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Sample records for alcohol testing alcohol

  1. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  7. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  8. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  9. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  10. Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Acker, C

    1985-01-01

    Female alcoholics performed significantly less well on neuropsychological tests than matched non-alcoholic controls. The range of performance deficits was similar to that previously reported for male alcoholics despite significantly shorter drinking histories. PMID:4084369

  11. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  12. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  13. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  14. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  15. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  16. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  17. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  18. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  19. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  20. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  1. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  3. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  4. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  5. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  6. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  7. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  8. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  9. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  11. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  12. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  13. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  16. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  17. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  18. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  19. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  20. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  2. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  3. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  4. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  7. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  8. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  9. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  10. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  11. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  13. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  14. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  15. Alcohol Violations and Aviation Accidents: Findings from the U.S. Mandatory Alcohol Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Baker, Susan P.; Qiang, Yandong; Rebok, George W.; McCarthy, Melissa L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Mandatory alcohol testing has been implemented in the U.S. aviation industry since 1995. This study documents the prevalence of alcohol violations and the association between alcohol violations and aviation accidents among aviation employees with safety-sensitive functions. Methods: Data from the random alcohol testing and post-accident alcohol testing programs reported by major airlines to the Federal Aviation Administration for the years 1995 through 2002 were analyzed. A violation was defined as an alcohol level of ≥ 0.04% or a refusal to submit to testing. Relative and attributable risks of accident involvement associated with alcohol violations were estimated using the case-control method. Results: During the study period, random alcohol testing yielded a total of 440 violations, with an overall prevalence rate of 0.09% and a prevalence rate of 0.03% for flight crews. Alcohol violations were associated with an increased yet not statistically significant risk of accident involvement (odds ratio 2.56, 95% confidence interval 0.81–7.08) and were attributed to 0.13% of aviation accidents. Discussion: Alcohol violations among U.S. major airline employees with safety-sensitive functions are rare and play a negligible role in aviation accidents. PMID:17539446

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  18. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  20. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  1. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  2. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  3. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  5. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  7. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  10. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  11. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 655 RIN 2132-AB09 Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing... to revise sections of the Alcohol and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect... changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing program and makes other minor technical amendments....

  12. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  14. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  15. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  17. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  18. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  19. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  20. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  1. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  2. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  3. The TCICA Test for Distinguishing Primary and Secondary Alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiegel, Gene A.; Chaharmohal, Afshin K.

    1997-04-01

    Simple primary and secondary alcohols can easily be distinguished by their rate of oxidation with trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCICA).1,2 The TCICA test is conducted by adding the unknown to a solution of TCICA in acetonitrile3 containing hydrochloric acid4 and measuring the time for a precipitate5 to form. Primary alcohols react slowly and secondary alcohols react rapidly. To generate comparison data for primary and secondary alcohols, tests should be first carried out using ethanol and 2-propanol.6

  4. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  5. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  6. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  7. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  8. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  9. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  10. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  11. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  12. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CDL is considered to have consented to such testing...

  13. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  14. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  15. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  16. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  17. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  18. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  19. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  20. 27 CFR 19.600 - Alcohol content and fill test record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill test record. 19.600 Section 19.600 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.600 Alcohol content and...

  1. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? (a) A cancelled alcohol test is neither positive nor negative. (1)...

  2. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  3. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  4. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  5. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  6. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  7. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  8. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ..., 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 22649) that amended the regulations governing FAA-required drug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing...

  9. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  10. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  11. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  12. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ..., final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653). 3. It reorganizes existing rule... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (77 FR 39194), entitled ``Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.'' The..., the National Air Tour Safety Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a...

  13. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  15. The effect of alcohol on emotional inertia: a test of alcohol myopia.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Catharine E; Sayette, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol myopia (AM) has emerged as one of the most widely researched theories of alcohol's effects on emotional experience. Given this theory's popularity, it is notable that a central tenet of AM has not been tested-namely, that alcohol creates a myopic focus on the present moment, limiting the extent to which the present is permeated by emotions derived from prior experience. We tested the impact of alcohol on moment-to-moment fluctuations in affect, applying advances in emotion assessment and statistical analysis to test this aspect of AM without drawing the attention of participants to their own emotional experiences. We measured emotional fluctuations using autocorrelation, a statistic borrowed from time-series analysis measuring the correlation between successive observations in time. High emotion autocorrelation is termed emotional inertia and is linked to negative mood outcomes. Social drinkers (N = 720) consumed alcohol, placebo, or control beverages in groups of 3 over a 36-min group formation task. We indexed affect using the Duchenne smile, recorded continuously during the interaction (34.9 million video frames) according to the Facial Action Coding System (P. Ekman, W. V. Friesen, & J. C. Hager, 2002). Autocorrelation of Duchenne smiling emerged as the most consistent predictor of self-reported mood and social bonding when compared with Duchenne smiling mean, standard deviation, and linear trend. Alcohol reduced affective autocorrelation, and autocorrelation mediated the link between alcohol and self-reported mood and social outcomes. Findings suggest that alcohol enhances the ability to freely enjoy the present moment untethered by past experience and highlight the importance of emotion dynamics in research examining affective correlates of psychopathology. PMID:24016015

  16. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood, and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  20. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  1. 27 CFR 19.600 - Alcohol content and fill test record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill test record. 19.600 Section 19.600 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Records § 19.600 Alcohol content and fill test record. A proprietor must maintain a record of the...

  2. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  3. 27 CFR 19.600 - Alcohol content and fill test record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill test record. 19.600 Section 19.600 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports...

  4. 27 CFR 19.600 - Alcohol content and fill test record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill test record. 19.600 Section 19.600 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records § 19.600 Alcohol content and...

  5. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  6. Perceived physical availability of alcohol at work and workplace alcohol use and impairment: testing a structural model.

    PubMed

    Frone, Michael R; Trinidad, Jonathan R

    2014-12-01

    This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into 3 dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and 2 dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831

  7. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests. PMID:23748942

  8. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  9. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.267 What problems always cause an alcohol test to...

  10. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  11. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  12. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  13. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  14. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin...

  15. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening... Alcohol Testing § 40.229 What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? EBTs and ASDs on the... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is...

  16. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? 40.251 Section 40.251 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol...

  17. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  18. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  19. Alcohol Use and Sexual Risks: Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Among Female Sex Workers in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiyun; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Hong, Yan; Zhou, Yuejiao; Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The association between alcohol use and sexual risks among female sex workers (FSWs) has been insufficiently studied. This article reports a cross-sectional study of the relationship between alcohol use risk, measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and sexual risk behaviors among 1,022 FSWs in Guangxi, China. Bivariate analysis showed that FSWs at higher AUDIT levels tended to have earlier sexual initiation, younger age of involvement in the sex trade and were more vulnerable to sex under the influence of alcohol. Multivariate analysis revealed an independent association of problem drinking with both unprotected sex and a history of sexually transmitted diseases. Alcohol use in commercial sex shall be considered as an occupational hazard that requires immediate intervention. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the association between alcohol use and sexual risks among this most-at-risk population. PMID:23311906

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  1. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  2. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of...

  3. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of...

  4. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of...

  5. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of...

  6. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  7. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents or... Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a separate subpart in part 91 to govern..., the FAA published a final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653) that...

  8. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same...

  9. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  10. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  11. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  12. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... greatest extent practicable, ensure that the alcohol test is completed before the urine collection process... test? 40.241 Section 40.241 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  13. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under...

  14. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  15. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  16. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  17. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests? 40.229 Section 40.229 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.229...

  18. 49 CFR 40.255 - What happens next after the alcohol confirmation test result?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.255... means), you must establish a mechanism to establish the identity of the BAT sending you the results....

  19. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  20. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  1. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  2. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  3. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  4. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  5. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40.273 Section 40.273 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is...

  6. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ..., 2010, the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] which updated the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... our recently updated Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) to January 1, 2011. The revised ATF went into...

  7. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  8. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  9. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  10. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  11. 49 CFR 219.608 - FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol testing rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.608 FRA Administrator's determination of random alcohol... random selection, with each pool containing the covered employees who are subject to testing at the...

  12. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... and Alcohol Testing AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... operators and operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol... incident, operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either...

  13. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? 40.251 Section 40.251 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES... What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation...

  14. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator..., 1994 (59 FR 62218), FRA announced that it will set future minimum random drug and alcohol testing...

  15. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  16. Functional imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; He, Qinghua; Stacy, Alan W.; Wong, Savio W.; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed activation in neural substrates involved in implicit associative processes through the imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT) focused on positive outcomes of alcohol use. Comparisons involved 17 heavy and 19 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22, during compatible and incompatible association task trials. Behaviorally, a significant IAT effect was found with heavy drinkers showing stronger positive implicit associations toward alcohol use than light drinkers. Imaging data revealed heavy drinkers showed greater activity during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials in the left putamen and insula while no significant difference in activity between conditions was found in the light drinkers. Light drinkers showed significantly more activity in the left orbital frontal cortex during both compatible and incompatible trials than heavy drinkers, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was engaged more in both light and heavy drinkers during incompatible trials relative to compatible trials. Further, within-group analyses showed significant amygdala activity along with the putamen and insula among heavy drinkers during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials. These results are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) controlled behaviors are mediated through neural circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This is the first study to evaluate the neural mechanisms elicited by an alcohol-IAT, providing an additional step toward increasing understanding of associative habit processes and their regulatory influence over addictive behaviors. PMID:23822813

  17. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  18. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  19. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  20. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  1. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  4. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  6. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  7. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  8. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  9. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  10. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  11. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescents showed elevated rates of alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drug use (a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the child’s adolescence (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the child’s adolescence (distal effects). We tested these effects in a high-risk sample of 451 adolescents assessed over three waves beginning at ages 11–15 from 1988 to 1991 (53 % male, 71 % non-Hispanic Caucasian, 54 % children of alcoholic parents and 46 % matched controls). Strong and consistent distal effects of parent alcoholism on adolescent’s substance use were found, though no additional risk was associated with proximal effects. Limited time-varying effects were also found. The importance of differentiating the timing effects of parent alcoholism in identifying underlying mechanisms of risk for adolescent substance use is discussed. PMID:22886384

  12. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  13. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  14. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  15. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section 26.101 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as...

  16. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  17. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  18. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  19. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT reads... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What problems always cause an alcohol test to be... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel...

  20. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  5. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  6. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  7. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  8. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  9. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  10. Ecological Relevance of Memory Tests and the Prediction of Relapse in Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; And Others

    Recent research suggests that alcoholic inpatients' performance on neuropsychological tests is predictive of their drinking status following discharge from alcohol rehabilitation programs, although no single test itself has been predictive of relapse. This study seeks to develop a ecologically relevant memory test that would predict relapse and…

  11. The Brief Alcoholism Rating Scale: A New Test for Diagnosing

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, K. R.; Smith, Selwyn M.; Bulmer, D. A.; Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new scale, comprising 100 criteria based on medical history, physical examination and routine laboratory data, independent of a drinking history, can help physicians in the detection, diagnosis and early treatment of alcoholism. The scale also permits objective classification of alcoholism into mild, moderate and severe categories and overcomes the patient's denial—a major obstacle to early diagnosis. Results suggest that the instrument is accurate: 94% of patients were classified correctly by the scale. Further validation studies in clinical practice are necessary. PMID:21286108

  12. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  13. 49 CFR 40.225 - What form is used for an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol... foreign-language version of the ATF approved by ODAPC. You may use such a non-English language form only in a situation where both the employee and BAT/STT understand and can use the form in that language....

  14. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Department published a Federal Register notice [71 FR 49383] to update the MIS form and its accompanying... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is making technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures...

  15. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  16. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  17. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  18. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  19. 77 FR 60318 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... which was published at 77 FR 26471 on May 4, 2012 is adopted as a final rule without change. Issued on... and Alcohol Testing Programs: 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) Testing AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, U.S... to report 6-AM results to the Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC). This...

  20. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  1. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random.... According to data from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive... (Administrator) has therefore determined that the minimum annual random drug testing rate for the period...

  2. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  3. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF ON-FARM ALCOHOL PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is the most important of biomass derived fuels in the short term. The bulk of the production will come from large (20 to 600M gallons/year) units with the remainder being produced on-farm in small (less than 6,000 gallons/year) units. The on-farm production of alcohol pre...

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  5. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  7. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  8. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  9. Development and validation of the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test (AI-IAT).

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; Laplante, Debi A; Bannon, Brittany L; Ambady, Nalini; Shaffer, Howard J

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol identity is the extent to which an individual perceives drinking alcohol to be a defining characteristic of his or her self-identity. Although alcohol identity might play an important role in risky college drinking practices, there is currently no easily administered, implicit measure of this concept. Therefore we developed a computerized implicit measure of alcohol identity (the Alcohol Identity Implicit Associations Test; AI-IAT) and assessed its reliability and predictive validity in relation to risky college drinking practices. One hundred forty-one college students completed the AI-IAT. Again 3- and 6-months later, we administered the AI-IAT and indices of engagement in risky college drinking practices. A subset of participants also completed the previously-validated implicit measure of alcohol identity. Scores on the AI-IAT were stable over time, internally consistent, and positively correlated with the previously-validated measure of alcohol identity. Baseline AI-IAT scores predicted future engagement in risky college drinking practices, even after controlling for standard alcohol consumption measures. We conclude that the AI-IAT reliably measures alcohol identity, a concept that appears to play an important role in risky college drinking practices. PMID:21621924

  10. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of alcohol testing sites? 40.223 Section 40.223 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.223 What steps must be taken to protect the security...

  11. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  12. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Interim Final Rule (IFR) on September 27, 2010 [75 FR 59105] authorizing DOT-regulated employers to also... omission in the rule text of a final rule published on August 16, 2010 [75 FR ] 49850]. Specifically, we... Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form; Technical Amendment...

  13. Discrepancy in patch test results with wool wax alcohols and Amerchol L-101.

    PubMed

    Matthieu, L; Dockx, P

    1997-03-01

    Wondering why Amerchol L-101 (containing wool wax alcohols obtained from the hydrolysis of wool fat) appears as a test material (100%) in a cosmetics series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB), as wool wax alcohols were already tested in the European standard series, we added Amerchol L-101 (100%) systematically to the standard series. From 8 April 1991 to 28 February 1992, a total of 393 patients were tested: 3.05% (n = 12) showed positive test results (+, +2, +3) for wool wax alcohols as well as Amerchol L-101 (100%), 0.3% (n = 1) for wool wax alcohols only, and 11.1% (n = 44) for Amerchol L-101 (100%) only. Thus, the positive tests for Amerchol L-101 (100%) had a higher frequency of 3.4 compared to those for wool wax alcohols. In the meantime, we also added Amerchol L-101 50% (Trolab) to the standard series. Of all patients tested (n = 223) 2.7% (n = 6) had positive reactions to wool wax alcohols and 12.1% (n = 27) to Amerchol L-101 100% and/or 50%. Thus, positive reactions to Amerchol L-101 (100% and 50%) were 4.5 higher, whereas the rate of concordancy decreased. It is remarkable that 8 patients only had a positive reaction to Amerchol L-101 50% and 9 only to Amerchol L-101 100%. It seems that we miss many diagnoses in contact allergy by using only the standard wool wax alcohols test (30%). PMID:9145265

  14. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  15. A covariance structure model test of antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and a prevention effort.

    PubMed

    Dielman, T E; Shope, J T; Butchart, A T; Campanelli, P C; Caspar, R A

    1989-01-01

    As part of an alcohol misuse prevention evaluation, questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. A conceptual model of the antecedents of adolescent alcohol misuse and the effectiveness of a prevention effort was tested using covariance structure modeling techniques. The factor loadings for the model were all moderate to high, indicating that the observed variables served well as measurement instruments for the latent variables. The hypothesized structural relationships among the latent variables of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem were supported by the data. The full model explained 45 percent of the variance in alcohol misuse in the analysis based on the total sample. The direct effect of the intervention on alcohol misuse was small but significant in the hypothesized direction. The direct effects of the intervention on susceptibility to peer pressure and internal health locus of control were not significant. The model was tested separately for groups of students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure in order to test the interaction between susceptibility to peer pressure and exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol. The percentage of variance accounted for in alcohol misuse did not increase upon testing the model separately for students who had high versus low scores on susceptibility to peer pressure. Observed differences in the significance of the parameter estimates between the high and low susceptibility to peer pressure groups suggest that different approaches to the design and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs may be necessary for different subgroups of students. PMID:2621540

  16. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  17. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a... Drug and Alcohol Testing Rates In a final rule published on December 2, 1994 (59 FR 62218),...

  18. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  19. An overview of alcohol testing and interpretation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anna T; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2012-02-01

    Ethanol analysis is the most commonly carried out drug testing in a forensic toxicology laboratory. Determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is needed in a multitude of situations, including in postmortem analysis, driving under the influence (DUI) and drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases, workplace drug monitoring, and probation investigations. These analyses are carried out by direct measurement of ethanol concentrations as well as of metabolic by-products, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). This review article will discuss pharmacokinetics, including absorption, distribution, and elimination of ethanol, methods for the detection of ethanol, the effect of ethanol on human performance, the role of alcohol in injuries and fatalities, and information regarding the interactions that may occur between alcohol and other drugs. Finally, an explanation will be given on how to interpret alcohol levels as well as the extrapolation and calculation of blood alcohol levels at times prior to sample collection. PMID:22215644

  20. Estimating Driver Risk Using Alcohol Biomarkers, Interlock BAC Tests and Psychometric Assessments: Initial Descriptives

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Paul; Tippetts, Scott; Allen, John; Javors, Martin; Alling, Christer; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz; Wurst, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    Aim To identify alcohol biomarker and psychometric measures that relate to drivers’ blood alcohol concentration (BAC) patterns from ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements In Alberta, Canada, 534 drivers, convicted of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI), installed IIDs and agreed to participate in a research study. IID BAC tests are an established proxy for predicting future DUI convictions. Three risk groups were defined by rates of failed BAC tests. Program entry and followup blood samples (n=302, 171) were used to measure phosphatidyl ethanol (PETH), carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other biomarkers. Program entry urine (n=130) was analyzed for ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS). Entry hair samples were tested for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) (n=92) and ETG (n=146). Psychometric measures included the DSM-4 Diagnostic Interview Schedule Alcohol Module, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Timeline Followback (TLFB), the Drinker Inventory of Consequences (DRINC), and the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI). Findings Except for FAEE, all alcohol biomarkers were significantly related to the interlock BAC test profiles; higher marker levels predicted higher rates of interlock BAC test failures. PETH, the strongest with an overall ANOVA F ratio of 35.5, had significant correlations with all nine of the other alcohol biomarkers and with 16 of 19 psychometric variables. Urine ETG and ETS were strongly correlated with the IID BAC tests. Conclusions The findings suggest several alcohol biomarkers and assessments could play an important role in the prediction and control of driver alcohol risk when relicensing. PMID:19922520

  1. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  2. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  3. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  4. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  5. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  6. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  7. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  8. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ..., the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] updating the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF). The... Department's sensitivity to minimizing the unnecessary waste of paper and expense that would have been...

  9. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  10. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  11. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  12. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  13. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  14. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? 3.11 Section 3.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? (a) At the request or direction of...

  15. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? 3.11 Section 3.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? (a) At the request or direction of...

  16. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? 3.11 Section 3.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs required? (a) At the request or direction of...

  17. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    PubMed

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory. PMID:25630048

  18. Job loss and alcohol abuse: a test using data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project.

    PubMed

    Catalano, R; Dooley, D; Wilson, G; Hough, R

    1993-09-01

    The hypothesis that job loss affects the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is tested using panel data from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area project. Results suggest that the incidence of clinically significant alcohol abuse is greater among those who have been laid off than among those who have not. However, employed persons in communities in which total employment is unexpectedly low are at reduced risk of becoming alcohol abusers. The implications of the results for economic policy and for mental health services are discussed briefly. PMID:7989666

  19. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  20. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  1. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  2. Doxasozin for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that a1-blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on a1-blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O’Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another a1-blocker, i.e. doxazosin that has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O’Neil et al.’s main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O’Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis. PMID:23278505

  3. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  4. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  5. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  6. Shifting patterns of variance in adolescent alcohol use: Testing consumption as a developing trait-state.

    PubMed

    Nealis, Logan J; Thompson, Kara D; Krank, Marvin D; Stewart, Sherry H

    2016-04-01

    While average rates of change in adolescent alcohol consumption are frequently studied, variability arising from situational and dispositional influences on alcohol use has been comparatively neglected. We used variance decomposition to test differences in variability resulting from year-to-year fluctuations in use (i.e., state-like) and from stable individual differences (i.e., trait-like) using data from the Project on Adolescent Trajectories and Health (PATH), a cohort-sequential study spanning grades 7 to 11 using three cohorts starting in grades seven, eight, and nine, respectively. We tested variance components for alcohol volume, frequency, and quantity in the overall sample, and changes in components over time within each cohort. Sex differences were tested. Most variability in alcohol use reflected state-like variation (47-76%), with a relatively smaller proportion of trait-like variation (19-36%). These proportions shifted across cohorts as youth got older, with increases in trait-like variance from early adolescence (14-30%) to later adolescence (30-50%). Trends were similar for males and females, although females showed higher trait-like variance in alcohol frequency than males throughout development (26-43% vs. 11-25%). For alcohol volume and frequency, males showed the greatest increase in trait-like variance earlier in development (i.e., grades 8-10) compared to females (i.e., grades 9-11). The relative strength of situational and dispositional influences on adolescent alcohol use has important implications for preventative interventions. Interventions should ideally target problematic alcohol use before it becomes more ingrained and trait-like. PMID:26760682

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  8. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  9. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  10. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  11. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  12. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  13. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  14. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  15. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  16. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  17. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  19. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  20. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  1. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  2. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  3. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  5. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  6. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  7. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  8. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  9. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  10. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  11. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  12. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  15. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  16. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  17. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  19. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  20. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  1. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  2. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  3. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  4. Alcohol consumption and computer blackjack.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2007-07-01

    The authors considered compliance with a decision aid that E. Thorp (1966) designed to minimize loss in a gambling paradigm under different levels of risk or impairment. Twenty adult men (aged 18-46) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; H.R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. P. Allen, D. E Reinert, & R. J. Volk, 2001) and then played a computer blackjack program before and after ingesting alcohol. The decision aid (online Basic advice) increased players' compliance with optimal play and also increased players willingness to wager more at high stakes. Participants attained a mean peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.048%. Alcohol increased the rate of play. After consuming alcohol, participants appeared to spend less time on their decisions and were more reliant on support. The authors explained these results in terms of an alcohol-induced myopia that enhances responses to salient cues. PMID:17824402

  5. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  6. Testing demographic differences for alcohol use initiation among adolescents for the decisional balance and situational temptation prevention inventories.

    PubMed

    Sillice, Marie A; Paiva, Andrea L; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Meier, Kathryn S; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were any demographic differences on these measures in a sample of 6th grade middle school students from 20 schools (N=4151) at baseline. Three factorial analysis of variance tests were conducted to explore the impact of race (whites vs. non-whites), ethnicity (Hispanics vs. Non-Hispanics) and gender (males vs. females). A significant two-way interaction effect was found between gender and ethnicity for Pros of Alcohol Use. A significant three-way interaction effect was found between gender, race and ethnicity for Cons of Alcohol Use. Main effects were found for the three demographic factors for Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. However, the effect sizes for the interaction effects and main effects were very small (all below η(2)=.01), suggesting that race/ethnicity and gender alone may not be highly influential factors in the Decisional Balance for the Prevention of Alcohol and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol in adolescence. The implications for these results and alcohol use prevention among this group are discussed. PMID:24916916

  7. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  8. Comparison of Immediate and Delayed Blood Alcohol Concentration Testing.

    PubMed

    Vance, Christopher Scott; Carter, Chelsea R; Carter, Raegan J; Del Valle, Maximo M; Peña, Jorge R

    2015-09-01

    The effects of storage time and temperature on blood alcohol concentration were evaluated in this two-part study involving 34 ethanol-negative and 21 ethanol-positive volunteers. Multiple 10-mL Vacutainer(®) blood tubes containing 100 mg of sodium fluoride and 20 mg of potassium oxalate were collected from living persons and subjected to various storage conditions. The time from collection to analysis ranged from 0 to 60 days and storage temperatures ranged from 3 to 20°C. Regardless of the storage conditions, all ethanol-negative samples remained negative (<0.0025 g/100 mL) throughout the study. There was no increase in the concentration of ethanol-positive samples beyond the expected variability of the method, regardless of storage time or temperature. Many ethanol-positive samples demonstrated decreases in concentration during storage compared with the original immediate analysis. The findings from this study support previous research, which demonstrates that microbial formation of ethanol in properly collected antemortem blood is unlikely. PMID:26017380

  9. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  10. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  11. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  12. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  13. Hepatic glutathione content in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Altomare, E.; Vendemiale, G.; Albano, O.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced and oxidized hepatic glutathione was evaluated during alcoholic and non alcoholic liver injury. We studied 35 chronic alcoholics, 20 patients with non alcoholic liver diseases, 15 control subjects. Hepatic glutathione was measured in liver biopsies and correlated with histology and laboratory tests. Alcoholic and non alcoholic patients exhibited a significant decrease of hepatic glutathione compared to control subjects. Oxidized glutathione was significantly higher in the two groups of patients compared to controls. The decreased hepatic glutathione level in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases may represent a contributing factor of liver injury and may enhance the risk of toxicity in these patients.

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  15. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  16. The neurotoxicity of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Harper, Clive

    2007-03-01

    Patterns of drinking are changing throughout the world and in many countries this will be detrimental to the health and welfare of the local population. Even uncomplicated alcoholics who have no specific neurological or hepatic problems show signs of regional brain damage and cognitive dysfunction. Many of these changes are exaggerated and other brain regions damaged in patients who have additional vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome). Quantitative neuropathology techniques and improvements in neuroimaging have contributed significantly to the documentation of these changes but mechanisms underlying the damage are not understood. A human brain bank targeting alcohol cases has been established in Sydney, Australia and provides fresh and frozen tissue for alcohol researchers. The tissues can be used to test hypotheses developed from structural neuropathological studies or from animal models and in vitro studies. Identification of reversible pathological changes and preventative medical approaches in alcoholism should enhance rehabilitation and treatment efforts, thereby mitigating debilitating morbidities and reducing mortality associated with this universal public health problem. PMID:17439928

  17. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  18. Driver can't escape alcohol test by claiming AIDS phobia.

    PubMed

    1997-08-22

    A Pennsylvania appeals court ruled that a suspected drunk driver could not refuse blood alcohol content testing because he feared needles and HIV. The case involves a motorist who refused to take a blood test to determine whether or not he was driving under the influence of alcohol; his license was revoked. The driver successfully appealed to the Allegheny County Common Pleas Court and had his license reinstated. The Commonwealth Court granted the State's motion to reinstate the driver license suspension, stating that fear of needles was not a viable defense. PMID:11364594

  19. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01). PMID:18173101

  20. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  1. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  2. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  3. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  4. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  5. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  6. Similarities and differences in alcohol trajectories: Testing the catch-up effect among biracial black subgroups.

    PubMed

    Goings, Trenette Clark; Hidalgo, Sebastian J Teran; McGovern, Tricia

    2016-09-01

    Using National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health (Add Health) data, we examine the alcohol-use trajectories of monoracial Black youth and biracial Black-White, Black-Hispanic, and Black-American Indian youth to assess how their trajectories differ from the alcohol-use trajectories of White youth over time. The sample consists of 9421 adolescents and young adults who self-identified as White, Black, Black-American Indian, Black-Hispanic, or Black-White. Study hypotheses are tested using latent growth curve modeling. Results indicate that a catch-up effect exists, but only for Black-American Indians whose alcohol-use rates approach the higher rates of Whites at age 29. Black-American Indians face particularly high risk of problematic drinking over the life course. Additional research is needed to understand causal factors of alcohol-use among biracial individuals particularly Black-American Indians who may be at higher risk for alcohol misuse. PMID:27082263

  7. False-positive breath-alcohol test after a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Jones, A W; Rössner, S

    2007-03-01

    A 59-year-old man undergoing weight loss with very low calorie diets (VLCD) attempted to drive a car, which was fitted with an alcohol ignition interlock device, but the vehicle failed to start. Because the man was a teetotaller, he was surprised and upset by this result. VLCD treatment leads to ketonemia with high concentrations of acetone, acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate in the blood. The interlock device determines alcohol (ethanol) in breath by electrochemical oxidation, but acetone does not undergo oxidation with this detector. However, under certain circumstances acetone is reduced in the body to isopropanol by hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The ignition interlock device responds to other alcohols (e.g. methanol, n-propanol and isopropanol), which therefore explains the false-positive result. This 'side effect' of ketogenic diets needs further discussion by authorities when people engaged in safety-sensitive work (e.g. bus drivers and airline pilots) submit to random breath-alcohol tests. PMID:16894360

  8. IFDAT-International forum for drug and alcohol testing, 12-14 April 2010, Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Kenney J D, Josephine Elizabeth; Björklöv, Per

    2011-03-01

    The second programme of its kind globally, the highly successful, collaborative, productive and energizing IFDAT-International Forum for Drug and Alcohol Testing, was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 12-14 April. IFDAT was attended by over 100 delegates, conference sponsors and exhibitors from the international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. Representing over 20 countries, the delegate professionals, speakers, and presenters included employers, service agents, an international publisher, and workplace testing suppliers. The purpose of the forum was to exchange knowledge, learn about new technology, and support the evolution and growth of the emerging international workplace drug and alcohol testing industry. This purpose was accomplished. Delegates from around the globe exchanged their experiences and thoughts about effective workplace drug testing programmes over two days of intensive presentations and panel discussions. The presenters and panelists included drug and alcohol testing professionals, authorities, and intellectuals from around the world. IFDAT conferences are planned for every 18 months, and the next Forum, to be held in Houston, Texas, USA is in the planning process for 2011. PMID:20967900

  9. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  10. Health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol expectancies are developed, in part, through exposure to health messages, the understanding of which may be influenced by health literacy. This study explores the relationships among health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens. Methods We studied alcohol use behaviors in the past six months in youths aged 14–19 recruited from two adolescent medicine clinics. We assessed covariate-adjusted bivariate relationships between HL, expectancies, and four measures of alcohol use and tested health literacy as a moderator of the relationship between expectancies and use. Results Of the 293 study teens, 45 percent reported use of alcohol in the past six months. Use behaviors were positively associated with higher health literacy and positive expectancies. Our moderation model suggested that health literacy moderates the relationship between expectancies and use, with the expectancy/use relationship being significantly stronger in higher literacy teens. Conclusion Findings suggest that health literacy can influence alcohol expectancies and behaviors. Practice implications: Health literacy should be explicitly considered in the design of alcohol prevention messages. PMID:25085549

  11. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  12. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  13. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  14. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... violation of § 13.10. If the alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath at the time of...

  15. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... violation of § 13.10. If the alcohol concentration in the operator's blood or breath at the time of...

  16. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  17. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  18. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  20. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40.261 Section 40.261 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  1. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? 40.277 Section 40.277 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  2. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? 40.277 Section 40.277 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  3. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences? 40.261 Section 40.261 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  8. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  9. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  10. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  11. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  12. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  15. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation... Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The FAA has determined that the minimum random drug and alcohol... percent of safety- sensitive employees for random drug testing and 10 percent of safety-...

  16. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  17. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  18. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  19. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  20. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  1. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  2. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  3. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  4. A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussong, Andrea M.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; DuRant, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors test biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in Grades 6 and 8. Models…

  5. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... America-Domiciled Carriers § 385.605 New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements. (a) A non-North America-domiciled motor carrier must use only drivers who possess a... Federal de Conductor—to operate its vehicles in the United States. (b) A non-North America-domiciled...

  6. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 99, revised as...

  7. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... for illegal drugs. As we discussed in the preamble to this IFR (73 FR 33735, June 13, 2008), the... which was published at 73 FR 33735 on June 13, 2008 is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule; response to comments...

  8. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue...

  9. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  10. Assessing the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test among Incarcerated Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Schilling, Robert; Ivanoff, Andre; Chen, Duan-Rung; Hanson, Meredith

    1998-01-01

    Describes the results of administering the World Health Organization's Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to 400 incarcerated drug-using women. Reports on AUDIT's utility, validity, and reliability. Results demonstrate that AUDIT can be used to identify problem drinkers among incarcerated, drug-using women. (MKA)

  11. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  12. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  13. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  14. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  15. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  16. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  17. Performance of American Indian Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on the Test of Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Laura J.; Chermak, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven American Indian children (ages 4-12), 10 with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and 17 normally developing control subjects, were administered the Test of Language Development. FAS children exhibited depressed performance on most subtests. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits whereas the younger FAS subjects presented more…

  18. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  19. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  1. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  2. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  3. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  4. Decreases in self-reported alcohol consumption following HIV counseling and testing at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use has a detrimental impact on the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) may provide a contact opportunity to intervene with hazardous alcohol use; however, little is known about how alcohol consumption changes following HCT. Methods We utilized data from 2056 participants of a randomized controlled trial comparing two methods of HCT and subsequent linkage to HIV care conducted at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Those who had not previously tested positive for HIV and whose last HIV test was at least one year in the past were eligible. Participants were asked at baseline when they last consumed alcohol, and prior three month alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C) at baseline and quarterly for one year. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as scoring ≥3 or ≥4 for women and men, respectively. We examined correlates of alcohol use at baseline, and of hazardous and non-hazardous drinking during the year of follow-up using multinomial logistic regression, clustered at the participant level to account for repeated measurements. Results Prior to HCT, 30% were current drinkers (prior three months), 27% were past drinkers (>3 months ago), and 44% were lifetime abstainers. One-third (35%) of the current drinkers met criteria for hazardous drinking. Hazardous and non-hazardous self-reported alcohol consumption declined after HCT, with 16% of baseline current drinkers reporting hazardous alcohol use 3 months after HCT. Independent predictors (p < 0.05) of continuing non-hazardous and hazardous alcohol consumption after HCT were sex (male), alcohol consumption prior to HCT (hazardous), and HIV status (negative). Among those with HIV, non-hazardous drinking was less likely among those taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions HCT may be an opportune time to intervene with alcohol consumption. Those with HIV experienced

  5. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  6. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  7. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  8. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  9. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  10. Curing of Furfuryl Alcohol-Impregnated Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, J. W.; Brayden, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    Delamination problem in reinforced carbon/carbon parts impregnated with oxalic acid-catalyzed furfuryl alcohol overcome by instituting two additional quality-control tests on alcohol and by changing curing conditions.

  11. Alcohol use and interpersonal violence: alcohol detected in homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Goodman, R A; Mercy, J A; Loya, F; Rosenberg, M L; Smith, J C; Allen, N H; Vargas, L; Kolts, R

    1986-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between alcohol use and homicide victimization, we used data from the Los Angeles City Police Department and the Los Angeles Medical Examiner's Office to study 4,950 victims of criminal homicides in Los Angeles in the period 1970-79. Alcohol was detected in the blood of 1,883 (46 per cent) of the 4,092 victims who were tested. In 30 per cent of those tested, the blood alcohol level was greater than or equal to 100 mg/100 ml, the level of legal intoxication in most states. Blood alcohol was present most commonly in victims who were male, young, and Latino, categories where rates have been increasing at an alarming pace. Alcohol was also detected most commonly in victims killed during weekends, when homicides occurred in bars or restaurants, when homicides resulted from physical fights or verbal arguments, when victims were friends or acquaintances of offenders, and when homicides resulted from stabbings. The evidence for alcohol use by homicide victims focuses attention on the need for controlled epidemiologic studies of the role played by alcohol as a risk factor in homicide and on the importance of considering situational variables in developing approaches to homicide prevention. PMID:3946695

  12. Human Laboratory Paradigms in Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Plebani, Jennifer G.; Ray, Lara A.; Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Mackillop, James; Amlung, Michael; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Human laboratory studies have a long and rich history in the field of alcoholism. Human laboratory studies have allowed for advances in alcohol research in a variety of ways, including elucidating of the neurobehavioral mechanisms of risk, identifying phenotypically distinct sub-types of alcohol users, investigating of candidate genes underlying experimental phenotypes for alcoholism, and testing mechanisms of action of alcoholism pharmacotherapies on clinically-relevant translational phenotypes, such as persons exhibiting positive-like alcohol effects or alcohol craving. Importantly, the field of human laboratory studies in addiction has progressed rapidly over the past decade and has built upon earlier findings of alcohol's neuropharmacological effects to advancing translational research on alcoholism etiology and treatment. To that end, the new generation of human laboratory studies has focused on applying new methodologies, further refining alcoholism phenotypes, and translating these findings to studies of alcoholism genetics, medication development, and pharmacogenetics. The combination of experimental laboratory approaches with recent developments in neuroscience and pharmacology has been particularly fruitful in furthering our understanding of the impact of individual differences in alcoholism risk and in treatment response. This review of the literature focuses on human laboratory studies of subjective intoxication, alcohol craving, anxiety, and behavioral economics. Each section discusses opportunities for phenotype refinement under laboratory conditions, as well as its application to translational science of alcoholism. A summary and recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:22309888

  13. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  14. Alcohol and drug testing of health professionals following preventable adverse events: a bad idea.

    PubMed

    Banja, John

    2014-01-01

    Various kinds of alcohol and drug testing, such as preemployment, routine, and for-cause testing, are commonly performed by employers. While healthcare organizations usually require preemployment drug testing, they vary on whether personnel will be subjected to further testing. Recently, a call has gone out for postincident testing among physicians who are involved in serious, preventable events, especially ones leading to a patient's death. This article will offer a number of counterarguments to that proposal and discuss an alternate approach: that health institutions can better improve patient safety and employees' well-being by implementing an organizational policy of "speaking up" when system operators notice work behaviors or environmental factors that threaten harm or peril. The article will conclude with a description of various strategies that facilitate speaking up, and why the practice constitutes a superior alternative to mandatory alcohol and drug testing in the wake of serious, harm-causing medical error. PMID:25369412

  15. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  16. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  17. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population. PMID:25578000

  18. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  19. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  20. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  1. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  2. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  3. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  4. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  5. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  8. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  9. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  10. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  11. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  12. Biodegradation of oxo-alcohol ethoxylates in the continuous flow activated sludge simulation test.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Andrzej; Wyrwas, Bogdan; Bubien, Ewa; Kurosz, Tatiana; Hreczuch, Wieslaw; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2002-07-01

    Biodegradation of two alpha-methyl branched oxo-alcohol ethoxylates (OAE) of different polydispersity: LIAL 125/14 BRD (LIALB) (broad M.W. distribution) and LIAL 125/14 NRD (LIALN) (narrow M.W. distribution), both having an average of 14 oxyethylene subunits (EO) and a C(12-15) alkyl moiety were tested under the continuous flow activated sludge conditions of the classical Husmann plant. Primary biodegradation and concentration of metabolites: free oxo-alcohol fraction (FOA) and poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), were measured. PEG were divided into two fractions: short-chained PEG (PEGshch) (1-4 EO) and long-chained PEG (PEGlch) (>4 EO). The indirect tensammetric technique combined with an adequate separation was used for analysis. Central fission was found to be a highly dominating pathway, as is the case with fatty alcohol ethoxylates. OAE are highly primarily biodegraded (above 95%). High concentrations of FOA and PEG are formed. Once formed the PEGlch are further fragmented into the PEGshch. Free alcohol fraction compounds are biodegraded sooner when alkyl moiety is shorter. OAE polydispersity has an influence on the kinetics of biodegradation; PEG formed from LIALN are biodegraded slower and to a lower degree than those from LIALB. PMID:12188138

  13. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  14. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  15. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  16. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  17. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  18. A Comparison of the Impact of an Alcohol Education Program with Al-Anon on Knowledge and Attitudes about Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trama, Jo Ann; Newman, Barbara M.

    1988-01-01

    Measured understanding and attitudes about alcoholism by comparing adults attending either alcohol education program or Alcoholics Anonymous program. Found that, for persons in close relationship with alcoholic, intervention programs reinforced knowledge about alcoholism and facilitated attitude change. Pre- to post-test results did not depend on…

  19. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders. PMID:26515884

  20. Ethyl glucuronide in hair - A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-05-10

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared to only 2% (92 out of 4248 samples) in urine in the same time period. Additionally 50% of the samples positive for EtG in hair had EtG values greater than 30pg/mg hair, indicating chronic alcohol consumption in the last three months. This study shows that four EtG tests in 3cm hair lengths reveal a significantly higher percentage of drink driving offenders who fail to be sober in the rehabilitation period, than do six random EtG tests in urine. Presumably, the hair test is more adequate to monitor long term alcohol abstinence than the urine test as defined by the new driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) in Germany. PMID:22019393

  1. The Social Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse: A Test of the Social Development Model*

    PubMed Central

    LONCZAK, HEATHER S.; HUANG, BU; CATALANO, RICHARD F.; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; HILL, KARL G.; ABBOTT, ROBERT D.; RYAN, JEANNE A. M.; KOSTERMAN, RICK

    2007-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to investigate the ability of the social development model (SDM) to predict alcohol misuse at age 16 and to investigate the ability of the SDM to mediate the effects of alcohol use at age 14 on alcohol misuse at age 16. Method The sample of 807 (411 males) is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project which, in 1985, surveyed all consenting fifth-grade students from 18 elementary schools serving high-crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Alcohol use was measured at age 14, predictors of alcohol misuse were measured at age 15 and alcohol misuse was measured at age 16. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the fit of the model to the data. Results All factor loadings were highly significant and the measurement model achieved a good fit with the data (Comparative Fit Index [CFI] = 0.93). A second-order structural model fit the data well (CFI = 0.91) and also explained 45% of the variance in alcohol misuse at age 16. The SDM partially and significantly mediated the direct effect of age-14 alcohol use on age-16 alcohol misuse. Conclusions The risk and protective processes specified by the SDM serve as potential targets for the prevention or reduction of adolescent alcohol misuse. PMID:11327184

  2. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  3. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  4. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  5. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  6. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  7. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  8. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  9. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  10. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  11. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  14. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  15. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  16. Multiple retinoid dehydrogenases in testes cytosol from alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice.

    PubMed

    Posch, K C; Napoli, J L

    1992-05-28

    Retinoic acid syntheses from retinol by cytosol from testes of alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice were similar in specific activity and in their insensitivity to 1 M ethanol or 100 mM 4-methylpyrazole. Anion-exchange followed by size-exclusion chromatography revealed multiple and similarly migrating peaks in each cytosol that had both retinol and retinal dehydrogenase activities. Thus, the effects of ethanol on testes cannot be caused by direct inhibition of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis because retinoid dehydrogenases distinct from mouse class A2 alcohol dehydrogenases, which corresponds to human class I, occurred in testes and they were not inhibited by ethanol. These data also demonstrate the occurrence of multiple cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis activities and indicate that the two reactions of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis, retinol and retinal dehydrogenation, may be catalyzed by enzymes that occur as complexes. PMID:1599517

  17. 14 CFR 63.12a - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 63.12a Section 63.12a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS General § 63.12a Refusal to submit to an...

  18. 14 CFR 61.16 - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 61.16 Section 61.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS General § 61.16 Refusal to submit to...

  19. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  20. A Test of the DSM-5 Severity Scale for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Tera L.; Rose, Gail L.; Burt, Keith B.; Helzer, John E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND For the DSM-5-defined alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis, a tricategorized scale that designates mild, moderate, and severe AUD was selected over a fully dimensional scale to represent AUD severity. The purpose of this study was to test whether the DSM-5-defined AUD severity measure was as proficient a predictor of alcohol use following a brief intervention, compared to a fully dimensional scale. METHODS Heavy drinking primary care patients (N=246) received a physician-delivered brief intervention (BI), and then reported daily alcohol consumption for six months using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. The dimensional AUD measure we constructed was a summation of all AUD criteria met at baseline (mean = 6.5; SD = 2.5). A multi-model inference technique was used to determine whether the DSM-5 tri-categorized severity measure or a dimensional approach would provide a more precise prediction of change in weekly alcohol consumption following a BI. RESULTS The Akaike information criterion (AIC) for the dimensional AUD model (AIC=7623.88) was four points lower than the tri-categorized model (AIC=7627.88) and weight of evidence calculations indicated there was 88% likelihood the dimensional model was the better approximating model. The dimensional model significantly predicted change in alcohol consumption (p =.04) whereas the DSM-5 tri-categorized model did not. CONCLUSION A dimensional AUD measure was superior, detecting treatment effects that were not apparent with tri-categorized severity model as defined by the DSM-5. We recommend using a dimensional measure for determining AUD severity. PMID:24893979

  1. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  2. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  3. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  4. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: Testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Fleming, Kimberly A.; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature. PMID:24508184

  5. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature. PMID:24508184

  6. Validating the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test with college first-offenders.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, T; Sherrer, M V

    1999-01-01

    Although the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) has been shown to have good validity and reliability with clinical samples, little data has been examined with respect to youthful problem drinkers, particularly college students. Data collected with 312 students cited their first time for breaking university drinking rules was examined to evaluate the factorial validity and internal consistency of the 10-item scale, and also to test the validity of the AUDIT against two scales designed with a previous cohort specifically to measure hazardous (The Drinking Context Scale) and harmful drinking (the College Alcohol Problem Scale) in college students. Overall, results suggest that the AUDIT is a valid and reliable screening device for college students, and could play an important role in assessing youthful problem drinkers for early intervention programming. PMID:10435259

  7. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  8. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  9. [Alcohol and working life].

    PubMed

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  10. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  11. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  12. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154

  13. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  14. Alcohol and Staff Leisure Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the problem of alcohol use and abuse by camp staff. Describes alcohol policies of two different camps. Camp Highlands allows responsible drinking but not intoxication. Camp Olympia requires total abstinence from alcohol. A policy that clearly expresses the camp's philosophy toward alcohol and spells out all expectations and results is…

  15. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  16. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  17. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  18. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away from work, restricted work, transfer to another job, medical treatment beyond first aid, loss of... CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine specimens for drugs and...

  19. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  20. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink other beverages instead, such as water, fruit juices or milk. Questions to Ask Your Doctor If your baby was born with fetal alcohol syndrome: What health problems does my baby have? Does my baby ...

  1. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  2. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  3. Indian Alcoholism and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wayne; Patch, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Educational programs about alcohol should be presented in the formal school setting for Indian youth and in the communities for the general population. The primary outcome of these programs would be the development of self-management skills. (Author)

  4. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  5. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  6. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  7. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  8. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  9. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  10. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to break down the alcohol in your system. The caffeine in coffee may help you stay awake. However, it will not improve your coordination or decision-making skills. These can be impaired for several hours ...

  11. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths—including those from car crashes. ... of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 28 Roughly 20 percent of ...

  12. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  13. A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussong, Andrea M.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; DuRant, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in grades 6 and 8. Models including the biological and contextual variables and their interactions explained significantly more variance in adolescent cigarette and alcohol involvement than did models including only the main effects of the biological and contextual variables. Post-hoc analyses of significant interactions suggested that, in most case, moderation occurred in the hypothesized direction. Consistent with dual hazards models of adolescent antisocial behaviors, the relationships between the biological and substance use variables became positive and stronger as the context became more harmful. Considerations of adolescent substance use, and perhaps other problem behaviors, should recognize the possible role of biological variables and how their influence may vary by social context. PMID:24415825

  14. Sleep deprivation does not mimic alcohol intoxication on field sobriety testing.

    PubMed

    Citek, Karl; Elmont, Ashlee D; Jons, Christopher L; Krezelok, Chad J; Neron, Joseph D; Plummer, Timothy A; Tannenbaum, Timothy

    2011-09-01

    Previous research shows that sleep deprivation (SD) produces cognitive impairment similar to that caused by alcohol intoxication. Individual studies suggest that SD also causes deficits in motor skills that could be mistaken for intoxication. Consequently, SD often is used as a defense when an impaired driver is charged with driving while intoxicated. Twenty-nine adult subjects participated in two test sessions each, one after a full night's rest and the other after wakefulness of at least 24 h. Subjects consumed prescribed amounts of alcohol during each session. Law enforcement officers conducted field sobriety tests identical to those with which a driver would be assessed at roadside. Researchers also measured clinical responses of visual function and vital signs. The presence and number of validated impairment clues increase with increasing blood alcohol concentration but not with SD. Thus, SD does not affect motor skills in a manner that would lead an officer to conclude that the suspect is intoxicated, unless intoxication also is present. PMID:21595697

  15. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  16. Fatty alcohols production by oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Gibert, Jordi; Suárez, Beatriz; Lara, Armando; Ronchel, Carmen; Adrio, José L

    2015-11-01

    We have engineered Rhodosporidium toruloides to produce fatty alcohols by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Production of fatty alcohols in flasks was achieved in different fermentation media at titers ranging from 0.2 to 2 g/L. In many of the conditions tested, more than 80 % of fatty alcohols were secreted into the cultivation broth. Through fed-batch fermentation in 7 L bioreactors, over 8 g/L of C(16)-C(18) fatty alcohols were produced using sucrose as the substrate. This is the highest titer ever reported on microbial production of fatty alcohols to date. PMID:26318028

  17. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  18. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. PMID:25307599

  19. Craving for alcohol and pre-attentive processing of alcohol stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ingjaldsson, Jon T; Thayer, Julian F; Laberg, Jon C

    2003-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis of unconscious attending to alcohol-related information in alcoholics experiencing a high level of craving for alcohol. Subjects included a group of alcoholics (n=34) divided by a median split on a craving measure into two groups labeled as 'high craving' (n=18) and 'low craving' (n=16) alcoholics, and a non-alcoholic control group (n=39). The cardiovascular reactions of these groups were compared after their exposure to masked and unmasked alcohol and control stimuli. As expected the 'high craving' alcoholics showed an immediate heart rate deceleration after exposure to masked and non-consciously accessible alcohol pictures. The 'high craving' alcoholics reported a small but significant increase in difficulty resisting a drink after exposure to masked alcohol pictures. When the alcohol pictures were presented unmasked a significant increase was found in both high and low craving alcoholics on consciously expressed urges, fidgeting and reduced coping with temptation to drink. The 'high craving' alcoholics had lower tonic heart rate variability compared to the control group and the level of craving was positively associated with salivation during the exposure to all picture types. The findings generally support the psychobiological theory of craving, which suggests that the uncontrollability of the craving experience is rooted in unconscious processing of drug-related information. PMID:12853128

  20. Identification of alcohol abuse and alcoholism with biological parameters.

    PubMed

    Watson, R R; Mohs, M E; Eskelson, C; Sampliner, R E; Hartmann, B

    1986-08-01

    The prevalence and incidence of heavy alcohol consumption are major problems which have been increasing in many countries in recent years. It is crucial for physicians to consistently identify early drinking problems as well as the various end disease states in order to minimize suffering and maximize recovery. This paper reviews the evolutionary development of clinical tools for detection of alcohol abuse. The focus is primarily on clinical/biochemical indicators of alcohol abuse, emphasizing but not limited to changes in hematological characteristics, liver enzyme activity, lipids, immune function factors, hormones, neurological factors, and some physically based tests. Use of test combinations and sophisticated statistical analysis of pattern changes in test batteries evidence increased diagnostic efficiency. PMID:2875672

  1. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. PMID:25307566

  2. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  3. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  4. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N = 40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counterbalanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or "loss of control" drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual's control over ongoing alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134023

  5. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  6. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. R.; Sundberg, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    When a drop impacts a flat surface of the same liquid at an intermediate velocity, the impact can result in the formation of a very large number of very small bubbles. At lower velocities, drops bounce or float, and at larger velocities a single bubble forms, or there is a splash. The formation of large numbers of small bubbles during intermediate velocity impacts is termed Mesler entrainment and its controlling mechanism is poorly understood. Existing research has shown that Mesler entrainment is highly irreproducible when water is the working fluid, and very reproducible when silicone oil is the working fluid. Whether this is because water is problematic, or silicone oil is uniquely well-suited, is unclear. To answer this question, experiments were conducted using three different alcohols. The results of these experiments were very reproducible for all alcohols tested, suggesting that there is something unique about water which accounts for its lack of reproducibility. The data from these experiments were also used to develop a dimensionless group that quantifies the conditions under which Mesler entrainment occurs. This dimensionless group is used to provide insight into the mechanism of this unique method of bubble formation.

  7. [The pancreas and alcohol].

    PubMed

    Singer, M V

    1985-07-20

    The action of acute and chronic administration of ethanol on pancreatic exocrine secretion in humans and several animal species is reviewed. If the data concerning the secretory action of ethanol on the pancreas are to the property assessed, several experimental variables have to be considered. Acute intravenous administration of ethanol inhibits basal and hormonally stimulated pancreatic secretion of bicarbonate and protein in nonalcoholic humans and most species of animals tested. Oral or intraduodenal ethanol causes moderate stimulation of pancreatic bicarbonate and enzyme secretion. Since anticholinergic agents and truncal vagotomy diminish the ethanol-induced inhibition of pancreatic secretion in the intact animal, it is possible that the action of ethanol on the pancreas is at least partly mediated by inhibitory cholinergic mechanisms. The action of ethanol on the pancreas may also be mediated by release of gastrointestinal hormones. Intravenous and oral administration of ethanol releases gastrin in dogs but not in humans. Pancreatic polypeptide is unlikely to be the hormonal mediator of the ethanol-induced inhibition of exocrine pancreatic secretion in humans and dogs, since ethanol does not release pancreatic polypeptide. The main secretory changes induced by chronic alcoholism in humans and dogs are increased basal secretion of pancreatic enzymes and decreased basal bicarbonate output, and these secretory changes may favour the occurrence of protein precipitates which are believed to be the first lesion of chronic pancreatitis in man. A decrease in the concentration of "pancreatic stone protein" in pancreatic juice may favour the development of protein precipitates in chronic alcoholic patients. PMID:3901251

  8. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  9. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  10. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  11. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  12. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  13. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive. PMID:27309028

  14. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  15. Alcohol and porphyrin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Doss, M O; Kühnel, A; Gross, U

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a porphyrinogenic agent which may cause disturbances in porphyrin metabolism in healthy persons as well as biochemical and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic hepatic porphyrias. After excessive consumption of alcohol, a temporary, clinically asymptomatic secondary hepatic coproporphyrinuria is observable, which can become persistent in cases of alcohol-induced liver damage. Nowadays, the alcohol-liver-porphyrinuria syndrome is the first to be mentioned in secondary hepatic disturbances of porphyrin metabolism. Acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria) are considered to be molecular regulatory diseases, in contrast to non-acute, chronic hepatic porphyria, clinically appearing as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Porphyrins do not accumulate in the liver in acute porphyrias, whereas in chronic hepatic porphyrias they do. Thus, chronic hepatic porphyria is a porphyrin-accumulation disease, whereas acute hepatic porphyrias are haem-pathway-dysregulation diseases, characterized in general by induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase in the liver and excessive stimulation of the pathway without storage of porphyrins in the liver. The clinical expression of acute hepatic porphyrias can be triggered by alcohol, because alcohol augments the inducibility of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. In chronic hepatic porphyrias, however, which are already associated with liver damage, alcohol potentiates the disturbance of the decarboxylation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrinogen, which is followed by a hepatic accumulation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrin and their sometimes extreme urinary excretion. Especially in persons with a genetic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, but also in patients with the so-called sporadic variety of PCT, alcohol is able to transform an asymptomatic coproporphyrinuria into PCT. Alcohol has many biochemical and clinical effects on porphyrin and haem

  16. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  17. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  18. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  19. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  20. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273