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Sample records for alcohol syndrome prevention

  1. Prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fröschl, Barbara; Brunner-Ziegler, Sophie; Wirl, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most avoidable handicap of newborns. It describes prenatal damages which result from the alcohol consumption of the mother. These can be: reduced body length and weight (pre- and postnatal), microcephaly, musculoskeletal, mental and statomotoric developmental retardations and impaired coordinative ability. There are preventive measures of which the efficiency is examined. Already, short counseling interviews, so-called short interventions, increase the abstinence of pregnant women.

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Facts and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Maria; Cook, Martha

    1993-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including characteristics, incidence, current government programs, successful local programs, and implications for school administrators. (DB)

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Characteristics, Prevention, Treatment and Long Term Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seward, Cynthia A.; Barber, William H.

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) including causes, common characteristics, secondary characteristics, prevention, and treatment. Economic implications are noted which suggest that treatment costs are 100 times the cost of prevention programs. (DB)

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome prevention using community-based narrowcasting campaigns.

    PubMed

    Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael; Myerson, Amy; Eilers, Katie

    2008-01-01

    Preventing fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) by encouraging pregnant women to abstain from drinking alcohol competes with commercial alcohol marketing. Two FAS-prevention campaigns using a narrowcast approach among young women of childbearing age in two disadvantaged Southern California communities are compared. The design, implementation process, and degree to which campaigns reached the priority populations are the focus of this article. Formative research shows that young women in disadvantaged communities receive mixed messages about dangers of drinking during pregnancy. A social norms approach using positive role models was the most acceptable message strategy based on materials pretesting. Differences in campaign implementation and distribution strategies between communities were documented through program monitoring. Survey research indicated the more viable messaging and implementation strategies. Findings show that low-cost community campaigns are feasible; however, variations in messaging, distribution strategies, and saturation levels determine whether such campaigns succeed or fail to reach priority populations. PMID:18166669

  5. 10 Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects and Have You Heard about Alcohol and Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jerry; And Others

    A set of two pamphlets is presented on the topic of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. "Ten Projects for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects" provides ideas and materials for students and others to use in educating the public about the dangers of alcohol use during pregnancy. It offers…

  6. Screening, diagnosing and prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome: is this syndrome treatable?

    PubMed

    Ismail, Sahar; Buckley, Stephanie; Budacki, Ross; Jabbar, Ahmad; Gallicano, G Ian

    2010-07-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of adverse effects on a developing fetus. As a whole, these teratogenic outcomes are generally known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, the most severe of which is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Clinically, children diagnosed with FAS vary greatly in their presentation of symptoms, likely due to the amount of alcohol and timing of exposure, as well as maternal and genetic influences. All these factors play a role in determining the mechanisms through which alcohol damages a developing brain, the details of which are still largely unknown. However, continuing research and recent developments have provided promising results that may lead to screening mechanisms and treatment therapies for children with FAS. Here we review the teratogenic effects of alcohol, strategies for detecting maternal alcohol consumption, identification of fetal biological markers, and prevention methods for FAS.

  7. A health promotion perspective on the House of Commons' report "Foetal Alcohol Syndrome: a Preventable Tragedy".

    PubMed

    Loney, E A; Green, K L; Nanson, J L

    1994-01-01

    The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion is used as a conceptual framework to examine the recommendations concerning prevention in the House of Commons' Report "Foetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Preventable Tragedy." Fetal alcohol syndrome cannot be separated from the complex social, physical and economic environments affecting alcohol consumption. For substantial progress to be made in preventing this significant cause of mental handicap, it will be necessary to consider a wide range of preventive actions, beyond public education and mandatory warning labels on alcoholic beverages. A health promotion framework offers a comprehensive, intersectoral approach to this problem.

  8. The Use of a Qualitative Approach in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention among American Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace Xuequin; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Examines American-Indian adolescents' perceptions of risk factors and effects associated with alcohol use during pregnancy, and age-related prevention strategies for fetal alcohol syndrome. Results indicate peer pressure, influences of adult drinking behaviors, stressful family environment, and acceptance of alcohol use in Indian community may be…

  9. Is There Evidence To Show That Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Can Be Prevented?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy-Brennan, Majella G.; Oei, Tian P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the effectiveness of prevention programs in reducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Results reveal that prevention programs, to date, have been successful in raising awareness of FAS; however this awareness has not been translated into behavioral changes in high-risk drinkers as consumption levels in this group have increased. (Author/MKA)

  10. Native American Adolescents' Views of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Prevention in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Grace X.; Toubbeh, Jamil; Cline, Janette; Chisholm, Anita

    1998-01-01

    Surveys of Native-American students in grades six through eight examined their attitudes toward and knowledge of fetal-alcohol-syndrome risk factors and prevention strategies. Results revealed that there were limited prevention programs in middle schools, though students considered it an important topic. Families and peers were the most important…

  11. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    PubMed

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  12. A National Survey of State-Sponsored Programs to Prevent Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Hamlett, Carol L.

    1986-01-01

    Results of questionnaires and follow-up interviews with public health departments in each state and the District of Columbia revealed that, as a whole, state governments have not made a sustained commitment to the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome. Several states have initiated programs that could serve as a model for national effort.…

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  14. Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Other Alcohol-Related Birth Defects: Teacher's Manual and Student Text. High School Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; And Others

    This teacher's manual presents lesson plans for a high-school instructional unit on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and its less severe manifestations, Alcohol-Related Birth Defects. The lessons cover alcohol's effects during pregnancy, the history of concern about alcohol's effects, consequences of alcohol use in pregnancy, lifestyle risk reduction, and…

  15. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lisa

    This resource guide provides information on programs, publications, organizations, and other resources related to prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The purpose of this guide is to assist health care providers to comply with Indian Health Service (IHS) FAS goals and objectives. It gives examples of community approaches to FAS prevention,…

  17. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  18. [Progeny in women with fetal alcohol syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mena, M; Schürmann, R; Massardo, A; Moya, L

    1990-04-01

    Among children referred to our genetic clinics for mental or growth retardation we identified 8 of their mothers with the fetal alcohol syndrome. This was complete in 5 and partial in 3. All of their alcoholic mothers had died. Most of the patients were unwed mothers with mental retardation and no elementary education. One of them was also alcoholic and her third offspring had the syndrome. The etiology of this syndrome and possible preventive measures are discussed.

  19. Vitamin A, folate, and choline as a possible preventive intervention to fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Mark S; Sun, Muxin; Ko, Jenny

    2012-04-01

    It is recognized that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Alcohol can trigger a pattern of neurodegeneration in rat brains similar to other known gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) specific agonists. However this does not seem to explain FAS entirely, as impoverished care-giving environments have been shown to increase the risk of FAS. Individuals living under the poverty level are at risk for micronutrient deficiencies due to insufficient intake. In particular, three nutrients commonly found to be deficient are folate, choline and vitamin A. There is evidence to suggest that ethanol alone may not explain the entire spectrum of anomalies seen in individuals with FAS. It is hypothesized that FAS may be caused more by the nutritional deficiencies that are exacerbated by alcohol than by direct alcoholic neurotoxicity. It is known that ethanol inhibits folate, choline, and vitamin A/retinoic acid metabolism at multiple steps. Additionally, mice exposed to ethanol demonstrated epigenetic changes, or variations in the methylation of DNA to control gene expression. Folate is important in the production of methyl groups, which are subsequently used to create and methylate DNA. Choline (which is metabolized to acetylcholine) is important in neurotransmission and neurodevelopment. It is also involved in an alternative pathway in the production of methyl groups. In fact a study by Thomas et al. in 2009 found that nutritional supplementation with choline in rats exposed to ethanol in utero almost completely mitigated the degenerative effects of ethanol on development and behaviour. Lastly, vitamin A and retinoic acid metabolism is associated with the regulation of one sixth of the entire proteome. Thus supplementation of folate, choline and vitamin A to mothers may mitigate the effects of the alcohol and reduce the severity or prevalence of FAS.

  20. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  1. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  2. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  3. Advances in the development of novel antioxidant therapies as an approach for fetal alcohol syndrome prevention.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Pujades, Cristina; Vall, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, and its consumption during pregnancy can produce a wide range of abnormalities in infants known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The major characteristics of FASD can be divided into: (i) growth retardation, (ii) craniofacial abnormalities, and (iii) central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. FASD is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation in Western countries. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, the induction of oxidative stress is believed to be one central process linked to the development of the disease. Currently, there is no known effective strategy for prevention (other than alcohol avoidance) or treatment. In the present review we will provide the state of art in the evidence for the use of antioxidants as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment using whole-embryo and culture cells models of FASD. We conclude that the imbalance of the intracellular redox state contributes to the pathogenesis observed in FASD models, and we suggest that antioxidant therapy can be considered a new efficient strategy to mitigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure.

  4. Advances in the development of novel antioxidant therapies as an approach for fetal alcohol syndrome prevention.

    PubMed

    Joya, Xavier; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Salat-Batlle, Judith; Pujades, Cristina; Vall, Oriol

    2015-03-01

    Ethanol is the most common human teratogen, and its consumption during pregnancy can produce a wide range of abnormalities in infants known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The major characteristics of FASD can be divided into: (i) growth retardation, (ii) craniofacial abnormalities, and (iii) central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. FASD is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation in Western countries. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol neurotoxicity are not completely determined, the induction of oxidative stress is believed to be one central process linked to the development of the disease. Currently, there is no known effective strategy for prevention (other than alcohol avoidance) or treatment. In the present review we will provide the state of art in the evidence for the use of antioxidants as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment using whole-embryo and culture cells models of FASD. We conclude that the imbalance of the intracellular redox state contributes to the pathogenesis observed in FASD models, and we suggest that antioxidant therapy can be considered a new efficient strategy to mitigate the effects of prenatal ethanol exposure. PMID:25131946

  5. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of cyamemazine: anxiolytic effects and prevention of alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Michel; Dailly, Eric; Hascöet, Martine

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that the antipsychotic compound, cyamemazine, possesses anxiolytic properties in humans. The original pharmacological profile of cyamemazine (D(2), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2C), and 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist), which was established by binding, microdialysis and behavioral studies, is consistent with these observations. In the light/dark exploration test, cyamemazine demonstrated anxiolytic-like activity by acute, but not chronic administration. By chronic administration, however, cyamemazine increased the time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) test demonstrating anxiolytic-like activity. The discrepancy between the results obtained in these tests by acute and chronic administration, could be due to a combination of dopamine D(2) receptor antagonism with antagonism of the 5-HT(2C) and 5-HT(3) receptors. The action of cyamemazine on both the dopaminergic system and 5-HT(3) receptors could also explain the activity of cyamemazine in the management of alcohol withdrawal demonstrated in preclinical studies. This potential indication for cyamemazine and its activity in benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome have recently been investigated in clinical trials and the results of these studies are presented in this review.

  6. Factors Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing Routine Screening of Patients for Preventing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Survey of New Jersey Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Carole L.

    1991-01-01

    Survey of 58 physicians revealed that they did not routinely ask their pregnant patients about alcohol consumption for several reasons: physician bias resulting from own abuse, lack of training, poor awareness of problem and effects, denial that Fetal Alcohol Syndrome occurs in private practice, time limitations, disinterest, fear of offending…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications and Counseling Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.; Johnson, Norbert

    1983-01-01

    Presents special considerations in counseling fetal alcohol syndrome children and their mothers. Preventive counseling must begin before conception. Adequate education, counseling, testing, treatment, and followup of patients and their families is essential to reduce or eliminate problems associated with maternal alcohol abuse. (JAC)

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Research Review and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griesbach, Linda Sue; Polloway, Edward A.

    Research on fetal alcohol syndrome is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the implications of the syndrome for the development of mental retardation and other handicapping conditions. Attention is given to historical aspects; epidemiology; physiological and behavioral characteristics; and concerns related to diagnosis, prevention, and…

  10. Surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome in Colorado.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L A; Shaikh, T; Stanton, C; Montgomery, A; Rickard, R; Keefer, S; Hoffman, R

    1995-01-01

    The authors performed surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome with an existing birth defects registry. Fetal alcohol syndrome cases were identified from multiple sources using passive surveillance and from two selected medical sites using enhanced surveillance. Between May 1992 and March 1994, a total of 173 cases were identified, and the medical records of the cases were reviewed to determine whether the cases met a surveillance case definition for fetal alcohol syndrome. Of these cases, 37 (21 percent) met either definite (28) or probable (9) criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome, 76 met possible criteria (44 percent), and 60 (35 percent) were defined as not fetal alcohol syndrome. Enhanced surveillance had the highest sensitivity for definite or probable cases, 31 of 37 (84 percent), followed by hospital discharge data, 14 of 37 (38 percent). The authors also compared birth certificate information for 22 definite or probable cases in children born between 1989 and 1992 to birth certificate information for all Colorado births for that period. The proportion of mothers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome was statistically significantly greater (as determined by exact binomial 95 percent confidence limits) than the proportion of all mothers for the following characteristics: black race (0.23 versus 0.05), unmarried (0.55 versus 0.22), not employed during pregnancy (0.86 versus 0.43), and started prenatal care in the third trimester (0.18 versus 0.04). Surveillance for fetal alcohol syndrome can be accomplished with an existing registry system in combination with additional case finding and verification activities. Through followup investigation of reported cases, data can be gathered on the mothers of children with fetal alcohol syndrome. These data could be used to target fetal alcohol syndrome prevention programs. PMID:8570819

  11. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The guide was developed to assist professionals working with American Indian people as a resource in obtaining printed and non-printed materials on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. The resource guide is divided into the following sections: films (4), books (5), bibliographies (2), pamphlets (16), posters (5), slides (2), training curriculum (3), and…

  12. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome--Recent International Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Richard

    1988-01-01

    This paper explores incidence rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and describes physical and cognitive impairments exhibited by FAS children. It examines program strategies for prevention of FAS in the United States and reviews research undertaken at the Edinburgh University Medical School, Scotland, concerning alcohol effects on the ovum before…

  13. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  16. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse among Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Originally published in "Alcohol Health and Research World," this article is report of interview with Thomas D. Watts and Roosevelt Wright, Jr., conducted to explore solutions to complex problem of prevention of alcoholism among African Americans. Introduces readers to work of two experts in area of alcohol abuse and alcoholism among African…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An International Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    1987-01-01

    Describes Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) in infants, caused by mothers' consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Both disabilities found in relatively high proportions of American Indian children. Discusses impact of disabilities on education. Discusses parent education programs in United States and abroad. (TES)

  19. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, R. Louise; Sobell, Mark; Velasquez, Mary M.; Ingersoll, Karen; Nettleman, Mary; Sobell, Linda; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Ceperich, Sherry; von Sternberg, Kirk; Bolton, Burt; Skarpness, Bradley; Nagaraja, Jyothi

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure is a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Design A randomized controlled trial (2002–2005; data analyzed 2005–2006) of a brief motivational intervention to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) in preconceptional women by focusing on both risk drinking and ineffective contraception use. Setting/Participants A total of 830 nonpregnant women, aged 18–44 years, and currently at risk for an AEP were recruited in six diverse settings in Florida, Texas, and Virginia. Combined settings had higher proportions of women at risk for AEP (12.5% overall) than in the general population (2%). Interventions Participants were randomized to receive information plus a brief motivational intervention (n=416) or to receive information only (n=414). The brief motivational intervention consisted of four counseling sessions and one contraception consultation and services visit. Main Outcome Measures Women consuming more than five drinks on any day or more than eight drinks per week on average, were considered risk drinkers; women who had intercourse without effective contraception were considered at risk of pregnancy. Reversing either or both risk conditions resulted in reduced risk of an AEP. Results Across the follow-up period, the odds ratios (ORs) of being at reduced risk for AEP were twofold greater in the intervention group: 3 months, 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.69–3.20); 6 months, 2.15 (CI=1.52–3.06); 9 months, 2.11 (CI=1.47–3.03). Between-groups differences by time phase were 18.0%, 17.0%, and 14. 8%, respectively. Conclusions A brief motivational intervention can reduce the risk of an AEP. PMID:17218187

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bert, Cynthia R. Greene; Bert, Minnie

    Persons with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) may be diagnosed at birth based on specific symptoms and anomalies. These are history of prenatal alcohol exposure, mental retardation, central nervous system dysfunctions, growth deficiency, particular physical anomalies, and speech and language anomalies. With aging, cranial and skeletal anomalies become…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Ian R.

    1982-01-01

    At least 30 percent of newborn children of alcoholic mothers are affected severely by the fetal alcohol syndrome and 40-45 percent show some stigmata. Risks to offspring of mothers who drink occasionally or binge drink are not clear, but the danger is probably greatest in the first trimester of pregnancy. (CMG)

  2. National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome - (800) 66-NOFAS Twitter Facebook LinkedIn YouTube Pinterest RSS Alcohol and Human Development. ... 5th Annual FASD matters conference: navigating stigma, toxic stress, and trauma, which will be held November 10 – ...

  3. [Prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez Núñez, Maria E; Hernández Muniesa, B

    2010-01-01

    The refeeding syndrome can be defined as the metabolic alterations developed by the rapid nutrition repletion (oral, enteral as well as parenteral feeding) of severaly malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal clinical condition and it is often underdiagnosed on non-specialized nutrition units. The most important key for its prevention is to identify patients at high risk for developing refeeding syndrome, before nutrition repletion. The present case describes the steps to prevent the refeeding syndrome as well as the clinical recommendations to restart nutrition support.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Mirijello, Antonio; D’Angelo, Cristina; Ferrulli, Anna; Vassallo, Gabriele; Antonelli, Mariangela; Caputo, Fabio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Addolorato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome may develop within 6–24 hours after the abrupt discontinuation or decrease of alcohol consumption. Symptoms can vary from autonomic hyperactivity and agitation to delirium tremens. The gold-standard treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome is represented by benzodiazepines. Among them, different agents (i.e., long-acting or short-acting) and different regimens (front-loading, fixed dose or symptom-triggered) may be chosen on the basis of patient characteristics. Severe withdrawal could require ICU admission and the use of barbiturates or propofol. Other drugs, such as alpha2-agonists (clonidine and dexmetedomidine) and beta-blockers can be used as adjunctive treatments to control neuroautonomic hyperactivity. Furthermore, neuroleptics can help control hallucinations. Finally, other medications for the treatment for alcohol withdrawal syndrome have been investigated with promising results. These include carbamazepine, valproate, sodium oxybate, baclofen, gabapentin, and topiramate. The usefulness of these agents will be discussed in the text. PMID:25666543

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: The Impact on Children's Ability To Learn. Occasional Paper #10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troccoli, Karen B.

    This paper provides information on the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-related birth defects, the human and economic costs of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE), and examples of prevention and intervention strategies that can help reduce the occurrence of and ameliorate the consequences of FAS/FAE. It discusses the…

  6. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  7. Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Benzodiazepines and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Chandra, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is an increasing and pervasive problem. Alcohol withdrawal symptoms are a part of alcohol dependence syndrome and are commonly encountered in general hospital settings, in most of the departments. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome ranges from mild to severe. The severe complicated alcohol withdrawal may present with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the largest and the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, and are considered the gold standard. Others, such as anticonvulsants, barbiturates, adrenergic drugs, and GABA agonists have been tried and have evidence. Supportive care and use of vitamins is essential in the management. Symptom triggered regime is favoured over fixed tapering dose regime, although monitoring through scales is cumbersome. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on ‘Alcohol withdrawal syndrome’ in humans during the last 10 years. A total of 1182 articles came up. Articles not relevant to clinical utility and management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full text articles, meta-analyses, systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials were obtained from this list and were considered for review. PMID:26500991

  8. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  9. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  10. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  12. Preventing Underage Alcohol Access: Policy and Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    One of the major challenges faced by states and communities is the prevention of underage alcohol access. Underage drinking is widespread and, to a large extent, tolerated by society. It is also implicated in a range of health and social problems that are both tragic and costly. The bad news is clear and all too visible. Underage alcohol use is a…

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, R. Louise; Weber, Mary Kate; Denny, Clark; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol use among women of childbearing age is a leading, preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities in the United States. Although most women reduce their alcohol use upon pregnancy recognition, some women report drinking during pregnancy and others may continue to drink prior to realizing they are pregnant. These findings…

  14. Neural Crest Development in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Susan M.; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R.; Berres, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the “classic” fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species, and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology, and include genes important for neural crest development including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol’s effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol’s CNS pathologies

  15. Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R; Berres, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies.

  16. Neural crest development in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Susan M; Garic, Ana; Flentke, George R; Berres, Mark E

    2014-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disability. Some affected individuals possess distinctive craniofacial deficits, but many more lack overt facial changes. An understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits would inform their diagnostic utility. Our understanding of these mechanisms is challenged because ethanol lacks a single receptor when redirecting cellular activity. This review summarizes our current understanding of how ethanol alters neural crest development. Ample evidence shows that ethanol causes the "classic" fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) face (short palpebral fissures, elongated upper lip, deficient philtrum) because it suppresses prechordal plate outgrowth, thereby reducing neuroectoderm and neural crest induction and causing holoprosencephaly. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) at premigratory stages elicits a different facial appearance, indicating FASD may represent a spectrum of facial outcomes. PAE at this premigratory period initiates a calcium transient that activates CaMKII and destabilizes transcriptionally active β-catenin, thereby initiating apoptosis within neural crest populations. Contributing to neural crest vulnerability are their low antioxidant responses. Ethanol-treated neural crest produce reactive oxygen species and free radical scavengers attenuate their production and prevent apoptosis. Ethanol also significantly impairs neural crest migration, causing cytoskeletal rearrangements that destabilize focal adhesion formation; their directional migratory capacity is also lost. Genetic factors further modify vulnerability to ethanol-induced craniofacial dysmorphology and include genes important for neural crest development, including shh signaling, PDFGA, vangl2, and ribosomal biogenesis. Because facial and brain development are mechanistically and functionally linked, research into ethanol's effects on neural crest also informs our understanding of ethanol's CNS pathologies. PMID

  17. Pediatricians' Knowledge, Training, and Experience in the Care of Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahagan, Sheila; Sharpe, Tanya Telfair; Brimacombe, Michael; Fry-Johnson, Yvonne; Levine, Robert; Mengel, Mark; O'Connor, Mary; Paley, Blair; Adubato, Susan; Brenneman, George

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Prenatal exposure to alcohol interferes with fetal development and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify current knowledge, diagnosis, prevention, and intervention practices related to fetal alcohol syndrome and related conditions by members of the…

  18. Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2004-01-01

    Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Margaret E.

    This paper provides a discussion of definitions, historical precursors, and prevalence figures for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and highlights relevant medical and behavioral characteristics. It also addresses the educational implications of working with children with FAS in terms of instruction and curriculum. Educators are urged…

  20. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  1. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan Was'aka, Denver,…

  2. "One More for My Baby": Foetal Alcohol Syndrome and Its Implications for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, Wendy; Wells, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Foetal alcohol syndrome has been described as the commonest preventable cause of mental retardation in the Western world. It refers to a pattern of malformations, growth retardation and central nervous system impairments found in children of mothers who drink large amounts of alcohol while they are pregnant. This paper describes the nature of…

  3. Bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Related Issues. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    All Indian Pueblo Council, Albuquerque, NM.

    The bibliography on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome presents 312 unannotated journal articles for use by professionals working with American Indian people and is designed to serve as a vital source of knowledge on alcohol and child health. The bibliography is intended to list articles on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and humans, and only highlight a minimal…

  4. Impaired placentation in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gundogan, F; Elwood, G; Longato, L; Tong, M; Feijoo, A; Carlson, R I; Wands, J R; de la Monte, S M

    2008-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is one of the key features of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and IUGR can be mediated by impaired placentation. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF) regulate placentation due to stimulatory effects on extravillous trophoblasts, which are highly motile and invasive. Previous studies demonstrated that extravillous trophoblasts express high levels of aspartyl-(asparaginyl) beta-hydroxylase (AAH), a gene that is regulated by IGF and has a critical role in cell motility and invasion. The present study examines the hypothesis that ethanol impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed isocaloric liquid diets containing 0% or 37% ethanol by caloric content. Placentas harvested on gestation day 16 were used for histopathological, mRNA, and protein studies to examine AAH expression in relation to the integrity of placentation and ethanol exposure. Chronic ethanol feeding prevented or impaired the physiological conversion of uterine vessels required for expansion of maternal circulation into placenta, a crucial process for adequate placentation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated significant reductions in IRS-1, IRS-2, and significant increases in IGF-II and IGF-II receptor mRNA levels in ethanol-exposed placentas. These abnormalities were associated with significantly reduced levels of AAH expression in trophoblastic cells, particularly within the mesometrial triangle (deep placental bed) as demonstrated by real time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, ELISA, and immunohistochemical staining. Ethanol-impaired placentation is associated with inhibition of AAH expression in trophoblasts. This effect of chronic gestational exposure to ethanol may contribute to IUGR in FAS.

  5. Meditation and the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Shafil, M; Lavely, R; Jaffe, R

    1975-09-01

    The authors surveyed the frequency of alcohol use in individuals identified as practitioners of Transcendental Meditation (N equals 126) and a matched control group (N equals 90). No control subjects reported discontinuation of beer and wine use; 40 percent of subjects who had meditated for more than 2 years reported discontinuation within the first 6 months. After 25-39 months of meditation, this figure increased to 60 percent. In addition, 54 percent of this group, versus 1 percent of the control group, had stopped drinking hard liquor. The authors suggest that meditation could be an effective preventive tool in the area of alcohol abuse.

  6. Suppression of retinol-binding protein 4 with RNA oligonucleotide prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Sun, Lun-Quan; Kamal, Mohammad A; Wang, Xiaoyang; Seale, J Paul; Qu, Xianqin

    2011-12-01

    Conflicting data have been reported regarding the role of retinol-binding protein (RBP4) in insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we used pharmacological methods to investigate the role of RBP4. RNA oligonucleotide against RBP4 (anti-RBP4 oligo) was transfected into 3T3-L1 adipocytes. RT-PCR analysis showed that RBP4 mRNA expression decreased by 55% (p<0.01) compared with control cells. Validated RNA oligo was used in an in vivo study with high fat diet (HFD) fed - mice. 14 weeks of HFD feeding increased RBP4 expression (associated with elevated serum levels measured with immunoblotting and ELISA) by 56% in adipose tissue (p<0.05) and 68% in the liver (p<0.01). Adipose RBP4 levels were significantly reduced after 4 weeks treatment with anti-RBP4 oligo (25mg/kg, p<0.01) and rosiglitazone (RSG, 10mg/kg, p<0.05) compared with scrambled RNA oligo (25mg/kg) treated mice. Only anti-RBP4 oligo significantly inhibited RBP4 protein (p<0.01) and mRNA expression (p<0.01) in the liver and reduced serum RBP4 levels. Anti-RBP4 oligo and RSG showed comparable effects on impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia. Anti-RBP4 oligo significantly enhanced adipose-GLUT4 expression (p<0.01) but did not increase muscle-GLUT4. Both RSG and anti-RBP4 oligo significantly reduced hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression (both p<0.05). Histological analysis revealed that anti-RBP4 oligo ameliorated hepatic steatosis and reduced lipid droplets associated with normalized liver function. Histological and pharmacological results of this study indicate that RBP4 is not only an adipocytokine, but also a hepatic cytokine leading to metabolic syndrome, NAFLD and type 2 diabetes.

  7. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  8. New Headings: Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    This brief booklet outlines the goals and rationale behind the Navy Alcoholism Prevention Program (NAPP). The program is built upon the assumption that alcoholism is a preventable and treatable illness. More than half the directors, counselors, and support staff at NAPP are sober alcoholics whose primary objectives involve aiding other alcoholics…

  9. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Guide for Families and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann

    The 14 chapters of this book review the research and offer guidelines for intervention with infants and children having fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). Chapters are grouped into five sections on the diseases of fetal alcohol, the science of FAS, a life-span approach to FAS, preparing people with FAS for life in the…

  10. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  11. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE): Implications For Rural Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck, Rosalie; And Others

    This report reviews literature on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on the fetus and the resulting impact on the learning abilities and behavior of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Recent reports indicate that an estimated 73 percent of infants are exposed to alcohol before birth, resulting in varying degrees of learning…

  13. [Alcohol and acute respiratory distress syndrome: casuality or causality?].

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Xavier; Guardiola, Juan J; Soler, Manuel

    2013-06-18

    Alcohol has been considered an important risk factor for the development of pneumonia since the last century. Nevertheless, it was not thought that it had relevant effects on lung structure and functions until recently. Recent studies have shown that the risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is 2-4 times higher among alcoholic patients with sepsis or trauma, and that alcoholism can play a roll in more than 50% of cases in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Although alcoholism per se does not cause acute lung injury it predisposes to pulmonary dysfunction after inflammatory stress, that is present in clinical situations that cause ARDS leading to its development and complicating its outcome. Recent investigations in animals and humans with alcohol abuse have uncovered several alterations currently known as the "alcoholic lung". This revision discusses the association between alcohol abuse and lung injury/ARDS and tries to explain the physiopathology along with possible treatments.

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Their Roles in Alcohol Education/Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Katherine Ott; Paulo, Jonathan R.; Polacek, Georgia N. L. J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among college students continues to be a major public health threat to our nation. The purpose of this study was to explore faculty perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in alcohol education and prevention. The researchers adapted the Core Faculty and Staff Environmental Alcohol and Other Drug Survey to include only questions…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Understanding the Problem; Understanding the Solution; What Indian Communities Can Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streissguth, Ann P.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes facts about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), including physical and mental symptoms; cause; prevalence overall and in Indian communities; and problems of infants, children, and adults with FAS. Emphasizes the importance of public awareness, professional education, and provision of community services to prevent FAS. Outlines specific…

  16. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Fernandes, Austin B.; Goyal, Sunil; Shanker, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens. PMID:27212829

  17. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

  18. Recognizing and preventing refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Susan M

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is an uncommon but potentially fatal phenomenon that can occur in patients receiving parenteral, enteral, or oral feedings after a period of sustained malnutrition or starvation. This syndrome is characterized by hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hypomagnesemia. The purpose of this article was to bring an acute awareness of refeeding syndrome to the critical care nurse. The recognition, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, potential life threatening complications, and treatment are presented.

  19. Syndrome Analysis: Chronic Alcoholism in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendorf, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Provides outline narrative of most possible outcomes of regular heavy alcohol use, regular alcohol abuse, or chronic alcoholism. A systems analysis approach is used to expose conditions that may result when a human organism is subjected to excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. Such an approach illustrates the detrimental effects which alcohol…

  20. Behavioral Aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Mountain Plains Information Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Karen Stuut

    This paper discusses the symptoms, causes, and diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). It then presents information from biological and adopted parents of 14 individuals (ages 4-23 years) diagnosed with FAS or FAE, based on a parent survey concerning behavioral and educational histories of their children.…

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Developmental Characteristics and Directions for Further Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betty Fry; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of how fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is identified, a review of theories on how alcohol acts to produce FAS, and a summary of the impact of the early and long-term effects of FAS. Issues that are particularly pertinent to children with FAS and their caregivers are raised. (DB)

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnostic Features and Psychoeducational Risk Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Grabowski, Jo-Anne

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), accepted as leading known cause of mental retardation. Relates chronicity, timing, and severity of alcohol exposure to age-specific developmental and behavioral consequences. Delineates specific interventions with infants, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. Advocates for accurate diagnosis…

  3. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  4. Towards Prevention of Acute Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, A.; Thongprayoon, C.; Pickering, B.W.; Akhoundi, A.; Wilson, G.; Pieczkiewicz, D.; Herasevich, V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Identifying patients at risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) before their admission to intensive care is crucial to prevention and treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the performance of an automated algorithm for identifying selected ARDS predisposing conditions at the time of hospital admission. Methods This secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study included 3,005 patients admitted to hospital between January 1 and December 31, 2010. The automated algorithm for five ARDS predisposing conditions (sepsis, pneumonia, aspiration, acute pancreatitis, and shock) was developed through a series of queries applied to institutional electronic medical record databases. The automated algorithm was derived and refined in a derivation cohort of 1,562 patients and subsequently validated in an independent cohort of 1,443 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an automated algorithm to identify ARDS risk factors were compared with another two independent data extraction strategies, including manual data extraction and ICD-9 code search. The reference standard was defined as the agreement between the ICD-9 code, automated and manual data extraction. Results Compared to the reference standard, the automated algorithm had higher sensitivity than manual data extraction for identifying a case of sepsis (95% vs. 56%), aspiration (63% vs. 42%), acute pancreatitis (100% vs. 70%), pneumonia (93% vs. 62%) and shock (77% vs. 41%) with similar specificity except for sepsis and pneumonia (90% vs. 98% for sepsis and 95% vs. 99% for pneumonia). The PPV for identifying these five acute conditions using the automated algorithm ranged from 65% for pneumonia to 91 % for acute pancreatitis, whereas the NPV for the automated algorithm ranged from 99% to 100%. Conclusion A rule-based electronic data extraction can reliably and accurately identify patients at risk of ARDS at the time of hospital

  5. Management of Acute Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Deepali; Endicott, Jeffrey; Burry, Lisa; Ramos, Liz; Yeung, Siu Yan Amy; Devabhakthuni, Sandeep; Chan, Claire; Tobia, Anthony; Bulloch, Marilyn N

    2016-07-01

    Approximately 16-31% of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) have an alcohol use disorder and are at risk for developing alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Patients admitted to the ICU with AWS have an increased hospital and ICU length of stay, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, higher costs, and increased mortality compared with those admitted without an alcohol-related disorder. Despite the high prevalence of AWS among ICU patients, no guidelines for the recognition or management of AWS or delirium tremens in the critically ill currently exist, leading to tremendous variability in clinical practice. Goals of care should include immediate management of dehydration, nutritional deficits, and electrolyte derangements; relief of withdrawal symptoms; prevention of progression of symptoms; and treatment of comorbid illnesses. Symptom-triggered treatment of AWS with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor agonists is the cornerstone of therapy. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are most studied and are often the preferred first-line agents due to their efficacy and safety profile. However, controversy still exists as to who should receive treatment, how to administer BZDs, and which BZD to use. Although most patients with AWS respond to usual doses of BZDs, ICU clinicians are challenged with managing BZD-resistant patients. Recent literature has shown that using an early multimodal approach to managing BZD-resistant patients appears beneficial in rapidly improving symptoms. This review highlights the results of recent promising studies published between 2011 and 2015 evaluating adjunctive therapies for BZD-resistant alcohol withdrawal such as antiepileptics, baclofen, dexmedetomidine, ethanol, ketamine, phenobarbital, propofol, and ketamine. We provide guidance on the places in therapy for select agents for management of critically ill patients in the presence of AWS. PMID:27196747

  6. Preschool Teacher Attitude and Knowledge Regarding Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite R-P.

    The Centers for Disease Control estimate that each year more than 8,000 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) babies are born, and that many more babies go undiagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE), a less severe condition. FAS and FAE have been identified as major contributors to poor memory, shorter attention spans, lower IQs, diminished achievement…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects-- Support for Teachers and Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Susanna V.; Norton, Terry L.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews genesis of fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects in children. Identifies physical characteristics and behavioral indicators found and provides three checklists of observable signs for both disorders. Recommends seven steps for educators to follow in seeking assistance with these conditions. (DLH)

  9. The Best Prevention: Model Alcohol and Drug Education Program. NHTSA Prevention Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide was created for school administrators, parents, teachers, and community groups interested in developing effective alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs for elementary and secondary schools. A comprehensive approach to school-based alcohol and drug prevention is described and various prevention activities which have been selected by…

  10. Partnership Working in Community Alcohol Prevention Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastache, Claudia; Mistral, Willm; Velleman, Richard; Templeton, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The National Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England places much emphasis on creating partnerships at both national and local levels between government, the drinks industry, health services, police, individuals and communities to tackle alcohol misuse and associated harm and disorder. This article describes the characteristic structures and…

  11. Helping Schools Prevent Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…

  12. Relapse Prevention Model of Behavioral Maintenance: Implications for Alcohol Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Colley, Mary; Cinelli, Bethann

    1992-01-01

    Describes Relapse Prevention as therapeutic modality, based on Social Learning Theory, used to prevent relapse for individuals who have completed treatment for substance abuse behaviors. Outlines relapse prevention theory and suggests various components of model be incorporated into alcohol education curricula. Outlines teaching strategies to…

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Educational Needs in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brems, Christiane; Boschma-Wynn, Rachel V.; Dewane, Sarah L.; Edwards, Alexandra; Robinson, Rebecca Volino

    2011-01-01

    As many as 4.5 live births per 1000 are affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), preventable birth defects with life-long consequences. Prevention of FASDs is gaining in importance, and recruitment of diverse disciplines in delivering prevention to women of childbearing age is essential. This needs assessment explored to what extent…

  14. Treatment and prevention of alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Penning, Renske

    2010-06-01

    The search for alcohol hangover cures is as old as alcohol itself. Many cures and prophylactic agents are available, but scientific evidence for their effectiveness is generally lacking. This review summarizes and discusses the limited number of studies that examined the effectiveness of alcohol hangover treatments. From these studies it must be concluded that most remedies do not significantly reduce overall hangover severity. Some compounds reduce specific symptoms such as vomiting and headache, but are not effective in reducing other common hangover symptoms such as drowsiness and fatigue. Hangover cures that showed positive effects were those inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis or accelerating alcohol metabolism. Future studies should elucidate the pathology of alcohol hangover. Until then, it is unlikely that an effective hangover cure will be developed.

  15. Preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Makhija, Nita J; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Adolescent suicide is an escalating crisis that needs to be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Alcohol use has consistently been implicated in adolescent suicide and it is generally assumed that alcohol use leads to an increased risk in suicidality, suicide attempts and completed suicides. It can lead to adolescent suicidality through alcohol myopia, disinhibition, and impaired judgment. Multiple genetically related intermediate phenotypes might contribute to the risk of alcohol misuse and suicidal behavior in adolescents. Genetic variations that enhance the risk for mood and anxiety symptoms or susceptibility to stress might increase risk through different mechanisms. Comorbid disorders such as depression are frequently exhibited in adolescents who misuse alcohol, therefore any adolescent who appears to be at risk for alcoholism or depression should always be screened for all other psychiatric disorders and for suicidality; some signs suicidal adolescents may exhibit include withdrawal, personality change, and a loss of interest in pleasurable activities. While assessment is important, prevention is crucial in any attempt to decrease the incidence of adolescent suicide. The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has established a set of seven guidelines that can be implemented from kindergarten through high school in order to establish alcohol prevention efforts in schools. Through beginning prevention efforts at a young age, it is hopeful that both alcohol misuse and adolescent suicide can be reduced. PMID:17458324

  16. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  17. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…

  18. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  19. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  20. College Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide: Environmental Approaches to Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; Colthurst, Tom; Segars, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This guide is designed to help individuals identify and modify risks that contribute to alcohol-related problems within college and university communities. Despite general agreement among campus officials and students alike that alcohol use contributes to a range of problems confronting colleges and universities, prevention often does not command…

  1. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome. PMID:25606136

  2. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  3. Environmental Management: An Approach to Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Most campus alcohol and other drug (AOD) programs include prevention, intervention, and treatment services designed to address individual students' knowledge of the consequences of alcohol and other drug use, to improve their skills in resisting such behavior, or to address existing problematic use of or addiction to alcohol or other drugs.…

  4. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  5. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  6. Methods for surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome: The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII) - Arizona, Colorado, New York, 2009 - 2014.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Leslie A; Ortiz, Linnette; Montgomery, April; Fox, Deborah J; Cunniff, Christopher; Ruttenber, Margaret; Breen, April; Pettygrove, Sydney; Klumb, Don; Druschel, Charlotte; Frías, Jaime L; Robinson, Luther K; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Ferrara, Kelly; Kelly, Maureen; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney, F John

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is important for monitoring the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and describing the public health burden of this preventable disorder. Building on the infrastructure of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet, 1997-2002), in 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded 5-year cooperative agreements to three states, Arizona, Colorado, and New York, to conduct population-based surveillance of FAS. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII, 2009-2014) developed a surveillance case definition based on three clinical criteria: characteristic facial features, central nervous system abnormalities, and growth deficiency. FASSNetII modified the FASSNet methods in three important ways: (1) estimation of a period prevalence rather than birth prevalence; (2) surveillance of FAS among school-age children (ages 7-9 years) to better document the central nervous system abnormalities that are not apparent at birth or during infancy; and (3) implementation of an expert clinical review of abstracted data for probable and confirmed cases classified through a computerized algorithm. FASSNetII abstracted data from multiple sources including birth records, medical records from child development centers or other specialty clinics, and administrative databases such as hospital discharge and Medicaid. One challenge of FASSNetII was its limited access to non-medical records. The FAS prevalence that could be estimated was that of the population identified through an encounter with the healthcare system. Clinical and public health programs that identify children affected by FAS provide critical information for targeting preventive, medical and educational services in this vulnerable population.

  7. Methods for surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome: The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII) - Arizona, Colorado, New York, 2009 - 2014.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Leslie A; Ortiz, Linnette; Montgomery, April; Fox, Deborah J; Cunniff, Christopher; Ruttenber, Margaret; Breen, April; Pettygrove, Sydney; Klumb, Don; Druschel, Charlotte; Frías, Jaime L; Robinson, Luther K; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Ferrara, Kelly; Kelly, Maureen; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Meaney, F John

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is important for monitoring the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and describing the public health burden of this preventable disorder. Building on the infrastructure of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network (FASSNet, 1997-2002), in 2009 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded 5-year cooperative agreements to three states, Arizona, Colorado, and New York, to conduct population-based surveillance of FAS. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II (FASSNetII, 2009-2014) developed a surveillance case definition based on three clinical criteria: characteristic facial features, central nervous system abnormalities, and growth deficiency. FASSNetII modified the FASSNet methods in three important ways: (1) estimation of a period prevalence rather than birth prevalence; (2) surveillance of FAS among school-age children (ages 7-9 years) to better document the central nervous system abnormalities that are not apparent at birth or during infancy; and (3) implementation of an expert clinical review of abstracted data for probable and confirmed cases classified through a computerized algorithm. FASSNetII abstracted data from multiple sources including birth records, medical records from child development centers or other specialty clinics, and administrative databases such as hospital discharge and Medicaid. One challenge of FASSNetII was its limited access to non-medical records. The FAS prevalence that could be estimated was that of the population identified through an encounter with the healthcare system. Clinical and public health programs that identify children affected by FAS provide critical information for targeting preventive, medical and educational services in this vulnerable population. PMID:25761572

  8. Educational planning for children with fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David

    2006-01-01

    It has now been thirty-two years since Jones and Smith first identified fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the United States. Since then, numerous epidemiology studies have been conducted to determine prevalence rates of this disorder. More recently, the research focus has concentrated on studies to elucidate a neurobehavioral phenotype for the alcohol-exposed population. As a result, the FAS field has learned what types of neurobehavioral issues occur most frequently with these children. This paper discusses the results of neurobehavioral research with alcohol exposed children and how that information can be used to inform school assessment, intervention planning, and support.

  9. [Policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Gili-Miner, Miquel; Espelt, Albert; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-08-01

    The impact on health of alcohol in a given society is mainly related with the volume and pattern of drinking, and these are related with individual factors, but also with environmental factors, among which public policies are important determinants. Public policies may favour or reduce alcohol use, and thus have a substantial preventive capacity. The effectiveness of policies to prevent the harm caused by alcohol has been reviewed in recent documents, which provide evidence to extract recommendations. This paper reviews the most effective policies to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, with an emphasis in the use of taxes to increase its cost, availability regulation, and policies on drinking and driving. The regulation of alcohol promotion and publicity is also assessed, as well as the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. The state of alcohol related policies in Spain is analysed, as well as the obstacles, for the adoption of policies more prone to prevention, and recommendations for the future are made. PMID:25090407

  10. What Schools Are Doing to Prevent Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscemi, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Describes current trends in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs, including decreased emphasis on the school's role in prevention, increased interest in forestalling rather than treating health problems, greater involvement of celebrities in antidrug programs, and improved peer support mechanisms. Noteworthy national programs are cited. (PGD)

  11. The Israel Society for the Prevention of Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Shoshana; Gefen, Lia

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes the profile of the Israel Society for the Prevention of Alcoholism (ISPA), which is a nation-wide, public, non-profit association. It portrays various aspects of ISPA treatment and rehabilitation facilities-the residential treatment center, the rehabilitative hostel and the 'warm home' for homeless alcoholics. It depicts ISPA prevention activities, prevention materials and its usage of the media, and deals with ISPA involvement in policy issues. The paper also addresses the research reality of ISPA and its scientific journal, and refers to the society's structure and its future.

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome: the state of the art and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Memo, Luigi; Gnoato, Elisa; Caminiti, Stefania; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem which is increasing in the generation of young women. Gestational alcohol consumption causes fetal exposure to this teratogen and is associated with the onset of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FASD and FAS can lead to several physical, cognitive and behavioral disabilities, whose early diagnosis is of primary importance to perform primary prevention with total abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy and secondary prevention in newborns and children for a proper follow up to reduce risk of secondary consequences. In recent years significant efforts have been made to understand the underlying mechanisms of this disease and to identify objective biological and instrumental diagnostic tools, such as exposure biomarkers in neonatal meconium and advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, further studies are still needed to implement our knowledge on fetal effects of ethanol, and multidisciplinary actions are necessary to raise awareness among women of childbearing age about the danger of consuming even small amounts of ethanol during pregnancy.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Developing Socio-Emotional Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccols, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is currently recognized as the most common known cause of mental retardation, affecting from 1 to 7 per 1000 live-born infants. Individuals with FAS suffer from changes in brain structure, cognitive impairments, and behavior problems. Researchers investigating neuropsychological functioning have identified deficits in…

  14. Cognitive Deficits in Nonretarded Adults with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerns, Kimberley A.; Don, Audrey; Mateer, Catherine A.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1997-01-01

    Sixteen nonretarded young adults with fetal alcohol syndrome were divided into two groups, one with average to above average IQ and one with borderline to low average IQ. Subjects in both groups manifested clear deficits on neuropsychological measures sensitive to complex attention, verbal learning, and executive function at a frequency and…

  15. Will Was an Innocent Victim of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paramet, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    Describes the classroom life of Will, a kindergartner with fetal alcohol syndrome. The teacher met with the parents, the principal, and a support committee to determine how to handle Will's erratic behavior. A classroom aide provided Will with one-on-one assistance and helped him acquire appropriate social skills. (SM)

  16. Health promotion: Alcohol and drug misuse prevention.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Currently, average apparent consumption of alcohol for all persons older than 14 is 10 percent higher than 10 years ago, and is equivalent to about 2.75 gallons of ethanol per person per year. Approximately 10 million adult Americans (i.e., 7 percent of those 18 or older) can be considered problem drinkers. Youthful problem drinkers, aged 14 to 17, are estimated to number more than 3 million and comprise 19 percent of this age group. In addition to the social costs, the economic costs to society as a result of alcohol misuse are substantial--an estimated +49.4 billion in 1977. Ten percent of all deaths in the United States are alcohol-related. Cirrhosis, which is largely attributable to alcohol consumption, ranks among the 10 leading causes of death. Alcohol use also is associated with cancer of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and mouth. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of possible harmful effects to the fetus--among them decreased birth weight, spontaneous abortion, and physical and mental birth defects. Drug misuse is also an expanding problem. There are some 16 million current marijuana users. The popularity of cocaine continues to increase--over 10 million Americans have tried cocaine at least once and there are an estimated 1 to 2 million current users. Misuse of barbiturates remains a significant problem with at least 1 million persons believed to misuse these drugs and the 30,000 estimated to be addicted to them. In addition, heroin addiction is still considered by many to be the most serious drug problem in the United States. Drug misuse leads to a number of social and health problems. Excessive doses of depressants can result in both physical and psychological dependence. The toll from heroin includes premature death and severe disability, family disruption, and crime committed to maintain the habit. Misuse of hallucinogens often results in emergency room visits. A special problem is the relationship of marijuana to

  17. Inpatient management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common condition encountered in the hospital setting after abrupt discontinuation of alcohol in an alcohol-dependent individual. Patients may present with mild symptoms of tremulousness and agitation or more severe symptoms including withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Management revolves around early identification of at-risk individuals and symptom assessment using a validated tool such as the revised Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol score. Benzodiazepines remain the mainstay of treatment and can be administered using a front-loading, fixed-dose, or symptom-triggered approach. Long-acting benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam are commonly used and may provide a smoother withdrawal than shorter-acting benzodiazepines, but there are no data to support superiority of one benzodiazepine over another. Elderly patients or those with significant liver disease may have increased accumulation and decreased clearance of the long-acting benzodiazepines, and lorazepam or oxazepam may be preferred in these patients. Patients with symptoms refractory to high doses of benzodiazepines may require addition of a rescue medication such as phenobarbital, propofol or dexmedetomidine. Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, valproate, gabapentin) may have a role in the management of mild to moderate withdrawal. Other medications such as β-antagonists or neuroleptics may offer additional benefit in select patients but should not be used a monotherapy.

  18. Increased pain sensitivity in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jochum, Thomas; Boettger, Michael K; Burkhardt, Christin; Juckel, Georg; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2010-08-01

    Withdrawal from analgesic and addictive substances such as opioids or ethanol is associated with increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation in animal models. Here, we investigated perception of innocuous and noxious thermal or electric stimuli applied to the left hand or sternum in 30 male patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, 30 male abstained alcoholics and matched controls. The alcohol withdrawal scale and the Banger score were obtained to estimate the severity of withdrawal. In addition, the Beck depression inventory was used to estimate the influence of depressive symptoms on pain perception. The data presented provide substantial evidence that subjects undergoing alcohol withdrawal show increased heat pain sensitivity. Interestingly, this effect was observed both on the left hand and sternum. Pain thresholds and tolerances of electric stimuli did not differ between groups. However, in a subgroup analysis, a higher sensitivity for electrical pain thresholds and tolerances was observed in those patients that were identified to require pharmacological treatment for withdrawal according to disease severity. Furthermore, the perceived painful thermal and electrical sensation was substantially influenced by the affective state of patients. No differences were found between patients of the abstained group and control subjects for any pain parameter. In conclusion, we demonstrate withdrawal-induced hyperalgesia upon thermal stimulation in patients. Since the influence of affective symptoms on pain perception during withdrawal is remarkable, we assume that peripheral and central mechanisms might account for this finding, which should be assessed in detail in future studies.

  19. Recognizing and Managing Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects: A Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Brenda

    A family counselor and mother of adopted children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effects (FAS/E) offers practical advice and information on dealing with FAS/E's lifelong effects on behavior and learning. The book begins by discussing the historical, medical, and social aspects of FAS/E, and details common behavioral characteristics associated with…

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol and Other Drug Effects. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Div. of General Academic Education.

    This curriculum guide on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is intended to help meet New Jersey secondary-level learning objectives in the area of chemical health education. The guide is organized into six sections, each with a conceptual statement, content outline, specific objectives, and lesson plans. The six sections and corresponding major concepts…

  1. Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Osianlis, Tiki; Vollenhoven, Beverley

    2015-01-01

    The following review aims to examine the available evidence to guide best practice in preventing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). As it stands, there is no single method to completely prevent OHSS. There seems to be a benefit, however, in categorizing women based on their risk of OHSS and individualizing treatments to curtail their chances of developing the syndrome. At present, both Anti-Müllerian Hormone and the antral follicle count seem to be promising in this regard. Both available and upcoming therapies are also reviewed to give a broad perspective to clinicians with regard to management options. At present, we recommend the use of a “step-up” regimen for ovulation induction, adjunct metformin utilization, utilizing a GnRH agonist as an ovulation trigger, and cabergoline usage. A summary of recommendations is also made available for ease of clinical application. In addition, areas for potential research are also identified where relevant. PMID:26074966

  2. Evaluation of two student and teacher involved alcohol prevention programmes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, B U; Laberg, J C; Klepp, K I

    1994-09-01

    Two versions of a school-based alcohol prevention programme for 7th grade students were evaluated against a non-treated comparison condition. Both programme versions were based on a social-cognitive theory approach to alcohol prevention, and differed in the level of role-specifications for participating teachers and peer leaders. Twelve schools with 955 students in Bergen, Norway, participated in the study. Four schools were randomly assigned to each of the three conditions, and the programme was implemented during 10 class periods over 2 months in Spring, 1992. Pre- and post-test surveys were conducted, assessing alcohol use, as well as cognitive variables related to alcohol use in a specific context (intentions, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy expectations). Results showed that the highly role-specified (HRS) version had a higher degree of student involvement than the less role-specified (LRS) version, indicating that the HRS programme was more successful in engaging students in alcohol prevention activities. A significant difference in programme effectiveness was found, as measured by an overall programme effect across all dependent variables. This effect was explained by significantly more positive outcomes in the HRS version compared to both the LRS and the non-treated conditions, while the LRS version did not differ significantly from the non-treated condition.

  3. Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Patterns of Performance on IQ and Visual Motor Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen; Zielinski, Sharon

    This study explored relationships between intelligence and visual motor ability and patterns of impairment of visual motor ability in children prenatally affected by alcohol. Fourteen children (mean age 8.2 years) diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 50 children with possible fetal alcohol effects (FAE) were assessed with the Bender…

  4. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  5. Preventing alcohol-related traffic injury: a health promotion approach.

    PubMed

    Howat, Peter; Sleet, David; Elder, Randy; Maycock, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    The conditions that give rise to drinking and driving are complex, with multiple and interrelated causes. Prevention efforts benefit from an approach that relies on the combination of multiple interventions. Health promotion provides a useful framework for conceptualizing and implementing actions to reduce drinking and driving since it involves a combination of educational, behavioral, environmental, and policy approaches. This review draws on data from a range of settings to characterize the effectiveness of various interventions embedded within the health promotion approach. Interventions considered part of the health promotion approach include: (1) economic interventions (2) organizational interventions, (3) policy interventions, and (4) health education interventions, including the use of media, school and community education, and public awareness programs. Effective health promotion strengthens the skills and capabilities of individuals to take action and the capacity of groups or communities to act collectively to exert control over the determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of some components of health promotion, including economic and retailer interventions, alcohol taxation, reducing alcohol availability, legal and legislative strategies, and strategies addressing the servers of alcohol. There is also evidence for the effectiveness of sobriety checkpoints, lower BAC laws, minimum legal drinking age laws, and supportive media promotion programs. Other interventions with moderate evidence of effectiveness include restricting alcohol advertising and promotion, and actions involving counter advertising. Health education interventions alone that have insufficient evidence for effectiveness include passive server training programs, school drug and alcohol education programs, community mobilization efforts, and health warnings. Because each intervention builds on the strengths of every other one, ecological

  6. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  7. Prevention before profits: a levy on food and alcohol advertising.

    PubMed

    Harper, Todd A; Mooney, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    The recent interest in health promotion and disease prevention has drawn attention to the role of the alcohol and junk-food industries. Companies supplying, producing, advertising or selling alcohol or junk food (ie, foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt) do so to generate profits. Even companies marketing "low-carbohydrate" beers, "mild" cigarettes, or "high-fibre" sugary cereals are not primarily concerned about population health, more so increased sales and profits. In a competitive market, it is assumed that consumers make fully informed choices about costs and benefits before purchasing. However, consumers are not being fully informed of the implications of their junk-food and alcohol choices, as advertising of these products carries little information on the health consequences of consumption. We propose that there should be a levy on advertising expenditure for junk food and alcoholic beverages to provide an incentive for industry to promote healthier products. Proceeds of the levy could be used to provide consumers with more complete and balanced information on the healthy and harmful impacts of food and alcohol choices. Our proposal addresses two of the greatest challenges facing Australia's preventable disease epidemic - the imbalance between the promotion of healthier and unhealthy products, and securing funds to empower consumer choice. PMID:20367589

  8. Fetal alcohol syndrome related knowledge assessment and comparison in New Jersey health professional groups.

    PubMed

    Brimacombe, M; Nayeem, A; Adubato, S; Dejoseph, M; Zimmerman-Bier, B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a need to educate health professionals in regard to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders across many health and allied health fields. OBJECTIVE Conduct evaluations of educational programs designed to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in relation to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) among health and allied health professionals in the northeastern United States. METHODS FASD related educational efforts were carried out and evaluated in New Jersey for various health-related professional groups over a four-month period using a common set of materials. Pre and post-test evaluation comprised 20 questions on FASD recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Groups surveyed included nurses, social workers, counselors, therapists, clinicians and allied health professionals comprising physician assistants, dieticians, physical therapists, occupational therapists. RESULTS Results showed that a majority of health care professionals in New Jersey possess basic knowledge related to FASD and the effects of alcohol on a child in utero. They also had significant awareness of the importance of early diagnosis and the importance of reducing secondary disabilities. The study did however reveal areas for improvement in some professional groups. CONCLUSIONS FASD is the most important preventable cause of mental retardation. Health professionals attending workshops typically had a good basic understanding of FASD, though with some weaknesses specific to their discipline. Educational efforts in regard to FASD should be sensitive to the various health professionals engaged in preventing, diagnosing and treating FASD.

  9. Preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancy among American-Indian youth

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie; Baete Kenyon, Den Yelle; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2015-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur pre-conceptually with women, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at-risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Programme, which shows promise in reducing AEP risk in American Indian women aged 18 or older. A community needs assessment was conducted with key informant interviews and focus groups with an emphasis on how to expand OST CHOICES. To identify interconnected themes, a content analysis methodology was used on the qualitative feedback from the focus groups and interviews. Altogether, key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Several sub-themes regarding the prevention of AEP with youth were identified, expanding the OST CHOICES curriculum into the schools, and the role of family and culture within AEP prevention. PMID:27429593

  10. Experimental Evaluation of "The Images Within": An Alcohol Education and Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodside, Migs; Bishop, Rosean M.; Miller, Lynne T.; Swisher, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of an alcohol and prevention program in which children of alcoholics (N=278) used artwork to stimulate classroom discussions of the problems of parental alcohol abuse. Results indicate increased knowledge about the effects of alcohol and improved skills in coping with alcohol problems and help-seeking behavior. (RJM)

  11. [Prevention and management of anterior resection syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gu, Jin; Pan, Hongda

    2016-04-01

    Because of the improvement of surgical technique and the widely use of multimodality therapy, more patients with rectal cancer undergo sphincter-preserving surgery. However, it has been reported that up to 90% of such patients will suffer from bowel dysfunction, ranging from increased bowel frequency to faecal incontinence or evacuatory dysfunction. This wide spectrum of symptoms after resection of the rectum has been termed anterior resection syndrome (ARS). This disordered bowel function has a substantial negative effect on quality of life, however, the causal mechanisms have not been clarified. The present review discusses the clinical manifestation, underlying mechanisms, as well as prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:27112463

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome: new perspectives for an ancient and underestimated problem.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Luisa; Memo, Luigi; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi; Vagnarelli, Federica

    2011-10-01

    The knowledge of the dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy isn't indeed a new issue, but the recent evidences of ethyl-glucuronide and ethyl-sulfate in meconium as novel biomarkers of prenatal ethanol exposure open new perspectives for the early diagnosis of the alcohol-related birth defects. This is crucial for a better developmental outcome of the affected patients and for preventing additional cases in at risk families. The fetal alcohol syndrome is not a single entity but represents the most severe form of a spectrum of disorders, including distinctive craniofacial alterations, stunted growth and behavioral abnormalities, caused by complex gene-environment interactions. FAS must always be a diagnosis of exclusion and have to be differentiated from many conditions caused by other embryotoxin agents and genetic syndromes that share some phenotypic features. Even if the first trimester is considered the most vulnerable period, nowadays is known that a fetal damage might occur throughout all gestation. Since ethanol consumption is constantly increasing among young women, a substantial amount of work has to be made to implement the knowledge on alcohol fetal effects among women of childbearing age; moreover, awareness and training among professionals in the health care system might play a critical role in the early diagnosis of these serious conditions.

  13. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    AIM To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. METHODS Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. RESULTS A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results. PMID:27803869

  14. Refeeding syndrome is uncommon in alcoholics admitted to a hospital detoxification unit.

    PubMed

    Manning, S; Gilmour, M; Weatherall, M; Robinson, G M

    2014-05-01

    The refeeding syndrome is increasingly recognised. It is a serious change in electrolytes when nutrition is reintroduced to malnourished patients. Alcohol dependence is a risk factor for the refeeding syndrome. We report a prospective cohort study of 36 alcoholics hospitalised for withdrawal management. We found no evidence of refeeding syndrome in any patient after 3 days of hospitalisation, despite hypomagnesaemia, a risk factor for the refeeding syndrome being prevalent (44% of subjects). Low thiamine levels were infrequent affecting 3/29 (10%). We recommend that in alcoholics admitted for managed withdrawal, risk of refeeding syndrome appears to be low, and routine testing of repeat electrolytes appears unnecessary.

  15. Social and Structural HIV Prevention in Alcohol-Serving Establishments

    PubMed Central

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with risks for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. People meet new sex partners at bars and other places where alcohol is served, and drinking venues facilitate STI transmission through sexual relationships within closely knit sexual networks. This paper reviews HIV prevention interventions conducted in bars, taverns, and informal drinking venues. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk by altering the social interactions within drinking environments have demonstrated mixed results. Specifically, venue-based social influence models have reduced community-level risk in U.S. gay bars, but these effects have not generalized to gay bars elsewhere or to other populations. Few interventions have sought to alter the structural and physical environments of drinking places for HIV prevention. Uncontrolled program evaluations have reported promising approaches to bar-based structural interventions with gay men and female sex workers. Finally, a small number of studies have examined multilevel approaches that simultaneously intervene at both social and structural levels with encouraging results. Multilevel interventions that take environmental factors into account are needed to guide future HIV prevention efforts delivered within alcohol-serving establishments. PMID:23584060

  16. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  17. Metabolic and genetic factors contributing to alcohol induced effects and fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Simonetta; Vichi, Susanna; Testai, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol-related damages on newborns and infants include a wide variety of complications from facial anomalies to neurodevelopmental delay, known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, only less than 10% of women drinking alcohol during pregnancy have children with FAS. Understanding the risk factors increasing the probability for newborn exposed in utero to alcohol to develop FAS is therefore a key issue. The involvement of genetics as a one risk factor in FAS has been suggested by animal models and by molecular epidemiological studies on different populations, bearing allelic variants for those enzymes, such as ADH e CYP2E1, involved in ethanol metabolism. Indeed, one of the major factors determining the peak blood alcohol exposure to the fetus is the metabolic activity of the mother, in addition to placental and fetal metabolism, explaining, at least partially, the risk of FAS. The different rates of ethanol metabolism may be the result of genetic polymorphisms, the most relevant of which have been described in the paper.

  18. Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B genotype and fetal alcohol syndrome: a HuGE minireview.

    PubMed

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Stoler, Joan Marilyn

    2007-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), 1 of the most common developmental disabilities in the United States, occurs at a rate of 0.5-2.0:1000 live births. Animal model, family, and twin studies suggest a genetic component to FAS susceptibility. Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) catalyze the rate-limiting step in alcohol metabolism. Studies of genetic associations with FAS have focused on the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, comparing mothers and children with the alleles ADH1B*2 or ADH1B*3, associated with faster ethanol metabolism, with those homozygous for ADH1B*1. While most studies have found a protective effect for genotypes containing ADH1B*2 or ADH1B*3, results have been conflicting, and further investigation into the association between the ADH1B genotype and FAS is needed. Whether increased alcohol intake accounts for the elevated risk reported for the ADH1B*1/ADH1B*1 genotype should be addressed, and future studies would benefit from consistent case definitions, enhanced exposure measurements, larger sample sizes, and careful study design.

  19. Fetal alcohol syndrome and the developing socio-emotional brain.

    PubMed

    Niccols, Alison

    2007-10-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is currently recognized as the most common known cause of mental retardation, affecting from 1 to 7 per 1000 live-born infants. Individuals with FAS suffer from changes in brain structure, cognitive impairments, and behavior problems. Researchers investigating neuropsychological functioning have identified deficits in learning, memory, executive functioning, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and poor communication and social skills in individuals with FAS and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). Investigators using autopsy and brain imaging methods have identified microcephaly and structural abnormalities in various regions of the brain (including the basal ganglia, corpus callosum, cerebellum, and hippocampus) that may account for the neuropsychological deficits. Results of studies using newer brain imaging and analytic techniques have indicated specific alterations (i.e., displacements in the corpus callosum, increased gray matter density in the perisylvian regions, altered gray matter asymmetry, and disproportionate reductions in the frontal lobes) in the brains of individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol, and their relations with brain function. Future research, including using animal models, could help inform our knowledge of brain-behavior relations in the context of prenatal alcohol exposure, and assist with early identification and intervention. PMID:17669569

  20. Alcohol-dependence syndrome: Postural challenge on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Sucharita, S.; Pradeep, Johnson; Vincent, Anoop; Vaz, M.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic involvement in Alcohol-Dependence Syndrome (ADS) patients has been demonstrated using conventional autonomic tests. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) without normalization has also been reported. Aims: To evaluate cardiac autonomic changes with postural challenge using HRV in ADS and controls while controlling for confounding factors. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study involving 27 male subjects with ADS and age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Clinical assessments included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. Spectral measures of HRV while lying and with active standing were assessed. Results: There was an attenuated response in delta high-frequency (P=0.06) and delta low-frequency (P=0.04) power to standing in ADS subjects compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ADS appear to have attenuated cardiac vagal and sympathetic responses to standing. HRV with postural challenge may help earlier recognition of autonomic dysfunction in ADS. PMID:23226850

  1. Fetal malnutrition: a possible cause of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lin, G W

    1981-01-01

    The effects of ethanol ingestion during pregnancy on total folate levels in fetal tissues and on the concentrations of free amino acids in fetal and maternal plasma were examined in the rat. No differences were observed between the ethanol-fed and the control groups in total folates in fetal brain and liver. However, the concentration of fetal plasma histidine was reduced by 50% as a result of maternal ethanol consumption; the maternal plasma histidine level was not affected. It is suggested that fetal malnutrition in an essential amino acid, histidine, could impair fetal protein synthesis producing the fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:7312865

  2. Literacy-Based Supports for Young Adults with FAS/FAE [Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Margaret; Belanger, Joe

    During a 1-year period, a study investigated the contributions made by 3 literacy-based supports (support circles, cognitive compensatory tools, and cognitive enhancement tools) to the lives of 5 young adults, aged 16-34, with FAS/FAE (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects). Four of the five subjects had IQs (intelligence quotients) above…

  3. Secondary Prevention with College Drinkers: Evaluation of an Alcohol Skills Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlahan, Daniel R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated prevention approaches for young adults (n=36) at risk for alcohol problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral alcohol skills training, didactic alcohol information program, or assessment only. Found significant reduction over one year in alcohol consumption for total sample; directional findings consistently favored…

  4. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  5. Beyond Primary Prevention of Alcohol Use: A Culturally Specific Secondary Prevention Program for Mexican Heritage Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin’ it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants’ use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents. PMID:22193861

  6. Evaluating Environmental Management Approaches to Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Langford, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen an upsurge in prevention work focused on changing the campus and community environments in which college students make decisions about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. This approach, called "environmental management," is based on three fundamental premises: (1) Substance use problems are aggravated by a physical, social,…

  7. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  8. Prevention in Action. 1991 Exemplary Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Eight exemplary programs for preventing alcohol and other drug abuse are presented in this document. These programs are summarized: (1) SUPER II Early Intervention Program, Atlanta, Georgia, which serves primarily inner-city youth ages 11-17 and their families through community agencies, juvenile courts, alternative schools, and public housing;…

  9. Handbook for Evaluating Drug and Alcohol Prevention Programs: Staff/Team Evaluation of Prevention Programs (STEPP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, J. David; Nederhood, Britt

    This handbook was developed for the purpose of providing drug and alcohol prevention program managers with a comprehensive yet easy-to-use tool to help their evaluation efforts. The handbook emphasizes program staff members working together as a team. It provides instruments and activities for determining program effectiveness, as well as…

  10. Effects of a Stage-based Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Inner-City Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Owen, Deborah M.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Carbonari, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines first year outcomes of an alcohol preventive intervention within inner-city middle schools. Results reveal that significantly fewer neighborhood intervention students initiated alcohol use compared to control students. Suggests that a brief, stage-based preventive intervention may result in significant reductions in alcohol initiation and…

  11. The prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Shannon; Shmorgun, Doron; Claman, Paul; Healey, Sarah; Gysler, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    Objectif : Passer en revue les aspects cliniques du syndrome d’hyperstimulation ovarienne et fournir des recommandations quant à sa prévention. Options : La mise en œuvre de mesures de prévention, la constatation précoce de la présence de ce syndrome et l’offre sans délai et systématique de soins de soutien nous aideront à éviter l’obtention de piètres issues. Issues : Établir des lignes directrices permettant d’orienter la prévention du syndrome d’hyperstimulation ovarienne, la constatation précoce de la présence du syndrome lorsque ce dernier se manifeste et l’offre de mesures de soutien appropriées dans le bon contexte. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline, Embase et The Cochrane Library entre 2011 et 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (« ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome », « agonist IVF », « antagonist IVF », « metformin », « HCG », « gonadotropin », « coasting », « freeze all », « agonist trigger », « progesterone ») et de mots clés (« ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome », « ovarian stimulation », « gonadotropin », « human chorionic gonadotropin », « prevention ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs publiés en anglais. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de date. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et ont été intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en février 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et

  12. An Atypical Presentation of Subacute Encephalopathy with Seizures in Chronic Alcoholism Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Kyoung; Jung, Eui Sung; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Lee, Woong-Woo; Lee, Jung-Ju

    2016-06-01

    Subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation in patients with chronic alcohol abuse. We report the case of a patient with chronic alcoholism who presented with partial nonconvulsive status epilepticus associated with a thalamic lesion. PMID:27390677

  13. Evaluation of an Educational Program on the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Marcia; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes knowledge, attitudes and intervention policies regarding fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects among obstetricians and gynecologists (N=1,128) in New York State. Survey results showed that subjects were well-informed about FAS, and almost all advised their obstetric patients to abstain or limit their alcohol intake. (LLL)

  14. Building Xperience: a multilevel alcohol and drug prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Sarah; Schensul, Jean J; Snyder, Leslie B; Bermudez, Alessandro; D'Alessandro, Nicole; Morgan, Damion Sincere

    2009-06-01

    "Xperience" is an innovative alcohol and drug prevention program that has adopted a multilevel, community-based strategy to promote drug-and-alcohol free social activities, venues and norms among urban youth ages 14-20. The intervention aims to strengthen protective factors and reduce risk factors for alcohol and other substance use among high school age youth by addressing multiple factors at the individual, peer, community and city level. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of building the different levels of this intervention during the 3-year formative phase. We will explain: (1) Why we chose to adopt a multilevel and participatory strategy, (2) Formative research leading to the intervention model, (3) The theoretical framework underlying the methodology, (4) Pilot intervention development (Years One and Two), (5) Current program methods and outcome goals, and lastly, (6) Some of the lessons learned, goals achieved, and plans for the future. This descriptive account of building a multilevel intervention aims to serve as a useful guide for others wishing to develop similar approaches, and for theorizing about some of the common challenges involved in this process. PMID:19381797

  15. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Public Awareness Campaign, 1979: Progress Report Concerning the Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Warning Labels on Containers of Alcoholic Beverages and Addendum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    This report provides expert opinion on the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and ways to inform the public of teratogenic risk of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In the absence of firm evidence that moderate drinking of alcoholic beverages leads to FAS and uncertainty concerning the effectiveness of labeling of alcoholic beverages, a…

  16. [Psychopathology and various mechanisms contributing to the formation of the Kandinsky syndrome in acute alcoholic hallucinosis].

    PubMed

    Guliamova, N M

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with acute alcoholic hallucinosis associated with the Kandinsky syndrome were examined clinicopsychopathologically. Manifestation of the Kandinsky syndrome was limited by associative automatism in patients with stage II alcoholism with transient hallucinosis lasting 2-4 days. In patients with stage III alcoholism with more prolonged (6-9 days) psychoses, the non-extensive Kandinsky syndrome manifested itself in integrity. Psychopathological phenomena of the syndrome in the picture of acute alcoholic hallucinosis were notable for their descriptiveness, concreteness, extreme simplicity, and instability. Senestopathic and kinesthetic automatisms were localized at the sites of real painful disorders. Therefore, apart from cerebral disorders, the peripheral sensory mechanisms are considered to be of importance in the genesis of the Kandinsky syndrome.

  17. Diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: a validity study of the fetal alcohol syndrome checklist.

    PubMed

    Burd, Larry; Klug, Marilyn G; Li, Qing; Kerbeshian, Jacob; Martsolf, John T

    2010-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a common cause of developmental disability, birth defects, and mortality. The performance characteristics of current diagnostic tools for FASD are not adequately reported. This study examines the performance characteristics of the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diagnostic Checklist (FASDC). In a population of 658 subjects from North Dakota, we used the FASDC score to examine the agreement between FASDC score, clinical diagnosis, and the Institute of Medicine criteria for FASD. All subjects were seen for evaluation in the genetic/dysmorphology clinics, which are funded by the state to provide genetic diagnostic services for residents of North Dakota. We compared the clinical diagnosis and the FASDC scores to determine the performance characteristics of the FASDC in the categorical diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum (FAS), other-FASD, and a group with No-FASD. Comparisons were made using univariate and logistic models of outcomes using both the presence and the absence of alcohol exposure or FASDC phenotype data. The FASDC performance characteristics for differentiation of the FAS group from non-FASD were excellent (accuracy 99%, sensitivity 99%, and specificity 99%). Logistic models for subjects with scores in the FASD range were differentiated with an accuracy of 82%, sensitivity 85%, and specificity 80% using the data on phenotype and exposure. We were able to delineate subjects with scores in the No-FASD range with an accuracy of 78%, sensitivity 64%, and specificity 81% without including the exposure and phenotype data by use of the other descriptive data (maternal characteristics, birth records, and demographic data) from the FASDC. All diagnostic tools should have performance characteristics assessed and available before adoption for use in clinical settings. The FASDC scores produce diagnostic groupings that approximate expert clinical judgment. The tool may be useful in other clinical settings for the diagnosis of FASD or

  18. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  19. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  20. Clinical applications of sodium oxybate (GHB): from narcolepsy to alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busardò, F P; Kyriakou, C; Napoletano, S; Marinelli, E; Zaami, S

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short chain fatty acid endogenously produced within the central nervous system (CNS) and acts as a precursor and metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Although, it is an illegal recreational drug of abuse, its sodium salt (sodium oxybate) has been utilized as a medication for a number of medical conditions. The first aim of this review was to focus on current applications of sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy, with a particular emphasis on the key symptoms of this disorder: cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Secondly, the effectiveness of sodium oxybate therapy for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence has been assessed. Nowadays, sodium oxybate is the first-line treatment for narcolepsy and it is highly effective in meliorating sleep architecture, decreasing EDS and the frequency of cataplexy attacks in narcoleptic patients. Sodium oxybate currently finds also application in the treatment of AWS and the maintenance of alcohol abstinence in alcoholics. Most of the studies evaluating the efficacy of GHB in the treatment of AWS use a dosage of 50 mg/kg divided in three or four administrations per day. Human studies showed that GHB (dose of 50 mg/kg, divided in three administrations per day) is capable to increase the number of abstinent days, reduce alcohol craving and decrease the number of drinks per day. However, there is limited randomized evidence and, thus, GHB cannot be reliably compared to clomethiazole or benzodiazepines. Some randomized data suggest that GHB is better than naltrexone and disulfiram regarding abstinence maintenance and prevention of craving in the medium term i.e. 3-12 months. It is recommended that GHB should be used only under strict medical supervision, since concerns about the abuse/misuse of the drug and the addiction potential have been arisen.

  1. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  2. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  3. Development of a Student Engagement Approach to Alcohol Prevention: The Pragmatics Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buettner, Cynthia K.; Andrews, David W.; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. Objective: The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing…

  4. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  5. The premises is the premise: understanding off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets to improve environmental alcohol prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Chinman, Matthew; Burkhart, Q; Ebener, Patricia; Fan, Cha-Chi; Imm, Pamela; Osilla, Karen Chan; Paddock, Susan M; Wright, Annie

    2011-06-01

    Environmental strategies to prevent the misuse of alcohol among youth--e.g., use of public policies to restrict minors' access to alcohol--have been shown to reduce underage drinking. However, implementation of policy changes often requires public and private partnerships. One way to support these partnerships is to better understand the target of many of the environmental strategies, which is the alcohol sales outlet. Knowing more about how off-premises outlets (e.g., liquor and convenience stores) and on-premises outlets (e.g., bars and restaurants) are alike and different could help community-based organizations better tailor, plan, and implement their environmental strategies and strengthen partnerships between the public and commercial sectors. We conducted a survey of managerial or supervisory staff and/or owners of 336 off- and on-premises alcohol outlets in six counties in South Carolina, comparing these two outlet types on their preferences regarding certain alcohol sales practices, beliefs toward underage drinking, alcohol sales practices, and outcomes. Multilevel logistic regression showed that while off- and on-premises outlets did have many similarities, off-premises outlets appear to engage in more practices designed to prevent sales of alcohol to minors than on-premises outlets. The relationship between certain Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) practices and outcomes varied by outlet type. This study furthers the understanding of the differences between off- and on-premises alcohol sales outlets and offers options for increasing and tailoring environmental prevention efforts to specific settings.

  6. Preventing and Responding to Alcohol Overdose on the College Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Ross J.

    Rapid ingestion of alcohol is common and unfortunately an all too frequent cause of alcohol-related death among young people. Drinking a lot of alcohol over a short amount of time may result in an alcohol overdose. This situation is a medical emergency and requires sound decision making. The information the campus community needs to know includes…

  7. [Preventive administration of new UDCA derivatives in experimental alcoholic steatohepatitis].

    PubMed

    Belonovskaia, E B; Naruta, E E; Lukivskaia, O Ia; Abakumov, V Z; Buko, V U

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the prophylactic effect of new derivatives of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), including UDCA-N-acetylcysteine, UDCA-L-acetylcysteine, and nor-UDCA (in doses equivalent to 40 mg/kg of UDCA) on the development of experimental alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol-containing diet. Results demonstrated that most of the investigated compounds produced a hepatoprotective effect, improving biochemical tests and liver morphology, as manifested by decreasing steatosis intensity, activity of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, triglyceride level in blood serum and liver, and TNF alpha content. However, nor-UDCA was most effective as compared to UDCA in preventing the accumulation of triglycerides in the liver.

  8. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  9. Polysomnographic study of sleeplessness and oneiricisms in the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, Giuseppe; Montagna, Pasquale; Meletti, Stefano; Lugaresi, Elio

    2002-05-01

    We describe a polysomnographic observation of the acute phase of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome, characterized by an alteration of the sleep-wake cycle and by the absence of non-rapid eye movement sleep. An atypical transitional state between rapid eye movement sleep and wake with hallucinations and enacting-dream behaviors represented the sole sleep pattern. Analogies of alcohol withdrawal syndrome with fatal familial insomnia and Morvan's fibrillary chorea suggest a common pathophysiological mechanism in these conditions. PMID:14592220

  10. Use of potentiated preparations to relieve alcohol and opium withdrawal syndromes.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, N V; Gofman, A G; Krylov, E N; Epstein, O I

    2003-01-01

    The efficiency of potentiated preparations from ethanol and morphine hydrochloride in the therapy of patients with alcohol and opium withdrawal syndromes was compared in an open clinical trial. Potentiated ethanol relieved the major clinical manifestations, possessed hypnagogic properties, and reduced the severity of neurological and vegetative disorders in patients with the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. Potentiated morphine produced the anxiolytic, myorelaxing, and analgetic effects. Test preparations did not cause side effects.

  11. Can First and Second Grade Students Benefit from an Alcohol Use Prevention Program?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Padget, Alison; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses

    2007-01-01

    Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM) is a classroombased, alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students from first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). PY/PM is one of the first alcohol prevention programs to target children as early as first grade. The focus of this study is on the…

  12. Communities Creating Change: Exemplary Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Programs 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This document describes the 10 Exemplary Programs in alcohol and other drug abuse prevention selected in 1990. The programs included provide models of state-of-the-art alcohol and drug abuse prevention programs that may be replicated or adapted by others. Illustrating a wide variety of approaches that are effective in diverse communities, the…

  13. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  14. Reducing HIV Risks in the Places Where People Drink: Prevention Interventions in Alcohol Venues.

    PubMed

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C

    2016-01-01

    Apart from individual alcohol drinking behavior, the context or places where people drink play a significant role in HIV transmission risk. In this paper, we review the research that has been conducted on alcohol venues to identify the social and structural factors (e.g., social norms, sexual behavior) that are associated with HIV risk in these places, to review HIV prevention interventions based in alcohol venues, and to discuss appropriate methodologies for alcohol venue research. Alcohol venues are defined here as places that sell or serve alcohol for onsite consumption, including bars, bottle stores, nightclubs, wine shops, and informal shebeens. Despite the many established HIV risk factors at play in alcohol venues, limited prevention strategies have been implemented in such places. A total of 11 HIV prevention interventions or programs were identified. HIV prevention interventions in alcohol venues may be conducted at the individual, social, or structural level. However, multilevel interventions that target more than one level appear to lead to the most sustainable behavior change. Strategies to incorporate alcohol venues in biomedical prevention strategies including antiretroviral therapy for alcohol users are also discussed. PMID:26099244

  15. Up Front, in Hope: The Value of Early Intervention for Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Maureen; Kleinfeld, Judith Smilg

    2002-01-01

    Differentiates fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) from fetal alcohol effects (FAE) and discusses difficulties in diagnosing these conditions. Describes the effects of FAS/FAE on young children, detailing impact on sensory processing, focusing attention, and cognitive development in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Presents suggestions for caregivers…

  16. Parallels between Learning Disabilities and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect: No Need To Reinvent the Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol L.; Lapadat, Judith C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of the research and practice literatures on learning disabilities and on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect revealed parallels in learning characteristics, as well as in the recommended interventions. Based on these parallels, an adolescent with Fetal Alcohol received intervention. Teaching strategies for students with learning disabilities…

  17. Health Care Burden and Cost Associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Based on Official Canadian Data

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Lange, Shannon; Burd, Larry; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Background Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a group of disorders caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. From this group, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is the only disorder coded in the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10). This coding was used to gain an understanding on the health care utilization and the mortality rate for individuals diagnosed with FAS, as well as to estimate the associated health care costs in Canada for the most recent available fiscal year (2008–2009). Methods Health care utilization data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were directly obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI). Mortality data associated with a diagnosis of FAS were obtained from Statistics Canada. Results The total direct health care cost of acute care, psychiatric care, day surgery, and emergency department services associated with FAS in Canada in 2008–2009, based on the official CIHI data, was about $6.7 million. The vast majority of the most responsible diagnoses, which account for the majority of a patient’s length of stay in hospital, fall within the ICD-10 category Mental and Behavioural Disorders (F00–F99). It was evident that the burden and cost of acute care hospitalizations due to FAS is increasing −1.6 times greater in 2008–2009, compared to 2002–2003. The mortality data due to FAS, obtained from Statistics Canada (2000–2008), may be underreported, and are likely invalid. Discussion The official data on the utilization of health care services by individuals diagnosed with FAS are likely to be underreported and therefore, the reported cost figures are most likely underestimated. The quantification of the health care costs associated with FAS is crucial for policy developers and decision makers alike, of the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure, with the ultimate goal of initiating preventive interventions to address FASD. PMID:22900084

  18. Changing the Focus of College Alcohol Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, John R.

    2003-01-01

    Two influential formulations concerning college alcohol problems emphasize seemingly conflicting views about the magnitude of college alcohol abuse. One view insists that binge drinking is pervasive and shows no sign of decline. The other is based on the result from the College Alcohol Survey (CAS) which showed that just under half (44%) of…

  19. College Alcohol Risk Assessment Guide. Environmental Approaches to Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.; And Others

    This guide suggests methods and exercises for gathering and organizing information about alcohol use and associated adverse consequences on university campuses and in surrounding communities. The guide is intended to assist individuals and groups in identifying and modifying risks that contribute to alcohol-related problems. Alcohol problem…

  20. Preventing alcohol abuse in the gay community: toward a theory and model.

    PubMed

    Mongeon, J E; Ziebold, T O

    1982-01-01

    Urban gay communities present unique populations for a comprehensive prevention program. They are well defined, bounded communities with rapid internal communication, can be considered "at risk" for alcoholism, and are traditionally "underserved" for prevention and treatment. Models of alcoholism epidemiology elucidate critical factors relevant to the urban gay population, and indigenous gay organizations afford effective means of implementing a program. The model presented in this paper is based upon current research about successful prevention programs and uses accepted strategies tailored to the specific characteristics of the urban gay community. The basic premise of the model is that community self help is the most effective approach to alcohol and drug abuse prevention. PMID:7130692

  1. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SOGUT, IBRAHIM; OGLAKCI, AYSEGUL; KARTKAYA, KAZIM; OL, KEVSER KUSAT; SOGUT, MELIS SAVASAN; KANBAK, GUNGOR; INAL, MINE ERDEN

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25667671

  2. Alcohol and drug prevention in nightlife settings: a review of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Bolier, Linda; Voorham, Lotte; Monshouwer, Karin; van Hasselt, Ninette; Bellis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions aimed at the prevention of harmful alcohol and drug use in nightlife settings. A literature search was conducted in 2009. Of 161 studies, 17 experimental studies were included in the review, 15 alcohol-related and two drug-related studies. The results show that preventive substance abuse interventions in nightlife settings can effectively reduce high-risk alcohol consumption, alcohol-related injury, violent crimes, access to alcohol by underage youth, and alcohol service to intoxicated people. A combination of approaches such as enforcement activities seem to be facilitating factors. However, results should be considered cautiously as more gold standard (cost-) effectiveness research is required, in particular directed at drug prevention and educational interventions in nightlife settings. PMID:21936624

  3. Brain perfusion SPECT and MRI in foetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, R; Salonen, I; Partanen, K; Verho, S

    1999-10-01

    Six boys and five girls with a mean age of 8.6 (range 3 to 13) years with foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) were studied by MRI and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to find specific areas of vulnerability. Morphological anomalies shown in six of 11 patients by MRI were situated both cortically and subcortically: cortical atrophy (N = 2), dilated ventricle (N = 1), corpus callosum hypoplasia (N = 1), cerebellar atrophy (N = 2), one of the latter with Arnold-Chiari malformation (N = 1). Delayed myelination of the white matter was seen in two patients. Volumetric studies of the hippocampus showed morphological left-right asymmetry in five of eight patients. However, SPECT showed mild hypoperfusion of the left hemisphere in all 10 subjects. The negative left-right index was located especially in the left parietooccipital region, i.e. in the brain areas implicated in arithmetical and logical-grammatical functions, which are known to be affected in FAS. Normal left-right dominance was also lacking in the frontal area, i.e. the brain area affected in attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Detection of these abnormalities, although they are not unique to FAS, may be helpful in the diagnosis and any attempts at rehabilitation. Diverse morphological and functional abnormalities are more frequent than has usually been believed even in less impaired children with FAS.

  4. Computer aided morphometry of the neonatal fetal alcohol syndrome face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chik, Lawrence; Sokol, Robert J.; Martier, Susan S.

    1993-09-01

    Facial dysmorphology related to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) has been studied from neonatal snapshots with computer-aided imaging tools by looking at facial landmarks and silhouettes. Statistical methods were used to characterize FAS-related midfacial hypoplasia by using standardized landmark coordinates of frontal and profile snapshots. Additional analyses were performed by tracing a segment of the facial silhouettes from the profile snapshots. In spite of inherent distortions due to the coordinate standardization procedure, controlled for race, three significant facial landmark coordinates accounted for 30.6% of the explained variance of FAS. Residualized for race, eight points along the silhouettes were shown to be significant in explaining 45.8% of the outcome variance. Combining the landmark coordinates and silhouettes points, 57% of the outcome variance was explained. Finally, including birthweight with landmark coordinates and silhouettes, 63% of the outcome variance was explained, with a jackknifed sensitivity of 95% (19/20) and a specificity of 92.9% (52/56).

  5. The metabolic syndrome in patients with alcohol dependency: Current research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependency and disorders such as liver disease and cancer has been thoroughly researched. However, the effects of alcohol on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Several reports found low to moderate alcohol consumption to be associated with a lower risk for cardiometabolic disorders. In contrast, excessive alcohol consumption has been related to an increased risk. Most of these studies were performed in non-clinical populations, therefore limiting the explanatory power to non-dependent patients. Only a few studies examined cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, in particular the metabolic syndrome (MetS), in alcohol dependent patients. We here present a narrative review of studies performed so far on the MetS in alcohol dependency, and provide current hypotheses on the association of alcohol dependency, appetite regulation and the development of the MetS.

  6. Habilitational treatment of a child with fetal alcohol syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Valentina; Bartolović, Jelena; Crnković, Maja; Kosicek, Tena; Barisić, Irma

    2014-03-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is defined by a triad of symptoms such as facial dysmorphology, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, and central nervous system dysfunction. It is the result of teratogenic effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy. The prevalence of fetal alcohol syndrome is 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. From the neurological point of view, there is a possibility of the central nervous system dysfunction. Structural disjunctions are the consequences of fine and gross motor dysfunction, oculomotor dysfunction, and difficulties in sensorimotor integration. From the functional point view, there are complex cognitive disorders and behavioral disorders, attention disorders and impulse control disorders, learning difficulties, and social communication and perception difficulties. This paper presents a case study of a boy diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome at the age of four, monitored by a team of experts including a physiatrist and neuropediatrician. The boy is also included in polyvalent habilitation treatment provided by a speech therapist, rehabilitator and psychologist. PMID:24974670

  7. Interpersonal communication outcomes of a media literacy alcohol prevention curriculum.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Elek, Elvira; Hecht, Michael L

    2015-12-01

    Media literacy intervention efficacy literature has focused on media-relevant (e.g., knowledge and realism) and behavior-relevant outcomes (e.g., attitudes and behaviors), without much attention paid to interpersonal communication outcomes. This project examined interpersonal communication after participation in two versions (analysis plus analysis and analysis plus planning) of the Youth Message Development (YMD) intervention, a brief media literacy curriculum targeted at preventing high school student alcohol use. Participants attended a 75-mins media literacy YMD workshop and completed a delayed posttest questionnaire 3 to 4 months later. Overall, 68 % participants replied affirmatively to interpersonal communication about the YMD intervention. Communication about the workshop moderated the effects of the type of workshop (analysis plus analysis or analysis plus planning) on self-efficacy to counter-argue (but not critical thinking). Interpersonal communication moderated the effects of the YMD intervention on self-efficacy to counter-argue, thereby signaling the importance of including interpersonal communication behaviors in intervention evaluation.

  8. Non-alcohol fatty liver disease in Asia: Prevention and planning

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Zali, Mohamad Reza

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review all of epidemiological aspects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and also prevent this disease is examined. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. All searches for writing this review is based on the papers was found in PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane database and Scopus in August and September 2014 for topic of NAFLD in Asia and the way of prevention of this disease, with no language limitations. All relevant articles were accessed in full text and all relevant materials was evaluated and reviewed. RESULTS: NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in worldwide, with an estimated with 20%-30% prevalence in Western countries and 2%-4% worldwide. The prevalence of NAFLD in Asia, depending on location (urban vs rural), gender, ethnicity, and age is variable between 15%-20%. According to the many studies in the world, the relationship between NAFLD, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (MS) is quiet obvious. Prevalence of NAFLD in Asian countries seems to be lower than the Western countries but, it has increased recently due to the rise of obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS in this region. One of the main reasons for the increase in obesity, diabetes and MS in Asia is a lifestyle change and industrialization. Today, NAFLD is recognized as a major chronic liver disease in Asia. Therefore, prevention of this disease in Asian countries is very important and the best strategy for prevention and control of NAFLD is lifestyle modifications. Lifestyle modification programs are typically designed to change bad eating habits and increase physical activity that is associated with clinically significant improvements in obesity, type 2 diabetes and MS. CONCLUSION: Prevention of NAFLD is very important in Asian countries particularly in Arab countries because of high prevalence of obesity, diabetes and MS. PMID:26167252

  9. Common Ground: An Investigation of Environmental Management Alcohol Prevention Initiatives in a College Community*

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Mark D.; DeJong, William; Fairlie, Anne M.; Lawson, Doreen; Lavigne, Andrea M.; Cohen, Fran

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article presents an evaluation of Common Ground, a media campaign-supported prevention program featuring increased enforcement, decreased alcohol access, and other environmental management initiatives targeting college student drinking. Method: Phase 1 of the media campaign addressed student resistance to environmentally focused prevention by reporting majority student support for alcohol policy and enforcement initiatives. Phase 2 informed students about state laws, university policies, and environmental initiatives. We conducted student telephone surveys, with samples stratified by gender and year in school, for 4 consecutive years at the intervention campus and 3 years at a comparison campus. We did a series of one-way between-subjects analyses of variance and analyses of covariance, followed by tests of linear trend and planned comparisons. Targeted outcomes included perceptions of enforcement and alcohol availability, alcohol use, and alcohol-impaired driving. We examined archived police reports for student incidents, primarily those resulting from loud parties. Results: There were increases at the intervention campus in students' awareness of formal alcohol-control efforts and perceptions of the alcohol environment, likelihood of apprehension for underage drinking, consequences for alcohol-impaired driving, and responsible alcohol service practices. There were decreases in the perceived likelihood of other students' negative behavior at off-campus parties. Police-reported incidents decreased over time; however, perceived consequences for off-campus parties decreased. No changes were observed for difficulty finding an off-campus party, self-reported alcohol use, or alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusions: The intervention successfully altered perceptions of alcohol enforcement, alcohol access, and the local alcohol environment. This study provides important preliminary information to researchers and practitioners engaged in collaborative

  10. Glutamate and GABA receptor dysfunction in the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olney, John W; Wozniak, David F; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Farber, Nuri B; Bittigau, Petra; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy

    2002-06-01

    The brain damaging effects of ethanol, as the most disabling component of the fetal alcohol syndrome FAS), have been recognized for 3 decades, but the mechanism underlying these effects has remained elusive. Recently, we discovered that ethanol triggers widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration throughout the developing brain when administered to infant rodents during the period of synaptogenesis, also known as the brain growth spurt period. These findings provide a more likely explanation than has heretofore been available for the reduced brain mass and lifelong neurobehavioral disturbances associated with the human FAS. We propose that a dual mechanism - blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors and hyperactivation of GABA(A) receptors - mediates ethanol's apoptogenic action, based on established evidence that ethanol has both NMDA antagonist and GABAmimetic properties, and our recent finding that other drugs with either NMDA antagonist or GABAmimetic properties robustly trigger apoptotic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. The brain growth spurt occurs in different species at different times relative to birth. In rats and mice it is a postnatal event, but in humans it extends from the sixth month of gestation to several years after birth. Thus, there is a period in pre and postnatal human development, lasting for several years, during which immature CNS neurons are prone to commit suicide if exposed to intoxicating concentrations of drugs with NMDA antagonist or GABAmimetic properties. These findings are important, not only because of their relevance to the FAS, but because there are many agents in the human environment, other than ethanol, that have NMDA antagonist or GABAmimetic properties. Such agents include drugs that may be abused by pregnant mothers [ethanol, phencyclidine (angel dust), ketamine (Special K), nitrous oxide (laughing gas), barbiturates, benzodiazepines], and many medicinals used in obstetric and pediatric neurology (anticonvulsants), and

  11. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salujha, S. K.; Chaudhury, S.; Menon, P. K.; Srivastava, K.; Gupta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO) personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2*2 (0.50), ADH3*1 (0.67) and ALSH2*2 (0.09) were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence. PMID:25535445

  12. Gluteal compartment syndrome due to prolonged immobilization after alcohol intoxication: a case report.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Shinichi; Miura, Naoyuki; Fukushima, Tomokazu; Seki, Tomoko; Sugimoto, Katuhiko; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2011-07-01

    Gluteal compartment syndrome is a relatively rare condition that mostly result from atraumatic causes such as prolonged immobilization due to drug abuse or alcoholic intoxication and incorrect positioning during surgical procedures rather than traumatic causes. Early diagnosis is difficult and sometimes delayed or overlooked because of poor physical signs resulting from altered mental status and inappropriate diagnosis by clinicians. It has been reported that more than half of the cases of gluteal compartment syndrome are associated with crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy. Early diagnosis and immediate fasciotomy are necessary to improve the functional prognosis. Here, we report the case of a patient with gluteal compartment syndrome caused by prolonged immobilization after acute alcoholic intoxication. After disease onset, the patient developed complications of crush syndrome and sciatic nerve palsy, but immediate fasciotomy improved his condition.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  15. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Prevention, identification, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Deborah S; Edwards, Wanda E R; Herrington, Carolyn

    2016-08-18

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) remain a common cause of intellectual disability in infants and children, with an estimated incidence of 9.1 out of every 1,000 U.S. live births. This article discusses methods for identifying and assisting women who consume alcohol prenatally and referring infants and children with FASD for intervention. PMID:27414813

  16. The Education of Most Worth: Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Lowell

    1988-01-01

    Combating the teenage substance abuse problem will require total school and community effort. This article presents guidelines for school action, including recognizing alcohol's dominant role in our society, dealing with mixed messages to youngsters, debunking myths about adolescent alcohol use, using available resources in new ways, and creating…

  17. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  18. Free radicals in alcoholic myopathy: indices of damage and preventive studies.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Adachi, Junko; Asano, Migiwa; Koll, Michael; Mantle, David; Niemela, Onni; Parkkila, Seppo; Paice, Alistair G; Peters, Timothy; Rajendram, Rajkumar; Seitz, Helmut; Ueno, Yasuhiro; Worrall, Simon

    2002-04-15

    Chronic alcoholic myopathy affects up to two-thirds of all alcohol misusers and is characterized by selective atrophy of Type II (glycolytic, fast-twitch, anaerobic) fibers. In contrast, the Type I fibers (oxidative, slow-twitch, aerobic) are relatively protected. Alcohol increases the concentration of cholesterol hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde-protein adducts, though protein-carbonyl concentration levels do not appear to be overtly increased and may actually decrease in some studies. In alcoholics, plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol may be reduced in myopathic patients. However, alpha-tocopherol supplementation has failed to prevent either the loss of skeletal muscle protein or the reductions in protein synthesis in alcohol-dosed animals. The evidence for increased oxidative stress in alcohol-exposed skeletal muscle is thus inconsistent. Further work into the role of ROS in alcoholic myopathy is clearly warranted.

  19. Alternatives Drug and Alcohol Prevention Program. Self Evaluation, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blangiardo, John; Gold, Judith

    Alternatives, the Drug and Alcohol Prevention Program of Community School District 22 in Brooklyn, N.Y., is a broad-based substance abuse prevention program funded by the state that provides direct services to students and their families through three service modalities. These are prevention services, which provide students, parents, and the…

  20. Shaken Baby Syndrome: The Problem and a Model for Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Jacy

    1992-01-01

    Examines the problem of shaken baby syndrome (SBS), which involves the injury or death of an infant as a result of severe shaking. Advocates a national media campaign to promote awareness of SBS and to prevent needless injuries and deaths. (MDM)

  1. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  2. Effects of adverts from a drug and alcohol prevention campaign on willingness to engage in alcohol-related risky behaviors.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Slater, Michael D

    2011-11-01

    Behavioral willingness is conceptualized as a pathway to behavior that is non-deliberative, yet traditional measures require thoughtful deliberation to complete. This study explored non-deliberative measures of alcohol-related willingness to complement recent work on marijuana-related willingness. The study also examined whether adverts from a field-tested drug and alcohol prevention campaign may have operated by influencing alcohol-related willingness. Participants viewed campaign adverts or consumer adverts (control). Outcomes were reaction times to make speeded judgments about whether one would engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors. Results showed that campaign advertisements lowered willingness to play drinking games and (for males) to drive while intoxicated. PMID:21646292

  3. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Science--Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for science/biology and healthful living are presented. The science/biology goal is understanding the biology of humans. Healthful living goals include analyzing drug and alcohol use…

  4. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the…

  5. Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew F.; BaileyShea, Chelsea; McIntosh, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of heavy alcohol use, related harm, and implications for prevention among community college students. We used data from 7,965 students at 19 community colleges who responded to the Core Alcohol and Other Drug Survey. This secondary analysis of the survey data found heavy consumption among…

  6. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…

  7. Promoting Student Support for Alcohol Misuse Prevention on Campus: The Role of Secondhand Consequence Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Trockel, Mickey; Wall, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduate students participated in a discussion on common secondhand consequences of alcohol use, including concerns about personal safety and impact on living environments. This easy-to implement and brief intervention may strengthen students resolve to be more proactively involved in prevention of alcohol abuse for their campus community.…

  8. Mental Illness: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with mental illness notes the incidence of mental illness and types of conditions. The incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse problems in this population is discussed, emphasizing the difficulty in dealing with the dual problem of substance abuse and chronic mental illness.…

  9. The Effectiveness of an Alcohol Abuse Prevention Program among High School Students in Rural Missouri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, David J.; McLearen, Alix M.

    2002-01-01

    A three-pronged program to prevent underage drinking delivered alcohol education and anti-drinking messages to high school students and their parents and distributed pertinent information to local alcohol retailers in a rural community. Compared to a control community, students in the intervention community were less likely to develop risky…

  10. Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You: A Comprehensive Program to Prevent Adolescent Drinking, Drug Use, and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Connie

    1991-01-01

    Presents "Alcohol, Drugs, Driving and You" (ADDY), a comprehensive program designed to prevent adolescent alcohol- and drug-related crashes and to prepare young people to be more responsible drivers and passengers. Describes program modules, evaluation results, and school and community benefits that may result from adopting this program.…

  11. Prevalence and Characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in a Rocky Mountain Region City

    PubMed Central

    Keaster, Carol; Bozeman, Rosemary; Goodover, Joelene; Blankenship, Jason; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Brooks, Marita; Hasken, Julie; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) in the United States (US) are not well known. Methods This active case ascertainment study in a Rocky Mountain Region City assessed the prevalence and traits of children with FAS and PFAS and linked them to maternal risk factors. Diagnoses made by expert clinical dysmorphologists in multidisciplinary case conferences utilized all components of the study: dysmorphology and physical growth; neurobehavior; and maternal risk interviews. Results Direct parental (active) consent was obtained for 1,278 children. Averages for key physical diagnostic traits and several other minor anomalies were significantly different among FAS, PFAS, and randomly-selected, normal controls. Cognitive tests and behavioral checklists discriminated the diagnostic groups from controls on 12 of 14 instruments. Mothers of children with FAS and PFAS were significantly lower in educational attainment, shorter, later in pregnancy recognition, and suffered more depression, and used marijuana and methamphetamine during their pregnancy. Most pre-pregnancy and pregnancy drinking measures were worse for mothers of FAS and PFAS. Excluding a significant difference in simply admitting drinking during the index pregnancy (FAS and PFAS = 75% vs. 39.4% for controls), most quantitative intergroup differences merely approached significance. This community’s prevalence of FAS is 2.9 to 7.5 per 1,000, PFAS is 7.9 to 17.7 per 1,000, and combined prevalence is 10.9 to 25.2 per 1,000 or 1.1% to 2.5%. Conclusions Comprehensive, active case ascertainment methods produced rates of FAS and PFAS higher than predicted by long-standing, popular estimates. PMID:26321671

  12. Report on Outreach Efforts and Analysis of Approach: A Pilot Project on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome for American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Philip A.

    The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Project of the Indian Health Service was designed to identify existing cases of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among the American Indian tribes (Navajo, Apache, Ute and 19 Pueblo Tribes) in the Southwest, establish a referral system to identify these children for treatment, estimate the prevalence of the problem, and work…

  13. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  14. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  15. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-07

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action.

  16. Natural Products for the Prevention and Treatment of Hangover and Alcohol Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Li, Ya; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s) and related mechanism(s) of action. PMID:26751438

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: prevention and early recognition.

    PubMed

    de Haro, Candelaria; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Torrents, Eva; Artigas, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is common in critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU). ARDS results in increased use of critical care resources and healthcare costs, yet the overall mortality associated with these conditions remains high. Research focusing on preventing ARDS and identifying patients at risk of developing ARDS is necessary to develop strategies to alter the clinical course and progression of the disease. To date, few strategies have shown clear benefits. One of the most important obstacles to preventive interventions is the difficulty of identifying patients likely to develop ARDS. Identifying patients at risk and implementing prevention strategies in this group are key factors in preventing ARDS. This review will discuss early identification of at-risk patients and the current prevention strategies. PMID:23617961

  18. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  19. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  20. An Intersectoral Intervention to Prevent Early Alcohol Use in Cuban Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fabelo-Roche, Justo R; Iglesias-Moré, Serguei; Gómez-García, Ana M; Hernández-Domínguez, Heydi; García-Enríquez, Iovanny

    2016-07-01

    To encourage development of negative attitudes toward alcohol use and thus prevent early onset of alcohol use, an intersectoral intervention was conducted from 2014 to 2015 among Cuban adolescents in 14 schools in Havana. The intervention included 312 students (189 girls and 123 boys) aged 14 to 15 years in 10th grade of high school or vocational school. Workshops were conducted using participatory techniques and group dynamics. Qualitative methods were applied, including narrative, desiderative and projective techniques. Indicators included attitudes, motivation, interests and perception of risk. Following the intervention, 82.7% (258/312) of participants reported healthy cultural and recreational interests and 61.9% (193/312) reinforced negative attitudes toward drinking. Such interventions can help prevent early onset of alcohol use in school settings. Given the positive results, the intervention is slated to be reproduced in other Cuban provinces. KEYWORDS Adolescents, prevention, alcoholism, attitudes, Cuba. PMID:27510934

  1. Use of computer-assisted instruction in the prevention of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Meier, S T; Sampson, J P

    1989-01-01

    Recent critiques of and research with traditional alcohol prevention programs have revealed serious problems. Prevention programs typically increase knowledge and appropriate attitudes about alcohol while having little effect on drinking behavior. In this article several concepts are introduced in support of a technology which has the potential to revitalize alcohol education efforts. First, Bandura's self-efficacy theory offers a direction for re-conceptualizing the design of prevention programs as well as the measurement of their effects. Second, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs may provide a means for capturing attention, effectively educating about alcohol, and supplementing traditional approaches. One current CAI program is described in detail. Implications for research and practice and obstacles to effective CAI use are also discussed. PMID:2677296

  2. How to prevent small stature in Rett syndrome-associated collapsing spine syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thorey, Fritz; Jäger, Marcus; Seller, Konrad; Wild, Alexander; Adam, Rüdiger A; Krauspe, Rüdiger

    2007-04-01

    Severe scoliosis in Rett syndrome is an important orthopedic, neurologic, and pediatric problem. The curve in Rett syndrome is of a neurologic type, has its highest incidence during early childhood, and shows rapid progression. In this study, the authors report the results of a 4-year follow-up of a 10-year-old Rett syndrome female patient with early onset and severe rapid progressive thoracolumbar scoliosis. The first signs of spinal deformity were documented at age 3 years. During adolescence, the patient developed a 115-degree thoracolumbal scoliosis with reduced respiratory volume due to a collapsing spine syndrome. To stop this life-threatening progression of the curve, the patient was treated by a 2-stage surgical procedure. The combination of an anterior release, halo traction, and posterior instrumented fusion from Th3 to L5 using a computer-assisted technique was performed. An excellent reduction of the deformity was achieved (postoperative 24-degree Cobb angle). After 4 years, the authors found a radiologically solid spinal fusion and no progression of the deformity. Operative treatment regimes and etiology of severe spinal deformities in Rett syndrome were discussed. The high perioperative risks in Rett syndrome patients who underwent spinal surgery may be reduced by an early cooperation between orthopedic and pediatric specialists. When considering recent data from literature, it can be concluded that an early correction of spine deformities in Rett syndrome patients may prevent a life-threatening collapsing spine syndrome.

  3. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  4. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Australia--the future is prevention.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are increasingly recognised throughout Australia as important, but preventable, disorders that result in lifelong problems with health and learning, mental health, behaviour and substance misuse. The role of this article is to highlight current efforts, which are in their infancy, to recognise and prevent FASD in Australia. A federal parliamentary inquiry into FASD (2011), development of an Australian Government 'action plan' to prevent FASD (2013) and the announcement in June 2014 of government funding to progress the plan and appoint a National FASD Technical Network have focused attention on the need for FASD prevention in Australia. Other welcome developments include the formation of Parliamentarians for the Prevention of FASD (2011), revision of guidelines regarding alcohol use in pregnancy by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC; 2009) and provision of targeted funding for FASD research by the NHMRC (2013). Initiatives by Indigenous communities to restrict access to alcohol and diagnose and prevent FASD have had a significant impact in high-risk communities. The National Organisation for FASD has an important ongoing advocacy and educational remit. Nongovernment organisations such as the Foundation for Alcohol Research and Education have contributed to prevention by developing resources to assist health professionals to advise women about the harms of alcohol use in pregnancy; encouraging men to abstain from alcohol during the pregnancy; drafting a national plan; and advocating for pregnancy warning labels on alcohol. Internationally, in 2014, a charter on prevention of FASD was published in The Lancet Global Health, and the World Health Organization released guidelines for identification and management of substance use in pregnancy. Early recognition and support for individuals with FASD is crucial to prevent adverse secondary outcomes; however, primary prevention of alcohol use in pregnancy, and

  5. Evaluation of a Brief Alcohol Prevention Program for Urban School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Pappas, Deborah M.; Carlson, Joan M.; Edgemon, Patricia; Sinder, Jacqueline A.; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a 2-year, stage-based alcohol prevention intervention using nurse consultations and parent prevention materials among 6th graders in one neighborhood school and one bused magnet inner-city school. Students received either the experimental program or a minimal intervention. Student surveys and saliva testing indicated…

  6. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: A Bulletin for Fraternity and Sorority Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enos, Tammy; Pittayathikhun, Tanutda

    This bulletin describes alcohol and other drug (AOD) prevention programs specifically designed or customized for fraternities and sororities (Greeks). Approaches to AOD prevention include: (1) peer education programs to help students help themselves; (2) comprehensive health and psychosocial assistance; (3) retreats, to encourage student…

  7. Annotated Bibliography of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Violence Prevention Resources, 2006-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…

  8. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods. PMID:26024707

  9. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  10. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  11. Academic Performance, Retention, and Alcohol Use. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Drinking remains a significant part of the college experience for many students across the nation. The 2010 Monitoring the Future survey found that 65 percent of college students reported alcohol use in the past 30 days, 37 percent reported occasions of heavy drinking (five or more drinks in a row in the past two weeks), and nearly half (44…

  12. A Brief Alcohol Preventive Intervention for Student Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Carlson, Joan M.; Pappas, Deborah M.; Edgemon, Patricia; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2002-01-01

    Studies of athletes suggest that they are at increased risk for using alcohol, smokeless tobacco, steroids, and marijuana. They are also a readily available audience during annual preparticiaption physical examinations. In this article, Dr. Werch and colleagues report on the results from their pilot study, using a modified version of STARS (Start…

  13. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm. PMID:26192335

  14. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  15. Symptom-Triggered vs. Fixed-Dosing Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Reagan T

    2014-01-01

    A literature review was conducted with the objective of creating evidence-based recommendations for use of symptom-triggered therapy (STT) or fixed-schedule dosing in treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome in inpatients. Use of STT reduced duration of therapy as well as the number of patients requiring treatment or medication, potentially reducing costs and risk of adverse medication reactions.

  16. Spatial but Not Object Memory Impairments in Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadel, Lynn; Uecker, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Thirty Native American children (mean age=10.3 years), 15 identified with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and 15 controls, were asked to recall places and objects in a task previously shown to be sensitive to memory skills in individuals with and without mental retardation. Children with FAS demonstrated a spatial but not an object memory impairment.…

  17. The Educational Attainment of Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Recommendations and Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford; Bischoff, Herbert; Perham-Hester, Kathy; Chandler, Bruce; Middaugh, John

    This study examined the educational records of 36 children who met all or most of the criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and who were referred to special education in Anchorage, Fairbanks, or Juneau (Alaska) school districts. Thirty of the children were found to have medical comorbidities independent of the findings generally associated…

  18. Performance of American Indian Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on the Test of Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Laura J.; Chermak, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven American Indian children (ages 4-12), 10 with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and 17 normally developing control subjects, were administered the Test of Language Development. FAS children exhibited depressed performance on most subtests. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits whereas the younger FAS subjects presented more…

  19. Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome with and without Dexmedetomidine

    PubMed Central

    Beg, Muna; Fisher, Sara; Siu, Dana; Rajan, Sudhir; Troxell, Lawrence; Liu, Vincent X

    2016-01-01

    Context: Studies suggest that dexmedetomidine—an intravenous central-acting α2-adrenergic agonist that effectively reduces anxiety among critically ill patients—is being used in patients with severe alcohol withdrawal. However, evidence supporting its use is limited, and it is not approved for this indication. Objective: To assess the effect of dexmedetomidine on severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms and to compare its use with benzodiazepines alone. Design: A retrospective, cohort study of 77 patients admitted to the adult medical intensive care unit with severe alcohol withdrawal between January 1, 2009, and October 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measures: The difference in lorazepam equivalents and Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scores in the 24 hours before and after initiation of dexmedetomidine therapy. Results: The frequency of dexmedetomidine use increased dramatically between 2009 and 2013 (16.7% vs 82.4%; p = 0.01). Initiation of dexmedetomidine therapy was associated with significant improvements in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scores over corresponding 24-hour intervals (14.5 vs 8.5; p < 0.01). Benzodiazepine use also decreased, but the difference was not statistically significant at 24 hours (p = 0.10). Dexmedetomidine was well tolerated, requiring discontinuation of therapy in only 4 patients (10.5%). Dexmedetomidine use was also associated with significantly longer hospitalizations (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine initiation was associated with a reduction in short-term alcohol withdrawal symptoms in patients in the intensive care unit, with only a few patients experiencing adverse events. However, its use was also associated with longer hospitalizations. Further research is necessary to evaluate whether dexmedetomidine is efficacious or cost-effective in severe alcohol withdrawal. PMID:27168398

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  1. Alcohol-responsive Action Myoclonus of the Leg in Prostate Cancer: A Novel Paraneoplastic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Termsarasab, Pichet; Frucht, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic movement disorders in prostate cancer are rare, and to our knowledge paraneoplastic myoclonus has not previously been reported. Case Report We report two men with adenocarcinoma of the prostate who developed isolated alcohol-responsive action myoclonus of one leg. Myoclonus was absent at rest but triggered by movement, standing, or walking. Evaluations excluded malignant invasion of the nervous system, and testing for commercial paraneoplastic antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were unrevealing. Both patients experienced significant improvement with alcohol, and sodium oxybate was used in one patient with good initial benefit. Discussion Alcohol-responsive leg myoclonus might be a novel paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. The nature of the syndrome and the source of the myoclonus are currently unknown. PMID:26759739

  2. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed.

  3. An Update on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-Pathogenesis, Risks, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Keshav K; Gupta, Vinay K; Shirasaka, Tomohiro

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol is a well-established teratogen that can cause variable physical and behavioral effects on the fetus. The most severe condition in this spectrum of diseases is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The differences in maternal and fetal enzymes, in terms of abundance and efficiency, in addition to reduced elimination, allow for alcohol to have a prolonged effect on the fetus. This can act as a teratogen through numerous methods including reactive oxygen species (generated as by products of CYP2E1), decreased endogenous antioxidant levels, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, disrupted neuronal cell-cell adhesion, placental vasoconstriction, and inhibition of cofactors required for fetal growth and development. More recently, alcohol has also been shown to have epigenetic effects. Increased fetal exposure to alcohol and sustained alcohol intake during any trimester of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of FAS. Other risk factors include genetic influences, maternal characteristics, for example, lower socioeconomic statuses and smoking, and paternal chronic alcohol use. The treatment options for FAS have recently started to be explored although none are currently approved clinically. These include prenatal antioxidant administration food supplements, folic acid, choline, neuroactive peptides, and neurotrophic growth factors. Tackling the wider impacts of FAS, such as comorbidities, and the family system have been shown to improve the quality of life of FAS patients. This review aimed to focus on the pathogenesis, especially mechanisms of alcohol teratogenicity, and risks of developing FAS. Recent developments in potential management strategies, including prenatal interventions, are discussed. PMID:27375266

  4. Influence of zinc nutriture on expression of fetal alcohol syndrome in rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Keen, C.L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, S.; Benak, P.A.; Hurley, L.S.

    1986-03-05

    Excess EtOH intake during human pregnancy can be teratogenic, causing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). Altered mineral metabolism may be one mechanism underlying development of FAS. The authors have examined the role of Zn nutriture in the teratogenicity of EtOH in Sprague-Dawley rats. Females (120-140 g) were fed isocaloric Lieber-DeCarli diets containing Zn at concentrations of 2 ..mu..g/ml (low;LZn), 30 ..mu..g/ml (adequate), or 300 ..mu..g/ml (supplemented); EtOH contributed either 0% of kcals (OEtOH) or 36% (EtOH). After 4 weeks females were bred and fed the same diets. Restricted fed groups were included to control for caloric intake. On d 21, rats were killed fetuses and placentas removed. Food intake was not affected by EtOH but decreased by 20% in LZn rats on d 19 and 20. EtOH and Zn intake influenced fetal size; most affected were LZnEtOH fetuses which weighed 12% less than controls. LZn groups had soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities, with the highest incidence in LZnEtOH fetuses. These effects were not noted in fetuses from restricted dams. Supplemental Zn did not prevent the teratogenic effects of EtOH possibly due to induced Cu deficiency as suggested by tissue Cu analyses. These data indicate that low maternal Zn intake may exacerbate the effects of EtOH, but excess Zn can also be deleterious.

  5. The role of the pediatrician in preventing suicide in adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Carballo, Juan J; Clavel, Maria; Giner, Lucas; Sher, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, suicide is among the top five causes of mortality in the 15- to 19- year age group. Pediatricians and primary care providers are in a distinctive position to help prevent suicide in adolescents. According to the Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services, all adolescents should have at least an annual preventive services visit, which should address both the biomedical and psychosocial aspects of health. Suicide prevention may best be accomplished by detection and management of specific risk factors, rather than by attempting to recognize those youth who are considered most likely to commit suicide. Alcohol use has been regarded as an important risk factor for adolescent suicidal behavior and the diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder indicates an elevated risk for adolescent suicide. Although the causal relationship between alcohol use and suicide remains unknown, a clear and strong relationship exists. Pediatricians and other health care providers should be skilled to recognize risk factors for adolescent suicide, including alcohol and drug misuse, depression, major loss, and recent suicides within a community. The relative frequency of suicidal behavior among adolescents suffering from alcohol use disorders and its distressing effects on individuals, families and society merits further research and development of prevention strategies in general pediatric settings. PMID:17458325

  6. Predictors of alcohol use during the first year of college: Implications for prevention

    PubMed Central

    Borsari, Brian; Murphy, James G.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2008-01-01

    The first year of college is a unique transition period, in which the student establishes a college identity and social network. Alcohol use is often part of this process, and many first-year college students develop a pattern of heavy drinking that puts them at risk for adverse consequences during their college years and into young adulthood. To better understand the development of risky alcohol use during this transition, we reviewed the literature on influences on college drinking and identified moderators and mediators that were particularly relevant for first-year alcohol use. As the transition from high school to college presents a unique opportunity for intervention, we discuss how these moderators and mediators can inform alcohol abuse prevention programs. We also identify approaches aimed at changing the culture of alcohol use on campus. Limitations of the reviewed research are highlighted in the context of promising directions for future research. PMID:17321059

  7. Training nurses and nursing students about prevention, diagnoses, and treatment of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zoorob, Roger J; Durkin, Kristy M; Gonzalez, Sandra J; Adams, Susie

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can result in birth defects known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This study examined whether 1-h training sessions on alcohol screening, brief intervention, diagnoses, and treatment of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders could increase practical knowledge and confidence in nurses and student nurses. Data were collected from 420 nurses (n = 95) and student nurses (n = 325) in the southeastern United States, from 2009 to 2011. Pre- and post-test data were analyzed using chi-square tests and t-tests. The post-training response rate was 84%. Nurses were more likely to know what constitutes binge drinking, facial abnormalities associated with fetal alcohol syndrome, and criteria for diagnosis. Nurses were also more confident in educating about effects of prenatal alcohol use, identifying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and utilizing resources. Training materials may need to be improved and/or longer training programs developed for student nurses, and nursing school programs should place more emphasis on educating and preparing student nurses regarding this topic area.

  8. Update: Acute coronary syndromes (IX). Secondary prevention strategies for acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Quiles, Juan; Miralles-Vicedo, Beatriz

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the main health problem in Europe and the rest of the world and is the leading cause of death and health care expenditure. By reducing mortality and ischemic event recurrence, prevention strategies play a fundamental role in patients who have had an acute coronary syndrome. Although these prevention strategies have focused with great success on high-risk individuals, they should also be used in the general population, which is showing an increase in the prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other comorbidities that may reverse this trend toward reduced mortality. The present article consists of an up-to-date review of the main cardiovascular prevention measures, particularly the new developments of the last year, as well as the particularities of these measures when they are targeted at patients with a prior acute coronary syndrome.

  9. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    PubMed

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  10. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-12-15

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention.

  11. Enforcing regulations on alcohol sales and use as universal environmental prevention.

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Bartroli, Montserrat; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Guitart, Anna M; Serra-Batiste, Enric; Casas, Conrad; Brugal, M Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The informal social control over alcohol consumption that was traditional in Southern European countries has weakened. At the same time there is an increase in binge drinking and drunkenness among young people in Spain. To mitigate this problem, regulations on alcohol and driving and restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol have been adopted. This paper documents the current regulations in the city of Barcelona and describes efforts to enforce them and their outcomes. Data from the municipal information systems on infringements reported for the period 2008-13 are provided. There is an increasing pressure of municipal services to enforce the rules in two areas: a) alcohol sales at night (retailers); and b) consumption in the public space (citizens). An increase in the controls of drink-driving has also taken place, and the proportion above legal limits has decreased. The largest relative increase occurred in the control of retailers. In Barcelona interventions are made to limit the supply and consumption of alcohol at low cost and during the night, and of driving under the influence of alcohol. There have been no documented episodes of massive drinking in public spaces (known as 'botellón') in the city. These actions, which complement other preventive efforts based on health education, can change the social perceptions of alcohol by minors in a direction less favorable to consumption, promoting environmental prevention. PMID:26706811

  12. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy: A Case Report in Medicolegal Autopsy.

    PubMed

    Tangsermkijsakul, Aphinan

    2016-03-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a range of birth defects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Infants with FAS are prone to death because of various physical abnormalities. Consequently, infants with FAS may be presented in the medicolegal investigation as a form of sudden unexpected death in infancy. The author reported a 6-month-old male infant who was found dead at home. The history of maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy was obtained. The infant was diagnosed with FAS at the autopsy because he was presented with postnatal growth retardation, multiple facial abnormalities, and abnormal brain structures, which met the criteria of FAS. The cause of death was severe aspiration pneumonia. The purposes of this case report are to show an uncommon manifestation of sudden unexpected death in infancy case for the forensic pathologists and to emphasize on the national healthcare problem.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy: A Case Report in Medicolegal Autopsy.

    PubMed

    Tangsermkijsakul, Aphinan

    2016-03-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is a range of birth defects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most serious form of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Infants with FAS are prone to death because of various physical abnormalities. Consequently, infants with FAS may be presented in the medicolegal investigation as a form of sudden unexpected death in infancy. The author reported a 6-month-old male infant who was found dead at home. The history of maternal ethanol consumption during pregnancy was obtained. The infant was diagnosed with FAS at the autopsy because he was presented with postnatal growth retardation, multiple facial abnormalities, and abnormal brain structures, which met the criteria of FAS. The cause of death was severe aspiration pneumonia. The purposes of this case report are to show an uncommon manifestation of sudden unexpected death in infancy case for the forensic pathologists and to emphasize on the national healthcare problem. PMID:26730801

  14. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided.

  15. Students' Experiences with Web-Based Alcohol Prevention: A Qualitative Evaluation of AlcoholEdu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygaard, Peter; Paschall, Mallie J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To provide more in-depth information about students' experiences with AlcoholEdu and in particular to assess if students perceive that the course gives them tools to better control their drinking-related behavior. Methods: Focus group interviews with freshmen at three California universities. Findings: 1) The course provides so much…

  16. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  17. [Risky alcohol drinking surveyed at a GP unit. Secondary prevention of alcohol problems in primary care patients].

    PubMed

    Eriksson, G; Spak, F; Andersson, C

    2000-03-01

    This article describes an implementation of secondary prevention of alcohol abuse at a GP unit in southern Gothenburg, Sweden. During several periods between 1994 and 1996, screening for alcohol problems was performed using either AUDIT or a 4-item instrument called SWAG. In one part of the study, screening was simultaneously carried out using gamma-GT and MCV. The main object of screening efforts was to stimulate interest for alcohol-related conditions, and this goal was reached. The staff was trained in treatment techniques such as motivational interviewing (MI), bio-feedback using gamma-GT and delivery of concise information. Simple methods to determine level of motivation were used for treatment stratification. Some doctors reported that they had insufficient time for adequate MI treatment, and therefore a condensed model was sometimes used. A nurse-staffed treatment unit was started and successfully promoted work with alcohol problem. Attempts were made to spread these methods to other GP units in the region and this was partially successful, although support from the central primary care administration was not secured.

  18. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    PubMed

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  19. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    PubMed

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention. PMID:25751319

  20. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  1. Sodium valproate in the treatment of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lambie, D G; Johnson, R H; Vijayasenan, M E; Whiteside, E A

    1980-09-01

    The value of sodium valproate in the management of patients during withdrawal from alcohol dependence has been assessed. Alcoholic inpatients were randomly allocated to two groups - one treated with sodium valproate and the other acting as a control. All patients received multivitamins and fluid and electrolyte replacement, and some received chlormethiazole or other tranquillisers. Treatment with sodium valproate (1200 mg daily) was continued for one week. The occurrence of seizures and other withdrawal symptoms (tremulousness, nausea, sweating, disorientation) were noted daily. Forty-nine episodes of withdrawal have been included in the trial - 22 in the sodium valproate group and 27 in the control group. Five patients, all in the control group, had seizures. Other withdrawal symptoms disappeared more quickly in the sodium valproate group even though fewer patients were receiving chlormethiazole.

  2. Facial Image Classification of Mouse Embryos for the Animal Model Study of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shiaofen; Liu, Ying; Huang, Jeffrey; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; Anthony, Bruce; Zhou, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a developmental disorder caused by maternal drinking during pregnancy. Computerize imaging techniques have been applied to study human facial dysmorphology associated with FAS. This paper describes a new facial image analysis method based on a multi-angle image classification technique using micro-video images of mouse embryo. Images taken from several different angles are analyzed separately, and the results are combined for classifications that separate embryos with and without alcohol exposures. Analysis results from animal models provide critical references for the understanding of FAS and potential therapy solutions for human patients. PMID:20502627

  3. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  4. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies. PMID:27199891

  5. [Accelerated rubella control and the prevention of congenital rubella syndrome].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Solórzano, Carlos; de Quadros, Ciro A

    2002-04-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and with high costs. Today, as a result of improved vaccination and epidemiological surveillance efforts directed at eradicating measles from the Western Hemisphere, there has been a notable increase in the ability to detect, prevent, and control rubella and CRS. The importance of these measures is undeniable, and this piece examines the components that are essential in moving ahead to reduce these major public health problems in Latin America and the Caribbean. One step in that direction would be to integrate the surveillance of measles with that of rubella and CRS.

  6. Bone Fragility in Turner Syndrome: Mechanisms and Prevention Strategies.

    PubMed

    Faienza, Maria Felicia; Ventura, Annamaria; Colucci, Silvia; Cavallo, Luciano; Grano, Maria; Brunetti, Giacomina

    2016-01-01

    Bone fragility is recognized as one of the major comorbidities in Turner syndrome (TS). The mechanisms underlying bone impairment in affected patients are not clearly elucidated, but estrogen deficiency and X-chromosomal abnormalities represent important factors. Moreover, although many girls with TS undergo recombinant growth hormone therapy to treat short stature, the efficacy of this treatment on bone mineral density is controversial. The present review will focus on bone fragility in subjects with TS, providing an overview on the pathogenic mechanisms and some prevention strategies.

  7. Inhibition of the Casein-Kinase-1-Epsilon/Delta Prevents Relapse-Like Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Merlo-Pich, Emilio V; Corsi, Mauro A; Corti, Corrado; Spanagel, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, it has been shown that circadian clock genes have more than a simple circadian time-keeping role. Clock genes also modulate motivational processes and have been implicated in the development of psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction. Recent studies indicate that casein-kinase 1ɛ/δ (CK1ɛ/δ)—one of the components of the circadian molecular clockwork—might be involved in the etiology of addictive behavior. The present study was initiated to study the specific role of CK1ɛ/δ in alcohol relapse-like drinking using the ‘Alcohol Deprivation Effect' model. The effect of CK1ɛ/δ inhibition was tested on alcohol consumption in long-term alcohol-drinking rats upon re-exposure to alcohol after deprivation using a four-bottle free-choice paradigm with water, 5%, 10%, and 20% ethanol solutions, as well as on saccharin preference in alcohol-naive rats. The inhibition of CK1ɛ/δ with systemic PF-670462 (0, 10, and 30 mg/kg) injections dose-dependently decreased, and at a higher dosage prevented the alcohol deprivation effect, as compared with vehicle-treated rats. The impact of the treatment was further characterized using nonlinear regression analyses on the daily profiles of drinking and locomotor activity. We reveal that CK1ɛ/δ inhibition blunted the high daytime alcohol intake typically observed upon alcohol re-exposure, and induced a phase shift of locomotor activity toward daytime. Only the highest dose of PF-670462 shifted the saccharin intake daily rhythm toward daytime during treatment, and decreased saccharin preference after treatment. Our data suggest that CK1 inhibitors may be candidates for drug treatment development for alcoholism. PMID:22549116

  8. A community prevention trial to reduce alcohol-involved accidental injury and death: overview.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Saltz, R F; Grube, J W; Voas, R B; Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J

    1997-06-01

    The 5-year "Preventing Alcohol Trauma: A Community Trial" project in the United States was designed to reduce alcohol-involved injuries and death in three experimental communities. The project consisted of five mutually reinforcing components: (1) Community Mobilization Component to develop community organization and support, (2) Responsible Beverage Service Component to establish standards for servers and owner/managers of on-premise alcohol outlets to reduce their risk of having intoxicated and/or underage customers in bars and restaurants, (3) Drinking and Driving Component to increase local DWI enforcement efficiency and to increase the actual and perceived risk that drinking drivers would be detected, (4) Underage Drinking Component to reduce retail availability of alcohol to minors, and (5) Alcohol Access Component to use local zoning powers and other municipal controls of outlet number and density to reduce the availability of alcohol. This paper gives an overview of the rationale and causal model, the research design and outline of each intervention component for the entire prevention trial. PMID:9231442

  9. Does breastfeeding prevent the metabolic syndrome, or does the metabolic syndrome prevent breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Stuebe, Alison M

    2015-06-01

    In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy. Disruption of this physiology is associated with long-term adverse maternal health outcomes, including higher risks of later-life obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to these associations, including the metabolic demands of breastfeeding, modulation of stress reactivity, and confounding by other health behaviors. At the same time, evidence suggests that maternal metabolic health entering pregnancy affects lactation performance. In this paradigm, adverse lactation outcomes may be a marker for underlying maternal disease risk. Understanding these relationships has important clinical and policy implications for women's health. PMID:26187772

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. The interaction of ethanol and vitamin A as a potential mechanism for the pathogenesis of Fetal Alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zachman, R D; Grummer, M A

    1998-10-01

    The mechanism of the fetal embryopathology resulting from ethanol ingestion during pregnancy is not established. This review summarizes recent research on the interaction of ethanol and vitamin A in models that explore if an interaction between these two compounds might potentially be the mechanism for fetal alcohol syndrome. The rationale for this hypothesis includes the known facts that: (1) in adults, ethanol ingestion alters vitamin A metabolism and tissue distribution; (2) there are many phenotypic similarities between fetal alcohol syndrome and malformations of both vitamin A toxicity and deficiency; and (3) the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), is a potent mediator in embryogenesis and differentiation. One interaction that could possibly alter fetal development is that the synthesis of RA from retinol, catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase, might be competitively inhibited by ethanol leading to RA deficiency. Controversy over this hypothesis continues. Another model demonstrates in vivo effects of pregnant rat mother's ethanol consumption on retinol, retinyl ester, RA content, RA receptor (RAR) binding, and the levels of RAR expression in developing fetal organs. The variable responses in this model still need clarification, and specific defects resulting from specific RAR changes have not yet been identified. In a quail embryo model, ethanol treatment mimics vitamin A deficiency, and RA appears to prevent the adverse effects of ethanol. Finally, RA and ethanol reverse or block each other's effects in studies on isolated neuroblastoma cells. Taken together, these experiments show definite interactions between ethanol and vitamin A. Further studies are needed to determine if any of these mechanisms significantly contribute to prenatal ethanol consumption embryopathy; but, clearly this hypothesis is gaining experimental support. PMID:9802541

  13. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  14. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    PubMed

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources. PMID:23993023

  15. The Role of Interpersonal Influence as a College Alcohol Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunleavy, Victoria Orrego; Campbell, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of a social skills prevention program that includes proactive intervention message strategies that students can use when they encounter dangerous alcohol-related situations in social settings is argued to be a valuable tool in reducing current problems associated with high risk drinking. The purpose of this study was to identify…

  16. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Communication Skills--English IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…

  17. Project Northland in Croatia: A Community-Based Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abatemarco, Diane J.; West, Bernadette; Zec, Vesna; Russo, Andrea; Sosiak, Persis; Mardesic, Vedran

    2004-01-01

    War and social transition in Croatia have increased unemployment and rates of substance abuse. A decrease in prevention programs places adolescents at an increased risk. Data collected from the 2002 Split Youth Behavior Risk Survey (YRBS) showed that adolescents are at risk for alcohol use and related problems. Thus, there is a need to strengthen…

  18. A Social Role Negotiation Approach to Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Thomas W.

    This document presents a social role negotiation model to be used in the prevention of alcohol and other drugs on college campuses. Section I focuses on theories and theorizing, explaining the fundamental aspects of a theory formulation project. Section II explores the historical and social context of the social role negotiation model. Patterns of…

  19. Social Marketing Strategies for Campus Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Robert

    This document sets out one segment of a comprehensive approach intended to assist institutions of higher education in developing and carrying out alcohol abuse and other drug prevention programs. Social marketing is described as a tool of environmental management, that seeks to produce a specified behavior in a target audience. Intended for a…

  20. Family Support Programs and the Prevention of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse (AOD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Resource Coalition, Chicago, IL.

    This overview examines underlying precepts and components of family support programs. The role of the family in a child's resistance to alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse is discussed. Comprehensive prevention programs encompassing the family, school, and community have shown more promise in helping children avoid AOD abuse than programs that rely…

  1. Alcohol Prevention: What Can Be Expected of a Harm Reduction Focused School Drug Education Programme?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…

  2. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  3. Reducing Alcohol Use in Youth Aged 12-17 Years Using the Strategic Prevention Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, Jennifer J.; Gideonsen, Mark D.; McClaflin, Richard R.; O'Halloran, Peggy; Peardon, Francie A.; Radcliffe, Pamela L.; Masters, Lynnette A.

    2012-01-01

    Although evidence-based interventions to reduce underage drinking have been identified, dissemination into "real-world" communities remains challenging. The purpose of this community-based translational research is to test SAMHSA's Strategic Prevention Framework (SPF) as a model for such dissemination and evaluate its effect on alcohol use by…

  4. College Alcohol Abuse: A Review of the Problems, Issues, and Prevention Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…

  5. Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter

    This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…

  6. Modeling the Injury Prevention Impact of Mandatory Alcohol Ignition Interlock Installation in All New US Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Flannagan, Carol A. C.; Bingham, C. Raymond; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the injury prevention impact and cost savings associated with alcohol interlock installation in all new US vehicles. Methods. We identified fatal and nonfatal injuries associated with drinking driver vehicle crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and National Automotive Sampling System’s General Estimates System data sets (2006–2010). We derived the estimated impact of universal interlock installation using an estimate of the proportion of alcohol-related crashes that were preventable in vehicles < 1 year-old. We repeated this analysis for each subsequent year, assuming a 15-year implementation. We applied existing crash-induced injury cost metrics to approximate economic savings, and we used a sensitivity analysis to examine results with varying device effectiveness. Results. Over 15 years, 85% of crash fatalities (> 59 000) and 84% to 88% of nonfatal injuries (> 1.25 million) attributed to drinking drivers would be prevented, saving an estimated $342 billion in injury-related costs, with the greatest injury and cost benefit realized among recently legal drinking drivers. Cost savings outweighed installation costs after 3 years, with the policy remaining cost effective provided device effectiveness remained above approximately 25%. Conclusions. Alcohol interlock installation in all new vehicles is likely a cost-effective primary prevention policy that will substantially reduce alcohol-involved crash fatalities and injuries, especially among young vulnerable drivers. PMID:25790385

  7. Weeding and Seeding: Programming for Alcohol Abuse Prevention and Wellness Enhancement in an Undergraduate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Fredrica R.; Pohl, Jonathan A.; Smith, M. Katrina

    2006-01-01

    College students who are no longer fully adolescent and not yet fully adult are frequently at risk for developing habits of excessive alcohol use, with consequent poor study habits and aberrant socialization patterns. "Weeding out" such trends is the work of prevention programs on campus. "Seeding" with other pro-social norms becomes the second…

  8. Parent and Child Characteristics Related to Chosen Adolescent Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…

  9. Schools and the Community Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Environment: Opportunities for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools have long been central to community-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention programs. Yet research consistently shows that school programs have only a marginal effect on student substance use and community ATOD problems. Schools are only one of the many influences on young people, and even the best curriculum will fail if…

  10. Testing demographic differences for alcohol use initiation among adolescents for the decisional balance and situational temptation prevention inventories.

    PubMed

    Sillice, Marie A; Paiva, Andrea L; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Meier, Kathryn S; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were any demographic differences on these measures in a sample of 6th grade middle school students from 20 schools (N=4151) at baseline. Three factorial analysis of variance tests were conducted to explore the impact of race (whites vs. non-whites), ethnicity (Hispanics vs. Non-Hispanics) and gender (males vs. females). A significant two-way interaction effect was found between gender and ethnicity for Pros of Alcohol Use. A significant three-way interaction effect was found between gender, race and ethnicity for Cons of Alcohol Use. Main effects were found for the three demographic factors for Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. However, the effect sizes for the interaction effects and main effects were very small (all below η(2)=.01), suggesting that race/ethnicity and gender alone may not be highly influential factors in the Decisional Balance for the Prevention of Alcohol and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol in adolescence. The implications for these results and alcohol use prevention among this group are discussed.

  11. Be Vocal, Be Visible, Be Visionary: Recommendations for College and University Presidents on Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This report summarizes the recommendations of the Presidents Leadership Group formed in early 1997 by the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Offers the following proposals for effective prevention. College presidents should: (1) work to ensure that school officials routinely collect data on the extent of the alcohol and…

  12. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: Initial Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Reduce college student at-risk drinking (ARD) using a Web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Participants: Participants included 1,137 randomly sampled first-year college students, including 59% female, 80% white, and averaged age 18.1 years.…

  13. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps.

    PubMed

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  14. Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Current Canadian Efforts and Analysis of Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Nancy; Schmidt, Rose A.; Green, Courtney; Hemsing, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives. PMID:27199560

  15. Dis/Abling States, Dis/Abling Citizenship: Young Aboriginal Mothers and the Medicalization of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Amy

    2007-01-01

    This article draws on data collected in group interviews with six young, urban Aboriginal mothers whose lives have included substance use and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/ Fetal Alcohol Effects (hereafter FAS/FAE) to highlight the multiple and often contradictory ways in which disability as a constituent of social relations is defined in public policy…

  16. Purkinje cell dysfunction and alteration of long-term synaptic plasticity in fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Servais, Laurent; Hourez, Raphaël; Bearzatto, Bertrand; Gall, David; Schiffmann, Serge N; Cheron, Guy

    2007-06-01

    In cerebellum and other brain regions, neuronal cell death because of ethanol consumption by the mother is thought to be the leading cause of neurological deficits in the offspring. However, little is known about how surviving cells function. We studied cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo and in vitro to determine whether function of these cells was altered after prenatal ethanol exposure. We observed that Purkinje cells that were prenatally exposed to ethanol presented decreased voltage-gated calcium currents because of a decreased expression of the gamma-isoform of protein kinase C. Long-term depression at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the cerebellum was converted into long-term potentiation. This likely explains the dramatic increase in Purkinje cell firing and the rapid oscillations of local field potential observed in alert fetal alcohol syndrome mice. Our data strongly suggest that reversal of long-term synaptic plasticity and increased firing rates of Purkinje cells in vivo are major contributors to the ataxia and motor learning deficits observed in fetal alcohol syndrome. Our results show that calcium-related neuronal dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of the neurological manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome and suggest new methods for treatment of this disorder.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  18. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  19. Effects of Sex Composition on Group Processes in Alcohol Prevention Groups for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Tracey A.; Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Tomlinson, Kristin; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2015-01-01

    Although most alcohol and other drug prevention programs for adolescents are offered in group settings, little is known about the possible effects of sex composition on group processes and mechanisms of change. Using the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework, we examined how the sex constellation of adolescent prevention group members influenced youth satisfaction, engagement, and endorsement of healthy behavior during group. Participants in Project Options (N = 379; 61.8% girls; Mage = 16.1; SD = 1.4), a voluntary school-based alcohol prevention program, completed measures of satisfaction at each prevention session and observers rated engagement and change talk for each group. When analyses were oriented towards girls, their personal satisfaction, group-rated satisfaction, and group-level engagement were positively related to having more girls in the group. Similarly, in boys, personal satisfaction, satisfaction of the group as a whole, and engagement in groups improved when groups were composed of more girls. Statements supportive of healthy alcohol/drug-related decision making were unrelated to group composition. The findings suggest that the composition of girls and boys in groups has differential effects on some group processes. This avenue of research has merit for the understanding the mechanisms associated with satisfaction and engagement in adolescent substance use prevention programs. PMID:26237325

  20. Importance of social support in preventing alcohol-exposed pregnancies with American Indian communities.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jessica D; Jensen, Jamie

    2015-02-01

    Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance.

  1. Effects of sex composition on group processes in alcohol prevention groups for teens.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Tracey A; Bacio, Guadalupe A; Tomlinson, Kristin; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G

    2015-08-01

    Although most alcohol and other drug prevention programs for adolescents are offered in group settings, little is known about the possible effects of sex composition on group processes and mechanisms of change. Using the Group Actor-Partner Interdependence Model framework, we examined how the sex constellation of adolescent prevention group members influenced youth satisfaction, engagement, and endorsement of healthy behavior during group. Participants in Project Options (N = 379; 61.8% girls; Mage = 16.1; SD = 1.4), a voluntary school-based alcohol prevention program, completed measures of satisfaction at each prevention session and observers rated engagement and change talk for each group. When analyses were oriented toward girls, their personal satisfaction, group-rated satisfaction, and group-level engagement were positively related to having more girls in the group. Similarly, in boys, personal satisfaction, satisfaction of the group as a whole, and engagement in groups improved when groups were composed of more girls. Statements supportive of healthy alcohol/drug-related decision making were unrelated to group composition. The findings suggest that the composition of girls and boys in groups has differential effects on some group processes. This avenue of research has merit for understanding the mechanisms associated with satisfaction and engagement in adolescent substance use prevention programs.

  2. Importance of Social Support in Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies with American Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent research concludes that prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur with preconceptional women, either by reducing alcohol consumption in women at-risk or planning pregnancy or preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One AEP prevention program currently underway with non-pregnant American Indian women is the Oglala Sioux Tribe (OST) CHOICES (Changing High-risk alcohOl use and Increasing Contraception Effectiveness Study) Program. The OST CHOICES Program shows promise in lowering the AEP risk in American Indian women, and it is a natural next step to evaluate the potential impact that social support can have on further encouraging behavioral changes. Methods Focus groups with community members and key informant interviews with health and social service professionals were completed. To uncover and interpret interrelated themes, a conventional content analysis methodology was used. Results Eight focus groups were held with 58 American Indian participants, including adult women of child-bearing age, elder women, and adult men. Key informant interviews were completed with 25 health and social service professionals. Based on input from the focus groups and key informant interviews, several subthemes regarding social support in the prevention of AEP stood out, including the role of family (especially elders), the impact community can have, and the important function of culture. Conclusions In this study, we highlighted the important influence that social support can have on AEP prevention, especially among the American Indian population, where social support has cultural and historical significance. PMID:24974087

  3. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Metabolic Syndrome after Liver Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplant is the unique curative therapy for patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease, with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Increase of body weight, onset of insulin resistance and drug-induced alterations of metabolism are reported in liver transplant recipients. In this context, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and arterial hypertension can be often diagnosed. Multifactorial illnesses occurring in the post-transplant period represent significant causes of morbidity and mortality. This is especially true for metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome and after liver transplant both recurrent and de novo steatosis can be found. Usually, post-transplant steatosis shows an indolent outcome with few cases of fibrosis progression. However, in the post-transplant setting, both metabolic syndrome and steatosis might play a key role in the stratification of morbidity and mortality risk, being commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. The single components of metabolic syndrome can be treated with targeted drugs while lifestyle intervention is the only reasonable therapeutic approach for transplant patients with non-alcoholic steatosis or steatohepatitis. PMID:27049380

  4. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  5. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories.

  6. [What is known about the outcome as adults for children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)?].

    PubMed

    Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J

    2012-06-01

    In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories. PMID:22173965

  7. Treatment with neuropeptides attenuates c-fos expression in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Maddalena; Vink, Joy; Roberson, Robin; Abebe, Daniel; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-10-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common nongenetic cause of mental retardation and is characterized by neurodevelopmental anomalies. C-FOS is a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-signal pathway. Previously, we showed the treatment with NAP (NAPVSIPQ) + SAL (SALLRSIPA) reversed the learning deficit after prenatal alcohol exposure in FAS. Our objective was to evaluate if the mechanism of actions of NAP + SAL involves the stress-signal pathway differentiating C-FOS expression in mouse brains after prenatal alcohol exposure. C57Bl6/J mice were treated with alcohol (0.03 mL/g) or placebo on gestational day 8. On postnatal day 40, in utero alcohol-exposed males were treated via gavage with 40 μg D-NAP and 40 μg D-SAL ( N = 6) or placebo ( N = 4); controls were gavaged with placebo daily ( N = 12). After learning evaluation, hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex were isolated. Calibrator-normalized relative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed. Statistics included analysis of variance and post hoc Fisher analysis. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS in the hippocampus after prenatal alcohol exposure ( P < 0.05), but not in the cerebellum. There was no difference in C-FOS expression in the cortex. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS expression in hippocampus attenuating the alcohol-induced alteration of the stress-signal pathway.

  8. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  9. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jack Y J; Chian, Ri-Cheng; Tan, Seang Lin

    2010-11-01

    The only reliable way to eliminate the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is complete avoidance of gonadotropin ovarian stimulation. It could be argued that in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes represents the most effective strategy to prevent OHSS. IVM has been an established treatment option in many centers worldwide for over a decade. The use of IVM and natural cycle in vitro fertilization (IVF) combined with IVM can result in clinical pregnancy rates that compare to those obtained with conventional IVF. The obstetric and perinatal outcomes of IVM pregnancies are similar to those conceived from stimulated IVF or spontaneous conceptions. To date, more than a thousand healthy infants have been born without an increase in fetal abnormalities. Although IVM may not replace standard IVF, it plays an increasingly important role in assisted reproductive technology, especially in the settings of high responders and those patients at risk of OHSS.

  10. Sports and Marfan Syndrome: Awareness and Early Diagnosis Can Prevent Sudden Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salim, Mubadda A.; Alpert, Bruce S.

    2001-01-01

    Physicians who work with athletes play an important role in preventing sudden death related to physical activity in people who have Marfan syndrome. Flagging those who have the physical stigmata and listening for certain cardiac auscultation sounds are early diagnostic keys that can help prevent deaths. People with Marfan syndrome should be…

  11. Secondary Effects of an Alcohol Prevention Program Targeting Students and/or Parents.

    PubMed

    Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2016-08-01

    The secondary effects of an alcohol prevention program (PAS) on onset of weekly smoking and monthly cannabis use are examined among >3000 Dutch early adolescents (M age=12.64) randomized over four conditions: 1) parent intervention (PI), 2) student intervention (SI), 3) combined intervention (CI) and 4) control condition (CC). Rules about alcohol, alcohol use, and adolescents' self-control were investigated as possible mediators. PI had a marginal aversive effect, slightly increasing the risk of beginning to smoke at T1, and increased the likelihood of beginning to use cannabis use at T1 and T2. SI delayed the onset of monthly cannabis use at T3. CI increased the risk to use cannabis at T3. No mediational processes were found. In conclusion, though this study show mixed results, negative side effects of the PI were found, particularly at earlier ages. Moreover, these results indicate the need for multi-target interventions. PMID:27296663

  12. Milk osteopontin, a nutritional approach to prevent alcohol-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaodong; Lu, Yongke; Leung, Tung-Ming; Sørensen, Esben S; Nieto, Natalia

    2013-05-15

    Alcohol consumption is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide; thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Key events for the onset and progression of alcoholic liver disease result in part from the gut-to-liver interaction. Osteopontin is a cytokine present at high concentration in human milk, umbilical cord, and infants' plasma with beneficial potential. We hypothesized that dietary administration of milk osteopontin could prevent alcohol-induced liver injury perhaps by maintaining gut integrity and averting hepatic inflammation and steatosis. Wild-type mice were fed either the control or the ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diets alone or in combination with milk osteopontin for 3 wk, and parameters of gut and liver damage were measured. Milk osteopontin protected the stomach and the gut by increasing gland height, crypt cell plus enterocyte proliferation, and mucin content in addition to lowering macrophages, plasmacytes, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in the mucosa and submucosa in alcohol-fed mice. Milk osteopontin targeted the gut-liver axis, preserving the expression of tight-junction proteins in alcohol-fed mice thus maintaining intestinal integrity and permeability. There was protection from liver injury since transaminases, the activity scores, triglyceride levels, neutrophil infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine residues, lipid peroxidation end products, translocation of gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide levels, and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in cotreated than in ethanol-fed mice. Furthermore, milk osteopontin diminished ethanol-mediated liver injury in OPN knockout mice. Milk osteopontin could be a simple effective nutritional therapeutic strategy to prevent alcohol hepatotoxicity due, among others, to gut protective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-steatotic actions. PMID:23518682

  13. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141950

  14. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  15. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  16. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  17. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  18. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  19. Zinc Supplementation Prevents Alcoholic Liver Injury in Mice through Attenuation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhanxiang; Wang, Lipeng; Song, Zhenyuan; Saari, Jack T.; McClain, Craig J.; Kang, Y. James

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is associated with zinc decrease in the liver. Therefore, we examined whether dietary zinc supplementation could provide protection from alcoholic liver injury. Metallothionein-knockout and wild-type 129/Sv mice were pair-fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 12 weeks, and the effects of zinc supplementation on ethanol-induced liver injury were analyzed. Zinc supplementation attenuated ethanol-induced hepatic zinc depletion and liver injury as measured by histopathological and ultrastructural changes, serum alanine transferase activity, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α in both metallothionein-knockout and wild-type mice, indicating a metallothionein-independent zinc protection. Zinc supplementation inhibited accumulation of reactive oxygen species, as indicated by dihydroethidium fluorescence, and the consequent oxidative damage, as assessed by immunohistochemical detection of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and quantitative analysis of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl in the liver. Zinc supplementation suppressed ethanol-elevated cytochrome P450 2E1 activity but increased the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the liver, without affecting the rate of blood ethanol elimination. Zinc supplementation also prevented ethanol-induced decreases in glutathione concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity and increased glutathione reductase activity in the liver. In conclusion, zinc supplementation prevents alcoholic liver injury in an metallothionein-independent manner by inhibiting the generation of reactive oxygen species (P450 2E1) and enhancing the activity of antioxidant pathways. PMID:15920153

  20. Violent crime: the role of alcohol and new approaches to the prevention of injury.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J

    1994-01-01

    Almost all evidence of a link between alcohol consumption and violence is available only in the form of aggregate data. This is unsatisfactory and case-control investigations and studies which relate injury severity to blood alcohol levels are needed. In the few closely controlled studies which have been performed, increased risk of injury in assault has been linked with binge consumption of more than about 8 units, and above average weekly consumption only in those over 25 years. Raising the minimum purchasing age for alcohol to 21 years, learning to drink responsibly with parents, especially fathers, and the adoption of tempered glassware are all achievable objectives which would reduce alcohol-related injury. The use of sobriety-checkpoints (breath testing though not by the police) and other situational prevention programmes need to be evaluated in relation to reducing injury sustained in violent crime. Proactive, community policing has been shown to reduce levels of alcohol-related violent crime, in contrast to more reactive, defensive and confrontational policing. The concept of 'capable guardianship' to establish and maintain social control of young delinquents needs to be extended, particularly near known foci of violence such as bars and adjacent fast-food outlets and taxi-ranks.

  1. Novel pharmacological strategies to prevent aortic complications in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matt, Peter; Eckstein, Friedrich

    2011-12-01

    The Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene. Recent molecular studies, most performed in mouse models, revealed that the MFS is more a developmental abnormality with broad and complex effects on the morphogenesis and function of multiple organ systems. FBN1 haploinsufficiency and dysregulated transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling seem to be critical for clinical manifestations in MFS including aortic root dilatation. Aortic root aneurysm and aortic dissection represent the main causes of morbidity and mortality in MFS. Most importantly, TGF-β antagonism through angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs), for example losartan, has been shown to prevent and possibly reverse aortic root dilatation in a mouse model of MFS. A first human study on a small pediatric cohort confirmed those promising results in reducing the aortic root growth over a follow-up period of 12 to 47 months. So, a large multicenter trial has been set up and results should be available soon. Other therapeutic strategies which might be combined with losartan include traditional β-blockade, doxycyclin and statins. Such management could offer the first potential for primary prevention of clinical manifestations in MFS. PMID:22783312

  2. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-09-01

    What's Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  3. Reflections on How a University Binge Drinking Prevention Initiative Supports Alcohol Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral for Student Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Robertson-Boersma, Danielle; Butt, Peter; Dell, Colleen Anne

    2015-01-01

    What’s Your Cap: Know When to Put a Lid on Drinking (WYC) is a student-led and research-based binge-drinking prevention campaign at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada. It was formed to encourage a culture of alcohol moderation on the university campus through peer-to-peer engagement that emphasizes promotional items and activities of interest to students. Since its development in 2011, WYC has been guided by a logic model that promotes: 1) perceived and actual student drinking norms on campus; 2) benefits of a student-led initiative; and 3) merits of working with community partners. With the release of a clinical guide in Canada for alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral (SBIR) in 2013, WYC was prompted to consider whether it is a form of population-based SBIR. SBIR is commonly undertaken in the substance use field by health care practitioners, and this paper shares the potential for a student-based SBIR modification on a university campus. PMID:26339219

  4. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  5. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Marlene M.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A.; Hasken, Julie M.; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Snell, Cudore L.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D. H.; May, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  6. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2015-12-23

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  7. Ethanol exposure alters zebrafish development: a novel model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Joseph; Barnett, Jalynn A; Hancock, Laura; Saszik, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has been shown to produce the overt physical and behavioral symptoms known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in humans. Also, it is believed that low concentrations and/or short durations of alcohol exposure can produce more subtle effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to determine whether this species is a viable animal model for studying FAS. Fertilized embryos were reared in varying concentrations of ethanol (1.5% and 2.9%) and exposure times (e.g., 0-8, 6-24, 12-24, and 48-72 h postfertilization; hpf); anatomical measures including eye diameter and heart rate were compared across groups. Results found that at the highest concentration of ethanol (2.9%), there were more abnormal physical distortions and significantly higher mortality rates than any other group. Embryos exposed to ethanol for a shorter duration period (0-8 hpf) at a concentration of 1.5% exhibited more subtle effects such as significantly smaller eye diameter and lower heart rate than controls. These results indicate that embryonic alcohol exposure affects external and internal physical development and that the severity of these effects is a function of both the amount of ethanol and the timing of ethanol exposure. Thus, the zebrafish represents a useful model for examining basic questions about the effects of embryonic exposure to ethanol on development.

  8. Early Intervention for Alcohol Use Prevention and Vehicle Safety Skills: Evaluating the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohman, Thomas M.; Barker, Edward D.; Bell, Mary Lou; Lewis, Carol M.; Holleran, Lori; Pomeroy, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports the evaluation results of the "Protecting You/Protecting Me" (PY/PM) alcohol use prevention and safety curriculum for third, fourth, and fifth graders when taught by high school peer leaders. The primary goal of the PY/PM prevention program, developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), is to prevent injury and death…

  9. Fetal alcohol syndrome among children aged 7-9 years - Arizona, Colorado, and New York, 2010.

    PubMed

    Fox, Deborah J; Pettygrove, Sydney; Cunniff, Christopher; O'Leary, Leslie A; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Bertrand, Jacquelyn; Druschel, Charlotte M; Breen, April; Robinson, Luther; Ortiz, Linnette; Frías, Jaime L; Ruttenber, Margaret; Klumb, Donald; Meaney, F John

    2015-01-30

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious birth defect and developmental disorder caused by in utero exposure to alcohol. Assessment of the public health burden of FAS through surveillance has proven difficult; there is wide variation in reported prevalence depending on the study population and surveillance method. Generally, records-based birth prevalence studies report estimates of 0.2-1.5 per 1,000 live births, whereas studies that use in-person, expert assessment of school-aged children in a community report estimates of 6-9 per 1,000 population. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Surveillance Network II addressed some of the challenges in records-based ascertainment by assessing a period prevalence of FAS among children aged 7‒9 years in Arizona, Colorado, and New York. The prevalence across sites ranged from 0.3 to 0.8 per 1,000 children. Prevalence of FAS was highest among American Indian/Alaska Native children and lowest among Hispanic children. These estimates continue to be much lower than those obtained from studies using in-person, expert assessment. Factors that might contribute to this discrepancy include 1) inadequate recognition of the physical and behavioral characteristics of FAS by clinical care providers; 2) insufficient documentation of those characteristics in the medical record; and 3) failure to consider prenatal alcohol exposure with diagnoses of behavioral and learning problems. Addressing these factors through training of medical and allied health providers can lead to practice changes, ultimately increasing recognition and documentation of the characteristics of FAS. PMID:25632951

  10. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  11. Short-Term Evaluation of a Web-Based College Alcohol Misuse and Harm Prevention Course (College Alc)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paschal, Mallie J.; Bersamin, Melina; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wyrick, David; Currey, David

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the short-term effects of a web-based alcohol misuse and harm prevention course (College Alc) among incoming freshmen at a California public university. Analysis results indicated that at the end of the fall semester, students randomly assigned to College Alc (n = 173) had a higher level of alcohol-related knowledge and less…

  12. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day. PMID:25300769

  13. Alcohol drinking and mammary cancer: Pathogenesis and potential dietary preventive alternatives.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gerardo Daniel; Castro, José A

    2014-10-10

    Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, increasing linearly even with a moderate consumption and irrespectively of the type of alcoholic beverage. It shows no dependency from other risk factors like menopausal status, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, or genetic history of breast cancer. The precise mechanism for the effect of drinking alcohol in mammary cancer promotion is still far from being established. Studies by our laboratory suggest that acetaldehyde produced in situ and accumulated in mammary tissue because of poor detoxicating mechanisms might play a role in mutational and promotional events. Additional studies indicated the production of reactive oxygen species accompanied of decreases in vitamin E and GSH contents and of glutathione transferase activity. The resulting oxidative stress might also play a relevant role in several stages of the carcinogenic process. There are reported in literature studies showing that plasmatic levels of estrogens significantly increased after alcohol drinking and that the breast cancer risk is higher in receptor ER-positive individuals. Estrogens are known that they may produce breast cancer by actions on ER and also as chemical carcinogens, as a consequence of their oxidation leading to reactive metabolites. In this review we introduce our working hypothesis integrating the acetaldehyde and the oxidative stress effects with those involving increased estrogen levels. We also analyze potential preventive actions that might be accessible. There remains the fact that alcohol drinking is just one of the avoidable causes of breast cancer and that, at present, the suggested acceptable dose for prevention of this risk is of one drink per day.

  14. Combined Effects of Smoking and Alcohol on Metabolic Syndrome: The LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marieke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van Beek, André P.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI<25, normal weight; BMI 25–30, overweight; BMI≥30 kg/m2, obese). MetS was defined according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Within each BMI class and smoking subgroup (non-smoker, former smoker, <20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day), the cross-sectional association between alcohol and individual MetS components was tested using regression analysis. Results Prevalence of MetS varied greatly between the different smoking-alcohol subgroups (1.7–71.1%). HDL cholesterol levels in all alcohol drinkers were higher than in non-drinkers (0.02 to 0.29 mmol/L, P values<0.001). HDL cholesterol levels were lower when they were also a former or current smoker (<20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day). Consumption of ≤1 drink/day indicated a trend towards lower triglyceride levels (non-significant). Concurrent use alcohol (>1 drink/day) and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. Conclusion Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:24781037

  15. Comparison between a pediatric health promotion center and a pediatric obesity clinic in detecting metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Ran; Yi, Dae Yong; Choi, Hyoung Soo

    2014-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of health check-ups in children in detecting metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by comparing the pediatric health promotion center with the pediatric obesity clinic. Children who visited a pediatric health promotion center (n=218) or a pediatric obesity clinic (n=178) were included. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, laboratory tests, and abdominal ultrasonography were evaluated. Two different criteria were applied to diagnose metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the 2 units was 3.2%-3.7% in a pediatric health promotion center and 23%-33.2% in a pediatric obesity clinic. Significant differences were observed in the prevalence of each component of metabolic syndrome between the 2 units including abdominal adiposity, blood pressure, serum triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose (P<0.05). The prevalence of NAFLD was 8.7% and 71.9% in the 2 units according to liver enzymes and 5.9% and 61.8% according to ultrasonography (P<0.05). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD was higher among patients visiting the obesity clinic targeting obese children than that among patients visiting the health promotion center offering routine check-ups. An obesity-oriented approach is required to prevent obesity-related health problems in children.

  16. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and high fructose intake in the development of metabolic syndrome, brain metabolic abnormalities, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, Artemis P

    2013-08-01

    Western diets are characterized by both dietary omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and increased fructose intake. The latter found in high amounts in added sugars such as sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Both a low intake of omega-3 fatty acids or a high fructose intake contribute to metabolic syndrome, liver steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), promote brain insulin resistance, and increase the vulnerability to cognitive dysfunction. Insulin resistance is the core perturbation of metabolic syndrome. Multiple cognitive domains are affected by metabolic syndrome in adults and in obese adolescents, with volume losses in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, affecting executive function. Fish oil supplementation maintains proper insulin signaling in the brain, ameliorates NAFLD and decreases the risk to metabolic syndrome suggesting that adequate levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can cope with the metabolic challenges imposed by high fructose intake in Western diets which is of major public health importance. This review presents the current status of the mechanisms involved in the development of the metabolic syndrome, brain insulin resistance, and NAFLD a most promising area of research in Nutrition for the prevention of these conditions, chronic diseases, and improvement of Public Health. PMID:23896654

  17. Betulinic acid prevents alcohol-induced liver damage by improving the antioxidant system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wei; Wu, Jianping; Yuan, Liyun; Wu, Jing; Tu, Di; Fang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene, has a wide range of bioactivities. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of BA and the potential mechanism underlying the ability of this compound to prevent liver damage induced by alcohol in vivo. Mice were given oral doses of BA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) daily for 14 days, and induced liver injury by feeding 50% alcohol orally at the dosage of 10 ml/kg after 1 h last administration of BA. BA pretreatment significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol, and triacylglycerides in a dose-dependent manner in the mice administered alcohol. Hepatic levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase were remarkably increased, while malondialdehyde contents and microvesicular steatosis in the liver were decreased by BA in a dose-dependent manner after alcohol-induced liver injury. These findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective effects of BA might be due to increased antioxidant capacity, mainly through improvement of the tissue redox system, maintenance of the antioxidant system, and decreased lipid peroxidation in the liver. PMID:24378582

  18. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors. PMID:22570777

  19. Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: A preventable fatal acute complication.

    PubMed

    Mah, D Y; Yia, H J; Cheong, W S

    2016-04-01

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a neurological disorder with varying severity that is postulated to be associated with cerebral oedema. We described a case of DDS resulting in irreversible brain injury and death following acute haemodialysis. A 13-year-old male with no past medical history and weighing 30kg, presented to hospital with severe urosepsis complicated by acute kidney injury (Creatinine 1422mmol/L; Urea 74.2mmol/L, Potassium 6.3mmol/L, Sodium 137mmol/L) and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 6.99, HC03 1.7mmol/L). Chest radiograph was normal. Elective intubation was done for respiratory distress. Acute haemodialysis performed due to refractory metabolic acidosis. Following haemodialysis, he became hypotensive which required inotropes. His Riker's score was low with absence of brainstem reflexes after withholding sedation. CT Brain showed generalised cerebral oedema consistent with global hypoxic changes involving the brainstem. The symptoms of DDS are caused by water movement into the brain causing cerebral oedema. Two theories have been proposed: reverse osmotic shift induced by urea removal and a fall in cerebral intracellular pH. Prevention is the key to the management of DDS. It is important to identify high risk patients and haemodialysis with reduced dialysis efficacy and gradual urea reduction is recommended. Patients who are vulnerable to DDS should be monitored closely. Low efficiency haemodialysis is recommended. Acute peritoneal dialysis might be an alternative option, but further studies are needed. PMID:27326954

  20. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

  1. Alcohol and drug testing of health professionals following preventable adverse events: a bad idea.

    PubMed

    Banja, John

    2014-01-01

    Various kinds of alcohol and drug testing, such as preemployment, routine, and for-cause testing, are commonly performed by employers. While healthcare organizations usually require preemployment drug testing, they vary on whether personnel will be subjected to further testing. Recently, a call has gone out for postincident testing among physicians who are involved in serious, preventable events, especially ones leading to a patient's death. This article will offer a number of counterarguments to that proposal and discuss an alternate approach: that health institutions can better improve patient safety and employees' well-being by implementing an organizational policy of "speaking up" when system operators notice work behaviors or environmental factors that threaten harm or peril. The article will conclude with a description of various strategies that facilitate speaking up, and why the practice constitutes a superior alternative to mandatory alcohol and drug testing in the wake of serious, harm-causing medical error. PMID:25369412

  2. Field Experiences in Effective Prevention: The U.S. Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Models on College Campuses Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    For more than two decades the U.S. Department of Education has supported campus- and community-based prevention programs through a number of programs and activities. For example, in 1987 the Department convened the first annual National Meeting for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention in Higher Education as a forum to disseminate…

  3. Computational selection and prioritization of candidate genes for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Zané; Tiffin, Nicki; Hofmann, Oliver; Bajic, Vladimir B; Hide, Winston; Ramsay, Michèle

    2007-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a serious global health problem and is observed at high frequencies in certain South African communities. Although in utero alcohol exposure is the primary trigger, there is evidence for genetic- and other susceptibility factors in FAS development. No genome-wide association or linkage studies have been performed for FAS, making computational selection and -prioritization of candidate disease genes an attractive approach. Results 10174 Candidate genes were initially selected from the whole genome using a previously described method, which selects candidate genes according to their expression in disease-affected tissues. Hereafter candidates were prioritized for experimental investigation by investigating criteria pertinent to FAS and binary filtering. 29 Criteria were assessed by mining various database sources to populate criteria-specific gene lists. Candidate genes were then prioritized for experimental investigation using a binary system that assessed the criteria gene lists against the candidate list, and candidate genes were scored accordingly. A group of 87 genes was prioritized as candidates and for future experimental validation. The validity of the binary prioritization method was assessed by investigating the protein-protein interactions, functional enrichment and common promoter element binding sites of the top-ranked genes. Conclusion This analysis highlighted a list of strong candidate genes from the TGF-β, MAPK and Hedgehog signalling pathways, which are all integral to fetal development and potential targets for alcohol's teratogenic effect. We conclude that this novel bioinformatics approach effectively prioritizes credible candidate genes for further experimental analysis. PMID:17961254

  4. Automated diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome using 3D facial image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shiaofen; McLaughlin, Jason; Fang, Jiandong; Huang, Jeffrey; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Fagerlund, Åse; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Robinson, Luther K.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward; Zhou, Feng; Ward, Richard; Moore, Elizabeth S.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Use three-dimensional (3D) facial laser scanned images from children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and controls to develop an automated diagnosis technique that can reliably and accurately identify individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Methods A detailed dysmorphology evaluation, history of prenatal alcohol exposure, and 3D facial laser scans were obtained from 149 individuals (86 FAS; 63 Control) recruited from two study sites (Cape Town, South Africa and Helsinki, Finland). Computer graphics, machine learning, and pattern recognition techniques were used to automatically identify a set of facial features that best discriminated individuals with FAS from controls in each sample. Results An automated feature detection and analysis technique was developed and applied to the two study populations. A unique set of facial regions and features were identified for each population that accurately discriminated FAS and control faces without any human intervention. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that computer algorithms can be used to automatically detect facial features that can discriminate FAS and control faces. PMID:18713153

  5. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  6. Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

    2014-08-15

    In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described. PMID:24768354

  7. Parent and child characteristics related to chosen adolescent alcohol and drug prevention program

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol–drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen characteristics interact with programs chosen. The two programs were: Family Matters (FM) (Bauman KE, Foshee VA, Ennett ST et al. Family Matters: a family-directed program designed to prevent adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Health Promot Pract 2001; 2: 81–96) and Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10–14 (Spoth R, Redmond C, Lepper H. Alcohol initiation outcomes of universal family-focused preventive interventions: one- and two-year follow-ups of a controlled study. J Stud Alcohol Suppl 1999; 13: 103–11). A total of 272 families with an 11–12 years old enrolled in health care centers were in the choice condition of the larger study. SFP requires group meetings at specified times and thus demanded more specific time commitments from families. In contrast, FM is self-directed through booklets and is delivered in the home at a time chosen by the families. Mothers were significantly more likely to choose SFP when the adolescent had more problem behaviors. Mothers with greater education were more likely to choose FM. Findings may provide more real-world understanding of how some families are more likely to engage in one type of intervention over another. This understanding offers practical information for developing health promotion systems to service the diversity of families in the community. PMID:22156235

  8. International collaboration on prevention of shaken baby syndrome - an ongoing project/intervention.

    PubMed

    Foley, Sue; Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Rose, Jenny; Lamb, Robyn; Tolliday, Fran; Simons-Coghill, Martine; Stephens, Amanda; Scheiber, Dóra; Toma, Andrea; Asbóth, Katalin; Kassai, Tamás; Agathonos, Helen; Lopes, Nahara R L; Williams, Lúcia C A; Sahin, Figen; Tasar, Aysin; Sarten, Terry

    2013-11-01

    Caring for young infants can be stressful. Non-accidental brain or head injury (shaken baby syndrome) is a result of parental stress, and a lack of knowledge of how to respond to a crying infant and the dangers of shaking a child. This article demonstrates the value of international collaboration in projects to prevent child maltreatment. It includes reports of prevention of shaken baby syndrome programmes in Australia, Hungary, Greece, Brazil and Turkey.

  9. Impaired delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in school-age children with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Sandra W.; Stanton, Mark E.; Dodge, Neil C.; Pienaar, Mariska; Fuller, Douglas S.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Robinson, Luther K.; Khaole, Nathaniel; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical eyeblink conditioning (EBC) involves contingent temporal pairing of a conditioned stimulus (e.g., tone) with an unconditioned stimulus (e.g., air puff). Impairment of EBC has been demonstrated in studies of alcohol-exposed animals and in children exposed prenatally at heavy levels. Methods Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) was diagnosed by expert dysmorphologists in a large sample of Cape Coloured, South African children. Delay EBC was examined in a new sample of 63 children at 11.3 years, and trace conditioning in 32 of the same children at 12.8 years. At each age, two sessions of 50 trials each were administered on the same day; two more sessions the next day, for children not meeting criterion for conditioning. Results 6 of 34 (17.6%) children born to heavy drinkers were diagnosed with FAS, 28 were heavily exposed nonsyndromal (HE), and 29 were non-exposed controls. Only 33.3% with FAS and 42.9% of HE met criterion for delay conditioning, compared with 79.3% of controls. The more difficult trace conditioning task was also highly sensitive to fetal alcohol exposure. Only 16.7% of the FAS and 21.4% of HE met criterion for trace conditioning, compared with 66.7% of controls. The magnitude of the effect of diagnostic group on trace conditioning was not greater than the effect on short delay conditioning, findings consistent with recent rat studies. Longer latency to onset and peak eyeblink CR in exposed children indicated poor timing and failure to blink in anticipation of the puff. Extended training resulted in some but not all of the children reaching criterion. Conclusions These data showing alcohol-related delay and trace conditioning deficits extend our earlier findings of impaired EBC in 5-year-olds to school-age. Alcohol-related impairment in the cerebellar circuitry required for both forms of conditioning may be sufficient to account for the deficit in both tasks. Extended training was beneficial for some exposed children. EBC provides a well

  10. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  11. Implementing an Alcohol and Other Drug Use Prevention Program Using University-High School Partnerships: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; Wyrick, David L.; Fearnow-Kenney, Melodie; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Caldwell, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background: School-based alcohol and other drug use prevention remains an important national strategy. Collaborative partnerships between universities and high schools have the potential to enhance prevention programming; however, there are challenges to sustaining such partnerships. Purpose: The purpose of this commentary is to underscore…

  12. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  13. The International society for developmental psychobiology 39th annual meeting symposium: Alcohol and development: beyond fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman E; Spear, Linda P; Mennella, Julie A; Lewis, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    As has been repeatedly demonstrated, alcohol can exert deleterious morphological and physiological effects during early stages in development. The present review examines nonteratological links existing between alcohol and ontogeny. Human and animal studies are taken into consideration for the analysis of fetal, neonatal, infantile, adolescent, and adult responsiveness to the drug. Sensitivity to alcohol's chemosensory and postabsorptive properties, as well as learning and memory processes mediated by such properties, are examined from this developmental perspective. The studies under discussion indicate that, within each stage in development, we can trace alcohol-related experiences capable of determining or modulating alcohol seeking and intake patterns.

  14. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  15. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Description of Oral Motor, Articulatory, Short-Term Memory, Grammatical, and Semantic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Marianne; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The communication skills of 8 children (ages 4 to 9) with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS) were assessed and compared with non-FAS children matched for ethnic background, living situation, and nonverbal cognitive ability. FAS children showed abnormalities of the speech mechanism and inconsistent articulation, comprehension, and grammatical abilities.…

  17. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Training Manual To Aid in Vocational Rehabilitation and Other Non-Medical Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDue, Robin A.; Schacht, Robert M.; Tanner-Halverson, Patricia; McGowan, Mark

    This training manual provides vocational rehabilitation and school counselors with background information and practical tools related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), with particular reference to the needs of Native Americans. The most recent reliable data (1990) for American Indians and Alaska Natives show a rate of FAS over 10 times the national…

  18. Preventing sales of alcohol to minors: results from a community trial.

    PubMed

    Grube, J W

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports an evaluation of a community-based approach to prevent underage sales of alcohol. The interventions focused on (a) enforcement of underage sales laws, (b) responsible beverage service (RBS) training and (c) media advocacy. The interventions were implemented in three experimental communities located in California and South Carolina. Purchase survey data were obtained before and after the interventions in each experimental community and in three matched comparison communities. Logistic regression analyses of the purchase survey data for the individual community pairs and for the combined communities showed that sales to apparent minors were significantly reduced in the experimental sites. The findings indicate that these environmental interventions are promising prevention tools for communities that seek to reduce underage drinking. PMID:9231448

  19. The role of designated driver programs in the prevention of alcohol-impaired driving: a critical reassessment.

    PubMed

    DeJong, W; Wallack, L

    1992-01-01

    We review the "designated driver" concept and the current debate over its role in preventing alcohol-impaired driving. In our view, the focus on this strategy by broadcasters, the alcohol industry, and various public service groups has deflected attention from other alcohol-related problems that account for the vast majority of deaths and injuries associated with alcohol use. This focus has also distracted many public health advocates and policymakers from the bigger and more important jobs of increasing public awareness of the social, environmental, and economic factors that influence alcohol consumption and promoting debate on legislation and other public policy solutions to alcohol-impaired driving. As part of a comprehensive strategy, we strongly encourage a renewed focus on "sobriety checkpoints," strict enforcement of laws against alcohol sales to minors, alcohol advertising reform, increased excise taxes, and other public policy initiatives supported by the Surgeon General. These measures will curb underage and heavy alcohol consumption and will create a legal and social environment in which individuals are motivated to avoid impaired driving through several alternative strategies, including but not limited to the use of designated drivers.

  20. What does a comparison of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and thalamic infarction tell us about thalamic amnesia?

    PubMed

    Kopelman, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    In this review, the clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging findings in the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome and in thalamic amnesia, resulting from focal infarction, are compared. In both disorders, there is controversy over what is the critical site for anterograde amnesia to occur-damage to the anterior thalamus/mammillo-thalamic tract has most commonly been cited, but damage to the medio-dorsal nuclei has also been advocated. Both syndromes show 'core' features of an anterograde amnesic syndrome; but retrograde amnesia is generally much more extensive (going back many years or decades) in the Korsakoff syndrome. Likewise, spontaneous confabulation occurs more commonly in the Korsakoff syndrome, although seen in only a minority of chronic cases. These differences are attributed to the greater prevalence of frontal atrophy and frontal damage in Korsakoff cases.

  1. Multisite Cost Analysis of a School-Based Voluntary Alcohol and Drug Prevention Program*

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R.; D'amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. Method: The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. Results: From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100–$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14—$28). Conclusions: Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites. PMID:21906509

  2. BETAINE FEEDING PREVENTS THE BLOOD ALCOHOL CYCLE IN RATS FED ALCOHOL CONTINUOUSLY FOR 1 MONTH USING THE RAT INTRAGASTRIC TUBE FEEDING MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Li, J; Li, XM; Caudill, M; Malysheva, O; Bardag-Gorce, F; Oliva, J; French, BA; Gorce, E; Morgan, K; Kathirvel, E; Morgan, T; French, SW

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood alcohol levels (BAL) cycle up and down over a 7–8 day period when ethanol is fed continuously for one month in the intragastric tube feeding rat model (ITFRM) of alcoholic liver disease. The cycling phenomenon is due to an alternating increase and decrease in the metabolic rate. Recently, we found that S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) fed with alcohol prevented the BAL cycle. Method Using the ITFRM we fed rats betaine (2 g/kg/day) with ethanol for 1 month and recorded the daily 24 h urine ethanol level (UAL) to measure the BAL cycle. UAL is equivalent to BAL because of the constant ethanol infusion. Liver histology, steatosis and BAL were measured terminally after 1 month of treatment. Microarray analysis was done on the mRNA extracted from the liver to determine the effects of betaine and alcohol on changes in gene expression. Results Betaine fed with ethanol completely prevented the BAL cycle similar to SAMe. Betaine also significantly reduced the BAL compared to ethanol fed rats without betaine. This was also observed when SAMe was fed with ethanol. The mechanism involved in both cases is that SAMe is required for the conversion of epinephrine from norepinephrine by phenylethanolamine methyltransferase (PNMT). Epinephrine is 5 to 10 fold more potent than norepinephrine in increasing the metabolic rate. The increase in the metabolic rate generates NAD, permitting ADH to increase the oxidation of alcohol. NAD is the rate limiting factor in oxidation of alcohol by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). This explains how SAMe and betaine prevented the cycle. Microarray analysis showed that betaine feeding prevented the up regulation of a large number of genes including TLR2/4, Il-1b, Jax3, Sirt3, Fas, Ifngr1, Tgfgr2, Tnfrsf21, Lbp and Stat 3 which could explain how betaine prevented fatty liver. Conclusion Betaine feeding lowers the BAL and prevents the BAL cycle by increasing the metabolic rate. This increases the rate of ethanol elimination by generating NAD

  3. What does irritable bowel syndrome share with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed

    Scalera, Antonella; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two very common diseases in the general population. To date, there are no studies that highlight a direct link between NAFLD and IBS, but some recent reports have found an interesting correlation between obesity and IBS. A systematic PubMed database search was conducted highlighting that common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD, leading to an increased cardiovascular risk, and IBS, leading to microbial dysbiosis, impaired intestinal barrier and altered intestinal motility. It is not known when considering local and systemic inflammation/immune system activation, which one has greater importance in NAFLD and IBS pathogenesis. Also, the nervous system is implicated. In fact, inflammation participates in the development of mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, characteristics of obesity and consequently of NAFLD and, on the other hand, in intestinal hypersensitivity and dysmotility.

  4. Tissue plasminogen activator is required for the development of fetal alcohol syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melissa; Norris, Erin H; Strickland, Sidney

    2011-03-22

    Ethanol exposure during developmental synaptogenesis can lead to brain defects referred to as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which can include mental health problems such as cognitive deficits and mental retardation. In FAS, widespread neuronal death and brain mass loss precedes behavioral and cognitive impairments in adulthood. Because tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in neurodegeneration, we examined whether it mediates FAS. Neonatal WT and tPA-/- mice were injected with ethanol to mimic FAS in humans. In WT mice, ethanol elicited caspase-3 activation, significant forebrain neurodegeneration, and decreased contextual fear conditioning in adults. However, tPA-deficient mice were protected from these neurotoxicities, and this protection could be abrogated by exogenous tPA. Selective pharmacological modulators of NMDA and GABAA receptor pathways revealed that the effects of tPA were mediated by the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. This study identifies tPA as a critical signaling component in FAS.

  5. What does irritable bowel syndrome share with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Scalera, Antonella; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are two very common diseases in the general population. To date, there are no studies that highlight a direct link between NAFLD and IBS, but some recent reports have found an interesting correlation between obesity and IBS. A systematic PubMed database search was conducted highlighting that common mechanisms are involved in many of the local and systemic manifestations of NAFLD, leading to an increased cardiovascular risk, and IBS, leading to microbial dysbiosis, impaired intestinal barrier and altered intestinal motility. It is not known when considering local and systemic inflammation/immune system activation, which one has greater importance in NAFLD and IBS pathogenesis. Also, the nervous system is implicated. In fact, inflammation participates in the development of mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, characteristics of obesity and consequently of NAFLD and, on the other hand, in intestinal hypersensitivity and dysmotility. PMID:24023483

  6. Saturday night palsy or Sunday morning hangover? A case report of alcohol-induced Crush Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Brian M; Baker, Joseph F; Ahmed, Motaz; Menzies, David; Synnott, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as 'Crush Syndrome' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of 'binge' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.

  7. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Conducting Clinical Trials in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    R, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) is a condition where the patients will be mentally unstable initially and where later, with therapy, they gradually return to normalcy. As AWS comprises two stages; a mentally unstable state and a normal state of mind, the ethical and legal issues behind recruitment of these subjects become a little ambiguous in a clinical trial. This study was taken up to clarify the uncertainty regarding the biphasic states of minds (i.e. unstable mind and sound mind) of the subjects who were involved in a clinical trial done on AWS. Law and ethics regarding the clinical trials which involve psychiatric subjects need to be strengthened and amended from time to time, in order to protect the interests of both patients and physicians. PMID:24995195

  8. Universal-Based Prevention of Syndromal and Subsyndromal Social Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports results from a universal preventive program aimed at (a) reducing social anxiety and (b) preventing the development of syndromal social anxiety among a population-based sample of older children and young adolescents during a 1-year period. Pupils (N = 1,748) from 2 counties were cluster randomized to either an intervention or…

  9. Therapy for alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and

  10. Postnatal growth restriction and gene expression changes in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilkins, Sarah J; Anderson, Greg J; Whitelaw, Emma; Chong, Suyinn

    2010-10-01

    Growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphology, and central nervous system defects are the main diagnostic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies in humans and mice have reported that the growth restriction can be prenatal or postnatal, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.We recently described a mouse model of moderate gestational ethanol exposure that produces measurable phenotypes in line with fetal alcohol syndrome (e.g., craniofacial changes and growth restriction in adolescent mice). In this study, we characterize in detail the growth restriction phenotype by measuring body weight at gestational day 16.5, cross-fostering from birth to weaning, and by extending our observations into adulthood. Furthermore, in an attempt to unravel the molecular events contributing to the growth phenotype, we have compared gene expression patterns in the liver and kidney of nonfostered, ethanol-exposed and control mice at postnatal day 28.We find that the ethanol-induced growth phenotype is not detectable prior to birth, but is present at weaning, even in mice that have been cross-fostered to unexposed dams. This finding suggests a postnatal growth restriction phenotype that is not due to deficient postpartum care by dams that drank ethanol, but rather a physiologic result of ethanol exposure in utero. We also find that, despite some catch-up growth after 5 weeks of age, the effect extends into adulthood, which is consistent with longitudinal studies in humans.Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed interesting ethanol-induced changes in the liver, including genes involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, iron homeostasis, and lipid metabolism.

  11. "Alice in Wonderland syndrome" associated with topiramate for migraine prevention.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, T P; Ihle, K; Stork, J-H; May, A

    2011-02-01

    Various visual and sensory phenomena have been described in migraine with aura. Among those, the 'Alice in Wonderland' syndrome is defined as a distortion of the body image with the patient being aware of its unreal nature. Here, the case of a 17-year-old girl with migraine without aura who developed an 'Alice in Wonderland' syndrome repeatedly on topiramate treatment was presented and potential pathophysiological concepts were discussed. PMID:20571045

  12. [Anorexia nervosa with refeeding syndrome: prevention and treatment of RS].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Makiko; Okajima, Yoshirou; Takano, Eisuke; Kato, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RS), seen in the early stages of anorexia nervosa (AN) treatment, has not been paid sufficient attention regarding its strong association with poor outcomes. This report describes a case of AN restriction type (AN-R) with sequent RS appearance despite the introduction of progressive and careful low-calorie nutrition, and discusses RS treatment. The patient was a 16-year-old female. She was first diagnosed with AN at the age of 14 when she went on a diet, admitted into pediatrics, and recovered: however, AN recurred after she started high school, and her weight decreased to 31.8 kg. She was admitted to pediatrics again, refused to receive treatment, discharged from the hospital, and introduced to our department. Soon after she came to us, her weight went down to 29.6 kg, and continued to decrease to 26.8 kg. She was recommended to receive inpatient care, but she firmly refused. A few days later, her experience of loss of consciousness made her agree to receive inpatient care. At this time, she was already weakened and had difficulty performing voluntary body movements as well as excretion. She was treated carefully and placed on 125 kcal/day. On the 6th day of treatment, severe liver damage was observed, her serum phosphorus level went down to 2.0 mg/dL, and she was diagnosed with RS. The lowest concentration of serum phosphorus observed was 1.3 mg/dL with blood abnormality and delirium; however, our strict management with intravascular phosphorus administration supported her increased dietary intake, and the patient was able to leave the hospital on the 54th day after admission. Based on this experience, the pathogenesis of RS was overviewed, and RS prevention as well as treatment was discussed. It has been reported that low phosphorus levels are observed in approximately one quarter of AN patients, and, thus, immediate action and treatment of hypophosphatemia are necessary when considering RS occurrence. In this study, the observed serum

  13. Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Overtraining syndrome is a condition of maladapted physiology in the setting of excessive exercise without adequate rest. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are unknown and being investigated. Symptoms are multisystem in nature and often representative of underlying hormonal, immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic disturbances. Unfortunately, systematic review of the literature does not clearly direct diagnosis, management, or prevention. However, given the severity of symptoms and impairment to quality of life, prevention of overtraining syndrome should be considered by all who interact with endurance athletes. This article will provide suggestions for management of at-risk athletes despite absence of validated diagnostic tests and preventative measures. PMID:27660501

  14. Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Overtraining syndrome is a condition of maladapted physiology in the setting of excessive exercise without adequate rest. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are unknown and being investigated. Symptoms are multisystem in nature and often representative of underlying hormonal, immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic disturbances. Unfortunately, systematic review of the literature does not clearly direct diagnosis, management, or prevention. However, given the severity of symptoms and impairment to quality of life, prevention of overtraining syndrome should be considered by all who interact with endurance athletes. This article will provide suggestions for management of at-risk athletes despite absence of validated diagnostic tests and preventative measures.

  15. Diagnosis and prevention of overtraining syndrome: an opinion on education strategies.

    PubMed

    Kreher, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Overtraining syndrome is a condition of maladapted physiology in the setting of excessive exercise without adequate rest. The exact etiology and pathogenesis are unknown and being investigated. Symptoms are multisystem in nature and often representative of underlying hormonal, immunologic, neurologic, and psychologic disturbances. Unfortunately, systematic review of the literature does not clearly direct diagnosis, management, or prevention. However, given the severity of symptoms and impairment to quality of life, prevention of overtraining syndrome should be considered by all who interact with endurance athletes. This article will provide suggestions for management of at-risk athletes despite absence of validated diagnostic tests and preventative measures. PMID:27660501

  16. Metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in liver surgery: The new scourges?

    PubMed Central

    Cauchy, François; Fuks, David; Zarzavadjian Le Bian, Alban; Belghiti, Jacques; Costi, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this topic highlight is to review relevant evidence regarding the influence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and its associated liver manifestation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), on the development of liver cancer as well as their impact on the results of major liver surgery. MS and NAFLD, whose incidences are significantly increasing in Western countries, are leading to a changing profile of the patients undergoing liver surgery. A MEDLINE search was performed for relevant articles using the key words “metabolic syndrome”, “liver resection”, “liver transplantation”, “non alcoholic fatty liver disease”, “non-alcoholic steatohepatitis” and “liver cancer”. On one hand, the MS favors the development of primary liver malignancies (hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma) either through NAFLD liver parenchymal alterations (steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis) or in the absence of significant underlying liver parenchyma changes. Also, the existence of NAFLD may have a specific impact on colorectal liver metastases recurrence. On the other hand, the postoperative period following partial liver resection and liver transplantation is at increased risk of both postoperative complications and mortality. These deleterious effects seem to be related to the existence of liver specific complications but also higher cardio-vascular sensitivity in a setting of MS/NAFLD. Finally, the long-term prognosis after curative surgery joins that of patients operated on with other types of underlying liver diseases. An increased rate of patients with MS/NAFLD referred to hepatobiliary units has to be expected. The higher operative risk observed in this subset of patients will require specific improvements in their perioperative management. PMID:24868324

  17. Role of benzyl alcohol in the prevention of heat-induced aggregation and inactivation of hen egg white lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Monu Kumari; Roy, Ipsita; Banerjee, Uttam Chand; Sharma, Vikas Kumar; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2009-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the stability of a model protein, lysozyme, in the presence of the commonly used preservative benzyl alcohol. Techniques including lytic assay, size exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry, native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering were used to study the overall stability of lysozyme in the presence of benzyl alcohol. The stability of lysozyme against thermal stress was higher in the presence of benzyl alcohol. In the presence of 0.5%, 0.9% and 2% v/v benzyl alcohol, the enzyme showed 33%, 42% and 75% residual activity, respectively, when exposed to 75 degrees C for 2 h, as compared to the 22% activity of control sample. A gradual increase in the size of aggregates was observed for the control sample relative to the samples containing benzyl alcohol, as a result of loss of monomer concentration. The effect was found to be concentration-dependent with 2% benzyl alcohol showing maximum prevention of heat-induced unfolding and aggregation. This effect is remarkable since the thermal transition temperature of the enzyme decreases in the presence of benzyl alcohol. Benzyl alcohol favours the thermal denaturation of lysozyme but stabilizes the lysozyme against the heat-induced aggregation.

  18. Adolescent alcohol use: social determinants and the case for early family-centered prevention. Family-focused prevention of adolescent drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Schor, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    The family plays a central role in the use of alcohol by children and adolescents, yet preventive interventions rarely focus on the family. Early drinking and much subsequent use of alcohol by children and adolescents is sanctioned and sometimes encouraged by their families. Unlike experimentation with alcohol, problem drinking is associated with low levels of family social support and with dysfunctional coping strategies of families that may lead children to use drinking as an adaptive behavior. While risk-factor research has advanced understanding of alcohol use by children and youth, the poor predictive power of individual risks has limited its contribution to successful interventions. On the other hand, protective factors, provided by relationships within and outside the family, can be preventive and health promoting. Parents influence their children's drinking through family interactions, modeling and reinforcing standards, and attitudes that children learn and use to guide their behavior in new situations. Thus, parental influences endure. This article argues that interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be designed to help parents to carry out their parental functions. This can be accomplished by providing social support, resources, and education for parents, as well as developing extra-familial sources of social support and socialization for children and adolescents. PMID:8982525

  19. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José Carlos; Rojas, Milagros; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Although the relationships between alcohol and disorders such as cancer and liver disease have been thoroughly researched, its effects on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between alcohol consumption, the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and its components in our locality. Materials and Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study with randomized, multistaged sampling, which included 2,230 subjects of both genders. Two previously determined population-specific alcohol consumption pattern classifications were utilized in each gender: daily intake quartiles and conglomerates yielded by cluster analysis. MS was defined according to the 2009 consensus criteria. Association was evaluated through various multiple logistic regression models. Results. In univariate analysis (daily intake quartiles), only hypertriacylglyceridemia was associated with alcohol consumption in both genders. In multivariate analysis, daily alcohol intake ≤3.8 g/day was associated with lower risk of hypertriacylglyceridemia in females (OR = 0.29, CI 95%: 0.09–0.86; p = 0.03). Among men, subjects consuming 28.41–47.33 g/day had significantly increased risk of MS, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hypertriacylglyceridemia, and elevated waist circumference. Conclusions. The relationship between drinking, MS, and its components is complex and not directly proportional. Categorization by daily alcohol intake quartiles appears to be the most efficient method for quantitative assessment of alcohol consumption in our region. PMID:26779349

  20. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  1. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zubaran, C.; Fernandes, J. G.; Rodnight, R.

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most serious problems in public health and the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is one of the gravest consequences of alcoholism. The pathology is often undiagnosed in its less evident presentations, therefore an accurate diagnostic approach is a critical step in treatment planning. Treatment is based on restoration of thiamine, although this is insufficient to prevent the psychological decline of a great number of patients. The cognitive impact of the pathology is derived from the interaction of alcoholic neurotoxicity, thiamine deficiency and personal susceptibility. In this article, the literature concerning Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is reviewed. Images p31-a PMID:9039406

  2. Prevention of alcoholic fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in the rat by long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byoung-Joon; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Olsson, Nils U.; Salem, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims We reported that reduced dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as arachidonic (AA,20:4n6, omega-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA,22:6n3, omega-3) acids led to alcohol-induced fatty liver and fibrosis. This study was aimed at studying the mechanisms by which a DHA/AA-supplemented diet prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver. Methods Male Long-Evans rats were fed an ethanol or control liquid-diet with or without DHA/AA for 9 weeks. Plasma transaminase levels, liver histology, oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, and activities of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins were evaluated. Results Chronic alcohol administration increased the degree of fatty liver but fatty liver decreased significantly in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Alcohol exposure increased oxidative/nitrosative stress with elevated levels of ethanol-inducible CYP2E1, nitric oxide synthase, nitrite and mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide. However, these increments were normalized in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The number of oxidatively-modified mitochondrial proteins was markedly increased following alcohol exposure but significantly reduced in rats fed the alcohol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. The suppressed activities of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, ATP synthase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in ethanol-exposed rats were also recovered in animals fed the ethanol-DHA/AA-supplemented diet. Conclusions Addition of DHA/AA prevents alcohol-induced fatty liver and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model by protecting various mitochondrial enzymes most likely through reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:18571270

  3. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria T.; Oskrochi, Reza; Foxcroft, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. Methodology Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls). Drinking behaviour measures were (i) alcohol disorders; (ii) frequency; (iii) typical quantity, (iv) weekly consumption; (v) alcohol-related problems; (vi) perceived drinking norms; and (vii) positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. Principal Findings Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467 PMID:22984466

  4. Preventing Alcohol Abuse Through Social Networking Sites: A First Assessment of a Two-Year Ecological Approach

    PubMed Central

    de Chazeron, Ingrid; Zerhouni, Oulmann; Boudesseul, Jordane; Begue, Laurent; Bouthier, Renaud; Lévrier, Christel; Llorca, Pierre Michel; Brousse, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Background Prevention strategies to reduce alcohol use/consumption among young people are crucial to reducing alcohol-related deaths and preventing disease. This paper focuses on the effectiveness of a social networking site (SNS) alcohol prevention program targeted toward young people. Objective We hypothesized that the program would diminish the relation made by participants between alcohol and festive moments, and would result in a reduction of their declared consumption of alcohol at festive moments during the program. We also explored the interaction with the prevention program that was the most efficient. Methods The prevention program took the form of 3 lotteries over 2 years. The participants periodically received prevention messages, particularly on alcohol and festive moments (eg, videos on Facebook and short message service [SMS] text messages on their mobile phones). For the 3 periods, the participants had to answer questions exploring the level of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are highly associated. A control group that did not participate in the prevention program was asked the same questions over the same number of days for the first 2 periods. During the second period, the participants were asked to answer questions about their alcohol consumption during parties. During the third period, we explored the interaction with the prevention program on the reduction of their belief that alcohol consumption and festive moments are associated. Results A total of 651 participants (age: mean 22.24, SD 4.10 years; women: n=430) during the first period, 301 participants (age: mean 21.27, SD 3.07 years; women n=199) during the second period, and 305 (age: mean 22.41, SD 4.65 years; women: n=190) during the third period correctly completed the survey. For the control group, 69 students completed the survey during the first period (age: mean 18.93, SD 1.14 years; women: n=59) and 50 during the second (age: mean 20.78, SD 1.94 years

  5. Experiences in Effective Prevention: The U.S. Department of Education's Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Models on College Campuses Grants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William; Anderson, Jerry; Colthurst, Tom; Davidson, Laurie; Langford, Linda M.; Mackay-Smith, Virginia L.; Ryan, Barbara; Stubbs, Helen

    2007-01-01

    In response to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of AOD (alcohol and other drug) use on campuses, in 1998 Congress authorized the Department of Education to identify and promote effective prevention through a model grants program. In 1999, OSDFS (Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools) launched an important component of the Department's…

  6. Dietary sodium, potassium, and alcohol: key players in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Koliaki, Chrysi; Katsilambros, Nicholas

    2013-06-01

    Western industrialized societies are currently experiencing an epidemic expansion of hypertension (HTN), which extends alarmingly even to children and adolescents. HTN constitutes an independent risk factor for cardiorenal disease and represents an extremely common comorbidity of diabetes and obesity. Numerous randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses have provided robust scientific evidence that reduced dietary salt intake, increased dietary potassium intake, moderation of alcohol consumption, optimal weight maintenance, and the adoption of "heart-friendly" dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension or the Mediterranean diet can effectively lower blood pressure. Interestingly, the susceptibility of blood pressure to nutritional interventions is greatly variable among individuals, depending on age, race, genetic background, and comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of currently available scientific evidence in the constantly evolving field of diet and HTN, placing particular emphasis on the key role of dietary sodium, dietary potassium, and alcohol intake in the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of human hypertension.

  7. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  8. [The role of surrogate alcoholic beverages in the development of hemorrhage in the patients presenting with Mallory-Weiss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, A L; Bogomolov, D V; Savin, A A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the pathological changes in various organs and tanatogenesis associated with Mallory-Weiss syndrome making use of the forensic medical and clinical materials. It was shown that the main cause of unrestrained vomiting resulting from alcoholic intoxication and leading to perfusive bleeding is not only the direct action of ethanol and surrogate alcohol on gastroesophageal mucosa and induced thrombocytopenia. Another cause may be brain oedema with subsequent cerebral herniation and irritation of the pseudobulbar centres responsible for the initiation of the vomiting reflex. The authors propose recommendations for forensic medical diagnostics of the cases of such hemorrhage.

  9. [Disorders of neurogenesis of cortical and subcortical structures in rat brain limbic system during fetal alcohol syndrome formation].

    PubMed

    Svanidze, I K; Museridze, D P; Didimova, E V; Sanikidze, T V; Gegenava, L G; Gvinadze, N N

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of neurogenesis of cortical and subcortical structures in rat brain limbic system were studied in the offspring of rats that received ethanol during pregnancy. The methods used included the staining of histological sections with cresyl violet, in vitro culture, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Prenatal alcohol intoxication was shown to induce the disturbances in proliferative activity of granular layer cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, neuron- and glioblast migration, enhancement of free NO and lipoperoxide production and cell death. This resulted in the changes in the number of neurons in cortical and subcortical structures of rat brain limbic system and in fetal alcohol syndrome formation.

  10. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  11. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Prevention in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2004-01-01

    Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a newly identified respiratory disease that threatened Taiwan between April 14 and July 5, 2003. Chang Gung University experienced various SARS-related episodes, such as the postponement of classes for 7 days, the reporting of probable SARS cases, and the isolation of students under Level A and B…

  12. Shaken baby syndrome: pathogenetic mechanism, clinical features and preventive aspects.

    PubMed

    Vitale, A; Vicedomini, D; Vega, G R; Greco, N; Messi, G

    2012-12-01

    The shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is an extremely serious form of child abuse and a leading cause of death and disability in childhood. The syndrome usually occurs in infants younger than 1 year when a parent or a care-giver tries to stop the baby from crying by vigorous manual shaking. The repetitive oscillations with rotational acceleration of the head can result in injuries of both vascular and neuronal structures. The most frequent injuries associated with SBS include encephalopathy, retinal hemorrhages, and subdural hemorrhage. Fractures of the vertebrae, long bones, and ribs may also be associated with the syndrome. Victims of abuse have various presenting signs and symptoms ranging from irritability, decreased responsiveness and lethargy to convulsions, and death. Diagnosis is often difficult because usually parents or caregivers not tell the truth about what has happened to their child and because usually there is no external evidence of trauma. However, the syndrome might be suspected if the information provided are vague or changing and when the child presents with retinal hemorrhages, subdural hematoma, or fractures that cannot be explained by accidental trauma or other medical conditions. Of infants who are victims of SBS, approximately 15% to 38% die and 30% are at risk of long-term neurologic sequelae, including cognitive and behavioural disturbances, motor and visual deficits, learning deficits and epilepsy. Parents and caregivers must be warned about the dangers of shaking infants.

  13. Genetic Counseling and Mongolism (Down's Syndrome): Prediction, Detection, Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichte, John E.

    Intended for use by the public as well as by medical professionals and related service agencies, the booklet presents genetic counseling as a means of providing information to deal with genetic disorders in general and mongolism (Down's syndrome) in particular. Characteristics of mongolism and possible emotional effects on the family of a…

  14. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  15. Advancing Behavioral HIV Prevention: Adapting an Evidence-Based Intervention for People Living with HIV and Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, M. L.; LaPlante, A. M.; Altice, F. L.; Copenhaver, M.; Molina, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and are associated with increased HIV risk behaviors, suboptimal treatment adherence, and greater risk for disease progression. We used the ADAPT-ITT strategy to adapt an evidence-based intervention (EBI), the Holistic Health Recovery Program (HHRP+), that focuses on secondary HIV prevention and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and apply it to PLWHA with problematic drinking. Focus groups (FGs) were conducted with PLWHA who consume alcohol and with treatment providers at the largest HIV primary care clinic in New Orleans, LA. Overall themes that emerged from the FGs included the following: (1) negative mood states contribute to heavy alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (2) high levels of psychosocial stress, paired with few adaptive coping strategies, perpetuate the use of harmful alcohol consumption in PLWHA; (3) local cultural norms are related to the permissiveness and pervasiveness of drinking and contribute to heavy alcohol use; (4) healthcare providers unanimously stated that outpatient options for AUD intervention are scarce, (5) misperceptions about the relationships between alcohol and HIV are common; (6) PLWHA are interested in learning about alcohol's impact on ART and HIV disease progression. These data were used to design the adapted EBI. PMID:26697216

  16. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced. PMID:27246150

  17. Nutrition in clinical practice-the refeeding syndrome: illustrative cases and guidelines for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Stanga, Z; Brunner, A; Leuenberger, M; Grimble, R F; Shenkin, A; Allison, S P; Lobo, D N

    2008-06-01

    The refeeding syndrome is a potentially lethal complication of refeeding in patients who are severely malnourished from whatever cause. Too rapid refeeding, particularly with carbohydrate may precipitate a number of metabolic and pathophysiological complications, which may adversely affect the cardiac, respiratory, haematological, hepatic and neuromuscular systems leading to clinical complications and even death. We aimed to review the development of the refeeding syndrome in a variety of situations and, from this and the literature, devise guidelines to prevent and treat the condition. We report seven cases illustrating different aspects of the refeeding syndrome and the measures used to treat it. The specific complications encountered, their physiological mechanisms, identification of patients at risk, and prevention and treatment are discussed. Each case developed one or more of the features of the refeeding syndrome including deficiencies and low plasma levels of potassium, phosphate, magnesium and thiamine combined with salt and water retention. These responded to specific interventions. In most cases, these abnormalities could have been anticipated and prevented. The main features of the refeeding syndrome are described with a protocol to anticipate, prevent and treat the condition in adults.

  18. Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Cunningham, John A.; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults. Study Design 2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months. Setting/Participants Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI). The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG) participants completed only an assessment. Main Outcome Measures Alcohol use (number of drinks per week), binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445). At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD) number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2), 2.3(2.6), 2.5(3.0) for IBI, and 2.4(2.3), 2.8(3.7), 2.7(3.9) for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI) and 19.0% (CG) at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI) and 13.0% (CG) at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed at 6 months. Conclusion We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918 PMID:26642329

  19. Applying the Attention-Allocation Model to the Explanation of Alcohol-Related Aggression: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Giancola, Peter R.; Josephs, Robert A.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Gunn, Rachel L.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to apply the attention allocation model (AAM; Steele & Josephs, 1990) to the explanation, as well as the prevention, of alcohol-related violence. The AAM contends that alcohol has a “myopic” effect on attentional capacity that presumably facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus on the most salient provocative cues, that are naturally present in hostile situations, rather than less salient inhibitory cues. Data are presented to demonstrate support for the AAM with regard to alcohol-related aggression. The model has also been expanded to suggest some intermediary mechanisms that may account for how distracting attention away from provocative cues might be involved in the reduction of aggression. Finally, a number of practical suggestions are put forth regarding how the AAM can be applied to the prevention of intoxicated aggression. PMID:19938917

  20. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff’s syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Arie J; van Herten, Judith C; Egger, Jos IM; Kessels, Roy PC

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test’s diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005). The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02), but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment planning and adjustment in patients with alcohol-related cognitive impairments. PMID:23818787

  1. Habitual Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 29.0 ± 21.53/h). HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking <13, heavy drinking ≥13 drinks/week). As reported, 78.9% of the participants (n = 539) were regular drinkers; 33.7% (n = 230) were habitually heavy drinkers (mean: 30.7 drinks/week), and 45.2% (n = 309) were light drinkers (5.1 drinks/week). The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252) and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%). Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. PMID:27536782

  2. Habitual Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Sleep Disordered Breathing.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Sung Ik; Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the associations between amount of habitual alcohol consumption (HAC) and prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), sleep, and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). We enrolled 683 untreated SDB male patients (age: 54.4 ± 7.80 y, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI): 29.0 ± 21.53/h). HAC was assessed as the average number of drinks consumed per week during the past 12 months. Anthropometric and biochemical markers were used to diagnose MetS. Clinical data and MetS components were compared according to the reported amounts of HAC (no drinking, light drinking <13, heavy drinking ≥13 drinks/week). As reported, 78.9% of the participants (n = 539) were regular drinkers; 33.7% (n = 230) were habitually heavy drinkers (mean: 30.7 drinks/week), and 45.2% (n = 309) were light drinkers (5.1 drinks/week). The overall prevalence of MetS was 36.9% (n = 252) and was most common in heavy drinkers (40.5%). Compared to non-drinkers and light drinkers, heavy drinkers had the greatest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycemia were most prevalent in heavy drinkers. Sleep quality and severity of SDB were the worst in heavy drinkers. After adjusting for age, AHI, and BMI, heavy drinkers had a 1.71 times greater risk of MetS when compared with non-drinkers, and light and heavy drinkers had a 2.06 and 2.11 times higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. HAC may increase the prevalence of MetS and deteriorate sleep in relation to amount of alcohol intake. Even light drinkers had more than twice higher risk of severe SDB than non-drinkers. PMID:27536782

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in uncomplicated alcohol-withdrawal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vikram K.; Girish, K.; Lakshmi, Pandit; Vijendra, R.; Kumar, Ajay; Harsha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the first-line drugs in alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acidB (GABAB) agonist, controls withdrawal symptoms without causing significant adverse effects. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in the management of uncomplicated AWS. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, open label, standard controlled, parallel group study of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide in 60 participants with uncomplicated AWS. Clinical efficacy was measured by the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for alcohol (CIWA-Ar) scores. Lorazepam was used as supplement medication if withdrawal symptoms could not be controlled effectively by the study drugs alone. Both direct and indirect medical costs were considered and the CEA was analyzed in both patient's perspective and third-party perspective. Results: The average cost-effectiveness ratio (ACER) in patient's perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 5,308.61 and Rs. 2,951.95 per symptom-free day, respectively. The ACER in third-party perspective of baclofen and chlordiazepoxide was Rs. 895.01 and Rs. 476.29 per symptom-free day, respectively. Participants on chlordiazepoxide had more number of symptom-free days when compared with the baclofen group on analysis by Mann-Whitney test (U = 253.50, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both study drugs provided relief of withdrawal symptoms. Chlordiazepoxide was more cost-effective than baclofen. Baclofen was relatively less effective and more expensive than chlordiazepoxide. PMID:25097273

  4. First-Year Students' Perspectives on Reasons for and Prevention of Their Own Alcohol Overdose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred twenty-six first-year students enrolled at a large, public Midwest university and deemed to require an emergency transport for a potential alcohol overdose completed a brief questionnaire on the student's perceptions of why the event occurred, what might have happened to prevent the overdose situation, and personal assessment of…

  5. Alcohol and Drug Prevention Curriculum Resource Guide Grades 10-12: Social Studies--United States History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Three integrated learning activities for United States history and healthful living are presented. The history goals are understanding that the years since 1945 have been years of great changes, and learning to organize…

  6. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Effects of an Alcohol Prevention and Vehicle Safety Program on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses; Ringwalt, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation of Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM), a classroom-based, alcohol-use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students in first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving. PY/PM lessons and activities focus on teaching children about (1) their brains (why their brain is…

  7. A History of Drug and Alcohol Block Grant Funding and Its Effects on Pennsylvania's Prevention Services System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the impact of the U.S. government's block grant fiscal policy on the funding policies and program services in drug and alcohol abuse prevention. Uses a case history of Pennsylvania's experience with block grant funding mandates to document the administrative and programmatic considerations affecting policy implementation at the state…

  8. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: An Overview for Educators: A Description of the Implementation of a Model Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, BethAnn

    In the fall of 1991, the Western Regional Center for Drug-Free Schools and communities published "Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention: An Overview for Educators." This model course outline was designed to assist institutes of higher education in offering preservice and continuing education courses for teachers and other educational personnel. This…

  9. Protecting You/Protecting Me: Evaluation of a Student-Led Alcohol Prevention and Traffic Safety Program for Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Mary Lou; Baker, Tara Kelley; Falb, Timothy; Roberts-Gray, Cindy

    2005-01-01

    Pre- and post-surveys of self-protective knowledge and skills in third, fourth, and fifth grade classrooms (n = 24) randomly assigned to a model program for alcohol prevention and traffic safety or to comparison group (n = 24 classrooms) were analyzed to evaluate replicability of immediate positive effects of first-year exposure and to test…

  10. Alcohol-Specific Parenting within a Cluster-Randomized Effectiveness Trial of a Swedish Primary Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Anna K.; Bodin, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Within the framework of an ongoing cluster-randomized effectiveness trial of a parental prevention program, the aim of the present study is to investigate attitudes towards under-age drinking and use of program components, i.e. alcohol-specific parenting behaviors, in parents who did and did not take part in the programme.…

  11. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  12. Development of the Environmental Strategies Instrument to Measure Adolescent Alcohol Prevention-Related Outcomes in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…

  13. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  14. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial assistance under any Federal program, an institution of higher education (IHE) must certify that... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG...

  15. Project Application Guidelines for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Funding. Student Services, Prevention, and Wellness Team. Bulletin No. 95202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Pupil Services.

    This publication provides information and application forms for alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) funding. The contents include the following: Framework for Student Services, Prevention and Wellness; Abstracts of AODA Grants; Timetable for Grants; Criteria Applicable to all State AODA Grants; Criteria Specific to Aoda Program Grant; AODA…

  16. Prevention of secondary conditions in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: identification of systems-level barriers.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Christie L M; Tahir, Naira; Mahoney, Erin C; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) impact 2-5% of the US population and are associated with life-long cognitive and behavioral impairments. Individuals with FASD have high rates of secondary conditions, including mental health problems, school disruptions, and trouble with the law. This study focuses on systems-level barriers that contribute to secondary conditions and interfere with prevention and treatment. Using a phenomenological methodology, semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with parents of children with FASD and service providers. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Participants emphasized the pervasive lack of knowledge of FASD throughout multiple systems. This lack of knowledge contributes to multi-system barriers including delayed diagnosis, unavailability of services, and difficulty qualifying for, implementing, and maintaining services. FASD is a major public health problem. Broad system changes using a public health approach are needed to increase awareness and understanding of FASD, improve access to diagnostic and therapeutic services, and create responsive institutional policies to prevent secondary conditions. These changes are essential to improve outcomes for individuals with FASD and their families and facilitate dissemination of empirically supported interventions.

  17. Ethanol impairs Rho GTPase signaling and differentiation of cerebellar granule neurons in a rodent model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Guleria, R S; Pan, J; Bayless, K J; Davis, G E; Dipette, D; Singh, U S

    2006-12-01

    Developmental exposure to ethanol impairs fetal brain development and causes fetal alcohol syndrome. Although the cerebellum is one of the most alcohol-sensitive brain areas, signaling mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of ethanol on developing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are largely unknown. Here we describe the effects of in vivo ethanol exposure on neurite formation in CGNs and on the activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA and Rac1), regulators of neurite formation. Exposure of 7-day-old rat pups to ethanol for 3 h moderately increased blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ( approximately 40 mM) and inhibited neurite formation and Rac1 activation in CGNs. Longer exposure to ethanol for 5 h resulted in higher BAC ( approximately 80 mM), induced apoptosis, inhibited Rac1, and activated RhoA. Studies demonstrated a regulatory role of Rho GTPases in differentiation of cerebellar neurons, and indicated that ethanol-associated impairment of Rho GTPase signaling might contribute to brain defects observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  18. Application of local policy to prevent alcohol problems: experiences from a community trial.

    PubMed

    Holder, H D; Reynolds, R I

    1997-06-01

    Alcohol policy conventionally has been established at the national or regional, state and provincial levels. Alcohol policy at any level is not actually limited to the regulation and control of alcohol production, wholesale distribution, and retail sales. There are a number of alternatives for setting alcohol policies within a local community. Building upon existing national and state/provincial laws, policy makers at the community level can set priorities for allocating resources and enforcing laws related to drinking and driving, underage alcohol sales, alcohol serving practices of bars and restaurants and geographical density of alcohol outlets in the community. This paper concludes from the Community Trials Project that policies established at the local level can reduce alcohol problems. PMID:9231451

  19. ALCOHOL AND THE SOLDIER

    PubMed Central

    Saldanka, D.; Goel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted during a two year period in a zonal referral hospital were studied. Vie majority of the subject were between the age of 30 to 50 years and had more than 10 year's history of alcohol abuse. 19.26% of the subjects had to be invalided out of service. 66.09% remained under various categories of observation after the treatment. At the end of two year′s follow-up only 12% of them had recovered completely. Preventive measures in the light of state policies are discussed. PMID:21776144

  20. Research into hand-arm vibration syndrome and its prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H

    1994-05-01

    Research on vibration syndrome in Japan began in the 1930s with studies of the disorder among railway, mining and shipyard workers. In 1947, the Ministry of Labor decided vibration syndrome among operators of rock drills and riveters etc. was an occupational disease. Industrial developments in the 1950s and 1960s promoted the survey of vibration syndrome in mining, stone quarrying and forestry. The Ministry of Labor (1965) and the National Personnel Agency (1966) legally recognized vibration syndrome among chain saw operators as an occupational disease. Guidelines for prevention and early therapy were issued in the 1970s and 80s. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, research focused on the clinical picture, diagnostic methods and therapy. In pathophysiology, advances were made in research into the autonomic nervous system during the 1980s. The 1970s and 80s saw a steady reduction in risk from technological change and working conditions, and advances in medical care, education and meteorological forecasting. A comprehensive prevention system established in the 1980s in the Japanese forest industry involved: 1) work restrictions, 2) an improved health care system, 3) advances in the design of vibrating tools, handle-warming devices, and 4) improved worker education. This comprehensive preventive system was legally introduced into other industries, resulting in a rapid decrease in the incidence of vibration syndrome in Japan. PMID:7708109

  1. Research into hand-arm vibration syndrome and its prevention in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Sakakibara, H

    1994-05-01

    Research on vibration syndrome in Japan began in the 1930s with studies of the disorder among railway, mining and shipyard workers. In 1947, the Ministry of Labor decided vibration syndrome among operators of rock drills and riveters etc. was an occupational disease. Industrial developments in the 1950s and 1960s promoted the survey of vibration syndrome in mining, stone quarrying and forestry. The Ministry of Labor (1965) and the National Personnel Agency (1966) legally recognized vibration syndrome among chain saw operators as an occupational disease. Guidelines for prevention and early therapy were issued in the 1970s and 80s. From the late 1970s into the 1980s, research focused on the clinical picture, diagnostic methods and therapy. In pathophysiology, advances were made in research into the autonomic nervous system during the 1980s. The 1970s and 80s saw a steady reduction in risk from technological change and working conditions, and advances in medical care, education and meteorological forecasting. A comprehensive prevention system established in the 1980s in the Japanese forest industry involved: 1) work restrictions, 2) an improved health care system, 3) advances in the design of vibrating tools, handle-warming devices, and 4) improved worker education. This comprehensive preventive system was legally introduced into other industries, resulting in a rapid decrease in the incidence of vibration syndrome in Japan.

  2. A Drosophila model for fetal alcohol syndrome disorders: role for the insulin pathway.

    PubMed

    McClure, Kimberly D; French, Rachael L; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol in humans results in a wide range of developmental abnormalities, including growth deficiency, developmental delay, reduced brain size, permanent neurobehavioral abnormalities and fetal death. Here we describe the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model for exploring the effects of ethanol exposure on development and behavior. We show that developmental ethanol exposure causes reduced viability, developmental delay and reduced adult body size. We find that flies reared on ethanol-containing food have smaller brains and imaginal discs, which is due to reduced cell division rather than increased apoptosis. Additionally, we show that, as in mammals, flies reared on ethanol have altered responses to ethanol vapor exposure as adults, including increased locomotor activation, resistance to the sedating effects of the drug and reduced tolerance development upon repeated ethanol exposure. We have found that the developmental and behavioral defects are largely due to the effects of ethanol on insulin signaling; specifically, a reduction in Drosophila insulin-like peptide (Dilp) and insulin receptor expression. Transgenic expression of Dilp proteins in the larval brain suppressed both the developmental and behavioral abnormalities displayed by ethanol-reared adult flies. Our results thus establish Drosophila as a useful model system to uncover the complex etiology of fetal alcohol syndrome.

  3. Altered adult hippocampal neuronal maturation in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Boehme, Fanny; Patten, Anna; Cox, Adrian; Kainer, Leah; Giles, Erica; Brocardo, Patricia S; Christie, Brian R

    2011-04-12

    Exposure to ethanol during pregnancy can be devastating to the developing nervous system, leading to significant central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus, one of the two brain regions where neurogenesis persists into adulthood, is particularly sensitive to the teratogenic effects of ethanol. In the present study, we tested a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) with ethanol administered via gavage throughout all three trimester equivalents. Subsequently, we assessed cell proliferation, as well as neuronal survival, and differentiation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of adolescent (35 days old), young adult (60 days old) and adult (90 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats. Using both extrinsic (bromodeoxyuridine) and intrinsic (Ki-67) markers, we observed no significant alterations in cell proliferation and survival in ethanol-exposed animals when compared with their pair-fed and ad libitum controls. However, we detected a significant increase in the number of new immature neurons in animals that were exposed to ethanol throughout all three trimester equivalents. This result might reflect a compensatory mechanism to counteract the deleterious effects of prenatal ethanol exposure or an ethanol-induced arrest of the neurogenic process at the early neuronal maturation stages. Taken together these results indicate that exposure to ethanol during the period of brain development causes a long-lasting dysregulation of the neurogenic process, a mechanism that might contribute, at least in part, to the hippocampal deficits that have been reported in rodent models of FAS.

  4. CAPP: A Comprehensive Preventative Program Model Addressing Alcohol Misuse among College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsotsis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by college students in the United States has increased in quantity and frequency over the past five years. With this increase, there has come evidence of a rise in negative consequences caused by alcohol misuse. To help reduce these problems, colleges and universities nationwide have begun implementing alcohol programs for…

  5. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents' Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: a Bidirectional Model.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Terese; Koning, Ina M

    2016-04-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents' rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents' alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents' beliefs about their competence in and ability to influence their adolescents' drinking habits (i.e., parental self-efficacy [PSE], Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977). In this study, we examined the direction of influence between parents' rule setting and PSE as outcomes of the program "Prevention of Alcohol use in Students" (PAS), a prevention program aiming to reduce underage drinking by targeting parents and adolescents both separately and in a combined intervention. We tested two mediation processes in which the program would (a) have a direct effect on PSE, which in turn would increase parents' rule setting or (b) have a direct effect on parents' rule setting, which in turn would increase PSE. To examine these processes, we used a sample of 2562 parent-adolescent dyads (age 12 at baseline), followed annually over 3 years. The results showed that the combined intervention increased PSE via an increase in parents' rule setting. No significant effect of the intervention on rules about alcohol via PSE was found. This is the first study to test the mediation processes involving PSE and parental rule setting in an experimental context where parenting practices are being actively changed. The results suggest that giving parents concrete advice on how to deal with alcohol drinking in their adolescents and at the same time helping adolescents to develop healthy attitudes about alcohol drinking have a positive influence on parents' self-efficacy. PMID:26687204

  6. The Outcomes of an Alcohol Prevention Program on Parents' Rule Setting and Self-efficacy: a Bidirectional Model.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Terese; Koning, Ina M

    2016-04-01

    Most adolescents have their first encounter with alcohol in early or middle adolescence. Parents' rule setting about alcohol has been shown to be important to delay the onset and reduce the frequency of adolescents' alcohol drinking, but less is known about the potential role of parents' beliefs about their competence in and ability to influence their adolescents' drinking habits (i.e., parental self-efficacy [PSE], Bandura (Psychological Review, 84, 191-215, 1977). In this study, we examined the direction of influence between parents' rule setting and PSE as outcomes of the program "Prevention of Alcohol use in Students" (PAS), a prevention program aiming to reduce underage drinking by targeting parents and adolescents both separately and in a combined intervention. We tested two mediation processes in which the program would (a) have a direct effect on PSE, which in turn would increase parents' rule setting or (b) have a direct effect on parents' rule setting, which in turn would increase PSE. To examine these processes, we used a sample of 2562 parent-adolescent dyads (age 12 at baseline), followed annually over 3 years. The results showed that the combined intervention increased PSE via an increase in parents' rule setting. No significant effect of the intervention on rules about alcohol via PSE was found. This is the first study to test the mediation processes involving PSE and parental rule setting in an experimental context where parenting practices are being actively changed. The results suggest that giving parents concrete advice on how to deal with alcohol drinking in their adolescents and at the same time helping adolescents to develop healthy attitudes about alcohol drinking have a positive influence on parents' self-efficacy.

  7. Post reperfusion syndrome during liver transplantation: From pathophysiology to therapy and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Antonio; Gamberini, Lorenzo; Laici, Cristiana; Bardi, Tommaso; Ercolani, Giorgio; Lorenzini, Laura; Faenza, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This review aims at evaluating the existing evidence regarding post reperfusion syndrome, providing a description of the pathophysiologic mechanisms involved and possible management and preventive strategies. A PubMed search was conducted using the MeSH database, “Reperfusion” AND “liver transplantation” were the combined MeSH headings; EMBASE and the Cochrane library were also searched using the same terms. 52 relevant studies and one ongoing trial were found. The concept of post reperfusion syndrome has evolved through years to a multisystemic disorder. The implications of the main organ, recipient and procedure related factors in the genesis of this complex syndrome are discussed in the text as the novel pharmacologic and technical approaches to reduce its incidence. However the available evidence about risk factors, physiopathology and preventive measures is still confusing, the presence of two main definitions and the numerosity of possible confounding factors greatly complicates the interpretation of the studies. PMID:26819522

  8. Interactions between prebiotics, probiotics, polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols: diet or supplementation for metabolic syndrome prevention?

    PubMed

    Peluso, Ilaria; Romanelli, Luca; Palmery, Maura

    2014-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be prevented by the Mediterranean diet, characterized by fiber, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols. However, the composition of the Mediterranean diet, which can be viewed as a natural multiple supplement, is poorly controlled, and its beneficial effects poorly predictable. The metabolic syndrome is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and the gut microbioma seems to be the main target and player in the interactions occurring between probiotics, prebiotics, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. From the reviewed evidence, it is reasonable to manage growth and metabolism of gut microflora with specific prebiotics and polyphenols. Even though the healthy properties of functional foods and nutraceuticals still need to be fully elucidated, available data suggest that well-designed supplements, containing the better ratio of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants, specific probiotic strains, and selected polyphenols and prebiotics, could be useful in metabolic syndrome prevention and treatment.

  9. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  10. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  11. Yoga Asanas for the Relief and Prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beleu, Steve

    This collection of yoga asanas (exercises) can help relieve the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and help prevent CTS among people who work on computer terminals. For maximum benefit, the exercises should be practiced daily or on as regular a schedule as possible. They are not intended to replace surgery or a physician's prescribed care. They…

  12. Barriers to accessing HIV-prevention in clinic settings: Higher alcohol use and more sex partners predict decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kristina; Albarracín, Dolores

    2015-01-01

    Understanding barriers to accepting HIV-prevention counseling among vulnerable populations is of critical importance, as prevention efforts can only have a public health impact if high-risk populations are willing to enroll. A correlational field study was conducted in a health care setting with a high-risk community sample (N = 350) to determine if number of sex partners and alcohol consumption predict acceptance of an invitation to take part in HIV-prevention counseling. Findings indicated that participants engaging in the least risky behavior (i.e. individuals reporting no alcohol consumption and few sex partners) were more likely to accept an offer to receive HIV-prevention counseling. Moreover, heavy drinking was associated with decreased exposure to HIV-prevention counseling, regardless of the number of sex partners reported (b = .12, p > .05). Given associations between heavy drinking and sexual risk taking, finding ways to increase exposure to HIV-prevention counseling programs among heavy drinkers could serve a vital public health function. PMID:24684497

  13. Alcohol, folate, methionine, and risk of incident breast cancer in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    PubMed

    Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Jonas, Carolyn R; Robertson, Andreas S; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Calle, Eugenia E

    2003-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that the increased risk of breast cancer associated with alcohol consumption may be reduced by adequate folate intake. We examined this question among 66,561 postmenopausal women in the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 1,303 incident cases had accrued during the first 5 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models and stratified analysis were used to examine the relationship between alcohol, dietary and total folate intake, multivitamin use, dietary methionine, and breast cancer. We observed an increasing risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol consumption (P for trend = 0.01). In the highest category of consumption (15 or more grams of ethanol/day), the risk of breast cancer was 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.53) compared with nonusers. We observed this association with higher alcohol consumption for in situ, localized, and regional disease. We found no association between risk of breast cancer and dietary folate, total folate, multivitamin use, or methionine intake. Furthermore, we found no evidence of an interaction between levels of dietary folate (P for interaction = 0.10) or total folate (P for interaction = 0.61) and alcohol. Nor did we find evidence of an interaction between alcohol consumption and recent or long-term multivitamin use (P for interaction = 0.27). Our results are consistent with a positive association with alcohol but do not support an association with folate or methionine intake or an interaction between folate and alcohol intake on risk of breast cancer.

  14. Three-dimensional mapping of local cerebral perfusion in alcoholic encephalopathy with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, T.; Meyer, J.S.; Tanahashi, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Imai, A.; Shinohara, T.; Velez, M.; Fann, W.E.; Kandula, P.; Sakai, F.

    1987-02-01

    Seventeen severe chronic alcoholic patients with and without Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) were examined prospectively after being treated by withdrawal from alcohol. The WKS patients also received thiamine supplements. Three-dimensional measurements of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) and local partition coefficients (L lambda) were made utilizing xenon contrast computed tomography (Xe CT-CBF). Results were displayed as color-coded brain maps before and after treatment and these were correlated with neurological and cognitive examinations. Before treatment chronic alcoholics without WKS (n = 10) showed diffuse reductions of LCBF values throughout all gray matter including hypothalamus, vicinity of nucleus basalis of Meynert, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Similar, but more severe, reductions were seen in patients with WKS (n = 7), however, white matter perfusion was also reduced. In WKS, most prominent reductions of LCBF were also seen in hypothalamus and basal forebrain nuclei but thalamus, basal ganglia, and limbic systems were severely reduced. After treatment, both groups with alcoholic encephalopathy showed marked clinical improvement and cerebral perfusion was restored toward normal. Chronic alcohol abuse, in the absence of thiamine deficiency, reduces CBF by direct neurotoxic effects. If thiamine deficiency is also present, more severe and localized hemodynamic reductions are superimposed.

  15. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  16. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  17. Time to Address a Preventable Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescott, Siobhan M.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the epidemic of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) affecting Native American communities, the lifetime costs associated with an FAS birth, behavioral aberrations of FAS children that affect classroom performance, and federal and state legislation and funding aimed at FAS prevention through treatment of pregnant alcoholics. (SV)

  18. Will feeding mothers prevent the Asian metabolic syndrome epidemic?

    PubMed

    James, W Philip T

    2002-01-01

    Evolutionary pressures have probably amplified the mechanisms for minimizing the impact of environmental factors through compensatory maternal mechanisms. Nevertheless, experimentally there are clear long-term programming effects of manipulations to the maternal diet on the likelihood of neural-tube defects associated with folate deficiency The fat/lean ratios of the newborn, and subsequent development, seem to be linked to amino acid or folate supply. An altered balance in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which experimentally has profound effects on brain development, is induced by low-protein maternal diets. Such diets are linked to a reduced pancreatic capacity for insulin production and to an altered hepatic architecture, with a change in the control of glucose metabolism. Human studies suggest that what happens in pregnancy is modified by the child's diet in the first months of life. Low birthweight is linked to early stunting, and predisposes to abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Metabolic syndrome amplifies the risks of diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease and probably some cancers. Mothers with gestational diabetes are themselves prone to early type 2 diabetes and produce heavier babies prone to childhood obesity and adolescent type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence of an intergenerational effect, with big babies being prone to excess weight gain, which then, in girls, predisposes them to diabetes in pregnancy, which, in turn, promotes an accelerating cycle of early diabetes in subsequent generations. Essential fatty acids and fat soluble vitamins are important, but we need early interventions and monitoring systems to justify coherent policies. PMID:12492642

  19. Adaptation of an Alcohol and HIV School-Based Prevention Program for Teens

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Carolyn; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Ghosh, Shivnath; Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Rapkin, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Given the current status of HIV infection in youth in India, developing and implementing HIV education and prevention interventions is critical. The goal for School-based Teenage Education Program (STEP) was to demonstrate that a HIV/AIDS and alcohol abuse educational program built with specific cultural, linguistic, and community-specific characteristics could be effective. Utilizing the Train-the-Trainer model, the instructors (17–21 years) were trained to present the 10 session manualized program to primarily rural and tribal youth aged 13–16 years in 23 schools (N = 1,421) in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh in India. The intervention had a greater impact on girls; girls evidenced greater communication skills and a trend towards greater self efficacy and reduced risk taking behavior. The STEP has been successfully adapted by the community organizations that were involved in coordinating the program at the local level. Their intention to continue STEP beyond extra funding shows that utilizing the local community in designing, implementing and evaluating programs promotes ownership and sustainability. PMID:20589528

  20. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs. PMID:27452747

  1. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs.

  2. Does legislation to prevent alcohol sales to drunk individuals work? Measuring the propensity for night-time sales to drunks in a UK city

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Leckenby, Nicola; Quigg, Zara; Hardcastle, Katherine; Sharples, Olivia; Llewellyn, David J

    2014-01-01

    Background By measuring alcohol retailers’ propensity to illegally sell alcohol to young people who appear highly intoxicated, we examine whether UK legislation is effective at preventing health harms resulting from drunk individuals continuing to access alcohol. Methods 73 randomly selected pubs, bars and nightclubs in a city in North West England were subjected to an alcohol purchase test by pseudo-drunk actors. Observers recorded venue characteristics to identify poorly managed and problematic (PMP) bars. Results 83.6% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale of alcohol to a pseudo-intoxicated actor. Alcohol sales increased with the number of PMP markers bars had, yet even in those with no markers, 66.7% of purchase attempts resulted in a sale. Bar servers often recognised signs of drunkenness in actors, but still served them. In 18% of alcohol sales, servers attempted to up-sell by suggesting actors purchase double rather than single vodkas. Conclusions UK law preventing sales of alcohol to drunks is routinely broken in nightlife environments, yet prosecutions are rare. Nightlife drunkenness places enormous burdens on health and health services. Preventing alcohol sales to drunks should be a public health priority, while policy failures on issues, such as alcohol pricing, are revisited. PMID:24430583

  3. Pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities during refeeding syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parli, Sara E; Ruf, Kathryn M; Magnuson, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome may occur after the reintroduction of carbohydrates in chronically malnourished or acutely hypermetabolic patients as a result of a rapid shift to glucose utilization as an energy source. Electrolyte abnormalities of phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium occur, leading to complications of various organ systems, and may result in death. Patients should be screened for risk factors of malnutrition to prevent refeeding syndrome. For those at risk, nutrition should be initiated and slowly advanced toward the patient's goal over several days. Electrolyte disturbances should be aggressively corrected.

  4. The Role of Alcohol Policies in Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Megan C.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Valle, Linda Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article summarizes existing research on the relationship between alcohol policies and intimate partner violence (IPV). Because alcohol represents an important risk factor for IPV, interventions and policies aimed at decreasing problem drinking may also lead to reductions in IPV. Method Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles on alcohol policies and IPV, as well as reference sections of appropriate articles. Only policies that have been studied specifically for impact on IPV were included. Results Three alcohol policy areas (outlet density, hours and days of sale, pricing/taxation) had been studied in relation to IPV outcomes. Research on outlet density had the most consistent findings, with most studies indicating that higher densities of alcohol outlets are associated with higher rates of IPV. Fewer studies had been conducted on pricing policies and policies restricting hours/days of sale, with most studies suggesting no impact on IPV rates. Conclusions Higher density of alcohol outlets appears to be associated with greater rates of IPV. However, there is limited evidence suggesting that alcohol pricing policies and restrictions on hours/days of sale are associated with IPV outcomes. Knowledge about the impact of alcohol-related policies on IPV and violence in general is limited by several significant research gaps. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of alcohol policies on IPV and other forms of violence. PMID:25486390

  5. Ferritin and iron status in pregnancy: Relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Baumstark, J.S.; Hill, W.C.; Chun, M.A.; Hunter, W.J. )

    1989-02-09

    Ferritin is a water soluble macromolecule of M{sub r} = 450,000 within whose inner core is stored approximately 4,500 atoms of iron (as ferric oxyhydroxide). The protein is the chief source of stored iron and its determination in serum is an excellent indicator of iron status. This laboratory is engaged in a study of iron metabolism and its relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Ferritin and transferrin levels have been determined ion serial maternal sera, as well as cord serum. Patients were identified as high risk for the development of FAS by questionnaire. Transferrin levels for both maternal and cord serum were within normal literature values and increased, in maternal serum, at a rate of 5 mg/dl per week of gestation. Ferritin levels decreased at a rate of 1 ng/ml per gestational week. At term, the ferritin level for maternal serum in ten patients was 17 ng/ml {plus minus} 12 SD with a range of 2-35 ng/ml. The value for ferritin in cord serum was 78 {plus minus} 36 SD which is significantly lower than the normal mean value of 101 {plus minus} 52 ng/ml. Equating 101 ng/ml with 100% efficiency in iron metabolism it can be calculated that the high risk-for-FAS fetus is 23% less efficient in general iron metabolism than is the fetus of the normal patient. A decrease of 23% efficiency in iron metabolism could be associated with intrauterine growth retardation and/or the genesis of birth defects.

  6. Inhibition of muscarinic receptor-induced proliferation of astroglial cells by ethanol: mechanisms and implications for the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; Guizzetti, Marina

    2002-12-01

    In utero exposure to ethanol is deleterious to fetal brain development. Children born with the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) display a number of abnormalities, the most significant of which are central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions, such as microencephaly and mental retardation. An interaction of ethanol with glial cells, particularly astrocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of this alcohol. At low concentrations (10-100 mM) ethanol inhibits the proliferation of astroglial cells in vitro, particularly when stimulated by acetycholine through muscarinic M3 receptors. Of the several signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors in astrocytes or astrocytoma cells, which are involved in mitogenic signaling, only some (e.g. protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, p70S6 kinase) appear to be targeted by ethanol at the same low concentrations which effectively inhibit proliferation. Inhibition of astroglial proliferation by ethanol may contribute to the microencephaly seen in FAS.

  7. Menstrual preconditioning for the prevention of major obstetrical syndromes in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The presence of multiple ovarian cysts, anovulation, and endometrial progesterone resistance in the neonate seems remarkably similar to ovarian and endometrial features of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) of adolescent and adult women. In fact, in the absence of cyclic menstruations after menarche, the neonatal progesterone resistance is likely to persist and adversely affect young women with PCOS at the time of pregnancy after induction of ovulation, because any persisting defect in progesterone response can interfere with the process of decidualization and trophoblast invasion. The primigravid woman with PCOS therefore is likely to be at risk of defective deep placentation as manifested by the increased risk of major obstetric syndromes. A recent, large epidemiologic study has demonstrated that the risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery is elevated in the 13- to 15-year old group, although it does not persist in the 16- to 17-year old group. It is proposed therefore that induction of ovulation in the infertile nulligravid woman with PCOS should be preceded by a period of progesterone withdrawal bleedings to achieve full endometrial progesterone response by the time of pregnancy. The cyclic administration of clomiphene citrate for a period to be determined by vascular response may be an appropriate tool to reduce the risk of major obstetric syndromes by menstrual preconditioning.

  8. Sixth Grade Students Who Use Alcohol: Do We Need Primary Prevention Programs for "Tweens"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Stigler, Melissa H.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2009-01-01

    Young adolescent alcohol users drink at higher rates than their peers throughout adolescence and appear to be less amenable to intervention. This study compares those who reported alcohol use in the past year to those who reported no use in a multiethnic, urban sample of sixth graders in 61 schools in Chicago in 2002 (N = 4,150). Demographic,…

  9. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: Alcohol and Other Drug Use and Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics, from 1976 to 2009, the percentage of Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI) college students rose from 2 percent to 7 percent. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), although many surveys treat AAPIs as a single ethnic group, this population is in fact…

  10. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  11. Televised Entertainment-Education to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol Use: Perceived Realism, Enjoyment, and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Lonneke; Renes, Reint Jan; Leeuwis, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is a concern in the Netherlands because of its high prevalence and risks. To discourage adolescents from drinking alcohol, a televised entertainment-education (E-E) intervention was developed. This study investigated responses of adolescents on perceived realism and enjoyment of the E-E intervention, as well as its…

  12. Disability and Health Implications: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines the impact of alcohol and other drug use in creating an unhealthy lifestyle for individuals with disabilities and placing them at risk for health and medical problems. The negative effects of even moderate amounts of alcohol are noted, and the hindering of rehabilitation efforts when a person with a disability is using…

  13. Making the Grade: A Guide to School Drug Prevention Programs. Preventing Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Use. Updated and Expanded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This revision of the 1996 publication is a tool for identifying promising drug prevention programs. This booklet is designed to help teachers, school principals, and concerned citizens determine how to spend scarce prevention dollars. Many parents assume that school prevention programs will protect their children from drugs; the information…

  14. Preventing Alcohol Problems among Young People: Californians Support Key Public Policies. Growing Up Well. Focus on Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, James F.

    This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were very worried…

  15. Prevention of Frey Syndrome With Temporal Fascia Flap in Parotidectomy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Hua; Li, Yi-Song; Ji, Sheng-Guo; Qin, Shao-Hua; Liu, Liu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a total parotidectomy performed through a face-lift incision integrated with a temporal fascia flap. We have accomplished a group of 40 cases of total parotidectomy from July 2008 to May 2013. Twenty-two cases accepted a modified performance which combined rhytidectomy incision with temporal fascia flap. The other 18 cases were fulfilled by Blair incision and no reconstruction of parotid bed as control. The patients were followed up every 6 months. In the interviews, the assessment of the operation from patients was recorded. The cosmetic gratification, presence or absence of gustatory flushing or sweating, and functional reversion of facial nerve and great auricular nerve were surveyed by 3 investigators. The criteria that integrated the subjective with objective items were stipulated for evaluation. Gustatory sweating had been identified in 0% and 44% of patients of the testing and control group, respectively. The average scale of the experimental and control group postoperatively was 7.89 and 5.93 individually. The difference of the average scale between testing and control group presented statistical significance. The author's technique is either aesthetically satisfying or efficacious to prevention of gustatory sweating in total parotidectomy.

  16. Prioritizing Alcohol Prevention: Establishing Alcohol as the Gateway Drug and Linking Age of First Drink with Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; King, Jessica; Sears, Cynthia; Harville, Cedric; Bondoc, Irina; Joseph, Kessy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given ever-reducing budgets of community and school substance use prevention programs, there is a call for identifying the first substance in the sequence leading to polydrug use. Methods: Examining data from a nationally representative sample of 2835 United States 12th graders, we sought to determine (1) the first substance…

  17. Trends from 1987 to 1991 in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Use among Adolescents Exposed to a School District-Wide Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younoszai, Tina M.; Lorhmann, David K.; Seefeldt, Carol A.; Greene, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based prevention program initiated to reduce alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. Investigates changes in reported ATOD use from 1987 to 1991. Significant decreases were found for use of most drugs with the exception of alcohol. Involvement in problem behaviors was the most salient risk factor whereas…

  18. Efficacy of postmilking disinfection with benzyl alcohol versus lodophor in the prevention of new intramammary infections in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Sears, P M; Bartlett, P C; Gage, C R

    1998-01-01

    Five Michigan dairy herds participated in a split-herd study to compare the efficacy of two postmilking teat dips in the prevention of new intramammary infections (IMI) in lactating cows. Three hundred seventy cows were assigned to 4% benzyl alcohol, and 387 cows were assigned to 1% iodophor germicidal teat dip. The teat dips were applied by directly immersing the teats immediately after milking. Once a group was assigned to a teat dip, cows in that group maintained on that same teat dip throughout the trial. Total new IMI numbered 254 and 201 for cows treated with benzyl alcohol and iodophor germicidal teat dip, respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (52.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.1%), and Corynebacterium bovis (12.2%) were the predominant pathogens that caused new IMI in cows treated with benzyl alcohol. Staphylococcus spp., Staph. aureus, and C. bovis, respectively, were the pathogens responsible for 69.7, 12.4, and 4.5% of the new IMI in cows treated with iodophor. The incidences of new IMI caused by Staph. aureus (0.66 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), C. bovis (0.38 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo), and all pathogens (3.15 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo) were higher in cows treated with benzyl alcohol than in cows treated with iodophor (0.29, 0.11, and 2.35 new IMI/100 milking quarters per mo, respectively). Incidence of new IMI did not differ between groups for other pathogens. One percent iodophor prevented new IMI caused by contagious pathogens more effectively than did benzyl alcohol. PMID:9493086

  19. [Effective Prevention of Hand-Foot Syndrome by the Consumption of Dried Bonito Broth].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Kenya; Shinagawa, Yoko; Ogawa, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yuji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yokoo, Takeshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Kawai, Hirokazu; Suda, Takeshi; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Baba, Hiroshi; Terai, Shuji

    2016-04-01

    To examine whether the consumption of dried bonito both is effective for the prevention of hand-foot syndrome(HFS), concentrated bonito broth was administered to 10 patients with HCC who were treated with sorafenib. Among the 10 patients, seven showed an increase in peripheral blood flow, as observed on Doppler ultrasonography. Only one patient showed Grade 1 HFS on day 14 after the initiation of sorafenib (10%); this incidence rate of HFS was significantly lower than that obtained in our previous studies and reported data. These results suggest that consumption of dried bonito broth contributes to the prevention of HFS by maintaining peripheral blood flow.

  20. [Effective Prevention of Hand-Foot Syndrome by the Consumption of Dried Bonito Broth].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Kenya; Shinagawa, Yoko; Ogawa, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yuji; Abe, Hiroyuki; Yokoo, Takeshi; Kamimura, Hiroteru; Kawai, Hirokazu; Suda, Takeshi; Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Baba, Hiroshi; Terai, Shuji

    2016-04-01

    To examine whether the consumption of dried bonito both is effective for the prevention of hand-foot syndrome(HFS), concentrated bonito broth was administered to 10 patients with HCC who were treated with sorafenib. Among the 10 patients, seven showed an increase in peripheral blood flow, as observed on Doppler ultrasonography. Only one patient showed Grade 1 HFS on day 14 after the initiation of sorafenib (10%); this incidence rate of HFS was significantly lower than that obtained in our previous studies and reported data. These results suggest that consumption of dried bonito broth contributes to the prevention of HFS by maintaining peripheral blood flow. PMID:27220795

  1. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  2. Effects of Probiotics and Synbiotics on Obesity, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review of Human Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sáez-Lara, Maria Jose; Robles-Sanchez, Candido; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco Javier; Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gil, Angel

    2016-01-01

    The use of probiotics and synbiotics in the prevention and treatment of different disorders has dramatically increased over the last decade. Both probiotics and synbiotics are well known ingredients of functional foods and nutraceuticals and may provide beneficial health effects because they can influence the intestinal microbial ecology and immunity. The present study reviews the effects of probiotics and synbiotics on obesity, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in human randomized clinical trials. Select probiotics and synbiotics provided beneficial effects in patients with obesity, mainly affecting the body mass index and fat mass. Some probiotics had beneficial effects on IRS, decreasing the cell adhesion molecule-1 levels, and the synbiotics decreased the insulin resistance and plasma lipid levels. Moreover, select probiotics improved the carbohydrate metabolism, fasting blood glucose, insulin sensitivity and antioxidant status and also reduced metabolic stress in subjects with T2D. Some probiotics and synbiotics improved the liver and metabolic parameters in patients with NAFLD. The oral intake of probiotics and synbiotics as co-adjuvants for the prevention and treatment of obesity, IRS, T2D and NAFLD is partially supported by the data shown in the present review. However, further studies are required to understand the precise mechanism of how probiotics and synbiotics affect these metabolic disorders. PMID:27304953

  3. Epigallocatechin Gallate: A Review of Its Beneficial Properties to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Legeay, Samuel; Rodier, Marion; Fillon, Laetitia; Faure, Sébastien; Clere, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight are linked with a cluster of metabolic and vascular disorders that have been termed the metabolic syndrome. This syndrome promotes the incidence of cardiovascular diseases that are an important public health problem because they represent a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas there is not a universally-accepted set of diagnostic criteria, most expert groups agree that this syndrome is defined by an endothelial dysfunction, an impaired insulin sensitivity and hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity and hypertension. Epidemiological studies suggest that the beneficial cardiovascular health effects of diets rich in green tea are, in part, mediated by their flavonoid content, with particular benefits provided by members of this family such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Although their bioavailability is discussed, various studies suggest that EGCG modulates cellular and molecular mechanisms of various symptoms leading to metabolic syndrome. Therefore, according to in vitro and in vivo model data, this review attempts to increase our understanding about the beneficial properties of EGCG to prevent metabolic syndrome. PMID:26198245

  4. Preventing the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome: a case-example of translational genomic medicine

    PubMed Central

    Li-Wan-Po, Alain; Loeys, Bart; Farndon, Peter; Latham, David; Bradley, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The translational path from pharmacological insight to effective therapy can be a long one. We aim to describe the management of Marfan syndrome as a case-example of how pharmacological and genomic insights can contribute to improved therapy. We undertook a literature search for studies of Marfan syndrome, to identify milestones in description, understanding and therapy of the syndrome. From the studies retrieved we then weaved an evidence-based description of progress. Marfan syndrome shows considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation. It relies on defined clinical criteria with confirmation based on FBN1 mutation testing. Surgical advances have prolonged life in Marfan syndrome. First-line prophylaxis of complications with β-adrenoceptor blockers became established on the basis that reduction of aortic pressure and heart rate would help. Over-activity of proteinases, first suggested in 1980, has since been confirmed by evidence of over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), notably MMP-2 and MMP-9. The search for MMP inhibitors led to the evaluation of doxycycline, and both animal studies and small trials, provided early evidence that this widely used antimicrobial agent was useful. Identification of the importance of TGF-β led to evaluation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) blockers with highly promising results. Combination prophylactic therapy would appear rational. Pharmacological and genomic research has provided good evidence that therapy with losartan and doxycycline would prevent the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome. If on-going well designed trials confirm their efficacy, the outlook for Marfan syndrome patients would be improved considerably. PMID:21276043

  5. Prevention of Alcohol-Related Crime and Trauma (PACT): brief interventions in routine care pathway – a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, alcohol-related injuries cause millions of deaths and huge economic loss each year . The incidence of facial (jawbone) fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is second only to Greenland, due to a strong involvement of alcohol in its aetiology, and high levels of alcohol consumption. The highest incidences of alcohol-related trauma in the Territory are observed amongst patients in the Maxillofacial Surgery Unit of the Royal Darwin Hospital. Accordingly, this project aims to introduce screening and brief interventions into this unit, with the aims of changing health service provider practice, improving access to care, and improving patient outcomes. Methods Establishment of Project Governance: The project governance team includes a project manager, project leader, an Indigenous Reference Group (IRG) and an Expert Reference Group (ERG). Development of a best practice pathway: PACT project researchers collaborate with clinical staff to develop a best practice pathway suited to the setting of the surgical unit. The pathway provides clear guidelines for screening, assessment, intervention and referral. Implementation: The developed pathway is introduced to the unit through staff training workshops and associate resources and adapted in response to staff feedback. Evaluation: File audits, post workshop questionnaires and semi-structured interviews are administered. Discussion This project allows direct transfer of research findings into clinical practice and can inform future hospital-based injury prevention strategies. PMID:23331868

  6. Public Attitudes to and Awareness of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oei, Tian P. S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed public attitude toward, and awareness of possible problems and risks associated with, the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Results indicated a high awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific effects to the offspring, and of quantities and frequency of consumption of alcohol which would have teratogenic effects were…

  7. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  8. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  9. Preventive strategies in chronic liver disease: part I. Alcohol, vaccines, toxic medications and supplements, diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Riley, T R; Bhatti, A M

    2001-11-01

    Chronic liver disease is the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Hepatitis C virus infection is the most frequent cause of chronic liver disease and the most common indication for liver transplantation. Preventive care can significantly reduce the progression of liver disease. Alcohol and hepatitis C virus are synergistic in hastening the development of cirrhosis; therefore, patients with hepatitis C infection should abstain from alcohol use. Because superinfection with hepatitis A or B virus can lead to liver failure, vaccination is recommended. Potentially hepatotoxic medications should be used with caution in patients with chronic liver disease. In general, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided; acetaminophen in a dosage below 2 g per day is the safest choice. Many herbal remedies are potentially hepatotoxic, and only milk thistle can be used safely in patients who have chronic liver disease. Weight reduction and exercise can improve liver function in patients with fatty liver. PMID:11730310

  10. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Georg

    2010-11-01

    The most serious complication of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization is severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), a rare but potentially life-threatening condition. The present review discusses the place of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH-ant) in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of OHSS. Sound evidence indicates that the routine use of GnRH-ant instead of GnRH agonists (GnRHa) during ovarian stimulation drastically reduces the relative risk of OHSS. GnRH-ant are therefore useful for primary OHSS prevention, and an increased use of antagonists should help reduce the overall incidence of severe OHSS with its associated risks and complications. In patients on antagonist protocols identified to be at risk of developing severe OHSS, replacing human chorionic gonadotropin with GnRHa as a trigger of final oocyte maturation has been proposed as an effective measure of secondary prevention. A concept of combining GnRHa triggering with cryopreservation of all oocytes or embryos has yielded promising results as far as total avoidance of OHSS is concerned while providing a good chance of pregnancy for the patient in later frozen-thawed embryo transfers. In patients with early onset of OHSS, reinitiation of GnRH-ant in the luteal phase as a measure of tertiary prevention might lead to rapid regression of the syndrome; however only limited data on this new concept are available in the literature.

  11. Statins Increase Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation in the Liver and Prevent Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Han-Sol; Jang, Jung Eun; Ko, Myoung Seok; Woo, Sung Hoon; Kim, Bum Joong; Kim, Hyun Sik; Park, Hye Sun; Park, In-Sun; Koh, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. Recent studies have highlighted the association between peroxisomal dysfunction and hepatic steatosis. Peroxisomes are intracellular organelles that contribute to several crucial metabolic processes, such as facilitation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and removal of reactive oxygen species through catalase or plasmalogen synthesis. Statins are known to prevent hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but underlying mechanisms of this prevention are largely unknown. Methods Seven-week-old C57BL/6J mice were given normal chow or a methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD) with or without various statins, fluvastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin (15 mg/kg/day), for 6 weeks. Histological lesions were analyzed by grading and staging systems of NASH. We also measured mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO in the liver. Results Statin treatment prevented the development of MCDD-induced NASH. Both steatosis and inflammation or fibrosis grades were significantly improved by statins compared with MCDD-fed mice. Gene expression levels of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) were decreased by MCDD and recovered by statin treatment. MCDD-induced suppression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO was restored by statins. Each statin's effect on increasing FAO and improving NASH was independent on its effect of decreasing cholesterol levels. Conclusion Statins prevented NASH and increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal FAO via induction of PPARα. The ability to increase hepatic FAO is likely the major determinant of NASH prevention by statins. Improvement of peroxisomal function by statins may contribute to the prevention of NASH.

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: flying under the radar.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Beth; Gangluff, Deborah; Mengel, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol exposure during pregnancy has been shown to result in a spectrum of birth defects known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) that can negatively impact a child's growth, development, cognition, behavior and physical appearance over his or her entire lifespan. FASD is not a diagnostic term, unlike Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), which is the most serious disorder within the spectrum. Despite warnings by the U.S. Surgeon General and others, childbearing age women continue to drink at high levels, even in pregnancy. As there is no cure for an FASD, preventive activities are currently the only successful approach to reduce the risk of an Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy (AEP) through screening, education, or brief interventions of childbearing age women. The Midwest Region Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Training Center (MRFASTC) has established teams in 8 states in the Midwest, including Arkansas, with the goal of training health care professionals in FASD recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

  13. Family history of mental illness or alcohol abuse and the irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knight, James R.; Locke, G. Richard; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Schleck, Cathy D.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have observed that many patients with IBS drink very little alcohol, and postulated this may reflect membership in families affected by alcoholism and mental illness. We aimed to evaluate whether a family history of substance or alcohol abuse, or psychiatric illness, is associated with IBS. Methods A valid GI questionnaire was mailed to a randomly selected population-based cohort to identify IBS and healthy controls. The electronic medical record was reviewed to record the subjects’ self-reported personal and family health histories. Results 2300 subjects responded (response rate 55%; IBS 13% n=287). 230 subjects with IBS and 318 controls were eligible. Family history of alcohol/substance abuse was reported by 33% of cases and 25% of controls (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0–2.1, p=0.06). Family history of psychiatric illness was reported by 37% of cases and 22% of controls (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–2.9, p<0.001). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, a family history of alcohol/substance abuse was predictive of IBS status (OR adjusted for age and gender 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.3, p=0.05). In the absence of a personal history of alcohol use, reporting both a family history of alcohol/substance abuse and anxiety/depression/mental illness was clearly predictive of IBS status (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.5; p<0.005). Substance abuse as a child was associated with an increased risk of IBS (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.8; p<0.03). Conclusion IBS is independently associated with a family history of psychiatric illness and may be linked to a family history of alcohol/substance abuse. PMID:25582802

  14. OSTEOPONTIN BINDING TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE LOWERS TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α AND PREVENTS EARLY ALCOHOL-INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiaodong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena; Lu, Yongke; Urtasun, Raquel; Christensen, Brian; Fiel, Maria Isabel; Mochida, Satoshi; Sørensen, Esben S.; Nieto, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Although osteopontin (OPN) is induced in alcoholic patients, its role in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains unclear. Increased translocation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the gut is key for the onset of ALD since it promotes macrophage infiltration and activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production and liver injury. Since OPN is protective for the intestinal mucosa, we postulated that enhancing OPN expression in the liver and consequently in the blood and/or in the gut could protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Results: Wild-type (WT), OPN knockout (Opn−/−) and transgenic mice overexpressing OPN in hepatocytes (OpnHEP Tg) were chronically fed either the control or the ethanol Lieber-DeCarli diet. Ethanol increased hepatic, plasma, biliary and fecal OPN more in OpnHEP Tg than in WT mice. Steatosis was lesser in ethanol-treated OpnHEP Tg mice as shown by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower ALT activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation score and the number of macrophages and TNFα+ cells. To establish if OPN could limit LPS availability and its noxious effects in the liver, binding studies were performed. OPN showed affinity for LPS and the binding prevented macrophage activation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation and TNFα production. Treatment with milk OPN (m-OPN) blocked LPS translocation in vivo and protected from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Conclusion: Natural induction plus forced overexpression of OPN in the liver and treatment with m-OPN protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury by blocking the gut-derived LPS and TNFα effects in the liver. PMID:24214181

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control and Prevention Guideline for Healthcare Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Yong; Song, Joon Young; Yoon, Young Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Sung-Ran; Son, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Tae Hyong; Choi, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Bin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jacob; Eom, Joong Sik; Lee, Sang-Oh; Oh, Won Sup; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning. PMID:26788414

  16. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Infection Control and Prevention Guideline for Healthcare Facilities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yong; Song, Joon Young; Yoon, Young Kyung; Choi, Seong-Ho; Song, Young Goo; Kim, Sung-Ran; Son, Hee-Jung; Jeong, Sun-Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyung Mi; Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Jun Yong; Kim, Tae Hyong; Choi, Young Hwa; Kim, Hong Bin; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jacob; Eom, Joong Sik; Lee, Sang-Oh; Oh, Won Sup; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2015-12-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is an acute viral respiratory illness with high mortality caused by a new strain of betacoronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since the report of the first patient in Saudi Arabia in 2012, large-scale outbreaks through hospital-acquired infection and inter-hospital transmission have been reported. Most of the patients reported in South Korea were also infected in hospital settings. Therefore, to eliminate the spread of MERS-CoV, infection prevention and control measures should be implemented with rigor. The present guideline has been drafted on the basis of the experiences of infection control in the South Korean hospitals involved in the recent MERS outbreak and on domestic and international infection prevention and control guidelines. To ensure efficient MERS-CoV infection prevention and control, care should be taken to provide comprehensive infection control measures including contact control, hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

  17. Does vitamin C prevent the occurrence of complex regional pain syndrome in patients with extremity trauma requiring surgery?

    PubMed

    Cabrolier, Jorge; Molina, Marcelo

    2015-07-29

    The complex regional pain syndrome is a neuroinflammatory pathology that affects the central and peripheral nervous system, characterized by disproportional pain in relation to the trauma experimented by the patient. It has been proposed that vitamin C could prevent the development of this syndrome in patients with limb trauma and surgery. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified two systematic reviews that indentified four primary studies, including one randomized controlled trial. We generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is uncertain whether vitamin C prevents complex regional pain syndrome because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  18. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse.

  19. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Dörrie, Nora; Föcker, Manuel; Freunscht, Inga; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2014-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified. The respective disorders have lifelong implications. The teratogenic mechanisms induced by PAE can lead to various additional somatic findings and structural abnormalities of cerebrum and cerebellum. At the functional level, cognition, motor coordination, attention, language development, executive functions, memory, social perception and emotion processing are impaired to a variable extent. The long-term development is characterized by disruption and failure in many domains; an age-adequate independency is frequently not achieved. In addition to primary prevention, individual therapeutic interventions and tertiary prevention are warranted; provision of extensive education to affected subjects and their caregivers is crucial. Protective environments are often required to prevent negative consequences such as delinquency, indebtedness or experience of physical/sexual abuse. PMID:24965796

  20. Tau Reduction Prevents Disease in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gheyara, Ania L; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Djukic, Biljana; Craft, Ryan J; Ho, Kaitlyn; Guo, Weikun; Finucane, Mariel M; Sanchez, Pascal E; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reducing levels of the microtubule-associated protein tau has shown promise as a potential treatment strategy for diseases with secondary epileptic features such as Alzheimer disease. We wanted to determine whether tau reduction may also be of benefit in intractable genetic epilepsies. Methods We studied a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, a severe childhood epilepsy caused by mutations in the human SCN1A gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel subunit Nav1.1. We genetically deleted 1 or 2 Tau alleles in mice carrying an Nav1.1 truncation mutation (R1407X) that causes Dravet syndrome in humans, and examined their survival, epileptic activity, related hippocampal alterations, and behavioral abnormalities using observation, electroencephalographic recordings, acute slice electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral assays. Results Tau ablation prevented the high mortality of Dravet mice and reduced the frequency of spontaneous and febrile seizures. It reduced interictal epileptic spikes in vivo and drug-induced epileptic activity in brain slices ex vivo. Tau ablation also prevented biochemical changes in the hippocampus indicative of epileptic activity and ameliorated abnormalities in learning and memory, nest building, and open field behaviors in Dravet mice. Deletion of only 1 Tau allele was sufficient to suppress epileptic activity and improve survival and nesting performance. Interpretation Tau reduction may be of therapeutic benefit in Dravet syndrome and other intractable genetic epilepsies. Ann Neurol 2014;76:443–456 PMID:25042160

  1. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents.

  2. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature. PMID:26639643

  3. [Prevention and treatment of the complications of polycystic ovarian syndrome--the significance of evidence-based, interdisciplinary management].

    PubMed

    Gődény, Sándor; Csenteri, Orsolya Karola

    2015-12-13

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is the most common hormonal and metabolic disorder likely to affect women. The syndrome is often associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia and adversely affects endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular health. The complex feature of the syndrome requires an interdisciplinary approach to treatment, where cooperation of paediatrician, internist, gynaecologist, endocrinologist, dermatologist, psychologist and oncologist is essential. The prevention and the treatment should be based on the best available evidence. This should include physical examination, laboratory tests for hormones, serum insulin, glucose, lipids, in addition patient's preferences should be considered, too. To maximise health gain of polycystic ovarian syndrome, adequate, effective, efficient and safe treatment is necessary. This article summarises the highest available evidence provided by meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular complications of the syndrome, and discusses the relevant evidence published in the literature.

  4. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793

  5. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  6. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  7. Preventing endometrial cancer risk in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) women: could metformin help?

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Mohamad Nasir; Khan, Gulafshana; Ariffin, Rina; Abu, Jafaru; Chapman, Caroline; Deen, Suha; Nunns, David; Barrett, David A; Seedhouse, Claire; Atiomo, William

    2014-01-01

    Current data indicate that there is a significant risk of endometrial cancer (EC) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), although further research needed to clarify the exact molecular mechanisms. Endometrial hyperplasia is a premalignant condition that usually heralds EC and it shares identical risk factors with EC. Metabolic syndrome with a triad of obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and diabetes, which is commonly observed in PCOS appears to be a key mechanism in EC pathogenesis. Measures to improve insulin resistance could therefore play a role in reducing the risk of EC in women with PCOS. Metformin is an insulin sensitising agent which is safe, widely available and currently licensed for type-2 diabetes. It has been clearly shown in both animal and human studies that metformin is of value in reversing endometrial hyperplasia. Metformin may therefore prevent EC in PCOS. This article reviews the use of metformin in reducing EC risk in PCOS and makes a case for future research on this topic. PMID:24183733

  8. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lip and Palate Craniosynostosis Down Syndrome Eye Defects Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders Gastroschisis Heart Defects Coarctation of the Aorta ... drank alcohol during the pregnancy, are known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) . The best advice for women is to ...

  9. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  10. Effective Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Intervention and Prevention Using Online Game-Based, E-Learning: An Evidence-Informed Program That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Heidi; Hayslett, Carrianne; Bansal, Naveen; Ronco, Sharron; Schafer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The host of costly individual and societal consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) use underscores the importance of ATOD prevention education. "It's Up 2U" is an evidence-informed, game-based, e-learning ATOD prevention program developed by Children's Health Education Center (CHEC) targeting middle…

  11. Environmental Management Approach to Improve College Student and Community Relations to Reduce Binge and High-Risk Alcohol Use and Other Drug Problems. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…

  12. Policies and Programs for the 1990's: A Team Approach to the Prevention of Alcohol, Other Drug, and Traffic Safety Problems in Higher Education. 1989 Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelden Services, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.

    This is a workshop training manual designed to help higher education institutional teams develop policies and programs aimed at preventing the abuse of alcohol and use of illegal drugs on their campuses. Three circular diagrams display the community groups that can be involved in drug abuse prevention, higher education institutions that play a…

  13. Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Practitioners Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities. OSAP Cultural Competence Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlandi, Mario A., Ed.; And Others

    As an introduction to a series on the array of issues in the implementation and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs, this volume attempts to integrate two types of competence for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention program practitioners: program evaluation competence and cultural competence. The chapters in this document provide…

  14. California Programs To Prevent and Reduce Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among In-School Youth: An Interim Report about Tobacco Use. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Lab., Los Alamitos, CA.

    This document presents an interim report about tobacco use and its prevention among students in California schools. It focuses on the efforts of the Tobacco Use Prevention Education (TUPE) program, a part of the California Department of Education's Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education (DATE) program. It is noted that TUPE programs have operated in…

  15. Charting a New Course: Finding Alcohol Treatment for Native American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Kary L.

    Although the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) has been called an "epidemic" on some American Indian reservations, solutions for Native American women with alcohol and drug dependency problems have largely been ignored by the federal government. FAS prevention policy, originating around 1979, has been driven by the simplistic idea that…

  16. Development and Acceptability of a Co-Produced Online Intervention to Prevent Alcohol Misuse in Adolescents: A Think Aloud Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jilly; Foxcroft, David R

    2015-01-01

    Background The prototype willingness model (PWM) may offer an appropriate basis for explaining and preventing adolescent alcohol misuse. An intervention was developed using a co-production approach, and consisted of an online quiz featuring 10 questions linked to the PWM. Objective This study sought to determine the acceptability and relevance of the intervention content to young people, to incorporate their feedback into a final version. Methods A qualitative think aloud study with follow-up semistructured interviews was undertaken with 16 young people aged 11-15 (50%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results The following 3 main themes relating the acceptability of the intervention were identified: “challenging expectations of alcohol education”; “motivations for drinking or not drinking,” and “the inevitability of drinking.” Participants found the intervention appealing because it was counter to their expectations. The content appeared to reflect their experiences of social pressure and drinking encounters. There was evidence that a focus on drinker/nondrinker prototypes was too narrow and that because adolescents perceived drinking as inevitable, it would be challenging to enact any plans to resist pressure to drink. Conclusions An online intervention based on the PWM has the potential to engage and interest adolescents. A wide range of alcohol prototypes should be targeted and a focus on short-term harms should ensure that the intervention is credible to young people. PMID:27025403

  17. Osteopontin deficiency does not prevent but promotes alcoholic neutrophilic hepatitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lazaro, Raul; Wu, Raymond; Lee, Sunyoung; Zhu, Nian-Ling; Chen, Chia-Lin; French, Samuel W.; Xu, Jun; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a distinct spectrum of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) with intense neutrophilic (PMN) inflammation and high mortality. Although a recent study implicates osteopontin (SPP1) in AH, SPP1 is also shown to have protective effects on experimental ALD. To address this unsettled question, we examined the effects of SPP1 deficiency in male mice given 40% calories derived from ad libitum consumption of the Western diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat (HCFD) and the rest from intragastric feeding (iG) of alcohol diet without or with weekly alcohol binge. Weekly binge in this new hybrid feeding model shifts chronic ASH with macrophage inflammation and perisinusoidal and pericelluar fibrosis to AH in 57% (15/26) of the mice, accompanied by inductions of chemokines (Spp1, Cxcl1, Il-17a), progenitor genes (Cd133, Cd24, Nanog, Epcam), PMN infiltration, and clinical features of AH such as hypoalbuminemia, bilirubinemia, and splenomegaly. SPP1 deficiency does not reduce the AH incidence and inductions of progenitor and fibrogenic genes but rather enhances the Il-17a induction and PMN infiltration in some mice. Further, in the absence of SPP1, chronic ASH mice without weekly binge begin to develop AH. In conclusion, these results suggest SPP1 has a protective rather than causal role for experimental AH reproduced in our model. PMID:25132354

  18. Data Quality in Evaluation of an Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, John W.; Roberts, Melinda M.; Tatterson, James W.; Johnston, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the reliability and convergent validity for 27 composite scales and 2 items covering aspects of alcohol use, smoking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Results indicate 23 of the 27 composite scales had at least acceptable reliability and the remaining 4 scales had at least marginally acceptable reliability. At least moderate construct…

  19. CHOICES: An Empirically Supported Intervention for Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shannon K.; Velasquez, Mary M.; von Sternberg, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Examples of behavioral interventions that are efficacious in the research setting as well as practical and translatable to the "real-world" are critically needed as models for social work researchers and clinicians. This article presents the Changing High-Risk Alcohol Use and Improving Contraception Effectiveness Study (CHOICES)…

  20. Program Administrator's Handbook. Strategies for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems. The College Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…