to either a low-information (lo-info) or high-information (hi-info) group. Both groups completed a survey about their current noise exposure, earplug usage and perceived risk of hearing damage. Both groups were also provided with one-size-fits-all filtered music earplugs. The hi-info group was also provided with audio-visual and written information about the risks of excessive noise exposure. After 4 weeks, and again after an additional 12 weeks, participants were asked about their recent earplug usage, intention to use earplugs in the future, and perceived risk of hearing damage. The results showed that after 4 weeks, the hi-info group's perceived personal risk of hearing damage was significantly higher than that of the lo-info group. After 16 weeks, these differences were no longer evident; however, at both 4 and 16 weeks, both the lo- and hi-info groups were using the earplugs equally often; and both groups intended to use earplugs significantly more often in the future. This suggests that the information was unnecessary to motivate behavioural change. Rather, the simple act of providing access to earplugs appears to have effectively encouraged young at-risk adults to increase their earplug use.

  12. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations.

  13. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated 'Monkey schools' offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  14. Elderly Alcoholism: Implications for Human Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beechem, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Incumbent upon those faculty who teach substance abuse courses is the need to integrate elderly alcoholism-related course content to encourage and adequately prepare university students to serve this "hidden" population. Course content would ideally include theories specific to loss-grief, aging, and alcoholism. In addition, field placement…

  15. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas.

  16. Venue-level correlates of female sex worker registration status: A multilevel analysis of bars in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Tommi L.; Rusch, Melanie L.A.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Goldenberg, Shira M.; Lozada, Remedios; Robertson, Angela M.; Perkins, Emily; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tijuana, Mexico, sex work is regulated by the municipal government, through registration cards issued to female sex workers (FSWs) for an annual fee. Registration has been associated with decreased drug use and increase condom use and HIV testing. Previously, it was demonstrated that FSWs operating in bars were more likely than street-based FSWs to be registered. This implies that certain venues may be more accessible to local authorities for the enforcement of this type of programme. Taking a novel multilevel approach, we examined whether venue characteristics of bars reflecting greater organised management and visibility affect registration status of FSWs. In an analysis of venue-level characteristics, predictors of being registered were availability of free condoms at work and distance to the main sex strip; however, these were not independently associated after inclusion of FSWs’ income, illicit drug use and history of HIV testing. Our findings suggest that sex work regulations may inadvertently exclude venues in which the more vulnerable and less visible FSWs, such as injection drug users and those with limited financial resources, are situated. Efforts to revise or reconsider sex work regulations to ensure that they best promote FSWs’ health, human and labour rights are recommended. PMID:23534477

  17. Tobacco smoke exposure and impact of smoking legislation on rural and non-rural hospitality venues in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Buettner-Schmidt, Kelly; Lobo, Marie L; Travers, Mark J; Boursaw, Blake

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study in a stratified random sample of 135 bars and restaurants in North Dakota was to describe factors that influenced tobacco smoke pollution levels in the venues; to compare the quantity of tobacco smoke pollution by rurality and by presence of local ordinances; and to assess compliance with state and local laws. In data collection in 2012, we measured the indoor air quality indicator of particulate matter (2.5 microns aerodynamic diameter or smaller), calculated average smoking density and occupant density, and determined compliance with state and local smoking ordinances using observational methods. As rurality increased, tobacco smoke pollution in bars increased. A significant association was found between stringency of local laws and level of tobacco smoke pollution, but the strength of the association varied by venue type. Compliance was significantly lower in venues in communities without local ordinances. Controlling for venue type, 69.2% of smoke-free policy's impact on tobacco smoke pollution levels was mediated by observed smoking. This study advances scientific knowledge on the factors influencing tobacco smoke pollution and informs public health advocates and decision makers on policy needs, especially in rural areas. PMID:25962373

  18. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  19. Club Drug Use among Young Adults Frequenting Dance Clubs and Other Social Venues in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Halkitis, Perry N.; Bimbi, David S.

    2006-01-01

    A convenience sample of young adults (ages 18-25) in New York City was recruited to complete anonymous surveys in social venues (either dance clubs or other social settings, such as coffee shops and university "hangouts") regarding their use of "club drugs" (e.g., MDMA/Ecstasy, GHB, ketamine, crystal methamphetamine, cocaine, and LSD).…

  20. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  1. Contextual influence on condom use in commercial sex venues: A multi-level analysis among female sex workers and gatekeepers in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs' individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  2. Contextual Influence on Condom Use in Commercial Sex Venues: a Multi-level Analysis among Female Sex Workers and Gatekeepers in Guangxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Tang, Zhenzhu; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the influence of commercial sex venues on consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) and to examine associations between individual and venue level factors and consistent condom use with clients. Analysis was based on a sample of 637 FSWs and 123 gatekeepers from 51 venues in Guangxi, China. Multi-level logistic regression using Bayesian simulation via Markov Chain Monte Carlo was applied to investigate whether FSWs’ individual propensity to use condom with clients was statistically dependent on the venue of working. Multi-level modeling revealed considerable variability across venues in the likelihood of consistent condom use with clients among FSWs. Characteristics at both individual and venue levels helped to explain the observed variation. Certain venue-level factors exerted their influence on condom use over and above the effect of individual-level characteristics. The contextual influence exerted on condom use behaviors among FSWs may imply a potential to harness the path to individual behaviors from a higher and more dominant level, and shed light on the design of more effective sexual risk reduction intervention among venue-based FSWs. PMID:26004452

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  5. Bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…

  6. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The Sampling Procedures and Venues Workgroup discussed the potential venues available and issues associated with obtaining measurements. Some of the issues included Incoming Air Quality, Sampling Locations, Probes and Sample Systems. The following is a summary of the discussion of the issues and venues. The influence of inlet air to the measurement of exhaust species, especially trace chemical species, must be considered. Analysis procedures for current engine exhaust emissions regulatory measurements require adjustments for air inlet humidity. As a matter of course in scientific investigations, it is recommended that "background" measurements for any species, particulate or chemical, be performed during inlet air flow before initiation of combustion, if possible, and during the engine test period as feasible and practical. For current regulatory measurements, this would be equivalent to setting the "zero" level for conventional gas analyzers. As a minimum, it is recommended that measurements of the humidity and particulates in the incoming air be taken at the start and end of each test run. Additional measurement points taken during the run are desirable if they can be practically obtained. It was felt that the presence of trace gases in the incoming air is not a significant problem. However, investigators should consider the ambient levels and influences of local air pollution for species of interest. Desired measurement locations depend upon the investigation requirements. A complete investigation of phenomenology of particulate formation and growth requires measurements at a number of locations both within the engine and in the exhaust field downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Desirable locations for both extractive and in situ measurements include: (1) Combustion Zone (Multiple axial locations); (2) Combustor Exit (Multiple radial locations for annular combustors); (3) Turbine Stage (Inlet and exit of the stage); (4) Exit Nozzle (Multiple axial locations

  7. Venue-Based Recruitment of Women at Elevated Risk for HIV: An HIV Prevention Trials Network Study

    PubMed Central

    Golin, Carol; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Jing; Roman Isler, Malika; Mannheimer, Sharon; Kuo, Irene; Lucas, Jonathan; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Justman, Jessica; Frew, Paula M.; Emel, Lynda; Rompalo, Anne; Polk, Sarah; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rodriquez, Lorenna; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Hodder, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The challenge of identifying and recruiting U.S. women at elevated risk for HIV acquisition impedes prevention studies and services. HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 064 was a U.S. multisite, longitudinal cohort study designed to estimate HIV incidence among women living in communities with prevalent HIV and poverty. Venue-based sampling (VBS) methodologies and participant and venue characteristics are described. Methods: Eligible women were recruited from 10 U.S. communities with prevalent HIV and poverty using VBS. Participant eligibility criteria included age 18–44 years, residing in a designated census tract/zip code, and self-report of at least one high-risk personal and/or male sexual partner characteristic associated with HIV acquisition (e.g., incarceration history). Ethnography was conducted to finalize recruitment areas and venues. Results: Eight thousand twenty-nine women were screened and 2,099 women were enrolled (88% black, median age 29 years) over 14 months. The majority of participants were recruited from outdoor venues (58%), retail spaces (18%), and social service organizations (13%). The proportion of women recruited per venue category varied by site. Most participants (73%) had both individual and partner characteristics that qualified them for the study; 14% were eligible based on partner risk only. Conclusion: VBS is a feasible and effective approach to rapidly recruit a population of women at enhanced risk for HIV in the United States. Such a recruitment approach is needed in order to engage women most at risk and requires strong community engagement. PMID:24742266

  8. Mexican doctors serve rural areas.

    PubMed

    Grossi, J

    1991-02-01

    The Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) worked to solve the unemployment problems of physicians and to increase health services to underserved rural areas. In Mexico, 75% of practicing physicians were located in 16 urban areas. Mexico had a large population of 83 million, of whom many in rural areas have been deprived of family planning and medical services. MEXFAM initiated the Community Doctors Project in 1986. The aim was to help Mexican doctors set up a medical practice in marginal urban towns and small towns with low income residents. Funding to physicians was provided for conducting a market survey of the proposed region and for advertising the new medical services. Loans of furniture and medical supplies were provided, and options were provided for purchase of equipment at a later date. During the promotion, services for maternal and child health care were provided for a small fee, while family planning was provided for free. Doctors usually become self-sufficient after about two years. The MEXFAM project established 170 community doctor's offices in 30 out of 32 states. Services were provided for at least 2500 families per office. In 1990, 13 offices were opened to serve an estimated 182,000 clients. A new effort is being directed to owners of Mexican factories. MEXFAM will set up a medical and family planning clinic very close to factories for a company contribution of only $12,000. The clinic promotion is being marketed through videos. MEXFAM found two companies that agreed to support a clinic. PMID:12288711

  9. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  10. Aerosols and Particulates Workshop Sampling Procedures and Venues Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pachlhofer, Peter; Howard, Robert

    1999-01-01

    The Sampling Procedures and Venues Workgroup discussed the potential venues available and issues associated with obtaining measurements. Some of the issues included Incoming Air Quality, Sampling Locations, Probes and Sample Systems. The following is a summary of the discussion of the issues and venues. The influence of inlet air to the measurement of exhaust species, especially trace chemical species, must be considered. Analysis procedures for current engine exhaust emissions regulatory measurements require adjustments for air inlet humidity. As a matter of course in scientific investigations, it is recommended that "background" measurements for any species, particulate or chemical, be performed during inlet air flow before initiation of combustion, if possible, and during the engine test period as feasible and practical. For current regulatory measurements, this would be equivalent to setting the "zero" level for conventional gas analyzers. As a minimum, it is recommended that measurements of the humidity and particulates in the incoming air be taken at the start and end of each test run. Additional measurement points taken during the run are desirable if they can be practically obtained. It was felt that the presence of trace gases in the incoming air is not a significant problem. However, investigators should consider the ambient levels and influences of local air pollution for species of interest. Desired measurement locations depend upon the investigation requirements. A complete investigation of phenomenology of particulate formation and growth requires measurements at a number of locations both within the engine and in the exhaust field downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Desirable locations for both extractive and in situ measurements include: (1) Combustion Zone (Multiple axial locations); (2) Combustor Exit (Multiple radial locations for annular combustors); (3) Turbine Stage (Inlet and exit of the stage); (4) Exit Nozzle (Multiple axial locations

  11. Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), Pig-Tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) and Tiger (Panthera tigris) Populations at Tourism Venues in Thailand and Aspects of Their Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Burbach, Jan; Ronfot, Delphine; Srisangiam, Rossukon

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant, pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand. Data were gathered from 118 venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue’s welfare situation. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet. 1688 elephants, 371 macaques and 621 tigers were found at the venues. 89 venues exclusively kept elephants, 9 designated ‘Monkey schools’ offered macaque shows, 4 venues kept primarily tigers, mostly for petting and photo opportunities, and the remaining venues kept a mix of these animals. A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about 4:1 for adult elephants and 1:4 for adult macaques. Severely inadequate welfare conditions were common, with 75% of macaques and 99% of tigers being kept at venues with scores less than 5. 86% of elephants were kept in inadequate conditions at venues with scores between 3 and 5, but a significant number of venues with scores above 5 were found. 4.6% of elephants were provided commendable conditions, reaching assessment scores of 8 and above. 71% of venues did not offer any sort of education about animals to visitors. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn’t have a negative impact on wild populations. PMID:26407173

  12. Serving the world's poor, profitably.

    PubMed

    Prahalad, C K; Hammond, Allen

    2002-09-01

    By stimulating commerce and development at the bottom of the economic pyramid, multi-nationals could radically improve the lives of billions of people and help create a more stable, less dangerous world. Achieving this goal does not require MNCs to spearhead global social-development initiatives for charitable purposes. They need only act in their own self-interest. How? The authors lay out the business case for entering the world's poorest markets. Fully 65% of the world's population earns less than $2,000 per year--that's 4 billion people. But despite the vastness of this market, it remains largely untapped. The reluctance to invest is easy to understand, but it is, by and large, based on outdated assumptions of the developing world. While individual incomes may be low, the aggregate buying power of poor communities is actually quite large, representing a substantial market in many countries for what some might consider luxury goods like satellite television and phone services. Prices, and margins, are often much higher in poor neighborhoods than in their middle-class counterparts. And new technologies are already steadily reducing the effects of corruption, illiteracy, inadequate infrastructure, and other such barriers. Because these markets are in the earliest stages of economic development, revenue growth for multi-nationals entering them can be extremely rapid. MNCs can also lower costs, not only through low-cost labor but by transferring operating efficiencies and innovations developed to serve their existing operations. Certainly, succeeding in such markets requires MNCs to think creatively. The biggest change, though, has to come from executives: Unless business leaders confront their own preconceptions--particularly about the value of high-volume, low-margin businesses--companies are unlikely to master the challenges or reap the rewards of these developing markets.

  13. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  14. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  15. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  16. Environmental epigenetics: A promising venue for developing next-generation pollution biomonitoring tools in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Ulloa, Victoria; Gonzalez-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirin-Lopez, Jose M

    2015-09-15

    Environmental epigenetics investigates the cause-effect relationships between specific environmental factors and the subsequent epigenetic modifications triggering adaptive responses in the cell. Given the dynamic and potentially reversible nature of the different types of epigenetic marks, environmental epigenetics constitutes a promising venue for developing fast and sensible biomonitoring programs. Indeed, several epigenetic biomarkers have been successfully developed and applied in traditional model organisms (e.g., human and mouse). Nevertheless, the lack of epigenetic knowledge in other ecologically and environmentally relevant organisms has hampered the application of these tools in a broader range of ecosystems, most notably in the marine environment. Fortunately, that scenario is now changing thanks to the growing availability of complete reference genome sequences along with the development of high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods. Altogether, these resources make the epigenetic study of marine organisms (and more specifically marine invertebrates) a reality. By building on this knowledge, the present work provides a timely perspective highlighting the extraordinary potential of environmental epigenetic analyses as a promising source of rapid and sensible tools for pollution biomonitoring, using marine invertebrates as sentinel organisms. This strategy represents an innovative, groundbreaking approach, improving the conservation and management of natural resources in the oceans.

  17. Listener Habits and Choices — and Their Implications for Public Performance Venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DODD, G.

    2001-01-01

    An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.

  18. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  19. Influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses, state anxiety and perception of effort in elite basketball athletes.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Ademir F S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Freitas, Camila G; Drago, Gustavo; Oliveira, Roney; Crewther, Blair T; Moreira, Alexandre

    2014-05-10

    This study examined the influence of competition playing venue on the hormonal responses, state anxiety and perception of effort in elite basketball players. Eighteen males from two basketball teams were monitored during two competitive matches that were played against each other on a home and away basis. Salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were measured before and after each match. The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) test was also administrated prior to each match and session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken post-game. Playing at home was accompanied by elevated pre-match T concentration, as compared to playing away (p<0.05). The matches played at home were also won. Salivary T and C concentrations were similarly elevated across the matches (percent changes from pre to post) played either at home or away. No significant differences in state anxiety and perception of effort were identified between the playing venues. Pre-match T and C concentrations and the percent changes in these hormones were significantly related to somatic anxiety, especially when playing at home (p<0.05). In conclusion, the competition playing venue appeared to influence athlete salivary hormonal responses prior to elite basketball matches. These hormonal responses were associated with player's anxiety state, which might contribute to performance and the eventual match outcomes.

  20. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to the proceeding. (b) Method of serving documents. Pleadings may be served on parties by mail, by personal delivery, by facsimile, or by commercial delivery. Service by mail is accomplished by mailing the... pleading was served, must state the method (i.e., mail, personal delivery, facsimile, or...

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. Impact of a smoking ban in hospitality venues on second hand smoke exposure: a comparison of exposure assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In May 2010, Switzerland introduced a heterogeneous smoking ban in the hospitality sector. While the law leaves room for exceptions in some cantons, it is comprehensive in others. This longitudinal study uses different measurement methods to examine airborne nicotine levels in hospitality venues and the level of personal exposure of non-smoking hospitality workers before and after implementation of the law. Methods Personal exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was measured by three different methods. We compared a passive sampler called MoNIC (Monitor of NICotine) badge, to salivary cotinine and nicotine concentration as well as questionnaire data. Badges allowed the number of passively smoked cigarettes to be estimated. They were placed at the venues as well as distributed to the participants for personal measurements. To assess personal exposure at work, a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements was calculated. Results Prior to the ban, smoke-exposed hospitality venues yielded a mean badge value of 4.48 (95%-CI: 3.7 to 5.25; n = 214) cigarette equivalents/day. At follow-up, measurements in venues that had implemented a smoking ban significantly declined to an average of 0.31 (0.17 to 0.45; n = 37) (p = 0.001). Personal badge measurements also significantly decreased from an average of 2.18 (1.31-3.05 n = 53) to 0.25 (0.13-0.36; n = 41) (p = 0.001). Spearman rank correlations between badge exposure measures and salivary measures were small to moderate (0.3 at maximum). Conclusions Nicotine levels significantly decreased in all types of hospitality venues after implementation of the smoking ban. In-depth analyses demonstrated that a time-weighted average of the workplace badge measurements represented typical personal SHS exposure at work more reliably than personal exposure measures such as salivary cotinine and nicotine. PMID:23731820

  4. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  7. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  8. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  9. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peairs, Kristen F; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R; Grimes, Christina L

    2011-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during adolescence as experimenting with alcohol may be one way gifted youth choose to compensate for the social price (whether real or perceived) of their academic talents. To address the dearth of research on alcohol use among gifted adolescents the current study (a) examined the extent to which gifted adolescents use alcohol relative to their nongifted peers and (b) examined the adjustment profile of gifted adolescents who had tried alcohol relative to nongifted adolescents who tried alcohol as well as gifted and nongifted abstainers. More than 300 students in seventh grade (42.5% gifted) participated in the present study. Results indicated gifted students have, in fact, tried alcohol at rates that do not differ from nongifted students. Although trying alcohol was generally associated with negative adjustment, giftedness served as a moderating factor such that gifted students who had tried alcohol were less at risk than their nongifted peers. However, evidence also suggests that gifted adolescents who tried alcohol may be a part of a peer context that promotes substance use, which may place these youth at risk for adjustment difficulties in the future.

  10. Sexual Venue Selection and Strategies for Concealment of Same-Sex Behavior Among Non-Disclosing Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Downing, Martin J.; Siegel, Karolynn

    2011-01-01

    In order to conceal their same-sex behavior, men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) who do not disclose their same-sex behavior to female partners must be cautious in their attempts to find potential male partners. This study interviewed 46 non-gay identified, non-disclosing MSMW to identify the venues where they meet male sexual partners and the strategies they use to reduce the likelihood of discovery when at such venues. Most (74%) reported meeting a male partner in a sexual venue (e.g., bar/club, park) in the past year. Strategies to reduce the risk of discovery while seeking male partners included: 1) avoiding certain venues; 2) attending venues away from home; 3) meeting partners on the Internet, 4) preferring venues that have potential non-sexual uses, 5) having sex at the partner’s place, and 6) limiting their on-site sexual activities. These findings provide insight into the coping strategies these men use to manage the conflicting needs to conceal their behavior and meet sexual partners. PMID:23241205

  11. Residential summer camp: a new venue for nutrition education and physical activity promotion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of children attend residential summer camps each year. However, few studies have examined the potential of camps for obesity prevention efforts. Research in the domain of positive youth development has shown that camp programs as short as one week have both short- and long-term positive effects on self-esteem, self-efficacy and other youth outcomes. The objective of the present study was to highlight the potential of resident camps as promising venues for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity behaviors in the children who attend. Methods Data for this study came from the American Camp Association 2007 Emerging Issues Survey. This survey assessed camp professionals’ perspectives on a diverse array of issues, including the healthy eating and physical activity of children. Data analysis focused on responses from 247 camp professionals whose camps offered resident camp programs. Results Descriptive and Chi-square statistics were calculated. Ninety-two percent of camp professionals reported that the healthy eating and physical activity of campers was an “important” or “very important” issue for camps. The majority of camps reported offering vegetarian options, healthy snacks and salad bars, and allergen-free options. Additionally, 86% of camp professionals indicated that they had implemented one or more strategies to address concerns related to the unhealthy eating behaviors of children, with top strategies including increasing the availability of fruits and vegetables, increasing the availability of healthy drink options, and improving the nutritional quality of menus. Fewer camp professionals (50%) indicated they had implemented strategies to increase children’s physical activity levels, but many professionals indicated that their camp programs were inherently active and additional strategies to promote physical activity were not necessary. Associations were found between camp affiliation and food options available to

  12. ADHD Treatment Patterns of Youth Served in Public Sectors in San Diego and Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Laurel K.; Canino, Glorisa; Landsverk, John; Wood, Patricia A.; Chavez, Ligia; Hough, Richard L.; Bauermeister, Jose J.; Ramirez, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates geographic variation in stimulant medication use by youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) served by public mental health and/or drug and alcohol programs in San Diego (n = 790) during 1997-1998 and in Puerto Rico (n = 726) during 1998. Youth were stratified into four groups: (a) ADHD, (b) ADHD--not…

  13. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems. PMID:16954110

  14. The metabolism of fatty alcohols in lipid nanoparticles by alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Dong, X; Mumper, R J

    2006-09-01

    Fatty alcohols are commonly used in lipid-based drug delivery systems including parenteral emulsions and solid lipid nanoparticles (NPs). The purpose of these studies was to determine whether horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), a NAD-dependent enzyme, could metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs and thus serve as a mechanism to degrade these NPs in the body. Solid nanoparticles (<100 nm) were engineered from oil-in-water microemulsion precursors using emulsifying wax NF as the oil phase and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78) as the surfactant. Emulsifying wax contains both cetyl and stearyl alcohols. NPs were incubated with the enzyme and NAD+ at 37 degrees C for up to 48 h, and the concentrations of fatty alcohols were quantitatively determined over time by gas chromatography (GC). The concentrations of cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol within the NPs decreased to only 10-20% remaining after 15-24 h of incubation. In parallel, NP size, turbidity and the fluorescence intensity of NADH all increased over time. It was concluded that horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase/NAD+ was able to metabolize the fatty alcohols within the NPs, suggesting that NPs made of fatty alcohols may be metabolized in the body via endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme systems.

  15. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  16. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  17. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  18. Alcohol Messages in Prime-Time Television Series

    PubMed Central

    RUSSELL, CRISTEL ANTONIA; RUSSELL, DALE W.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol messages contained in television programming serve as sources of information about drinking. To better understand the ways embedded messages about alcohol are communicated, it is crucial to objectively monitor and analyze television alcohol depictions. This article presents a content analysis of an eight-week sample of eighteen prime-time programs. Alcohol messages were coded based on modalities of presentation, level of plot connection, and valence. The analysis reveals that mixed messages about alcohol often coexist but the ways in which they are presented differ: whereas negative messages are tied to the plot and communicated verbally, positive messages are associated with subtle visual portrayals. PMID:21188281

  19. Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Veronica L.; Arteel, Gavin E.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation, and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, which also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic. PMID:22701432

  20. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  1. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-08-06

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel.

  2. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel. PMID:27509501

  3. Choice of experimental venue matters in ecotoxicology studies: Comparison of a laboratory-based and an outdoor mesocosm experiment.

    PubMed

    Mikó, Zsanett; Ujszegi, János; Gál, Zoltán; Imrei, Zoltán; Hettyey, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The heavy application of pesticides and its potential effects on natural communities has attracted increasing attention to inadvertent impacts of these chemicals. Toxicologists conventionally use laboratory-based tests to assess lethal concentrations of pesticides. However, these tests often do not take into account indirect, interactive and long-term effects, and tend to ignore different rates of disintegration in the laboratory and under natural conditions. Our aim was to investigate the importance of the experimental venue for ecotoxicology tests. We reared tadpoles of the agile frog (Rana dalmatina) in the laboratory and in outdoor mesocosms and exposed them to three initial concentrations of a glyphosate-based herbicide (0, 2 and 6.5 mg a.e./L glyphosate), and to the presence or absence of caged predators (dragonfly larvae). The type of experimental venue had a large effect on the outcome: The herbicide was less lethal to tadpoles reared in outdoor mesocosms than in the laboratory. Further, while the herbicide had a negative effect on development time and on body mass in the laboratory, tadpoles exposed to the herbicide in mesocosms were larger at metamorphosis and developed faster in comparison to those reared in the absence of the herbicide. The effect of the herbicide on morphological traits of tadpoles also differed between the two venues. Finally, in the presence of the herbicide, tadpoles tended to be more active and to stay closer to the bottom of laboratory containers, while tadpole behaviour shifted in the opposite direction in outdoor mesocosms. Our results demonstrate major discrepancies between results of a classic laboratory-based ecotoxicity test and outcomes of an experiment performed in outdoor mesocosms. Consequently, the use of standard laboratory tests may have to be reconsidered and their benefits carefully weighed against the difficulties of performing experiments under more natural conditions. Tests validating experimentally estimated

  4. Implementation and Analysis of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Network Systems in Judo Training Venues

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Astrain, José Javier; Villadangos, Jesús; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ISM 2.4 GHz Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) deployed in judo training venues is analyzed. Judo is a very popular martial art, which is practiced by thousands of people not only at the competition level, but also as part of physical education programs at different school levels. There is a great variety of judo training venues, and each one has specific morphological aspects, making them unique scenarios in terms of radio propagation due to the presence of furniture, columns, equipment and the presence of human beings, which is a major issue as the person density within this kind of scenarios could be high. Another key aspect is the electromagnetic interference created by other wireless systems, such as WiFi or other WSNs, which make the radio planning a complex task in terms of coexistence. In order to analyze the impact of these features on the radio propagation and the performance of WSNs, an in-house developed 3D ray launching algorithm has been used. The obtained simulation results have been validated with a measurement campaign carried out in the sport facilities of the Public University of Navarre. The analysis is completed with the inclusion of an application designed to monitor biological constants of judokas, aimed to improve their training procedures. The application, that allows the simultaneous monitoring of multiple judokas (collective workouts) minimizing the efforts of the coach and medical supervisor, is based on commercial off-the-shelf products. The presented assessment of the presence of interfering wireless systems and the presence of human beings within judo training venues shows that an in-depth radio planning is required as these issues can have a great impact in the overall performance of a ISM 2.4 GHz WSN, affecting negatively the potential applications supported by wireless channel. PMID:27509501

  5. Online networks as a venue for social support: a qualitative study of married bisexual men in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hou, Cheng-Nan; Lu, Hung-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Online networks have become a critical venue for bisexual males to communicate with each other and solicit social support. This study reports qualitative feedback gathered from 12 married Taiwanese bisexual men about online social support in their daily lives. The analysis of interviews reveal that online social support provides participants with opportunities to screen potential friends, participate in the bisexual virtual community, come out and release stress, and look for romance. Apparently, for married bisexual men in Taiwan, the Internet offers an opportunity to anonymously manage sexual identity and solicit social support among other bisexuals. PMID:23952923

  6. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, Salt Lake City Olympics Venues, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympics are hosted by Salt Lake City at several venues within the city, in nearby cities, and within the adjacent Wasatch Mountains. This computer generated perspective image provides a northward looking 'view from space' that includes all of these Olympic sites. In the south, next to Utah Lake, Provo hosts the ice hockey competition. In the north, northeast of the Great Salt Lake, Ogden hosts curling, and the nearby Snow Basin ski area hosts the downhill events. In between, southeast of the Great Salt Lake, Salt Lake City hosts the Olympic Village and the various skating events. Further east, across the Wasatch Mountains, the Park City area ski resorts host the bobsled, ski jumping, and snowboarding events. The Winter Olympics are always hosted in mountainous terrain. This view shows the dramatic landscape that makes the Salt Lake City region a world-class center for winter sports.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Landsat 5 satellite image mosaic. Topographic expression is exaggerated four times.

    For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive, managed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data

  7. Impact of the Spanish Smoking Law on Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Offices and Hospitality Venues: Before-and-After Study

    PubMed Central

    Nebot, Manel; López, Maria J.; Ariza, Carles; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Fu, Marcela; Schiaffino, Anna; Muñoz, Gloria; Saltó, Esteve; Fernández, Esteve

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives A smoking law was passed by the Spanish Parliament in December 2005 and was enforced by 1 January 2006. The law bans smoking in all indoor workplaces but only in some hospitality venues, because owners are allowed to establish a smoking zone (venues > 100 m2) or to allow smoking without restrictions (venues < 100 m2). The objective of the study is to assess the impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in enclosed workplaces, including hospitality venues. Materials and methods The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We studied workplaces and hospitality venues from eight different regions of Spain. We took repeated samples of vapor-phase nicotine concentration in 398 premises, including private offices (162), public administration offices (90), university premises (43), bars and restaurants (79), and discotheques and pubs (24). Results In the follow-up period, SHS levels were markedly reduced in indoor offices. The median decrease in nicotine concentration ranged from 60.0% in public premises to 97.4% in private areas. Nicotine concentrations were also markedly reduced in bars and restaurants that became smoke-free (96.7%) and in the no-smoking zones of venues with separate spaces for smokers (88.9%). We found no significant changes in smoking zones or in premises allowing smoking, including discotheques and pubs. Conclusions Overall, this study shows the positive impact of the law on reducing SHS in indoor workplaces. However, SHS was substantially reduced only in bars and restaurants that became smoke-free. Most hospitality workers continue to be exposed to very high levels of SHS. Therefore, a 100% smoke-free policy for all hospitality venues is required. PMID:19337506

  8. HIV/STI risk among venue-based female sex workers across the globe: A look back and the way forward

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) continue to represent a high-risk population in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Targeting environmental risk factors should result in more sustainable behavior change than individual-level interventions alone. There are many types of FSWs who operate in and through a variety of micro- (e.g., brothels) and macro-level (e.g., being sex-trafficked) contexts. Efforts to characterize FSWs and inform HIV prevention programs have often relied on sex work typologies or categorizations of FSWs by venue or type. We conducted a systematic search and qualitatively reviewed 37 published studies on venue-based FSWs to examine the appropriateness of sex work typologies, and the extent to which this research has systematically examined characteristics of different risk environments. We extracted information on study characteristics like venue comparisons, HIV/STI prevalence, and sampling strategies. We found mixed results with regards to the reliability of typologies in predicting HIV/STI infection; relying solely on categorization of FSWs by venue or type did not predict seroprevalence in a consistent manner. Only 65% of the studies that allowed for venue comparisons on HIV/STI prevalence provided data on venue characteristics. The factors that were assessed were largely individual-level FSW factors (e.g. demographics, number of clients per day), rather than social and structural characteristics of the risk environment. We outline a strategy for future research on venue-based FSWs that ultimately aims to inform structural-level HIV interventions for FSWs. PMID:23160840

  9. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  10. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour. PMID:26983935

  11. High variation in manufacturer-declared serving size of packaged discretionary foods in Australia.

    PubMed

    Haskelberg, Hila; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Flood, Victoria; Rangan, Anna; Thomas, Beth; Cleanthous, Xenia; Trevena, Helen; Zheng, Jazzmin Miaobing; Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Gill, Timothy; Wu, Jason H Y

    2016-05-28

    Despite the potential of declared serving size to encourage appropriate portion size consumption, most countries including Australia have not developed clear reference guidelines for serving size. The present study evaluated variability in manufacturer-declared serving size of discretionary food and beverage products in Australia, and how declared serving size compared with the 2013 Australian Dietary Guideline (ADG) standard serve (600 kJ). Serving sizes were obtained from the Nutrition Information Panel for 4466 packaged, discretionary products in 2013 at four large supermarkets in Sydney, Australia, and categorised into fifteen categories in line with the 2013 ADG. For unique products that were sold in multiple package sizes, the percentage difference between the minimum and the maximum serving size across different package sizes was calculated. A high variation in serving size was found within the majority of food and beverage categories - for example, among 347 non-alcoholic beverages (e.g. soft drinks), the median for serving size was 250 (interquartile range (IQR) 250, 355) ml (range 100-750 ml). Declared serving size for unique products that are available in multiple package sizes also showed high variation, particularly for chocolate-based confectionery, with median percentage difference between minimum and maximum serving size of 183 (IQR 150) %. Categories with a high proportion of products that exceeded the 600 kJ ADG standard serve included cakes and muffins, pastries and desserts (≥74 % for each). High variability in declared serving size may confound interpretation and understanding of consumers interested in standardising and controlling their portion selection. Future research is needed to assess if and how standardising declared serving size might affect consumer behaviour.

  12. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-06-18

    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself.

  13. Marital satisfaction and break-ups differ across on-line and off-line meeting venues.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Gonzaga, Gian C; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-06-18

    Marital discord is costly to children, families, and communities. The advent of the Internet, social networking, and on-line dating has affected how people meet future spouses, but little is known about the prevalence or outcomes of these marriages or the demographics of those involved. We addressed these questions in a nationally representative sample of 19,131 respondents who married between 2005 and 2012. Results indicate that more than one-third of marriages in America now begin on-line. In addition, marriages that began on-line, when compared with those that began through traditional off-line venues, were slightly less likely to result in a marital break-up (separation or divorce) and were associated with slightly higher marital satisfaction among those respondents who remained married. Demographic differences were identified between respondents who met their spouse through on-line vs. traditional off-line venues, but the findings for marital break-up and marital satisfaction remained significant after statistically controlling for these differences. These data suggest that the Internet may be altering the dynamics and outcomes of marriage itself. PMID:23733955

  14. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  15. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  16. Calories and fat per serving (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and stores the rest in the form of fat. A calorie is a calorie, whether it comes ... between them is the number of calories, nutrients, fat, and other ingredients in a typical serving . Calories ...

  17. Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray in its stowed position. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  18. The longitudinal association of venue stability with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two Mexico-USA border cities.

    PubMed

    Gaines, T L; Rudolph, A E; Brouwer, K C; Strathdee, S A; Lozada, R; Martinez, G; Goldenberg, S M; Rusch, M L A

    2013-07-01

    We examined the relationship between venue stability and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs; n = 584) and were enrolled in a behavioural intervention in two Mexico-USA border cities. Using a generalized estimating equation approach stratified by client type and city, we found venue stability affected CCU. In Tijuana, operating primarily indoors was significantly associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of CCU among regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44, 9.89), and a seven-fold increase among casual clients (OR: 7.18, 95% CI: 2.32, 22.21), relative to FSW-IDUs spending equal time between indoor and outdoor sex work venues. In Ciudad Juarez, the trajectory of CCU increased over time and was highest among those operating primarily indoors. Results from this analysis highlight the importance of considering local mobility, including venue type and venue stability, as these characteristics jointly influence HIV risk behaviours.

  19. The longitudinal association of venue stability with consistent condom use among female sex workers in two Mexico–USA border cities

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, T L; Rudolph, A E; Brouwer, K C; Strathdee, S A; Lozada, R; Martinez, G; Goldenberg, S M; Rusch, M L A

    2014-01-01

    Summary We examined the relationship between venue stability and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs; n = 584) and were enrolled in a behavioural intervention in two Mexico–USA border cities. Using a generalized estimating equation approach stratified by client type and city, we found venue stability affected CCU. In Tijuana, operating primarily indoors was significantly associated with a four-fold increase in the odds of CCU among regular clients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.44, 9.89), and a seven-fold increase among casual clients (OR: 7.18, 95% CI: 2.32, 22.21), relative to FSW-IDUs spending equal time between indoor and outdoor sex work venues. In Ciudad Juarez, the trajectory of CCU increased over time and was highest among those operating primarily indoors. Results from this analysis highlight the importance of considering local mobility, including venue type and venue stability, as these characteristics jointly influence HIV risk behaviours. PMID:23970766

  20. The Effects of Intensive Supervision with Alcoholic Probationers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latessa, Edward J.; Travis, Lawrence F., III

    1988-01-01

    Examined the effects of intensive probation supervision and treatment on 40 alcoholic offenders. Forty regularly supervised probationers served as control group. Analyzed contacts, services, criminal behavior, social adjustment and employment. Results indicated that the alcohol group performed as well as the control group despite their alcohol…

  1. Understanding Alcoholism: A Test for Use in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Jon R.; Morse, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes a test, entitled Understanding Alcoholism, intended to serve as an educational or measurement instrument (or both) for use in the training of physicians. The test directly exposes many controversial aspects of alcoholism to the student at a time when his attitudes toward this disorder are being shaped. (Authors/JT)

  2. Women's Softball Players' Attitudes toward Alcohol Use & Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.

    In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…

  3. Alcohol questionnaires and HDL: screening scores as scaled markers of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas; Williams, Emily C; Bryson, Chris L; Rubinsky, Anna D; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-09-01

    Improving the quality of alcohol-related care requires practical approaches to assessing alcohol consumption to guide management and monitor outcomes. Given the increasing use of alcohol screening questionnaires to identify alcohol misuse it would be ideal if scores on screening questionnaires were also indicators of average alcohol consumption. However, the questionnaires were not designed for this purpose and include dimensions of drinking that may not reflect average consumption (e.g. heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems). In a general population sample, scores on the AUDIT-C screen correlated with reports of alcohol consumption in detailed interviews, but the relationship is unknown for clinical populations and other questionnaires. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is a biomarker routinely obtained in clinical care and is known to rise with average alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study of 11,175 male U.S. Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in a primary care study used HDL as an objective biomarker to evaluate whether average alcohol consumption increased as scores increased on 3 brief alcohol screens - the AUDIT-C, AUDIT Question #3 (a single-item screen), and the CAGE questionnaire. Mean HDL progressively increased as screening scores increased for the AUDIT-C and AUDIT Question #3: about 12 mg/dL from the lowest to the highest scores. The association was much weaker for the CAGE questionnaire. Results were minimally affected by adjustment for covariates (e.g. age, race, medical comorbidity, smoking, medication count, and depression) but the association was modified (p = 0.008) and mildly attenuated by adherent use of lipid-lowering medications. This study using HDL as a biomarker of average alcohol consumption adds to evidence that some alcohol screening scores may also serve as scaled markers of average alcohol consumption.

  4. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  5. Public opinion on alcohol policies in the United States: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, A C; Harwood, E M; Toomey, T L; Denk, C E; Zander, K M

    2000-01-01

    We surveyed the U.S. non-institutionalized population age 18+ on opinions regarding 23 alcohol control policies (N = 7,021). The cooperation rate among contacted households was 70% and the overall response rate was 54%. Results showed high levels of public support for most alcohol control policies. Over 80% support restrictions on alcohol use in public places, such as parks, beaches, concert venues, and on college campuses. Eighty-two percent support increased alcohol taxes, provided the funds are used for treatment or prevention programs. Over 60% support alcohol advertising and promotion restrictions, such as banning billboard advertising, banning promotion at sporting events, or banning liquor and beer advertising on television. Multivariate regression analyses indicated significant relationships between alcohol policy opinions and a variety of sociodemographic, political orientation, and behavioral measures. However, the absolute differences in alcohol policy support across groups is small. There is a strong base of support for alcohol control policies in the U.S., and such support is found among whites and ethnics of color, young and old, rich and poor, and conservatives, moderates, and liberals.

  6. Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: An event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    N=147 MSM completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n=1,180 sexual events with first-time partners, < 30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS, compared to meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (AOR=.44), online (AOR=.42), bathhouse (AOR=.35), or via “other” venues (AOR=.35), all p < .01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/STI prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

  7. Cruising in cyber space: comparing Internet chat room versus community venues for recruiting Hispanic men who have sex with men to participate in prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Warren, Jacob C; Varga, Leah M; Prado, Guillermo; Hernandez, Nilda; Bowen, G Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties with recruitment of hidden populations, such as Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM), have hampered HIV prevention research, leading researchers to explore alternative recruitment modalities such as the Internet. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and cost of recruiting HMSM from Internet chat rooms versus community venues and examine the differences between participants recruited from each type of venue. Internet recruitment was more efficient and somewhat less costly than community recruitment. Although the two groups were comparable in most demographic factors and HIV risk behaviors, Internet recruits were more likely to be bisexual, more likely to be HIV seropositive, had a higher level of education, and reported higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of gay community attachment. Implications of our findings for using Internet chatrooms as recruitment venues are discussed.

  8. Cruising in cyber space: comparing Internet chat room versus community venues for recruiting Hispanic men who have sex with men to participate in prevention studies.

    PubMed

    Fernández, M Isabel; Warren, Jacob C; Varga, Leah M; Prado, Guillermo; Hernandez, Nilda; Bowen, G Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Difficulties with recruitment of hidden populations, such as Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM), have hampered HIV prevention research, leading researchers to explore alternative recruitment modalities such as the Internet. In this paper, we compare the efficiency and cost of recruiting HMSM from Internet chat rooms versus community venues and examine the differences between participants recruited from each type of venue. Internet recruitment was more efficient and somewhat less costly than community recruitment. Although the two groups were comparable in most demographic factors and HIV risk behaviors, Internet recruits were more likely to be bisexual, more likely to be HIV seropositive, had a higher level of education, and reported higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of gay community attachment. Implications of our findings for using Internet chatrooms as recruitment venues are discussed. PMID:18192208

  9. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  10. Physiological processes underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Souza-Smith, Flavia M; Lang, Charles H; Nagy, Laura E; Bailey, Shannon M; Parsons, Loren H; Murray, Gary J

    2016-09-01

    This review summarizes the American Physiological Society (APS) Presidential Symposium 1 entitled "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse" at the 2016 Experimental Biology meeting. The symposium was organized by Dr. Patricia Molina, past president of the APS, was held on April 3 at the Convention Center in San Diego, CA, and was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The "Physiological Processes Underlying Organ Injury in Alcohol Abuse Symposium" assembled experts and leaders in the field and served as a platform to discuss and share knowledge on the latest developments and scientific advances on the mechanisms underlying organ injury in alcohol abuse. This symposium provided unique, interdisciplinary alcohol research, including several organs, liver, muscle, adipose, and brain, affected by excessive alcohol use. PMID:27436613

  11. Suicide and Alcohol: Conceptualizing the Relationship from a Cognitive-Social Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents formulation of association between alcohol consumption and suicidal behavior derived from recent advances in area of social cognition. Suggests that social cognitive mechanism of alcohol-induced myopia may serve important role in developing comprehensive conceptualization of alcohol-suicide relationship. Discusses implications for…

  12. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    PubMed Central

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  13. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. Conclusion São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  14. Adult Children of Alcoholics: A Counseling Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Robert L.; Phyfer, Ann Quinn

    1988-01-01

    Notes that adult children of alcoholics attending college present unique problems and opportunities to the college counselor. Presents a treatment model for serving such students which identifies four survivor roles and their manifestations, and suggests counseling techniques for each role. (Author/NB)

  15. Applying the nursing theory of human relatedness to alcoholism and recovery in alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, Stephen; Hagerty, Bonnie; Boyd, Carol

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is a global health risk, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the largest and most popular mutual-help program for individuals with alcohol-related problems. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have become increasingly interested in specific mechanisms of action that may contribute to positive outcomes through involvement with this 12-step program for recovery, yet few have applied a theoretical framework to these efforts. We examined the phenomena of alcoholism and recovery in AA, using the nursing Theory of Human Relatedness (THR). THR addresses a pervasive human concern: "establishing and maintaining relatedness to others, objects, environments, society and self." The theory describes four states of relatedness (connectedness, disconnectedness, parallelism, and enmeshment) and four relatedness competencies (sense of belonging, reciprocity, mutuality, and synchrony). Both alcoholism and recovery in AA can be viewed primarily in terms of relatedness. In active alcoholism, an individual's involvement with alcohol (enmeshment) can limit, impair, or preclude healthy or adaptive relatedness toward virtually all other referents, including self. As a program of recovery, each of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous addresses an individual's relatedness to one or more identified referents while simultaneously enhancing and expanding each of the four relatedness competencies. THR provides a theoretical framework to help direct patient care, research, and education and has the potential to serve as a unifying theory in the study of alcoholism and recovery in AA.

  16. The Alcoholic Elderly Client: Assessment of Policies and Practices of Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kola, Lenore A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 88 aging agencies serving approximately 11,000 clients to assess their capabilities for serving elderly with alcohol problems. Alcoholism was not viewed as a major problem by agency administrators, but few policies and procedures for dealing with this population were extant. Discussed implications for policy and program development.…

  17. Alcohol as a Gateway Drug: A Study of US 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…

  18. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease not related to a common venue--New Jersey, 1995-2004.

    PubMed

    2004-05-14

    Beginning in June 2003, the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS) and CDC were notified of a suspected cluster of deaths caused by Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in persons reportedly linked to Garden State Racetrack in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Concerns were raised that these deaths might have resulted from consumption of meat contaminated with the agent causing bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, commonly called "mad cow disease") served at racetrack restaurants during 1988-1992. Consumption of BSE-contaminated cattle products has been linked to a new variant form of CJD (vCJD) in humans. This report summarizes the results of an investigation that determined the deaths were not linked causally to a common source of infection. The findings underscore the need for physicians to arrange for brain autopsies of all patients with clinically suspected or diagnosed CJD. PMID:15138401

  19. Routing in DiffServ multicast environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Shekhar

    2002-07-01

    QOS aware applications have propelled the development of two complementary technologies, Multicasting and Differentiated Services. To provide the required QOS on the Internet, either the bandwidth needs to be increased (Multicasting) or limited bandwidth prioritized among users (DiffServ). Although, the bandwidth on the Internet is continually increasing, the backbone is still insufficient to support QOS without resource allocations. Hence, there is a need to map multicasting in a DiffServ Environment to conserve network bandwidth and to provision this bandwidth in an appropriate fashion. In this regard, two issues have to be addressed. One, the key difference between multicast and DiffServe routing is the structure of the multicast tree. This tree is maintained in multicast aware routers whereas in DiffServe, the core routers maintain no state information regarding the flows. Second, the task of restructuring the multicast tree when members join/leave. Currently, the first issue is addressed by embedding the multicast information within the packet itself as an additional header field. In this paper, we propose a neural network based heuristic approach to address the second problem of routing in a dynamic DiffServe Multicast environment. Many dynamic multicast routing algorithms have been proposed. The greedy algorithm creates a near optimal tree when a node is added but requires many query/reply messages. The PSPT algorithm cannot construct a cost optimal tree. The VTDM algorithm requires the estimated number of nodes that will join and is not flexible. The problem of building an optimal tree to satisfy QOS requirements at minimum cost and taking minimum network resources is NP- complete and none of the above solutions give an optimal solution. We have modeled this combinatorial optimization as a nonlinear programming problem and trained an artificial neural network to solve the problem. The problem is tractable only when the QOS parameters are combined into DiffServe

  20. Comparing Samples of Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited Online and in Venues, Jiangsu Province, China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ling-en; Wei, Chongyi; McFarland, Willi; Yan, Hongjing; Li, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Two common methods to sample men who have sex with men (MSM) for HIV research are venue- and internet-based approaches. However, it is unclear which is best to sample Chinese MSM. Methods: We conducted side-by-side comparisons of time-location sampling (TLS) and an online sample of MSM in Nanjing, China. Results: TLS-recruited MSM tended to be older and of lower socio-economic status compared to online-recruited MSM, whereas online-recruited MSM reported higher risk behavior and lower frequency of HIV testing. Conclusion: Significant differences were observed between the two separate samples. Without a gold standard, the choice of sampling method or recruitment approach should be guided by the segment of the population targeted to be reached. PMID:26651841

  1. The Impact of New Execution Venues on European Equity Markets' Liquidity - The Case of Chi-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlistalla, Michael; Lutat, Marco

    With the Markets in Financial Instruments Directive in effect since November 2007, new trading venues have emerged in European equities trading, among them Chi-X. This paper analyzes the impact of this new market entrant on the home market as well as on consolidated liquidity of French blue chip equities, newly tradable on Chi-X. Our findings suggest that owing to this new competition the home market’s liquidity has enhanced. This is apparently due to the battle for order flow which results in narrower spreads and increased market depth. These results imply that overall liquidity in a virtually consolidated order book is in the French case higher than without the new competitor.

  2. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  3. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  4. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  5. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  6. Innovative Methods for Serving Rural Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Glenn; Burnham, Julia

    1985-01-01

    Some innovative methods of serving the rural handicapped population are described: volunteers; telecommunications for home instruction; SPECIALNET electronic mail; and resources for parents. Three cases involving Utah's Cooperative Extension Project for the Handicapped summarize services for handicapped and Indian students. (GDC)

  7. Getting It Together: Serving the Adult Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a community needs assessment survey conducted by the College of DuPage (Illinois) which served to advertise existing programs, provide public relations for the adult education council, and obtain measures of need for existing or expanded educational and leisure activities. (MB)

  8. Serving Stakeholders at a Small Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrage, Sean

    2015-01-01

    The Southeastern Oklahoma State University Honors Program serves a unique role in a small, rural setting such as Durant, Oklahoma. The honors program has a traditional mission in a university that offers a nontraditional setting and history within the context of higher education. The program thus offers special rewards to its students and to the…

  9. Secondary Prevention--Serving Families at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thyen, Ute; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The Child Protection Center in Lubeck (Germany) offers a nonpunitive, self-help approach to prevent child abuse by encouraging families to determine their own needs. Over half of families served over a two-year period were self-reported and almost one-fifth received help to prevent violence against children before the occurrence of child abuse or…

  10. Measuring the Velocity of a Tennis Serve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, John; Lietman, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Presents an alternative to the use of a radar to determine how fast an individual can serve a tennis ball. Equipped with a tape recorder and a Macintosh computer, students determine the velocity of a tennis ball by analyzing the sounds and echoes heard on the court. (ZWH)

  11. Pyramid Servings Database (PSDB) for NHANES III

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute developed a database to examine dietary data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in terms of servings from each of United States Department of Agriculture's The Food Guide Pyramid's major and minor food groups.

  12. Making a Difference by Serving All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, Rivka I.

    2009-01-01

    Randi Brown came to school psychology almost as a family business. Her grandmother was a school psychologist and the first licensed psychologist in the state of New York. Randi graduated with a doctoral degree from Yeshiva University and has served students in Westchester County, New York, for 18 years. She exemplifies the dedication typical of so…

  13. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  14. Serving Distant Learners through Instructional Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drea, John T.; Armistead, L. Pendleton

    John Wood Community College (JWCC) serves a district population of approximately 90,000 in a predominantly rural section of west-central Illinois. In an effort to address the needs of the rural long-distance learner, JWCC has implemented a variety of instructional delivery techniques. Since its inception, JWCC has contracted with other area…

  15. Science To Serve the Common Good.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Garry D.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews "Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest", a report produced by a committee of the National Research Council that offers a model of a new and better approach to addressing environmental problems that could enable science to serve the common good. Demonstrates a successful approach to doing science and contributing to society.…

  16. "Gateway" Districts Struggle to Serve Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2012-01-01

    As thousands of communities--especially in the South--became booming gateways for immigrant families during the 1990s and the early years of the new century, public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large numbers of English-learners arriving in their classrooms. Instructional programs were built from scratch. Districts had…

  17. Serving Business in an Information Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Bookmark, 1988

    1988-01-01

    The 23 articles in this theme issue focus on various aspects of library services to business in an information economy: "Serving Business in an Information Economy" (C. Bain); "New York's Resurging Economy and State Economic Development Information" (R. G. Paolino); "Department of Economic Development Library: Services to Business" (B. S.…

  18. Graduate Students Serve Extension as Evaluation Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Megan; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to provide graduate students at a distance with field-based learning experiences and evaluation resources to statewide Extension programs, 24 Master's students participating in a distance-delivered program evaluation course served as evaluation consultants for Extension programs. State evaluation specialists unable to conduct…

  19. Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. Applying the new genomics to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Miles, Michael F; O'Brien, Megan A; Sanna, Pietro P; Zakhari, Samir; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 6-9, 2014. The overall goal of the symposium titled "Applying the New Genomics to Alcohol Dependence", chaired by Dr. Adron Harris, was to highlight recent genomic discoveries and applications for profiling alcohol use disorder (AUD). Dr. Sean Farris discussed the gene expression networks related to lifetime consumption of alcohol within human prefrontal cortex. Dr. Andrzej Pietrzykowski presented the effects of alcohol on microRNAs in humans and animal models. Alcohol-induced alterations in the synaptic transcriptome were discussed by Dr. Michael Miles. Dr. Pietro Sanna examined methods to probe the gene regulatory networks that drive excessive alcohol drinking, and Dr. Samir Zakhari served as a panel discussant and summarized the proceedings. Collectively, the presentations emphasized the power of integrating multiple levels of genetics and transcriptomics with convergent biological processes and phenotypic behaviors to determine causal factors of AUD. The combined use of diverse data types demonstrates how unique approaches and applications can help categorize genetic complexities into relevant biological networks using a systems-level model of disease.

  2. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s) and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and the

  3. Acute Alcohol Intoxication-Induced Microvascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol intoxication can increase inflammation and worsen injury, yet the mechanisms involved are not clear. We investigated whether acute alcohol intoxication elevates microvascular permeability, and investigated potential signaling mechanisms in endothelial cells that may be involved. Methods Conscious rats received a 2.5 g/kg alcohol bolus via gastric catheters to produce acute intoxication. Microvascular leakage of intravenously administered FITC-albumin from the mesenteric microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Endothelial-specific mechanisms were studied using cultured endothelial cell monolayers. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TER) served as an index of barrier function, before and after treatment with alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde. Pharmacologic agents were used to test the roles of alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), rho kinase (ROCK), and exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). VE-cadherin localization was investigated to assess junctional integrity. Rac1 and RhoA activation were assessed by ELISA assays. Results Alcohol significantly increased FITC-albumin extravasation from the mesenteric microcirculation. Alcohol also significantly decreased TER and disrupted VE-cadherin organization at junctions. Acetaldehyde significantly decreased TER, but inhibition of ADH or application of a superoxide dismutase mimetic failed to prevent alcohol-induced decreases in TER. Inhibition of p38 MAP kinase, but not MLCK or ROCK, significantly attenuated the alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction. Alcohol rapidly decreased GTP-bound Rac1 but not RhoA during the drop in TER. Activation of Epac increased TER, but did not prevent alcohol from decreasing TER. However, activation of Epac after initiation of alcohol-induced barrier dysfunction quickly resolved TER to baseline levels. Conclusions Our results suggest that alcohol intoxication increases

  4. Taxonomic Significance of Phenethyl Alcohol Production by Achromobacter Isolates from Fishery Sources1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T. C.; Levin, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The formation of phenethyl alcohol from L-phenylalanine and ethanol by achromobacter isolates of fishery origin was found to be taxonomically significant for such organisms. Phenylpyruvate, the direct oxidative deamination product of L-phenylalanine, was found to serve as an intermediate precursor to phenethyl alcohol formation. Among ten Acinetobacter isolates examined, none produced phenethyl alcohol. Among nine Moraxella isolates examined, one produced phenethyl alcohol. PMID:4422523

  5. Acquaintance molestation and youth-serving organizations.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Kenneth V; Dietz, Park

    2014-10-01

    This article is based not only on the research literature but also on the extensive field experience of the authors in consulting with investigators, attorneys, and organizations on the prevention, investigation, prosecution, and civil litigation of molestation of children within or in connection with youth-serving organizations. Acquaintance molesters have often pursued careers or sought out paid or volunteer work with organizations through which they can meet children. To address the problem of such offenders, it is necessary for youth-serving organizations to recognize the diversity of sexual activity, the phenomena of "nice-guy" offenders and compliant child victims, and the grooming/seduction process, each of which is reviewed here. The four most important protection practices for organizations are screening; management, and supervision; response to suspicions, allegations, and complaints; and prevention and awareness programs. The authors recommend general approaches to each of these and describe the reasons many organizations resist implementing available preventive measures. PMID:24860081

  6. Culturally Relevant Practices That "Serve" Students at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.; Okhidoi, Otgonjargal

    2015-01-01

    As institutions not founded to "serve" Latina/o students, Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) must actively change their curricula and programs to meet the needs of their diverse population, including Latina/o, low income, and first generation students. Using a case study approach, including interviews and focus groups, this study…

  7. Minority-Serving Institutions of Higher Education: Serving Communities, Revitalizing the Nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Housing and Urban Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education (IHEs) that serve minority populations are unique both in their missions and in their day-to-day operations. Some of these colleges and universities are located in remote regions of the country, while others serve congested urban neighborhoods. Their constituents range from Native Americans, the country's oldest…

  8. Complicating a Latina/o-Serving Identity at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    As institutions not founded to "serve" Latina/o students, Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) are criticized for solely being "Hispanic-enrolling," with access and graduation rates being hypothesized as indicators of an organizational identity for HSIs. Drawing from a case study with 88 participants, the purpose of this…

  9. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The invention of Hispanic-serving Institutions (HSIs) in the 1980s was grounded in the theory that institutions enrolling a large concentration of Latino students would adapt their institutional practices to serve these students better. Specifically, critical mass theory suggests once a definable group reaches a certain size within an…

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  12. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  13. Equipment for Hot-to-serve Foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Patented surface heating devices with a much faster air-to-solid heat transfer rate than previous air ovens were developed. The accelerated surface heating can brown, sear or crisp much more rapidly than in conventional ovens so that partially prepared food can be finished quickly and tastefully immediately before serving. The crisp, freshly browned surfaces result from the faster heat transfer which does not dry out the food. The devices are then compared to convection ovens and microwave heating processes.

  14. SERVE-HF: More Questions Than Answers.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Shahrokh; Brown, Lee K; Randerath, Winfried; Khayat, Rami

    2016-04-01

    The recent online publication of the SERVE-HF trial that evaluated the effect of treating central sleep apnea (CSA) with an adaptive servoventilation (ASV) device in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has raised serious concerns about the safety of ASV in these patients. Not only was ASV ineffective but post hoc analysis found excess cardiovascular mortality in treated patients. The authors cited as one explanation an unfounded notion that CSA is a compensatory mechanism with a protective effect in HFrEF patients. We believe that there are several possible considerations that are more likely to explain the results of SERVE-HF. In this commentary, we consider methodological issues including the use of a previous-generation ASV device that constrained therapeutic settings to choices that are no longer in wide clinical use. Patient selection, data collection, and treatment adherence as well as group crossovers were not discussed in the trial as potential confounding factors. We have developed alternative reasons that could potentially explain the results and that can be explored by post hoc analysis of the SERVE-HF data. We believe that our analysis is of critical value to the field and of particular importance to clinicians treating these patients. PMID:26836904

  15. Academic Giftedness and Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Peairs, Kristen F.; Eichen, Dawn; Putallaz, Martha; Costanzo, Philip R.; Grimes, Christina L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of development particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol use, with recent studies underscoring alcohol's effects on adolescent brain development. Despite the alarming rates and consequences of adolescent alcohol use, gifted adolescents are often overlooked as being at risk for early alcohol use. Although gifted adolescents may possess protective factors that likely inhibit the use of alcohol, some gifted youth may be vulnerable to initiating alcohol use during adolescence as experimenting with alcohol may be one way gifted youth choose to compensate for the social price (whether real or perceived) of their academic talents. To address the dearth of research on alcohol use among gifted adolescents the current study (a) examined the extent to which gifted adolescents use alcohol relative to their nongifted peers and (b) examined the adjustment profile of gifted adolescents who had tried alcohol relative to nongifted adolescents who tried alcohol as well as gifted and nongifted abstainers. More than 300 students in seventh grade (42.5% gifted) participated in the present study. Results indicated gifted students have, in fact, tried alcohol at rates that do not differ from nongifted students. Although trying alcohol was generally associated with negative adjustment, giftedness served as a moderating factor such that gifted students who had tried alcohol were less at risk than their nongifted peers. However, evidence also suggests that gifted adolescents who tried alcohol may be a part of a peer context that promotes substance use, which may place these youth at risk for adjustment difficulties in the future. PMID:21949444

  16. Internet-Based Methods May Reach Higher-Risk Men who have Sex with Men Not Reached Through Venue-Based Sampling§

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis; Smith, Amanda; Denson, Damian; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: Internet-based sampling methods may reach men who have sex with men (MSM) who don’t attend physical venues frequented by MSM and may be at higher risk of HIV infection. Methods: Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine characteristics of adult MSM participants in 2 studies conducted in the same 5 U.S. cities: the 2003-2005 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) which used sampling from physical MSM venues (e.g., bars, clubs) and the 2007 Web-based HIV Behavioral Surveillance (WHBS) pilot which used sampling through online banner advertisements. Results: Among 5024 WHBS MSM, 95% attended a physical MSM venue in the past 12 months, and 75% attended weekly. WHBS MSM who were black, aged 18-21 years, not college educated, bisexual- or heterosexual-identifying, and reported unknown HIV serostatus were less likely to have attended a physical MSM venue in the past 12 months (all p<0.01). Compared to NHBS MSM, WHBS MSM were more likely to be white, younger, college-educated, report unknown HIV serostatus, report unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner, and have first met that partner online (all p<0.0001). WHBS MSM were less likely to have been under the influence of drugs during most recent sex (p=0.01) or not know their sex partner’s HIV serostatus (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Many MSM recruited online also attended physical venues, but attendance varied by sub-group. Participants in WHBS and NHBS differed, and WHBS may represent a group of MSM at higher risk of HIV infection. These findings suggest that an internet-based method may be a useful supplement to NHBS. PMID:23049657

  17. A venue-based HIV prevalence and behavioural study among men who have sex with men in Antwerp and Ghent, Flanders, Belgium, October 2009 to March 2010.

    PubMed

    Vanden Berghe, W; Nostlinger, C; Buvé, A; Beelaert, G; Fransen, K; Laga, M

    2011-01-01

    This venue-based, cross-sectional study reports on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and behaviour of 649 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Antwerp and Ghent, Flanders, Belgium, from October 2009 to March 2010. Using time-location sampling, we found that HIV prevalence in MSM who attended different types of venue ranged from a high of 14.5% (95% CI: 8.9–20.1; n=22 in cruising venues to 4.9% (95% CI: 1.9–7.9; n=10) in more general gay venues to 1.4% (95% CI: 0.0–3.6; n=3) at younger MSM venues. Of those who tested HIV positive (n=35, five were unaware of their HIV status or self-reported as being HIV negative. One in five respondents were of non-Belgian nationality. The results showed relatively high rates of testing for HIV (52.2%; 95 % CI: 47.8–56.2; n=288) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (57.4%; 95% CI: 52.6–62.0; n=248) in the last 12 months. A majority of the men (n=233) used condoms consistently during their last anal sexual contact with a casual partner; however, HIV-positive men who were aware of their serostatus (n=30) reported less condom use with casual partners. This is the first such study in Belgium and the results constitute the evidence base for local, targeted interventions. Furthermore, our findings underscore the need for European cross-border cooperation to prevent HIV infection and other STIs among MSM. PMID:21794222

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL, POLICY AND PHYSICAL VENUE FEATURES AND SOCIAL COHESION ON CONDOM USE FOR PREGNANCY PREVENTION AMONG SEX WORKERS: A SAFER INDOOR WORK ENVIRONMENT SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Putu; Shoveller, Jean; Dobrer, Sabina; Ogilvie, Gina; Montaner, Julio; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to: report on a newly developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environmental Scale’ that characterizes the social, policy and physical features of indoor venues and social cohesion; and using this scale, longitudinally evaluate the association between these features on sex workers’ (SWs’) condom use for pregnancy prevention. Methods Drawing on a prospective open cohort of female SWs working in indoor venues, a newly-developed ‘Safer Indoor Work Environment Scale’ was used to build six multivariable models with generalized estimating equations (GEE), to determine the independent effects of social, policy and venue-based features and social cohesion on condom use. Results Of 588 indoor SWs, 63.6% used condoms for pregnancy prevention in the last month. In multivariable GEE analysis, the following venue-based features were significantly correlated with barrier contraceptive use for pregnancy prevention: managerial practices and venue safety policies (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.09; 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) 1.01–1.17) access to sexual and reproductive health services/supplies (AOR=1.10; 95%CI 1.00–1.20) access to drug harm reduction (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 1.01–1.28), and social cohesion among workers (AOR=1.05; 95%CI 1.03–1.07). Access to security features was marginally associated with condom use (AOR=1.13; 95%CI 0.99–1.29). Conclusion The findings of the current study highlight how work environment and social cohesion among SWs are related to improved condom use. Given global calls for the decriminalization of sex work, and potential legislative reforms in Canada, this study points to the critical need for new institutional arrangements (e.g., legal and regulatory frameworks; labour standards) to support safer sex workplaces. PMID:25678713

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. Biomarkers of alcohol misuse: recent advances and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zwolak, Agnieszka; Szczyrek, Michał; Wawryniuk, Agnieszka; Skrzydło-Radomańska, Barbara; Daniluk, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are highly prevalent in many cultures and contribute considerably to the global burden of health and social issues. The current inability to accurately characterise long-term drinking behaviours is a major obstacle to alcoholism diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop objective diagnostic tools to discern subjects with excessive alcohol use and alcoholism or to confirm abstinence. Research over past years has revealed several biochemical compounds with considerable potential for accurate reflection of alcohol intake. This review will address the issue of alcohol biomarker definition, the types of molecules used as so-called traditional biomarkers, and the compounds that can serve as novel biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels. PMID:27350834

  1. Proteomic approaches for studying alcoholism and alcohol-induced organ damage.

    PubMed

    Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne; Sobin, Josip; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2008-01-01

    Proteomics research is concerned with the analysis of all proteins found in an organism, tissue, cell type, or cellular structure. The shotgun proteomic approach, which involves two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (MS), is used to identify novel proteins affected by alcohol. More targeted analyses study protein-protein interactions using such techniques as the yeast two-hybrid system, affinity chromatography, or immunoprecipitation. Finally, proteomic strategies can be combined with genomic research findings using computer analyses (i.e., in silico). All of these approaches have been used in the alcohol field. These studies have identified proteins in various brain regions whose expression is affected by alcohol. Other investigators have used proteomic approaches to identify proteins that could serve as potential biomarkers of alcohol use. Finally, interaction proteomic analyses have begun to identify proteins involved in several nerve signaling networks in the brain, which then can serve as targets for further studies on alcohol's effects. Future proteomic studies likely will shed more light on the mechanisms underlying alcohol's actions on the body. PMID:23584750

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  3. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  4. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    PubMed

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  5. [The place of alcohol in hospital meals].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Broyer, Nathalie; Flot-Arnould, Laurent; Ploton, Louis

    2011-09-01

    Wine and other types of alcohol are generally seen as an important part of French tradition. A study was carried out at Mâcon hospital to reflect on the place of alcohol in meals served on short stay medical-surgical wards. The results show that the consumption of wine, which was already modest ten years ago, had almost disappeared by 2010, without the offer having been restricted. It would seem that it is possible to be hospitalised for a few days without drinking wine.

  6. Employee satisfactions in agencies serving retarded persons.

    PubMed

    Sarata, B P

    1975-01-01

    The work satisfactions of individuals employed by three agencies serving retarded persons were examined. The results contradicted the view held by most administrators that the individual's level of overall satisfaction is determined principally by his attitudes concerning employment in the field of mental retardation. Rather, the data suggest that satisfaction with the specific agency is the chief determinant of overall satisfaction. Extensive contact with clients and the perceived lack of client progress were found to be important sources of staff dissatisfaction. Finally, client-related dissatisfactions were often attributed to agency or staff deficiences. Implications for altering administrative practices were discussed. PMID:1115102

  7. Survey serves up food for thought.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    An independent survey into hospital food standards in England conducted earlier this year for the Soil Association saw over half of those patients surveyed admit they would not be happy serving the meals they received during a recent hospital stay to a child, while 29% said the food was so bad that, at times, they could not recognise what was on their plate. Nearly of quarter of the 1,000 indviduals questioned by OnePoll, meanwhile, had opted out of hospital catering altogether--choosing to have every meal brought in to them by visiting relatives; nor, the Soil Association says, is enough English hospital food being locally or sustainably sourced.

  8. Skylab Food Heating and Serving Tray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Shown here is the Skylab food heating and serving tray with food, drink, and utensils. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen in the Orbital Workshop wardroom was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste. The Marshall Space Flight Center had program management responsibility for the development of Skylab hardware and experiments.

  9. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  10. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  11. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  12. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  13. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  14. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  15. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  16. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  17. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  18. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  19. Serving to different locations: set-up, toss, and racket kinematics of the professional tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce

    2011-11-01

    The serve, as the most important stroke in tennis, has attracted considerable biomechanical interest. Of its component parts, the swing has received disproportionate research attention and consequently, little is known regarding toss kinematics. Indeed, the age-old question of whether players serve to different parts of the court from the same toss remains unanswered. Six right-handed professionally ranked players hit first serves (FSs) and second serves (SSs) to three 2 x 1 m target areas reflecting the landing locations of T, body and wide serves, respectively, on the deuce court. A 22 camera, 250 Hz VICON MX motion analysis system captured racket, ball, foot, and h and kinematics. Repeated measures ANOVAs assessed within-player differences in foot, racket, and ball kinematics within the FS and SS as a function of landing location. The positions of the front foot, ball zenith, and ball impact were significantly different in the FS, while kinematics across all SS were consistent. Front foot position was closer to the centre mark in the T FS and players impacted the ball further left in the wide FS compared to the T FS. This study discusses the findings in the context of the development of the serve as well as potential implications for the return.

  20. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  1. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  2. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  3. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  4. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  5. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  6. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  7. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  8. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  9. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  10. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  11. Social Influence and Selection Processes as Predictors of Normative Perceptions and Alcohol Use across the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abar, Caitlin C.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that social influences impact college students' alcohol consumption; however, how selection processes may serve as an influential factor predicting alcohol use in this population has not been widely addressed. A model of influence and selection processes contributing to alcohol use across the transition to college was examined…

  12. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  13. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  14. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  15. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  16. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  17. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  18. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  19. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. Findings The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. Conclusions The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine ‘active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process’. PMID:20078460

  20. Medical paternalism serves the patient best.

    PubMed

    Lim, L S

    2002-03-01

    It seems obvious that in a post-modern, constructivist world where meaning and value systems are often subjective and relative, any absolutist view is likely to be questionable. This is more so if it relates to ethics, the foundations, interpretation and application of which have been and continue to be much debated. So, in addressing the proposition, my efforts were directed at identifying a position that would mediate polarity. I examined the contention that the doctor, because he is better informed, may claim greater acuity and powers of judgment, and its defences against the charge of interfering with individual liberty and autonomy through various arguments such as the harm principle, the welfare, the principle of legal moralism and the appeal to uncertainty. While there is some validity to the arguments proposed, absolute paternalism would seem incompatible with respect for individual rights. How satisfactory, then, is the paradigm shift from paternalism to the independent choice model where the doctor presents neutral statistics as little biased as possible by his own views and judgments and leaves the decision making entirely to the patient or his/her relatives. This clearly had its limitations too. As with much of human experience, the answer would seem to rest in mediating the happy mean. Recognising a distinction between autonomy (self-determination) and independence (total freedom of choice without any interference) allows for a model of qualified independence or "enhanced autonomy" (Quill & Brody, 1996). This is predicated on doctor-patient dialogue, exchange of ideas/views, negotiation of differences, and sharing power and influence for the common purpose of serving the patient's best interest. This model would seem to be a responsible and effective approach to management of clinical dilemmas, as well as one that in its pluralistic approach is consistent with fundamental moral and philosophic propositions. It is by no means flawless, but in an

  1. Medical paternalism serves the patient best.

    PubMed

    Lim, L S

    2002-03-01

    It seems obvious that in a post-modern, constructivist world where meaning and value systems are often subjective and relative, any absolutist view is likely to be questionable. This is more so if it relates to ethics, the foundations, interpretation and application of which have been and continue to be much debated. So, in addressing the proposition, my efforts were directed at identifying a position that would mediate polarity. I examined the contention that the doctor, because he is better informed, may claim greater acuity and powers of judgment, and its defences against the charge of interfering with individual liberty and autonomy through various arguments such as the harm principle, the welfare, the principle of legal moralism and the appeal to uncertainty. While there is some validity to the arguments proposed, absolute paternalism would seem incompatible with respect for individual rights. How satisfactory, then, is the paradigm shift from paternalism to the independent choice model where the doctor presents neutral statistics as little biased as possible by his own views and judgments and leaves the decision making entirely to the patient or his/her relatives. This clearly had its limitations too. As with much of human experience, the answer would seem to rest in mediating the happy mean. Recognising a distinction between autonomy (self-determination) and independence (total freedom of choice without any interference) allows for a model of qualified independence or "enhanced autonomy" (Quill & Brody, 1996). This is predicated on doctor-patient dialogue, exchange of ideas/views, negotiation of differences, and sharing power and influence for the common purpose of serving the patient's best interest. This model would seem to be a responsible and effective approach to management of clinical dilemmas, as well as one that in its pluralistic approach is consistent with fundamental moral and philosophic propositions. It is by no means flawless, but in an

  2. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty

    PubMed Central

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2014-01-01

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group’s outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker’s focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption. PMID:24706799

  3. Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty.

    PubMed

    Shalvi, Shaul; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-04-15

    To protect and promote the well-being of others, humans may bend the truth and behave unethically. Here we link such tendencies to oxytocin, a neuropeptide known to promote affiliation and cooperation with others. Using a simple coin-toss prediction task in which participants could dishonestly report their performance levels to benefit their group's outcome, we tested the prediction that oxytocin increases group-serving dishonesty. A double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment allowing individuals to lie privately and anonymously to benefit themselves and fellow group members showed that healthy males (n = 60) receiving intranasal oxytocin, rather than placebo, lied more to benefit their group, and did so faster, yet did not necessarily do so because they expected reciprocal dishonesty from fellow group members. Treatment effects emerged when lying had financial consequences and money could be gained; when losses were at stake, individuals in placebo and oxytocin conditions lied to similar degrees. In a control condition (n = 60) in which dishonesty only benefited participants themselves, but not fellow group members, oxytocin did not influence lying. Together, these findings fit a functional perspective on morality revealing dishonesty to be plastic and rooted in evolved neurobiological circuitries, and align with work showing that oxytocin shifts the decision-maker's focus from self to group interests. These findings highlight the role of bonding and cooperation in shaping dishonesty, providing insight into when and why collaboration turns into corruption.

  4. Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    Researchers collect species occurrence data, records of an organism at a particular time in a particular place, as a primary or ancillary function of many biological field investigations. Presently, these data reside in numerous distributed systems and formats (including publications) and are consequently not being used to their full potential. As a step toward addressing this challenge, the Core Science Analytics and Synthesis (CSAS) program of the US Geological Survey (USGS) is developing Biodiversity Information Serving Our Nation (BISON), an integrated and permanent resource for biological occurrence data from the United States. BISON will leverage the accumulated human and infrastructural resources of the long-term USGS investment in research and information management and delivery. CSAS is also the U.S. Node of the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), an international, government-initiated and funded effort focused on making biodiversity data freely available for scientific research, conservation and sustainable development. CSAS, with its partners at Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), hosts a full mirror of the hundreds of millions of global records to which GBIF provides access. BISON has been initiated with the 110 million records GBIF makes available from the U.S. and is integrating millions more records from other sources each year.

  5. Serving Data to the GLAST Users Community

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Thomas E.

    2007-07-12

    The scientific community will access the public GLAST data through the website of the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). For most data products the GSSC website will link to the NASA High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center's (HEASARC) Browse interface, which will actually serve the data. For example, data from the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) from a given burst will be packaged together and accessible through Browse. However, the photon and event data produced by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), GLAST's primary instrument, will be distributed through a custom GSSC interface. These data will be collected over the LAT's large field-of-view, usually while the LAT is scanning the sky, and thus photons from a particular direction cannot be attributed to a single 'observation' in the traditional sense. Users will request all photons detected from a region on the sky over a specified time and energy range. Through its website the GSSC will also provide long and short term science timelines, spacecraft position and attitude histories, exposure maps and other scientific data products. The different data products provided by the GSSC will be described.

  6. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  7. Promotion of healthy swimming after a statewide outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with recreational water venues--Utah, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-05-18

    During the summer of 2007, Utah experienced a statewide outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by Cryptosporidium, a parasite transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Approximately 5,700 outbreak-related cases were identified across the state. Of 1,506 interviewed patients with laboratory-confirmed cryptosporidiosis, 1,209 (80%) reported swimming in at least one of approximately 450 recreational water venues during their potential 14-day incubation period. Cryptosporidium is extremely chlorine-tolerant, and secondary or supplemental disinfection with ultraviolet light or ozone can control but not prevent outbreaks. Because swimmers are the primary source of Cryptosporidium contamination, healthy swimming campaigns are needed to increase awareness and practice of healthy swimming behaviors, especially not swimming while ill with diarrhea (i.e., swimming while ill with diarrhea can lead to gross contamination of recreational water). Before the 2008 summer swimming season, Utah public health agencies launched a multimedia healthy swimming campaign. To assess knowledge of healthy swimming, a survey of Utah residents was conducted during July-September 2008. The results of that survey found that 96.1% of respondents correctly indicated that "it is not OK to swim if you have diarrhea." In a separate national survey in 2009, 100% of Utah residents but only 78.4% of residents of other states correctly indicated that "not swimming while ill with diarrhea protects others from recreational water illnesses (RWIs)." No recreational water-associated outbreaks were detected in Utah during 2008-2011. The healthy swimming campaign, as part of a multipronged prevention effort, might have helped prevent recreational water-associated outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in Utah.

  8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Levels in Outdoor Hospitality Venues: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature

    PubMed Central

    LICHT, ANDREA S; HYLAND, ANDREW; TRAVERS, MARK J; CHAPMAN, SIMON

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in high enough levels of hospitality venues to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees of such establishments. Data Sources Search strings in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Study Selection Sixteen studies were selected based on abstract review that either entirely or partly measured outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). Data Extraction The methods used to measure SHS indicators, particularly PM, were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect such measurements or the corroboration of ambient levels with known standards. Data Synthesis The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) is dependent on the number of smokers present, proximity to the measuring device, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Under specific conditions, peak outdoor PM2.5 levels can be comparable to those recorded in indoor smoky environments. Using data from both observational and experimental studies, annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 μg/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Conclusions Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. However, such exposures are likely to be higher for occupationally exposed individuals compared to patrons due to repeated and cumulative outdoor SHS exposures. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates. PMID:23220937

  9. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  10. Serving Those Who Serve: Meeting the Complex Needs of Students Returning Home from War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veislind, Emili

    2013-01-01

    As community colleges across the country strive to improve completion rates and serve a growing number of students returned home from war, the need for programs that meet the unique needs of veterans--including job training, social acclimation, referral programs for mental health counseling, and academic tutoring, to name a few--is more pressing…

  11. Offer versus Serve or Serve Only: Does Service Method Affect Elementary Children's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goggans, Margaret Harbison; Lambert, Laurel; Chang, Yunhee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of the Offer versus Serve (OVS) provision in the National School Lunch Program would result in a significant difference in fruit and vegetable consumption by fourth and fifth grade elementary students, and in plate waste cost. Methods: Weighed and visual plate waste data…

  12. How Online Schools Serve and Fail to Serve At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo-Brown, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Online schools were initially designed to provide access to diverse courses to advanced and homeschooled students, however, many online schools now market their programs specifically to students whose needs place them at-risk in traditional schools. The capacity of technology to address any of the needs of under-served students is largely…

  13. Application of local policy to prevent alcohol problems: experiences from a community trial.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Reynolds, R I

    1997-06-01

    Alcohol policy conventionally has been established at the national or regional, state and provincial levels. Alcohol policy at any level is not actually limited to the regulation and control of alcohol production, wholesale distribution, and retail sales. There are a number of alternatives for setting alcohol policies within a local community. Building upon existing national and state/provincial laws, policy makers at the community level can set priorities for allocating resources and enforcing laws related to drinking and driving, underage alcohol sales, alcohol serving practices of bars and restaurants and geographical density of alcohol outlets in the community. This paper concludes from the Community Trials Project that policies established at the local level can reduce alcohol problems. PMID:9231451

  14. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.

    PubMed

    Oei, T P; Burrow, T

    2000-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.

  15. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  16. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  17. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  18. [Hypothalamic-hypophyseal-gonadal axis in chronic alcoholic patients].

    PubMed

    Rallo, R; Fermoso, J; Ramos, F; González-Calvo, V; Marañón, Y A

    1979-01-01

    Eleven male chronic alcoholics without cirrhosis but with clinical features of alcoholism were studied. Ten healthy men of similar age served as controls. After suppressing hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17-beta-oestradiol (E2) and testosterone were determined in basal conditions and after administration of clomiphene citrate in each case. Basal levels of FSH, LH and E2 were higher and the testosterone level lower in the alcoholic group. After stimulation, there was no difference in gonadal hormone levels between both groups, suggesting a normal hypothalamic-pituitary axis with an adequate gonadal response.

  19. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  20. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  1. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  2. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  3. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  4. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  6. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  7. Desipramine enhances the ability of paliperidone to decrease alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine's pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  9. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  10. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  11. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  12. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  13. Is anyone around me using condoms? Site-specific condom-use norms and their potential impact on condomless sex across various gay venues and websites in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van den Boom, Wijnand; Stolte, Ineke G; Roggen, Astrid; Sandfort, Theo; Prins, Maria; Davidovich, Udi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate site-specific condom-use norms as assumed by visitors of gay venues and websites across the Netherlands and their association with men’s own use of condoms. Methods In 2010, men who have sex with men (MSM) visiting 18 sex venues (e.g., saunas), 30 non-sex venues (e.g., bars), 6 dating websites, and 2 social network websites completed an on-site questionnaire measuring two site-specific norms concerning anal sex: descriptive (assumed condom use of others at venue or website) and injunctive (assumed approval of condom use by others at venue or website). We measured the association between assumed descriptive norms and own use of condoms using logistic regression. Results Among 2376 participants (median age=30 years; IQR=22–43), 62% (n=1483) assumed that other visitors would not use condoms. Among men self-reporting on their own use of condoms, 22% (318/1421) reported condomless anal sex. Men at non-sex venues assumed other visitors would use condoms more often and approved of using them more often compared to men at sex venues. At all sites (venues/websites), men who assumed that others did not use condoms were more likely to have condomless sex themselves. Conclusions At gay sites across the Netherlands, more than half of MSM believed visitors of these sites would not use condoms during anal sex. The perception that others would not use condoms was associated with less own condom use. HIV prevention should address problematic on-site condom-use norms, as they play a role in influencing sexual behavior between men that meet at these sites. PMID:25938795

  14. A Venue-Based Survey of Malaria, Anemia and Mobility Patterns among Migrant Farm Workers in Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Schicker, Rebekah Stewart; Hiruy, Neway; Melak, Berhanu; Gelaye, Woyneshet; Bezabih, Belay; Stephenson, Rob; Patterson, Amy E.; Tadesse, Zerihun; Emerson, Paul M.; Richards, Frank O.; Noland, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations present unique challenges to malaria control and elimination efforts. Each year, a large number of individuals travel to northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia to seek seasonal employment on large-scale farms. Agricultural areas typically report the heaviest malaria burden within Amhara thereby placing migrants at high risk of infection. Yet little is known about these seasonal migrants and their malaria-related risk factors. Methods and Findings In July 2013, a venue-based survey of 605 migrant laborers 18 years or older was conducted in two districts of North Gondar zone, Amhara. The study population was predominantly male (97.7%) and young (mean age 22.8 years). Plasmodium prevalence by rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was 12.0%; One quarter (28.3%) of individuals were anemic (hemoglobin <13 g/dl). Nearly all participants (95.6%) originated from within Amhara Region, with half (51.6%) coming from within North Gondar zone. Around half (51.2%) slept in temporary shelters, while 20.5% regularly slept outside. Only 11.9% of participants had access to a long lasting insecticidal net (LLIN). Reported net use the previous night was 8.8% overall but 74.6% among those with LLIN access. Nearly one-third (30.1%) reported having fever within the past two weeks, of whom 31.3% sought care. Cost and distance were the main reported barriers to seeking care. LLIN access (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P = 0.04) and malaria knowledge (OR = 0.50, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with reduced Plasmodium infection among migrants, with a similar but non-significant trend observed for reported net use the previous night (OR = 0.16, P = 0.14). Conclusions High prevalence of malaria and anemia were observed among a young population that originated from relatively proximate areas. Low access to care and low IRS and LLIN coverage likely place migrant workers at significant risk of malaria in this area and their return home may facilitate parasite transport to other

  15. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  16. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  17. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  18. Communications Strategies on Alcohol and Highway Safety. Volume I. Adults 18-55. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey Advertising, Inc., New York, NY.

    The first part of a two-part, two volume study deals with adults aged 18-55 and identifies target populations and communications strategies for encouraging personal action steps to prevent drunk driving. Fully 54% of adult Americans participate once a month in social or business situations where alcohol is served. They are termed Alcohol Related…

  19. An Evaluation of the Alcoholism Rehabilitation Center Located at Fairbanks, Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Claude W.; And Others

    At the request of the Alaska Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Alaska State Office of Alcoholism, the Alcoholism Rehabilitation Center at Fairbanks which serves Alaska Natives was evaluated in 1971. A three-member evaluation team evaluated the center's: (1) administrative structure and organization, (2) treatment program, and (3) relationship with…

  20. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  1. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  2. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  3. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  5. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  7. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  8. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  9. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  10. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  11. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  12. 49 CFR 105.50 - Serving a subpoena.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROGRAM DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROCEDURES General Procedures Subpoenas § 105.50 Serving a subpoena. (a) Personal service. Anyone who is not an interested party and who is at least 18 years of age may serve...

  13. Second-hand smoke exposure in different types of venues: before and after the implementation of smoke-free legislation in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaohua; Yao, Zhenjiang; Gao, Yanhui; Xu, Ya; Xu, Ying; Zhu, Zhengwei; Chen, Sidong; Yang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Smoke-free legislation was implemented in Guangzhou on 1 September 2010. However, the smoke-free policy did not cover all indoor areas and smoking rooms can be set in some public places. This study aimed to assess changes in self-reported second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in different types of venues and in homes, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of smoke-free legislation. Methods/design A repeated cross-sectional survey of representative participants was conducted in Guangzhou before and after the smoke-free legislation. Logistic regression models were used to examine the effectiveness of smoke-free legislation. Main outcome measures Self-reported exposure to SHS,antitobacco advertisements and tobacco advertisements. Participants A total of 4900 participants before the ban and 5135 participants after the ban were selected using a multistage stratified design. Results In full smoking ban places, overall self-reported SHS exposure has declined significantly from 58.8% to 50.3% (p<0.05) with greater drops in cultural venues, government offices and commercial venues. The smoke-free policy did not alter SHS exposure in smokers’ homes (39.6% in 2009 vs 40.0% in 2011; p=0.454). Although a slight decrease in SHS exposure was observed in smoking rooms in hotels, workplaces, restaurants, cafes/bars/nightclubs and amusement parks, SHS continued to be high in those areas. The implementation of smoke-free legislation was accompanied by an increase in antitobacco advertisements. Conclusions SHS exposure declines more significantly in full smoking ban places than in partial smoking ban places. The smoke-free policy in public places does not lead to more SHS exposure in homes. Therefore, it is recommended that Guangzhou should implement a 100% smoke-free policy in all public places and workplaces in the future. PMID:24534259

  14. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  15. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  17. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  18. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  19. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  20. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  1. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  2. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  3. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  4. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  5. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  6. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  9. Heritability of MMPI-2 scales in the UCSF family alcoholism study.

    PubMed

    Gizer, Ian R; Seaton-Smith, Kimberley L; Ehlers, Cindy L; Vieten, Cassandra; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the heritability of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2nd Edition (MMPI-2) in a family-based sample selected for alcohol dependence. Participants included 950 probands and 1,204 first-degree relatives recruited for the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. Heritability estimates for MMPI-2 scales ranged from .25 to .49. When alcohol dependence was used as a covariate, heritability estimates remained significant but generally declined. However, when the MMPI-2 scales were used as covariates to estimate the heritability of alcohol dependence, the scales measuring antisocial behavior, depressive symptoms, and addictive behavior led to moderate increases in the heritability of alcohol dependence. This suggests that the scales may explain some of the non-genetic variance in the alcohol dependence diagnosis in this population when used as covariates, and thus may serve to produce a more homogeneous and heritable alcohol-dependence phenotype.

  10. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  11. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  12. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  13. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  14. Variations in serving sizes of Australian snack foods and confectionery.

    PubMed

    Watson, Wendy L; Kury, Alexandra; Wellard, Lyndal; Hughes, Clare; Dunford, Elizabeth; Chapman, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the serving size and energy content per serving of Australian packaged snack foods and confectionery products. Nutrition Information Panel data for 23 sub-categories of packaged snack foods (n = 3481) were extracted from The George Institute for Global Health's 2013 branded food composition database. Variations in serving size and energy content per serving were examined. Energy contents per serving were compared to recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines. Serving sizes varied within and between snack food categories. Mean energy content per serving varied from 320 kJ to 899 kJ. More energy per serving than the recommended 600 kJ was displayed by 22% (n = 539) of snack foods classified in the Australian Dietary Guidelines as discretionary foods. The recommendation for energy content per serving was exceeded in 60% (n = 635) of snack foods from the Five Food Groups. Only 37% (n = 377) of confectionery products displayed the industry-agreed serving size of 25 g. Energy content per serving of many packaged snack foods do not align with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the industry agreed serving size has not been taken up widely within the confectionery category. Given the inconsistencies in serving sizes, featuring serving size in front-of-pack information may hinder the objective of a clear and simple nutrition message. Messaging to help consumers make healthier choices should consider the variation in serving sizes on packaged snack foods. PMID:26344813

  15. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  16. [Genetic predisposition for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, D P

    2000-04-01

    A number of socio-economic, cultural, biobehavioral factors and ethnic/gender differences are among the strongest determinants of drinking patterns in a society. Both epidemiological and clinical studies have implicated the excessive use of alcohol in the risk of developing a variety of organ, neuronal and metabolic disorders. Alcohol abuse related metabolic derangements affect almost all body organs and their functions. Race and gender differences in drinking patterns may play an important role in the development of medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse. The incidence of alcoholism in a community is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption and covariates with the relative price and availability of alcoholic drinks. The majority of the family, twin and adoption studies suggest that alcoholism is familial, a significant proportion of which can be attributed to genetic factors. The question is how much of the variance is explained by genetic factors and to what degree is this genetically mediated disorder moderated by personal characteristics. Among the most salient personal characteristics moderating, the genetic vulnerability may be factors such as age, ethnicity, and presence of psychiatric co morbidity. Cultural factors and familial environmental factors are most likely predictors as well.

  17. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  18. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  19. SILENCING SHARAPOVA'S GRUNT IMPROVES THE PERCEPTION OF HER SERVE SPEED.

    PubMed

    Farhead, Nader; Punt, T David

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, grunting has become a familiar although generally unwelcome element of tennis. The behavior is considered to deny opponents the benefit of receiving optimal multi-sensory information in order to plan their own shots. The ability to make accurate serve-speed judgments of identical tennis serves presented on a computer screen, and accompanied by a grunt or not, was assessed among 38 participants (19 men). Accuracy and response time were measured. Analysis compared performance for below versus above average speed serves and for the grunt versus the no grunt condition. Grunting had a disruptive effect on serve-speed perception for below average serves, with most judged incorrectly to be above average. Response times for below average serves were also slower in the grunt condition. Grunting provides a complex perceptual challenge, and greater effort may be attributed to tennis serves with an accompanying grunt. PMID:26057416

  20. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  1. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism

    PubMed Central

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P.; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  2. Self-Serving Bias or Simply Serving the Self? Evidence for a Dimensional Approach to Narcissism.

    PubMed

    Tamborski, Michael; Brown, Ryan P; Chowning, Karolyn

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has suggested that narcissism can be conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of the related, but unique, dimensions of grandiosity and entitlement. The current studies examined the divergent associations of grandiosity and entitlement with respect to different types of self-serving strategies. In Study 1, we found that narcissistic grandiosity, but not entitlement, was positively associated with a self-enhancing strategy of unrealistic optimism. This association was not mediated by self-esteem. In Study 2, narcissistic entitlement, but not grandiosity, was predictive of unethical decision-making, an interpersonal self-promotional strategy that advances the self at the expense of others. Together, both studies support a model of narcissism consisting of a relatively intrapersonal dimension of grandiosity and a relatively interpersonal dimension of entitlement. PMID:22773880

  3. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  4. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  5. Using "Bud World Party" attendance to predict adolescent alcohol use and beliefs about drinking.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Steven R; Rekve, Dag; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the association between attendance at the "Bud World Party," a family entertainment venue created by Anheuser-Busch for the 2002 Winter Olympics, and alcohol-related beliefs and current drinking behaviors for a group of 7th and 8th graders who attend a middle school in close proximity to the downtown Salt Lake City plaza where the exhibit and related events were located. Data were collected via a questionnaire administered to 283 students 30 days after the closing ceremonies.. Logistic regression was used to predict recent alcohol consumption. Significant predictors were race (non-white) (OR = 3.9), religiosity (OR = .72), having a parent who drinks (OR = 4.8), the number of best friends who drink (OR = 2.5), and the interaction for "Bud World Party" attendance and gender (OR = 33.2). Post-hoc analysis of the interaction effect indicated that the relationship between "Bud World Party" attendance and recent alcohol consumption is moderated by gender. Girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely than the boys to have consumed alcohol in the past 30 days. In addition, the girls who visited "Bud World Party" were more likely to believe that drinking would increase their chances of popularity at school than the students who did not.

  6. Associations between partner-venue specific personal responsibility beliefs and transmission risk behavior by HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Ann; Horvath, Keith J; Simon Rosser, B R

    2013-06-01

    Personal responsibility beliefs of HIV-positive individuals to protect sex partners are an important determinant of engagement in transmission risk behavior. However, the degree to which such beliefs vary across different partners is unknown. HIV-positive men who have sex with men (n = 248) completing an online survey rated their personal responsibility beliefs for partners met in up to four different ways: (a) in a bar; (b) through the internet; (c) in a public sex environment (PSE); or (d) through friends or family. For those reporting two or more partner-meeting venues in the prior 3 months (n = 98), about a third reported variation in responsibility ratings. Means among the venues were compared in pairwise fashion, with the strongest beliefs accruing to partners met through friends or family and the least with partners met in PSEs. These results provide further evidence that identifying ways to increase personal responsibility beliefs is an important goal, as well as is the application of Bandura's theory of moral agency to HIV transmission risk behavior.

  7. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  8. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers’ risk of violence and conflict with clients, and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licenses, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors. PMID:25686777

  9. Risk behaviour and HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in a multiethnic society: a venue-based study in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kanter, J; Koh, C; Razali, K; Tai, R; Izenberg, J; Rajan, L; Van Griensven, F; Kamarulzaman, A

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to determine HIV prevalence, risk behaviour and knowledge of transmission methods among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Venue-day-time sampling (VDTS) was applied to identify venues where men congregate to solicit sex from other men. Participants recruited from clubs, massage parlours, saunas and one park self-completed a computerized behavioural questionnaire, were administered an oral rapid HIV test and given the opportunity to return later to receive full counselling and learn their HIV status. A total of 517 men were enrolled into the study. The majority were Malays (47.0%) and Chinese (43.7%). Twenty tested HIV positive (3.9%). Significant predictors of HIV infection included having unprotected anal sex with a casual partner (44.9% of participants, odds ratio [OR] = 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.90; P = 0.027), having unprotected receptive anal sex (27.9%, OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.10-6.54; P = 0.030) and having group sex (33.3%, OR = 3.95; 95% CI 1.55-10.09; P = 0.004). One in five participants (20.1% and 19.5%) did not believe that HIV could be transmitted through insertive or receptive anal sex, respectively. Risk behaviour is high and knowledge of HIV transmission methods was low among MSM in Kuala Lumpur. Future prevention efforts should focus on providing risk reduction education to this community. PMID:21364064

  10. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  11. Agnihotra in the treatment of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Golechha, G R; Sethi, I G; Deshpande; Rani, U

    1991-01-01

    Agnihotra is a Vedic ritual of litting fire in a copper pyramid pot with use of Mantras at sunrise and sunset time. It is found to have neurophysiological effect on human body and brain. Clinically it produces mental tranquility and reported to have useful adjunct effect on deaddiction. In our present study effect of Agnihotra was studied on 18 cases of alcoholism. It is found that it leads to total abstinence without other restrain after 2 weeks of continuous Agnihotra practice. An obsessive compliance to perform Agnihotra develops. After discontinuing, its effect last for another few weeks. Though relapse may develop on discontinuing Agnihotra, a sizeable number of cases i.e. 55%, continued to remain abstinent for more than 8 weeks. Agnihotra is not a total cure for alcoholism, but it may serve as an useful adjunct.

  12. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  13. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  14. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  15. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  16. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  17. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  18. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  19. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  20. Alcohol and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  1. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  2. The Comparability of Men Who Have Sex With Men Recruited From Venue-Time-Space Sampling and Facebook: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Sanchez, Travis H; Kelley, Colleen F; Peterson, John L; del Rio, Carlos; Salazar, Laura F; Frew, Paula M; Rosenberg, Eli S

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting valid samples of men who have sex with men (MSM) is a key component of the US human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surveillance and of research studies seeking to improve HIV prevention for MSM. Social media, such as Facebook, may present an opportunity to reach broad samples of MSM, but the extent to which those samples are comparable with men recruited from venue-based, time-space sampling (VBTS) is unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the comparability of MSM recruited via VBTS and Facebook. Methods HIV-negative and HIV-positive black and white MSM were recruited from June 2010 to December 2012 using VBTS and Facebook in Atlanta, GA. We compared the self-reported venue attendance, demographic characteristics, sexual and risk behaviors, history of HIV-testing, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence between Facebook- and VTBS-recruited MSM overall and by race. Multivariate logistic and negative binomial models estimated age/race adjusted ratios. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess 24-month retention. Results We recruited 803 MSM, of whom 110 (34/110, 30.9% black MSM, 76/110, 69.1% white MSM) were recruited via Facebook and 693 (420/693, 60.6% black MSM, 273/693, 39.4% white MSM) were recruited through VTBS. Facebook recruits had high rates of venue attendance in the previous month (26/34, 77% among black and 71/76, 93% among white MSM; between-race P=.01). MSM recruited on Facebook were generally older, with significant age differences among black MSM (P=.02), but not white MSM (P=.14). In adjusted multivariate models, VBTS-recruited MSM had fewer total partners (risk ratio [RR]=0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95; P=.01) and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) partners (RR=0.54, 95% CI 0.40-0.72; P<.001) in the previous 12 months. No significant differences were observed in HIV testing or HIV/STI prevalence. Retention to the 24-month visit varied from 81% for black and 70% for white MSM recruited via

  3. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  4. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P < .001). As expected, reporting a ban in air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries. PMID:20032039

  5. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yong, HH; Foong, K; Borland, R; Omar, M; Hamann, S; Sirirassamee, B; Fong, GT; Fotuhi, O; Hyland, A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA) conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n=4005) were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban) but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% versus 51%, p<.001). As expected, reporting a ban in air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries. PMID:20032039

  6. Support for and reported compliance among smokers with smoke-free policies in air-conditioned hospitality venues in Malaysia and Thailand: findings from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Foong, Kin; Borland, Ron; Omar, Maizurah; Hamann, Stephen; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Fotuhi, Omid; Hyland, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This study examined support for and reported compliance with smoke-free policy in air-conditioned restaurants and other similar places among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Baseline data (early 2005) from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA), conducted face-to-face in Malaysia and Thailand (n = 4005), were used. Among those attending venues, reported total smoking bans in indoor air-conditioned places such as restaurants, coffee shops, and karaoke lounges were 40% and 57% in Malaysia and Thailand, respectively. Support for a total ban in air-conditioned venues was high and similar for both countries (82% Malaysian and 90% Thai smokers who believed there was a total ban), but self-reported compliance with bans in such venues was significantly higher in Thailand than in Malaysia (95% vs 51%, P < .001). As expected, reporting a ban in air-conditioned venues was associated with a greater support for a ban in such venues in both countries.

  7. Innovative approaches to promote a culturally competent, diverse health care workforce in an institution serving Hispanic students.

    PubMed

    Ghaddar, Suad; Ronnau, John; Saladin, Shawn P; Martínez, Glenn

    2013-12-01

    The underrepresentation of minorities among health care providers and researchers is often considered one of the contributing factors to health disparities in these populations. Recent demographic shifts and the higher proportion of minorities anticipated among the newly insured under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act make the need for a more diverse and culturally competent health care workforce an urgent national priority.The authors describe current and future strategies that have been developed at the College of Health Sciences and Human Services at the University of Texas-Pan American (an institution with 89% Hispanic students in 2012) to prepare a culturally competent and ethnically diverse health care workforce that can meet the needs of a diverse population, especially in the college's own community. The college graduates approximately 650 students annually for careers in nursing, physician assistant studies, occupational therapy, pharmacy, rehabilitation services, clinical laboratory sciences, dietetics, and social work. The college's approach centers on enriching student education with research, service, and community-based experiences within a social-determinants-of-health framework. The approach is promoted through an interdisciplinary health disparities research center, multiple venues for community-based service learning, and an innovative approach to improve cultural and linguistic competence. Although the different components of the college's approach are at different developmental stages and will benefit from more formal evaluations, the college's overall vision has several strengths that promise to serve as a model for future academic health initiatives.

  8. Chiral discrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pal, Indrani; Chaudhari, Sachin R; Suryaprakash, Nagaraja Rao

    2015-02-01

    The manuscript reports two novel ternary ion-pair complexes, which serve as chiral solvating agents, for enantiodiscrimination of secondary alcohols and carboxylic acids. The protocol for discrimination of secondary alcohols is designed by using one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure mandelic acid, 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) and a chiral alcohol. For discrimination of carboxylic acids, the ternary complex is obtained by one equivalent mixture each of enantiopure chiral alcohol, DMAP and a carboxylic acid. The designed protocols also permit accurate measurement of enantiomeric composition.

  9. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  10. Women, aging, and alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; Fischer-Elber, Kimberly; Al-Otaiba, Zayed

    2007-01-01

    The increase in prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in younger versus older cohorts of female drinkers is many times higher than the corresponding increase in prevalence rates for male drinkers. Thus, the number and impact of older female drinkers is expected to increase over the next 20 years as the disparity between men's and women's drinking rates decrease. Due to differences in metabolism of alcohol, women of all ages compared to men are at higher risk for negative physical, medical, social, and psychological consequences associated with at-risk and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Aging women face new sets of antecedents related to challenges in the middle and older adult phases of life, such as menopause, retirement, "empty nest," limited mobility, and illness. As women age, they are subject to an even greater physiological susceptibility to alcohol's effect, as well as to a risk of synergistic effects of alcohol in combination with prescription drugs. On the other hand, there is mixed research indicating that older women may benefit from the buffering effect of low levels of alcohol on hormonal declines associated with menopause, perhaps serving as a protective factor against Coronary Heart Disease and osteoporosis. However, with heavier drinking, these benefits are either reversed or eclipsed. In addition, any alcohol consumption increases the risk for breast cancer in older women. The possible beneficial effects of alcohol must be weighed with the fact that the research does not typically establish causality, that low-risk drinking equates to one standard drink per day, that there is a risk of progression towards alcohol dependence, and that there are alternate methods to gain the same benefits without the associated risks. Older women also experience unique barriers to detection of and treatment for alcohol problems. Current treatment options specifically for older women are limited, though researchers are beginning to address differential

  11. Books as therapy for children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Manning, D T

    1987-01-01

    Books can help child welfare professionals who work with children of alcoholics as an adjunct to other therapies and interventions. Fiction books used in bibliotherapy and nonfiction books directed at the COA, adult, and professional communities can all serve useful purposes. As with any other technique, there are limitations to its effectiveness. Children who are good readers and/or used to finding solutions for other kinds of needs in books will probably profit most. When combined judiciously with personal interaction, however, books can help professionals break through COAs' defensive barriers and meet the special needs of this difficult-to-reach, at-risk population. PMID:3816339

  12. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  13. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  14. Sex work and its associations with alcohol and methamphetamine use among female bar and spa workers in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Urada, Lianne A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Morisky, Donald E; Schilling, Robert F; Simbulan, Nymia P; Estacio, Leonardo R; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of sex work and its associations with substance use among female bar/spa workers in the Philippines (N = 498), workers from 54 bar or spa venues in Metro Manila (2009-2010) were surveyed on demographics, drug/alcohol use, abuse history, and sex work. Their median age was 23 years and 35% engaged in sex work. Sex work was independently associated with methamphetamine use (19% vs 4%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-6.2), alcohol use with patrons (49% vs. 27%; AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4), and alcohol intoxication during sex (50% vs. 24%; AOR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5), but inversely associated with daily alcohol use (13% vs. 16%; AOR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5). Additional significant covariates included sexual abuse history, younger age, and not having a higher education. Findings suggest that interventions with sex workers in bars and spas should focus on methamphetamine use, alcohol use contexts, and violence victimization, to better meet the needs of this population.

  15. [Clinical concept of alcoholic dementia].

    PubMed

    Kato, N

    1991-06-01

    Intellectual deterioration, changing in behavior and affect are often seen in association with long continued and heavy alcohol ingestion and such deteriorated states of patients are called alcoholic dementia. A large number of investigators have attempted to designate clinical concept of alcoholic dementia throughout the centuries and many kinds of term like as alcoholic pseudo-paralysis, alcoholic mental deficiency and alcoholic deterioration, etc, have been submitted since the beginning of 19th century. Numerous psychometric studies have indicated cognitive impairment and memory disturbance in chronic alcohol abusers and moreover brain PEG and CT-scan studies have shown sulcal widening and enlarged ventricles to be common in alcoholics. However, alcoholic dementia is hard to classify as a distinct disorder caused by alcoholic ingestion. The reason is lack of specific findings, both clinical and histopathological, like as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other nutritional disorders in alcoholics. Victor, M. describes in his work the majority of patients who have come to autopsy with the clinical diagnosis of primary alcoholic dementia have shown the lesions of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and he postulates alcoholic dementia is heavily contaminated with burned-out Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. The clinical and pathological observations presented by this time represent alcoholic dementia is a residual category for cases in which there are severe impairment of intelligence with marked deterioration of personality following prolonged and heavy drinking.

  16. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  17. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  18. Alcoholic myopathy and acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Crabb, David W; Farrés, Jaume; Emery, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by biochemical and morphological lesions within muscle, ranging from impairment of muscle strength and loss of lean tissue to cellular disturbances and altered gene expression. The chronic form of the disease is five times more common than cirrhosis and is characterized by selective atrophy of type 11 (anaerobic) fibres: type I (aerobic) fibres are relatively protected. Although the causative agent is known (i.e. ethanol), the intervening steps between alcohol ingestion and the development of symptoms and lesions are poorly understood. However, acetaldehyde appears to have an important role in the aetiology of the disease. For example, alcohol is a potent perturbant of muscle protein synthesis in vivo, and this effect is exacerbated by cyanamide pre-dosage, which raises acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde alone also reduces muscle protein synthesis in vivo and proteolytic activity in vitro. The formation of acetaldehyde protein adducts is another mechanism of putative importance in alcoholic myopathy. These adducts are formed within muscle in response to either acute or chronic alcohol exposure and the adducts are located preferentially within the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal regions. However, the significance of protein adduct formation is unclear since we do not currently know the identity of the adducted muscle proteins nor whether adduction alters the biochemical or functional properties of skeletal muscle proteins.

  19. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  20. Applying Buddhist Practices to Advocacy: The Advocacy-Serving Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jane; Klepper, Konja K.; Lambert, Serena; Nunez, Johnna; Williams, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Creating and retaining empathic connections with the most disenfranchised among us can take a toll on the wellness of counselor advocates. The Advocacy-Serving Model is introduced as a creative approach to strengthening the ability of advocates to serve through enhancing awareness, focusing actions, and connecting to community. The model…

  1. 34 CFR 686.12 - Agreement to serve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) GRANT PROGRAM Application Procedures § 686.12 Agreement to serve. (a) General. A student who meets the... agreement to serve. The agreement provides that, for each TEACH Grant-eligible program for which the student... enrolled in the program for which the recipient received the TEACH Grant— (i) In a low-income school;...

  2. Long-Serving City Managers: Why Do They Stay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Douglas J.; Hassett, Wendy L.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 107 city managers with more than 20 years of experience indicate that long-serving city managers are usually in smaller cities that are homogenous and politically stable. Most are white males with above-average education levels, who have support from elected officials and commitments to the cities they serve. (Contains 28…

  3. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...

  4. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...

  5. On Their Own Terms: Two-Year Minority Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Castro Samayoa, Andrés; Gasman, Marybeth; Wilson, Audrey; Diggs, Desmond; Wolff, Melanie; Dávila, Carolina; Boland, William

    2015-01-01

    This report, published by the Center for Minority Serving Institutions in collaboration with CAPSEE, looks at the role of two-year Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) in improving postsecondary access and degree completion for disadvantaged students in the United States. In doing so, it aims to prepare the groundwork for research that considers…

  6. 40 CFR 791.34 - Serving of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Serving of notice. 791.34 Section 791.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.34 Serving of notice. (a) Each party shall be...

  7. 40 CFR 791.34 - Serving of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Serving of notice. 791.34 Section 791.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.34 Serving of notice. (a) Each party shall be...

  8. 76 FR 59499 - National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty- sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-24888 Filed 9-23... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8718 of September 21, 2011 National Hispanic-Serving Institutions Week, 2011... National Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) Week, we renew our commitment to strengthening and...

  9. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance. PMID:25358037

  10. Estimation of Food Guide Pyramid Serving Sizes by College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaust, Gretchen; Foster, Irene M.

    2000-01-01

    College students (n=158) used the Food Guide Pyramid to select serving sizes on a questionnaire (73% had been instructed in its use). Overall mean scores (31% correct) indicated they generally did not know recommended serving sizes. Those who had read about or received instruction in the pyramid had higher mean scores. (SK)

  11. The National Insurance Academy: Serving India's Insurance Professionals and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sane, Bhagyashree

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how a special library can meet the needs of a specific industry. The author focuses on India's National Insurance Academy (NIA) Library, which serves the insurance industry of India and some neighboring countries. It is where the author serves as the chief librarian.

  12. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...

  13. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...

  14. 16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CFR part 10, by the Department of Commerce, quantitatively defining the meaning of the terms serving... net quantity (in terms of weight or mass, measure, or numerical count) of each such serving, use, or... to the total amount of object or objects to which the commodity may be applied or upon which or...

  15. 16 CFR 500.26 - Representations of servings, uses, applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CFR part 10, by the Department of Commerce, quantitatively defining the meaning of the terms serving... net quantity (in terms of weight or mass, measure, or numerical count) of each such serving, use, or... to the total amount of object or objects to which the commodity may be applied or upon which or...

  16. Inventing Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    HSIs (Hispanic-Serving Institutions) are important institutions for Latinos, yet little research exists on them. This brief serves as a primer on the conditions and history behind their invention, the processes for identification, and the general institutional characteristics of HSIs. It also offers an overview of how these institutions are…

  17. Mapping Hispanic-Serving Institutions: A Typology of Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Núñez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria; Elizondo, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs), institutions that enroll at least 25% Hispanic students, are institutionally diverse, including a much wider array of institutional types than other Minority-Serving Institutions (MSIs). Furthermore, they have distinctive institutional characteristics from those typically emphasized in institutional typologies…

  18. Hispanic-Serving Institutions: What Are They? Where Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laden, Berta Vigil

    2004-01-01

    Hispanic-serving educational institutions are receiving greater public attention as they continue to expand in number. Increasingly, more and more Latinos and other racial and ethnic students are enrolling in these institutions. Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) are public and private two- and four-year colleges and universities with Latino…

  19. School Administrator Quality in Minority-Serving Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodríguez, Mariela A.; Mullen, Carol A.; Allen, Tawannah G.

    2015-01-01

    This commentary brings together the topics of geographically-oriented diversity, minority-serving institutions, and educational leadership programs. The geospatial context for this discussion about school administrator quality focuses on Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in the United…

  20. 40 CFR 791.34 - Serving of notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Serving of notice. 791.34 Section 791.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Hearing Procedures § 791.34 Serving of notice. (a) Each party shall be...

  1. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...

  2. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...

  3. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...

  4. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...

  5. 13 CFR 142.20 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false How are papers served? 142.20... ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 142.20 How are papers served? Except for service of a complaint or a notice of hearing under §§ 142.11 and 142.14(b) respectively, service of papers must be made...

  6. 45 CFR 2554.21 - How are papers served?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are papers served? 2554.21 Section 2554.21... SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Provisions § 2554.21 How are papers served... pleading and paper filed in the proceeding shall contain a caption setting forth the title of the...

  7. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  8. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  9. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  10. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  11. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  12. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  13. Commentary: Doxasozin for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A

    2013-02-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that α(1) -blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on α(1) -blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O'Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another α(1) -blocker, doxazosin, which has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O'Neil and colleagues' main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O'Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis.

  14. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  15. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  16. Integrating sodium reduction strategies in the procurement process and contracting of food venues in the County of Los Angeles government, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Patricia L; Kuo, Tony; Gase, Lauren N; Mugavero, Kristy

    2014-01-01

    Since sodium is ubiquitous in the food supply, recent approaches to sodium reduction have focused on increasing the availability of lower-sodium products through system-level and environmental changes. This article reviews integrated efforts by the Los Angeles County Sodium Reduction Initiative to implement these strategies at food venues in the County of Los Angeles government. The review used mixed methods, including a scan of the literature, key informant interviews, and lessons learned during 2010-2012 to assess program progress. Leveraging technical expertise and shared resources, the initiative strategically incorporated sodium reduction strategies into the overall work plan of a multipartnership food procurement program in Los Angeles County. To date, 3 County departments have incorporated new or updated nutrition requirements that included sodium limits and other strategies. The strategic coupling of sodium reduction to food procurement and general health promotion allowed for simultaneous advancement and acceleration of the County's sodium reduction agenda.

  17. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  18. ALCOHOL AND THE SOLDIER

    PubMed Central

    Saldanka, D.; Goel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted during a two year period in a zonal referral hospital were studied. Vie majority of the subject were between the age of 30 to 50 years and had more than 10 year's history of alcohol abuse. 19.26% of the subjects had to be invalided out of service. 66.09% remained under various categories of observation after the treatment. At the end of two year′s follow-up only 12% of them had recovered completely. Preventive measures in the light of state policies are discussed. PMID:21776144

  19. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  20. "Other Teens Drink, But Not My Kid": Does Parental Awareness of Adolescent Alcohol Use Protect Adolescents from Risky Consequences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Wu, Ming-yeh; Raffaelli, Marcela; Tsay, Jenner C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines white mothers (n=199) and white fathers (n=144) of adolescents reporting regular alcohol use. Less than one third of parents were aware of their adolescents' drinking. Parental awareness of adolescent alcohol use served to protect adolescents by moderating the reaction of parents' responsiveness to episodes of drinking and driving.…