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Sample records for alcohol testing alcohol

  1. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  7. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  8. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  9. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  10. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  11. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  12. 49 CFR 655.31 - Alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol testing. 655.31 Section 655.31..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Prohibited Alcohol Use § 655.31 Alcohol testing. (a) An employer shall establish a program that provides...

  13. Alcohol breath test: gas exchange issues.

    PubMed

    Hlastala, Michael P; Anderson, Joseph C

    2016-08-01

    The alcohol breath test is reviewed with a focus on gas exchange factors affecting its accuracy. The basis of the alcohol breath test is the assumption that alveolar air reaches the mouth during exhalation with no change in alcohol concentration. Recent investigations have shown that alcohol concentration is altered during its transit to the mouth. The exhaled alcohol concentration is modified by interaction with the mucosa of the pulmonary airways. Exhaled alcohol concentration is not an accurate indicator of alveolar alcohol concentration. Measuring alcohol concentration in the breath is very different process than measuring a blood level from air equilibrated with a blood sample. Airway exchange of alcohol leads to a bias against certain individuals depending on the anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Methodological modifications are proposed to improve the accuracy of the alcohol breath test to become fair to all. PMID:27197859

  14. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  15. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  16. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  17. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  18. 49 CFR 40.211 - Who conducts DOT alcohol tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? 40.211 Section 40... DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Testing Personnel § 40.211 Who conducts DOT alcohol tests? (a) Screening test technicians (STTs) and breath alcohol technicians (BATs) meeting their...

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  20. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  1. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  2. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  3. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  4. 10 CFR 26.93 - Preparing for alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparing for alcohol testing. 26.93 Section 26.93 Energy... for alcohol testing. (a) Immediately before collecting a specimen for alcohol testing, the collector... paragraph (a)(1) of this section, alcohol testing may proceed; (3) If the donor states that he or she...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  6. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  7. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  8. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  9. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  10. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  11. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  12. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  13. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  14. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  16. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  17. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  18. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  1. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  2. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  3. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  4. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  5. 21 CFR 862.3040 - Alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol test system. 862.3040 Section 862.3040....3040 Alcohol test system. (a) Identification. An alcohol test system is a device intented to measure alcohol (e.g., ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, etc.) in human body fluids (e.g., serum, whole blood,...

  6. 49 CFR 219.609 - Participation in alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Participation in alcohol testing. 219.609 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.609 Participation in alcohol testing. A railroad must, under the conditions specified...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened to measure alcohol in the human breath. Measurements obtained by this device are used in...

  8. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  9. 49 CFR 219.607 - Railroad random alcohol testing programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad random alcohol testing programs. 219.607... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.607 Railroad random alcohol testing programs. (a) Each railroad must submit for FRA...

  10. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 199.229 - Reporting of alcohol testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 CFR part 40 (at § 40.25 and appendix H to part 40), not later than March 15 of each year for the... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of alcohol testing results. 199.229... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.229 Reporting of alcohol testing results. (a)...

  14. 49 CFR 199.225 - Alcohol tests required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol tests required. 199.225 Section 199.225... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.225 Alcohol tests required. Each operator shall conduct the following types...

  15. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  16. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  17. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  1. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  2. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  3. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  4. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  5. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  7. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  8. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  9. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix G to Part 40 - Alcohol Testing Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol Testing Form G Appendix G to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. G Appendix G to Part 40—Alcohol Testing Form The following form is...

  11. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 219.502 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 219.502 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Pre-Employment Tests § 219.502 Pre-employment alcohol testing. (a) A railroad may, but is not required to, conduct pre-employment...

  13. 14 CFR 120.21 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.21 Section 120.21... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.21 Testing for alcohol. (a) Each air traffic control facility...

  14. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 655 RIN 2132-AB09 Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing... to revise sections of the Alcohol and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect... changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing program and makes other minor technical amendments....

  15. 14 CFR 120.39 - Testing for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for alcohol. 120.39 Section 120.39... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.39 Testing for alcohol. (a)...

  16. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  17. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  18. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  19. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  20. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  1. 49 CFR 219.901 - Retention of alcohol testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of alcohol testing records. 219.901... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Recordkeeping Requirements § 219.901 Retention of alcohol testing records. (a) General requirement. In addition to the records required to...

  2. Effectiveness of Mandatory Alcohol Testing Programs in Reducing Alcohol Involvement in Fatal Motor Carrier Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Joanne E.; Baker, Susan P.; DiMaggio, Charles; McCarthy, Melissa L.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Mandatory alcohol testing programs for motor carrier drivers were implemented in the United States in 1995 and have not been adequately evaluated. Using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System during 1982–2006, the authors assessed the effectiveness of mandatory alcohol testing programs in reducing alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. The study sample consisted of 69,295 motor carrier drivers and 83,436 non–motor-carrier drivers who were involved in 66,138 fatal multivehicle crashes. Overall, 2.7% of the motor carrier drivers and 19.4% of the non–motor-carrier drivers had positive blood alcohol concentrations. During the study period, the prevalence of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes decreased by 80% among motor carrier drivers and 41% among non–motor-carrier drivers. With adjustment for driver age, sex, history of driving while intoxicated, and survival status, implementation of the mandatory alcohol testing programs was found to be associated with a 23% reduced risk of alcohol involvement in fatal crashes by motor carrier drivers (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). Results from this study indicate that mandatory alcohol testing programs may have contributed to a significant reduction in alcohol involvement in fatal motor carrier crashes. PMID:19692328

  3. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  4. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  5. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  6. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  7. Breath Tests to Assess Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Furnari, Manuele; Ahmed, Iftikhar; Erpecum, Karel J van; Savarino, Vincenzo; Giannini, Edoardo G

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Alcohol related Liver Disease (ALD) continues to rise all over the world due to changing drinking behaviour of the population. Liver disease due to excessive alcohol consumption causes significant morbidity and mortality, and poses a substantial economic burden to the health care resources. Early diagnosis and treatment of ALD may help prevent progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The last decade has seen a rising interest in potential use of non-invasive tests in clinical practice, including diagnosis and monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Over the past few decades, breath testing has been investigated extensively in the diagnosis of ALD, and has shown promising results in predicting the early stages of ALD. A variety of breath tests have been utilised in this regard including the13Clabelled breath tests, aminopyrine breath test , galactose breath test , methacetin breath test, and keto-isocaproic acid breath test. These tests have demonstrated good results in identification of both significant and severe liver disease among patients with ALD. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are chemicals, which can be quantified in breath and other biological fluids, and represent physio-pathological activities within an individual. Alteration in the pattern of breath VOCs can be correlated with a number of diseases including ALD. Early stages of ALD can be detected using these breath tests, which can lead to adoption of preventive measures to reduce the progression of liver disease. This review focuses on the clinical utility of current and future breath tests, including breath VOC, as a non-invasive means of predicting early stages of ALD. PMID:27515960

  8. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  9. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  10. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CDL is considered to have consented to such testing...

  11. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  12. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  13. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  14. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  15. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing... alcohol test for each employee. (1) If, during or shortly after the testing process, you become aware...

  16. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Where does an alcohol test take place? 40.221... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Testing Sites, Forms, Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.221 Where does an alcohol test take place? (a) A DOT alcohol test must take place at...

  17. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? (a) A cancelled alcohol test is neither positive nor negative. (1)...

  18. Understanding Alcoholism: A Test for Use in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Jon R.; Morse, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes a test, entitled Understanding Alcoholism, intended to serve as an educational or measurement instrument (or both) for use in the training of physicians. The test directly exposes many controversial aspects of alcoholism to the student at a time when his attitudes toward this disorder are being shaped. (Authors/JT)

  19. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  20. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  1. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ..., 2009, we published a final rule (74 FR 22649) that amended the regulations governing FAA-required drug... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing...

  2. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  3. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ..., final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653). 3. It reorganizes existing rule... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) (77 FR 39194), entitled ``Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs.'' The..., the National Air Tour Safety Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a...

  4. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  5. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  6. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  7. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  8. 49 CFR 383.72 - Implied consent to alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Implied consent to alcohol testing. 383.72 Section 383.72 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... consent to alcohol testing. Any person who holds a CLP or CDL or is required to hold a CLP or CDL...

  9. 49 CFR 655.42 - Pre-employment alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... testing procedures set forth in 49 CFR Part 40. (e) The employer must not allow a covered employee to... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pre-employment alcohol testing. 655.42 Section 655... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN...

  10. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  11. Overview on drug and alcohol testing in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Hanson, M

    1993-01-01

    A flashpoint in the debate over workplace responses to alcohol and drug use by members of the workforce centres on the chemical testing of current employees and job applicants for alcohol and drug use. Drug testing may be the most contentious issue faced by enterprises struggling to develop fair and effective programmes to deal with the consequences of substance use in the workplace. The present paper examines scientific evidence on the nature and extent of alcohol and drug use by members of the workforce, evidence linking alcohol and drug use to workplace problems, workplace strategies for managing alcohol- and drug-related difficulties, and arguments for and against drug and alcohol testing. To date, the evidence supportive of alcohol and drug testing is inconclusive. Testing programmes may be useful in identifying drug users in the workforce. Their deterrent value is uncertain, however, and they are not efficient tools for linking drug users to assistance programmes. Enterprises that are contemplating establishing testing programmes should consider: (a) whether substance use is a problem in their setting; (b) whether testing will respond to the problem; (c) the costs and benefits of testing; and (d) any ethical and legal questions raised by the programmes.

  12. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  13. Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Chevy Chase, MD. National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information.

    This concise survey presents some of the highlights of modern research on drinking and alcoholism, as based on technical articles published in the scientific literature and the views expressed by leading authorities in the field. Contents include discussions about: (1) the nature and scope of the problem; (2) the chemical composition of alcoholic…

  14. 27 CFR 19.600 - Alcohol content and fill test record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content and fill test record. 19.600 Section 19.600 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports...

  15. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests.

  16. [Utility of dynamic pupillometry in alcohol testing on drivers].

    PubMed

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis Lucio; Cabanillas Campos, María Carmen; Navarro-Valls, Juan José; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro, Eva; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Pupillometry is becoming a relevant tool in Vision Sciences. So far, only a few studies have explored the relationship between pupil reflex measures and drug consumption. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of dynamic mesopic pupillometry as an objective measurement method for the detection of blood alcohol levels above the legal limit. In a quasiexperimental design, 19 volunteers were asked to participate in two conditions (before and after alcohol intake). In session with alcohol intake, participants were asked to consume 27.5 ml of alcohol in 60 minute intervals for four hours. Pupillometry records were conducted by means of the Power Refractor II, using four types of light stimulation: white (5600 K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm) and red (600 nm). The basal diameter of the pupil increased significantly for alcohol concentrations equal to or greater than 0.25 mg/l in exhaled breath. Moreover, the value of the amplitude for red light constriction also provided significant differences between the two conditions. These results are promising in the search for new methods to detect illegal alcohol levels among drivers. This study demonstrates that basal pupil diameter increase and amplitude response could be used as an alcohol consumption level indicator. However, further studies are necessary to validate this and other diagnose methods complementary to breathalyzer and other drugs tests. PMID:23748942

  17. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse; Problem drinking; Drinking problem; Alcohol addiction; Alcoholism - alcohol use; Substance use - alcohol ... The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism ... 1 drink per day Men should not drink more than 2 drinks per day

  18. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... confirmation test? 40.251 Section 40.251 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests § 40.251 What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation...

  19. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  20. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  1. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  2. 49 CFR 40.271 - How are alcohol testing problems corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How are alcohol testing problems corrected? 40.271... WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.271 How are alcohol testing problems corrected? (a) As a BAT or STT, you have the responsibility of trying to complete successfully...

  3. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, the alcohol travels through her blood and into the baby's blood, tissues, and organs. Alcohol breaks down much more slowly in ...

  5. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  6. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine... metabolite, opiates (codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine), amphetamines (amphetamine,...

  7. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine... metabolite, opiates (codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine), amphetamines (amphetamine,...

  8. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine... metabolite, opiates (codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine), amphetamines (amphetamine,...

  9. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... recordable under the Department of Labor standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments... alcohol testing requirements of 49 CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine... metabolite, opiates (codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine), amphetamines (amphetamine,...

  10. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  11. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific...

  12. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  13. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., the FAA published a final rule titled ``Drug and Alcohol Testing Program'' (74 FR 22653) that moved..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents or... Standards rule (72 FR 6884, February 13, 2007) established a separate subpart in part 91 to...

  14. 10 CFR 26.101 - Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.101 Section... Testing § 26.101 Conducting a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) The confirmatory test must begin as soon... that meets the requirements of § 26.91(b) and (c) was used for the initial alcohol test, the same...

  15. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65... § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access testing... days. If an individual has negative results from drug and alcohol tests that were conducted under...

  16. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  17. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  18. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  19. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An...

  1. Mechanical testing of pyrolysed poly-furfuryl alcohol nanofibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, B. A.; Haque, M. A.; Yi, Bo; Rajagopalan, R.; Foley, H. C.

    2007-03-01

    We present experimental results on the characterization of the mechanical properties of pyrolysed poly-furfuryl alcohol (PFA) nanofibres. Specifically, Young's modulus and the fracture strain of the nanofibres were measured by performing uni-axial tensile experiments on individual nanofibres in situ in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) using a microfabricated tensile testing device. The nanofibres tested varied in diameter from 150 to 300 nm. Young's modulus is observed to be within the 1.3-2 GPa range.

  2. 49 CFR 40.251 - What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the first steps in an alcohol... What are the first steps in an alcohol confirmation test? As the BAT for an alcohol confirmation test, you must follow these steps to begin the confirmation test process: (a) You must carry out...

  3. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ..., the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] updating the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF). The... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation published a final rule authorizing the use of an updated Alcohol Testing Form...

  4. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  5. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  6. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Test result indicating prohibited alcohol... (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Random Alcohol and Drug Testing Programs § 219.611 Test result indicating prohibited...

  7. 75 FR 26183 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ..., 2010, the Department published a final rule [75 FR 8528] which updated the Alcohol Testing Form (ATF... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... our recently updated Alcohol Testing Form (ATF) to January 1, 2011. The revised ATF went into...

  8. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  9. 49 CFR 40.253 - What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the procedures for conducting an alcohol confirmation test? 40.253 Section 40.253 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Confirmation Tests §...

  10. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  11. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  12. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form; Technical Amendment AGENCY... effect of this final rule is to finalize the authority for use of the new CCF and to make a technical...: Bohdan Baczara, U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance,...

  13. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  14. 77 FR 10666 - Pipeline Safety: Post Accident Drug and Alcohol Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... and Alcohol Testing AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT... operators and operators of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities to conduct post- accident drug and alcohol... incident, operators must drug and alcohol test each covered employee whose performance either...

  15. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  16. The thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, W P; Roberts, M C; Emsley, R A; Aalbers, C; Taljaard, F J

    1995-09-01

    The mechanism for a blunted thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) in alcoholics is not known. We performed a combined TRH and gonadoliberin stimulation test on three well-defined groups of nondepressed alcoholic men. Group A comprised patients with acute withdrawal symptoms (n = 28), group B patients abstinent for 5-8 weeks (n = 29) and group C patients who had been abstinent for > 2 years (n = 16). Twenty-two healthy male volunteers were used for comparison. A blunted TSH response to TRH (delta TSH < 5 microU/l) occurred only in groups A (39%) and B (17%). In group A delta TSH showed a significant negative correlation with the severity of withdrawal symptoms and a significant positive correlation with serum magnesium levels. In group B, patients with a family history of alcoholism had significantly lower delta TSH levels than those without such a family history. Groups did not differ with respect to basal and delta prolactin, and TSH responses were not significantly associated with vitamin deficiency, cortisol levels or free thyroid hormone levels. We conclude that TRH stimulation test blunting appears to be related to factors operating in the withdrawal state and improves with continued abstinence. A possible role of genetic factors and serum magnesium needs to be further explored.

  17. Functional imaging of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; He, Qinghua; Stacy, Alan W.; Wong, Savio W.; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Gui; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed activation in neural substrates involved in implicit associative processes through the imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging) of an alcohol-Implicit Association Test (IAT) focused on positive outcomes of alcohol use. Comparisons involved 17 heavy and 19 light drinkers, ranging in age from 18 to 22, during compatible and incompatible association task trials. Behaviorally, a significant IAT effect was found with heavy drinkers showing stronger positive implicit associations toward alcohol use than light drinkers. Imaging data revealed heavy drinkers showed greater activity during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials in the left putamen and insula while no significant difference in activity between conditions was found in the light drinkers. Light drinkers showed significantly more activity in the left orbital frontal cortex during both compatible and incompatible trials than heavy drinkers, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was engaged more in both light and heavy drinkers during incompatible trials relative to compatible trials. Further, within-group analyses showed significant amygdala activity along with the putamen and insula among heavy drinkers during compatible trials relative to incompatible trials. These results are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) controlled behaviors are mediated through neural circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. This is the first study to evaluate the neural mechanisms elicited by an alcohol-IAT, providing an additional step toward increasing understanding of associative habit processes and their regulatory influence over addictive behaviors. PMID:23822813

  18. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing.

    PubMed

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  19. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  20. 49 CFR 40.269 - What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause an alcohol test to be... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.269 What problems cause an alcohol test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? As a...

  1. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... varies. Almost none of these babies have normal brain development. Infants and children with fetal alcohol syndrome have many different problems, which can be ...

  2. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  3. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  4. The measurand problem in infrared breath alcohol testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosk, Ted

    2012-02-01

    Measurements are made to determine the value of a quantity known as a measurand. The measurand is not always the quantity subject to measurement, however. Often, a distinct quantity will be measured and related to the measurand through a measurement function. When the identities of the measurand and the quantity actually measured are not well defined or distinguished, it can lead to the misinterpretation of results. This is referred to as the measurand problem. The measurand problem can present significant difficulties when the law and not science determines the measurand. This arises when the law requires that a particular quantity be measured. Legal definitions are seldom as rigorous or complete as those utilized in science. Thus, legally defined measurands often fall prey to the measurand problem. An example is the measurement of breath alcohol concentration by infrared spectroscopy. All 50 states authorize such tests but the measurand differs by jurisdiction. This leads to misinterpretation of results in both the forensic and legal communities due to the measurand problem with the consequence that the innocent are convicted and guilty set free. Correct interpretation of breath test results requires that the measurand be properly understood and accounted for. I set forth the varying measurands defined by law, the impact these differing measurands have on the interpretation of breath test results and how the measurand problem can be avoided in the measurement of breath alcohol concentration.

  5. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  6. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescents showed elevated rates of alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drug use (a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the child’s adolescence (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the child’s adolescence (distal effects). We tested these effects in a high-risk sample of 451 adolescents assessed over three waves beginning at ages 11–15 from 1988 to 1991 (53 % male, 71 % non-Hispanic Caucasian, 54 % children of alcoholic parents and 46 % matched controls). Strong and consistent distal effects of parent alcoholism on adolescent’s substance use were found, though no additional risk was associated with proximal effects. Limited time-varying effects were also found. The importance of differentiating the timing effects of parent alcoholism in identifying underlying mechanisms of risk for adolescent substance use is discussed. PMID:22886384

  7. Comparison of breath-alcohol screening test results with venous blood alcohol concentration in suspected drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Kriikku, Pirkko; Wilhelm, Lars; Jenckel, Stefan; Rintatalo, Janne; Hurme, Jukka; Kramer, Jan; Jones, A Wayne; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2014-06-01

    Hand-held electronic breath-alcohol analyzers are widely used by police authorities in their efforts to detect drunken drivers and to improve road-traffic safety. Over a three month period, the results of roadside breath-alcohol tests of drivers apprehended in Finland were compared with venous blood alcohol concentration (BAC). The mean (median) time between sampling blood and breath was 0.71h (0.58h) with a range from 0 to 6h. Some hand-held instruments gave results as the concentration of alcohol in breath and were converted into BAC assuming a blood-breath alcohol ratio (BBR) of 2260. The mean venous BAC (1.82g/kg) in traffic offenders was higher than the result predicted by the hand-held breath analyzers (1.72g/kg). In 1875 roadside tests, the relationship between venous BAC (x) and BrAC (y) was defined by the regression equation y=0.18+0.85x. The coefficients show both a constant bias (y-intercept 0.18g/kg) and a proportional bias (slope=0.85). The residual standard deviation (SD), an indicator of random variation, was ±0.40g/kg. After BAC results were corrected for the time elapsed between sampling blood and breath, the y-intercept decreased to 0.10g/kg and 0.004g/kg, respectively, when low (0.1g/kg/h) and high (0.25g/kg/h) rates of alcohol elimination were used. The proportional bias of 0.85 shows that the breath-alcohol test result reads lower than the actual BAC by 15% on average. This suggests that the BBR of 2260 used for calibration should be increased by about 15% to give closer agreement between BAC and BrAC. Because of the large random variation (SD±0.40g/kg), there is considerable uncertainty if and when results from the roadside screening test are used to estimate venous BAC. The roadside breath-alcohol screening instruments worked well for the purpose of selecting drivers above the statutory limit of 0.50g/kg.

  8. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  10. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  11. Alcohol project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The Great Western Sugar Company has announced plans for the construction of a $300 million plant for the production of fuel grade alcohol from corn. The plant at Reserve, Lousiana, will also produce high fructose corn syrup and animal feed by-products and will employ an additional 200 people.

  12. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  13. Reactivity to alcohol cues and induced moods in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Cooney, N L; Kadden, R M; Gaupp, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been theorized that respondent conditioning processes in part underlie desire for alcohol and thus contribute to relapse after alcoholism treatment. One implication of this theory is that the relevant conditioned responses could be eliminated by respondent extinction, in which the alcoholic patient is exposed to alcohol-related stimuli while being prevented from consuming alcohol. However, exteroceptive cues such as the sight and smell of alcoholic beverages are not always sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol. In view of this, it has been suggested that interoceptive cues, such as mood states, may also play a role in eliciting desire for alcohol. To test this, eight alcoholic subjects were induced to experience negative or neutral moods on four separate days, and then exposed to the sight and smell of their favorite alcoholic drink, and to a neutral stimulus (seltzer water), in a within-subjects design. Results from this work indicate that: (a) negative moods can be reliably induced in the laboratory as confirmed by subjects' reports; (b) exposure to alcohol cues had no effect on desire for alcohol while subjects were in a relaxed, neutral mood state; (c) the presence of negative mood states alone appeared to be sufficient to elicit desire for alcohol in some subjects, regardless of whether alcohol or water was presented. These data argue that negative mood states may cue desire for alcohol independent of other cues. The data also suggest that reactivity to alcohol cues may be substantially reduced by relaxation.

  14. Problem-solving deficits in alcoholics: evidence from the California Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Nixon, S J; Moreland, V J

    1993-11-01

    In an attempt to clarify the nature of the problem-solving deficits exhibited by chronic alcoholics, the California Card Sorting Test (CCST) and other measures of abstraction and problem solving were administered to 23 alcoholics and 16 nonalcoholic controls, equated for age, education and vocabulary. On the CCST, the alcoholics exhibited three types of deficits which appeared to be relatively independent. First, the alcoholics generated and identified fewer correct concepts than controls, although they executed concepts normally when cued by the examiner. Second, the alcoholics made more perseverative sorting responses and perseverative verbal explanations for their sorting behavior than did controls. Third, alcoholics provided less complete verbal explanations of the concepts that they correctly generated or identified. The differential importance of these factors on various measures of problem solving may help to explain the varied patterns of inefficient problem solving exhibited by alcoholics.

  15. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he...

  16. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he...

  17. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he...

  18. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath... Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a) The collector shall perform the initial breath test as soon as practical after the donor indicates that he...

  19. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug content. (1) Refusal by an operator to submit to a test is prohibited and proof of refusal may be admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and...

  20. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  1. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  2. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  3. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an alcohol test if any of the following problems occur. These are “fatal flaws.” You must inform the DER that... the case of a screening test conducted on a saliva ASD or a breath tube ASD: (1) The STT or BAT...

  4. 10 CFR 26.95 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. 26.95 Section 26.95 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.95 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a breath specimen. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  6. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  7. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  8. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  9. 10 CFR 26.99 - Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. 26.99 Section 26.99 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.99 Determining the need for a confirmatory test for alcohol. (a) If the...

  10. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  11. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... RISKS OF ALCOHOL Alcohol increases the risk of: Alcoholism Falls, drownings, and other accidents Head, neck, stomach, ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and your health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  12. Efficacy of the alcohol use disorders identification test as a screening tool for hazardous alcohol intake and related disorders in primary care: a validity study.

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, M.; Tessari, E.; Bortolomasi, M.; Piasere, O.; Semenzin, M.; Garzotto, N.; Tansella, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the properties of the alcohol use disorders identification test in screening primary care attenders for alcohol problems. DESIGN: A validity study among consecutive primary care attenders aged 18-65 years. Every third subject completed the alcohol use disorders identification test (a 10 item self report questionnaire on alcohol intake and related problems) and was interviewed by an investigator with the composite international diagnostic interview alcohol use module (a standardised interview for the independent assessment of alcohol intake and related disorders). SETTING: 10 primary care clinics in Verona, north eastern Italy. PATIENTS: 500 subjects were approached and 482 (96.4%) completed evaluation. RESULTS: When the alcohol use disorders identification test was used to detect subjects with alcohol problems the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.95. The cut off score of 5 was associated with a sensitivity of 0.84, a specificity of 0.90, and a positive predictive value of 0.60. The screening ability of the total score derived from summing the responses to the five items minimising the probability of misclassification between subjects with and without alcohol problems provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.93. A score of 5 or more on the five items was associated with a sensitivity of 0.79, a specificity of 0.95, and a positive predictive value of 0.73. CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol use disorders identification test performs well in detecting subjects with formal alcohol disorders and those with hazardous alcohol intake. Using five of the 10 items on the questionnaire gives reasonable accuracy, and these are recommended as questions of choice to screen patients for alcohol problems. PMID:9040389

  13. The Brief Alcoholism Rating Scale: A New Test for Diagnosing

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, K. R.; Smith, Selwyn M.; Bulmer, D. A.; Raman, S.

    1982-01-01

    A new scale, comprising 100 criteria based on medical history, physical examination and routine laboratory data, independent of a drinking history, can help physicians in the detection, diagnosis and early treatment of alcoholism. The scale also permits objective classification of alcoholism into mild, moderate and severe categories and overcomes the patient's denial—a major obstacle to early diagnosis. Results suggest that the instrument is accurate: 94% of patients were classified correctly by the scale. Further validation studies in clinical practice are necessary. PMID:21286108

  14. 75 FR 8528 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Department published a Federal Register notice [71 FR 49383] to update the MIS form and its accompanying... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is making technical amendments to its drug and alcohol testing procedures...

  15. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must service agents comply with DOT drug and... Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  16. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  17. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  18. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  19. 10 CFR 26.65 - Pre-access drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. 26.65 Section 26.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.65 Pre-access drug and alcohol testing. (a) Purpose. This section contains pre-access...

  20. [Alcohol and alcoholism: attitudes of nursing students].

    PubMed

    Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli

    2013-01-01

    This is a descriptive exploratory study that aimed to verify nursing students' attitudes facing to the alcoholic drinks, alcoholism and alcoholics, according to their position in face of an attitudes scale items. For data collection, it was used the Scale of Attitudes to alcohol, alcoholism and alcoholic, applied to 144 nursing students. The results showed a tendency to negative attitudes of these students in face of alcoholism, alcoholic person and alcoholic drinks, since most participants were placed in category indifferent or disagree with the positive items, agreeing with negative scale items. We conclude that this trend of negative attitudes is connected to insufficient attention given to the subject during the nurses' education, being verified the need for greater importance to be given to this problem.

  1. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  2. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... steps in any alcohol screening test? As the BAT or STT you will take the following steps to begin all..., including showing the employee the instructions on the back of the ATF. (f) Complete Step 1 of the ATF....

  3. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  4. Behind the Label "Alcoholic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Deborah M.

    1989-01-01

    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  5. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  6. AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudrai, R.; Jayakar, J.; Raju, B.; Pattamuthu, R.

    1991-01-01

    SUMMARY The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of alcoholism in Madras City. A locality in North Madras was chosen and the houses were selected at random. The family members in these houses were assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening test. 222 persons were thus studied. 16.67 of the males were found to be suffering from alcoholism. PMID:21927497

  7. Clinical pathology of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, V

    1983-01-01

    There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563

  8. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  9. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  10. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...

  11. An overview of alcohol testing and interpretation in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Anna T; Mozayani, Ashraf

    2012-02-01

    Ethanol analysis is the most commonly carried out drug testing in a forensic toxicology laboratory. Determination of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is needed in a multitude of situations, including in postmortem analysis, driving under the influence (DUI) and drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) cases, workplace drug monitoring, and probation investigations. These analyses are carried out by direct measurement of ethanol concentrations as well as of metabolic by-products, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). This review article will discuss pharmacokinetics, including absorption, distribution, and elimination of ethanol, methods for the detection of ethanol, the effect of ethanol on human performance, the role of alcohol in injuries and fatalities, and information regarding the interactions that may occur between alcohol and other drugs. Finally, an explanation will be given on how to interpret alcohol levels as well as the extrapolation and calculation of blood alcohol levels at times prior to sample collection. PMID:22215644

  12. Differentiation between Acting-Out and Non-Acting-Out Alcoholics with the Rorschach and Hand Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haramis, Samuel L.; Wagner, Edwin E.

    1980-01-01

    Hand Test and Rorschach variables significantly differentiated two subgroups of aggressive and nonaggressive alcoholics. The aggressive group was characterized as hostile and impulsive. The predictor variables that emerged have practical value for recognizing the potential acting-out alcoholic. (Author)

  13. Test-Retest Reliability and Validity of Life-Course Alcohol Consumption Measures: The 2005 National Alcohol Survey Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies assess reliability and validity of lifetime alcohol measures. We undertook extended test-retest analyses of retrospective lifetime drinking measures and of incremental predictive ability of lifetime heavy drinking (days 5+ drinks) in teens, 20s and 30s for current (12-month) alcohol use disorders. Methods A subset (31.4%; 962 men, 1220 women) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey (NAS; N11) completed a follow-up survey (N11T) by phone or mail (mean delay of 2.7 years). Both surveys assessed lifetime drinking. Results In N11T, drinking status was reported consistently by 94.7% of N11 current drinkers, 85.5% of ex-drinkers and 74.4% of lifetime abstainers (93.5% overall). Cumulative number of prior heavy drinking days (teens through 30s) were moderately consistent (Pearson's ρ=0.6, p<0.001, n=1,636). Reliability was lower for younger respondents under 30 and higher for Whites versus Blacks and Hispanics (ρ=0.68 vs. ρ=0.56 vs. ρ=0.56, both p=0.01), but did not differ by gender. Heavy drinking days in teens correlated 0.63 (p < 0.001) for those aged 20 or older, higher for women than men and for Whites versus ethnic minorities. Heavy drinking days in the twenties and thirties reported by those 30 and older and 40 and older correlated at 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, being higher for Whites. Age of drinking onset and of lifetime maximum quantity reports were also consistent (0.65, 0.73), higher for women versus men, for those older than 29 versus younger, and for Whites versus Blacks and Hispanics. In N11, controlling for gender, age, ethnicity and current 5+ frequency, cumulative prior 5+ days (teens to age 39) predicted current alcohol-related consequences and dependence (both p=0.003). Conclusions Measurements of earlier heavy drinking is feasible, efficient, and reasonably reliable, albeit with some individual imprecision. Prior drinking data improve prediction of current alcohol use disorders, adjusting for demographics and current

  14. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  15. Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Surah, S; Kieran, J; O'Dea, S; Shiel, C; Raffee, S; Mulcahy, F; Keenan, E; Lyons, F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate alcohol misuse among an inner city adult HIV clinic population with AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A cross-sectional HIV outpatient clinic analysis between 28 February 2011 and 11 March 2011 was carried out. AUDIT, demographic and clinical data were collected. Univariate analysis was performed to look for the associations between variables. Backward stepwise multivariate analyses were performed on significant variables from the univariate analysis to assess for predictors of alcohol dependence. In total, 111 patients were included (60% uptake of clinic attendees); 66% were men and 26% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected. The median AUDIT score was 5 (within normal range). Thirty-four 'AUDIT positive' cases were identified: five (4.5%) indicated consumption of hazardous levels of alcohol; 21 (19%) indicated harmful levels of alcohol; and eight (7%) were likely alcohol dependent. Younger age (<40 years old) was significantly associated with AUDIT positivity (P = 0.006). On multivariate analysis younger age (P = 0.045, odds ratio 13.8) and lower level of education (P = 0.006, odds ratio 6.7) were predictive of scores indicative of alcohol dependence (AUDIT ≥20). In conclusion, younger age and lower educational levels were associated with scores consistent with alcohol dependence. AUDIT was well tolerated and easy to administer in this outpatient HIV clinic population.

  16. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  17. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  18. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  19. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  20. 49 CFR 385.605 - New entrant registration driver's license and drug and alcohol testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL... carrier must subject each of the drivers described in paragraph (a) of this section to drug and alcohol testing as prescribed under part 382 of this subchapter....

  1. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  2. Alcohol and bone.

    PubMed

    Mikosch, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse. PMID:24477631

  3. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  4. I Drink Therefore I am: Validating Alcohol-related Implicit Association Tests

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Westgate, Erin; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    There is an imperative to predict hazardous drinking among college students. Implicit measures have been useful in predicting unique variance in drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, they have been developed to test different theories of drinking and have rarely been directly compared to one another. Thus, their comparative utility is unclear. The current study examined five alcohol-related variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a sample of 300 undergraduates and sought to establish their predictive validity. Results indicated that the Drinking Identity IAT, which measured associations of “drinker” with “me,” was the most consistent predictor of alcohol consumption, problems, and alcohol cravings. It also had the highest internal consistency and test–retest reliability scores. The results for the Alcohol Excitement and Alcohol Approach IATs were also promising but their psychometric properties were less consistent. Although the two IATs were positively correlated with all of the drinking outcome variables, they did not consistently predict unique variance in those variables after controlling for explicit measures. They also had relatively lower internal consistencies and test–retest reliabilities. Ultimately, results suggested that implicit drinking identity may be a useful tool for predicting alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings and a potential target for prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:22428863

  5. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  6. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    PubMed

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory.

  7. An applied test of the social learning theory of deviance to college alcohol use.

    PubMed

    DeMartino, Cynthia H; Rice, Ronald E; Saltz, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Several hypotheses about influences on college drinking derived from the social learning theory of deviance were tested and confirmed. The effect of ethnicity on alcohol use was completely mediated by differential association and differential reinforcement, whereas the effect of biological sex on alcohol use was partially mediated. Higher net positive reinforcements to costs for alcohol use predicted increased general use, more underage use, and more frequent binge drinking. Two unexpected finding were the negative relationship between negative expectations and negative experiences, and the substantive difference between nondrinkers and general drinkers compared with illegal or binge drinkers. The discussion considers implications for future campaigns based on Akers's deterrence theory. PMID:25630048

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  9. Drunken driving and breath alcohol test at the scene of violence in Japan.

    PubMed

    Marumo, Y; Kishi, T; Seta, S

    1992-04-01

    Road Traffic Law prescribes that no person shall drive any vehicle under the influence of intoxicating liquor. Actually, determination of "influence of alcohol" is based on the standard set by the Cabinet Order that alcohol level exceeds 0.5 mg/ml of blood or 0.25 mg/l of expiration. In 1988, number of traffic accidents by drunken driving is 4,808 cases. Among the accidents by drunken driving the rate of fatal causes is 12%. During about last ten years, both of accidents and fatal cases by drunken driving have been decreasing in number, on the other hand, charged or cited number of violation involved "driving under the influence of alcohol" has been increasing. This fact indicates that the concept of seriousness of driving after heavy drinking has been diffused over Japanese nation, but there is still a tendency among drivers to consider the effect of alcohol on driving operation to be negligible when light drinking. In a sobriety checkpoint, alcohol field test are carried out on breath to screen out impaired driver. The most common device used in Japan is an alcohol detector tube, in which cerite particles coated with chromate are packed. The scale on the detector tube is marked to show a value that is lower by 20% than the actual value concerning its inaccuracy. In our study on accuracy of the alcohol detector tube using samples containing approximately 0.25 mg/l of alcohol, which is legal critical level of alcohol impairment, coefficients of variation were 1.50 to 5.45% and deviations from the analytical results by gas chromatography were 18.2 to 19.5%.

  10. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  11. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies.

  12. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  13. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  14. Commentary: Doxasozin for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A

    2013-02-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that α(1) -blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on α(1) -blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O'Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another α(1) -blocker, doxazosin, which has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O'Neil and colleagues' main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O'Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis.

  15. Alcohol Use and Abuse among Rural Zimbabwean Adults: A Test of a Community-Level Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cubbins, Lisa A.; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Montano, Daniel; Jordan, Lucy P.; Woelk, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding what factors contribute to alcohol abuse in resource-poor countries is important given its adverse health consequences. Past research shows that social peers influence substance abuse, suggesting that the social environment may be an effective target for reducing alcohol abuse across a population. This study investigates the determinants of alcohol use and abuse in rural Zimbabwe and tests a Community Popular Opinion Leader (CPOL) community-based intervention partly directed at reducing alcohol abuse. Methods Tests were conducted on the impact of the CPOL intervention on alcohol use patterns across communities in rural Zimbabwe over three waves from 2003 to 2007, including community- and individual-level tests using data based on in-person interviews of adult men and women (ages 18 to 30; N = 5,543). Data were analyzed using paired-sample t-tests, as well as logistic and ordinary least-squares regression with random effects. Results Higher drinking (any use, more frequent use, greater quantity, and/or frequent drunkenness) was generally associated with being male, older, not married, more highly educated, of Shona ethnicity, away from home frequently, employed, having no religious affiliation, or living in areas with a higher crude death rate or lower population density. Over the study period, significant declines in alcohol use and abuse were found in intervention and control sites at relatively equal levels. Conclusions Although no support was found for the effectiveness of the CPOL study in reducing alcohol abuse, Zimbabwe is similar to other countries in the impact of socio-demographic and cultural factors on alcohol use and abuse. PMID:22386686

  16. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  19. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  20. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  1. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  2. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  3. 49 CFR 199.215 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 199.215 Section 199.215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.215 Alcohol concentration. Each operator shall prohibit a covered employee...

  4. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  5. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  6. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  7. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  8. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  9. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  10. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  11. [Neurologic sequelae of alcohol].

    PubMed

    Ladurner, G; Griebnitz, E

    1986-10-10

    The consequences of alcoholism on the peripheral and central nervous system are discussed. Polyneuropathy is present in 30% of the alcoholics, whilst cranial nerve involvement is found in 5-25%. Alcoholic myopathy is only very rarely seen. Wernicke's encephalopathy is found at post mortem investigation in 1.8% of alcoholics, but is rarely clinically diagnosed. The Marchiafava-Bignamy syndrome and central pontine myelinolysis are rarely seen; alcoholic amblyopia which is seen in 0.5% of the hospitalised alcoholics is more frequent, but still a rare finding. Cerebral seizures are common in chronic alcoholics with an incidence varying from 5 to 37% according to the type of drinking habit and have, thus, to be categorised. Brain atrophy is a common finding and correlates with the duration and extent of the alcoholism. PMID:3788182

  12. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  13. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  14. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... TODAY: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 , Masur t. ... lecture: “Neurodevelopment and Alcohol: From Cell Adhesion to Cell Phones" Dr. Michael Charness, 11/3 @3 pm, Masur ...

  15. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  16. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  17. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  18. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  19. 49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath... Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No.... Only saliva or breath for screening tests and breath for confirmation tests using approved devices...

  20. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  1. PRAZOSIN REDUCES ALCOHOL INTAKE IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF ALCOHOL RELAPSE

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett; Fischer, Stephen; Wise, Bradley; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many alcoholics and heavy drinkers undergo repeated cycles of alcohol abstinence followed by relapse to alcohol drinking; a pattern that contributes to escalated alcohol intake over time. In rodents, alcohol drinking that is interspersed with periods of alcohol deprivation (imposed abstinence) increases alcohol intake during reaccess to alcohol. This is termed the “alcohol deprivation effect” or “ADE” and is a model of alcohol relapse in humans. We have previously reported that prazosin reduces alcohol drinking during both brief and prolonged treatment in rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (“P” rats). This study explores whether prazosin prevents alcohol “relapse” in P rats, as reflected by a reduced or abolished ADE. METHODS Adult male P rats were given 24-hour access to food and water and scheduled access to alcohol (15% and 30% v/v solutions presented concurrently) for 2 hrs/day. After 5 weeks rats underwent imposed alcohol deprivation for 2 weeks, followed by alcohol reaccess for 2 weeks, and this pattern was repeated for a total of 3 cycles. Rats were injected with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg BW, IP) once a day for the first 5 days of each alcohol reaccess cycle. RESULTS Alcohol intake increased on the first day of each alcohol reaccess cycle, demonstrating the formation of an ADE. The ADE was short-lived, lasting only 1 day, during each of the three cycles. Prazosin, in all doses tested, prevented the expression of an ADE in all three alcohol reaccess cycles. CONCLUSIONS Prazosin decreases alcohol intake in P rats even in a situation that would be expected to increase alcohol drinking, namely following periods of alcohol deprivation. This suggests that prazosin may be effective in reducing alcohol relapse that often occurs during attempts to achieve permanent alcohol abstinence in treatment-seeking alcoholics and heavy drinkers. PMID:26207767

  2. The Alcoholism Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The alcoholism questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the drug-abuse questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about alcoholics and alcoholism, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  3. Youths' Perceptions of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorch, Barbara (Day); Hughes, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Only a third of students in this study accepted the medical model of alcoholism. Those who had the least knowledge of, and experience with, alcohol were the most likely to consider alcoholism as an illness. The source of information on drugs most conducive to acceptance of the medical model was parents. (Author/ABB)

  4. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  5. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  6. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  7. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  8. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  9. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  10. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  11. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  12. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-03-02

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population.

  13. Validity and Reliability of the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in University Students.

    PubMed

    Tiburcio Sainz, Marcela; Rosete-Mohedano, Ma Guadalupe; Natera Rey, Guillermina; Martínez Vélez, Nora Angélica; Carreño García, Silvia; Pérez Cisneros, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), has been used successfully in many countries, but there are few studies of its validity and reliability for the Mexican population. The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the self-administered ASSIST test in university students in Mexico. This was an ex post facto non-experimental study with 1,176 undergraduate students, the majority women (70.1%) aged 18-23 years (89.5%) and single (87.5%). To estimate concurrent validity, factor analysis and tests of reliability and correlation were carried out between the subscale for alcohol and AUDIT, those for tobacco and the Fagerström Test, and those for marijuana and DAST-20. Adequate reliability coefficients were obtained for ASSIST subscales for tobacco (alpha = 0.83), alcohol (alpha = 0.76), and marijuana (alpha = 0.73). Significant correlations were found only with the AUDIT (r = 0.71) and the alcohol subscale. The best balance of sensitivity and specificity of the alcohol subscale (83.8% and 80%, respectively) and the largest area under the ROC curve (81.9%) was found with a cutoff score of 8. The self-administered version of ASSIST is a valid screening instrument to identify at-risk cases due to substance use in this population. PMID:26990386

  14. 49 CFR 40.221 - Where does an alcohol test take place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... alcohol testing site, you must ensure that it provides visual and aural privacy to the employee being tested, sufficient to prevent unauthorized persons from seeing or hearing test results. (d) If you are... privacy requirements of paragraph (c) is not readily available, this part allows a reasonable suspicion...

  15. Alcohol and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dufour, M C; Archer, L; Gordis, E

    1992-02-01

    Moderate drinking for the elderly of both genders is no more than one drink per day, where a drink is defined as 12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, or 1.5 oz of spirits. Age does not affect the rate of absorption or elimination of alcohol. Lean body mass decreases and adipose tissue increases with age, however, resulting in a corresponding decrease in the volume of total body water. With a smaller volume of distribution, an alcohol dose identical to that administered to a younger individual of the same size and gender will produce a higher blood alcohol concentration in the elderly. Low-dose alcohol stimulates appetite and promoters regular bowel function. In the well-nourished nonalcoholic elderly, the negative impact of alcohol consumption on nutrition is minimal. Alcohol consumption improves mood by increasing feelings of happiness and freedom from care while lessening inhibitions, stress, tension, and depression. Although in the laboratory low-dose alcohol improves certain types of cognitive function in young men, in other types of task performance, alcohol induces impairment, which worsens with age. The effects of alcohol on sleep are primarily detrimental, worsening both insomnia and breathing disturbances during sleep. Although the role of alcohol consumption in mortality from heart disease has not been investigated in the elderly, moderate drinking appears safe. Under some circumstances low-dose alcohol may produce analgesia whereas in others it may worsen pain. The elderly use a significant proportion of both prescription and over-the-counter medication, a large variety of which interact with alcohol. Alcoholic beverage consumption may exacerbate cognitive impairment and dementias of other etiology. Although some studies suggest that moderate use of alcohol by institutionalized senior citizens appears to produce benefits including improved socialization, separation of the effects of the social situation from those specifically attributable to alcohol remains to

  16. Testing demographic differences for alcohol use initiation among adolescents for the decisional balance and situational temptation prevention inventories.

    PubMed

    Sillice, Marie A; Paiva, Andrea L; Babbin, Steven F; McGee, Heather A; Rossi, Joseph S; Redding, Colleen A; Meier, Kathryn S; Oatley, Karin; Velicer, Wayne F

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol use by middle school-aged students is a public health concern because of the numerous adverse social, health and psychological outcomes. Prevention programs attempt to intervene before alcohol use begins. A tailored, computer-delivered program for the prevention of alcohol use and a series of new transtheoretical model measures were developed, including decisional balance (Pros and Cons) of alcohol use and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. This study investigated if there were any demographic differences on these measures in a sample of 6th grade middle school students from 20 schools (N=4151) at baseline. Three factorial analysis of variance tests were conducted to explore the impact of race (whites vs. non-whites), ethnicity (Hispanics vs. Non-Hispanics) and gender (males vs. females). A significant two-way interaction effect was found between gender and ethnicity for Pros of Alcohol Use. A significant three-way interaction effect was found between gender, race and ethnicity for Cons of Alcohol Use. Main effects were found for the three demographic factors for Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol. However, the effect sizes for the interaction effects and main effects were very small (all below η(2)=.01), suggesting that race/ethnicity and gender alone may not be highly influential factors in the Decisional Balance for the Prevention of Alcohol and Situational Temptations to Try Alcohol in adolescence. The implications for these results and alcohol use prevention among this group are discussed.

  17. Unplanned Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems: A Preliminary Test of the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Matthew R.; Henson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Much research links impulsivity with alcohol use and problems. In two studies, unplanned (or impulsive) drinking is assessed directly to determine whether it has direct effects on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In study 1, we examined whether unplanned drinking serves as a proximal mediator of the effects of impulsivity-like traits on alcohol-related outcomes. With a sample of 211 college student drinkers, we found that the Unplanned Drinking Scale was significantly related to alcohol use, and perhaps more importantly, had a direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for frequency and quantity of alcohol use. Further, unplanned drinking partially mediated the effects of negative urgency on alcohol-related problems. In study 2, we examined whether unplanned drinking accounts for unique variance in alcohol-related outcomes when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. With a sample of 170 college students, we replicated the findings of Study 1 in that the Unplanned Drinking Scale had a significant direct effect on alcohol-related problems even after controlling for alcohol use; further, this effect was maintained when controlling for use of protective behavioral strategies. Limitations include the modest sample sizes and the cross-sectional design. Future directions for testing the Model of Unplanned Drinking Behavior are proposed. PMID:23276312

  18. [Concentration of endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation].

    PubMed

    Burov, Iu V; Treskov, V G; Kampov-Polevoĭ, A B; Kovalenko, A E; Rodionov, A P

    1983-11-01

    Trials with patients suffering from stage II chronic alcoholism and normal test subjects as well as experiments made on male C57BL mice (with genetically determined alcoholic motivation) and CBA mice (with genetically determined alcoholic aversion) and random-bred male rats with different levels of initial alcoholic motivation have shown the presence of reverse proportional dependence between blood plasma endogenous ethanol and alcoholic motivation.

  19. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches.

  20. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  1. Alcohol and the Intestine.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R; Forsyth, Christopher B; Voigt, Robin M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  2. Genetics and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  3. A Comprehensive Longitudinal Test of the Acquired Preparedness Model for Alcohol Use and Related Problems*

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, William R.; Iwamoto, Derek K.; Fromme, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective: According to the acquired preparedness model (APM), personality traits related to disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking) may influence the learning process, contributing to individual differences in cognitions (e.g., expectations about outcomes) that may contribute to engagement in and consequences of risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Although there is strong support for the APM, longitudinal studies have involved short-term follow-ups, and the relevance of the APM for alcohol-related consequences has not been clearly established. Method: Participants were 2,245 (59.9% female) incoming freshmen who completed the first of eight web-based surveys during the summer before college matriculation. Structural equation modeling was used to test a comprehensive longitudinal APM for both alcohol use and related consequences. Multigroup models were used to examine measurement and structural invariance by gender. Results: Positive (but not negative) alcohol expectancies during freshman year of college partially mediated the relation between senior year of high school disinhibition and both alcohol use and related problems during the fourth year of college, and multigroup models suggested that the relationships proposed in the APM operated similarly for women and men. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the temporal relations proposed in the APM across a longer period (4 years) than in previous studies among a large sample of ethnically diverse students. Further, the results are the first to validate the APM with respect to drinking consequences while controlling for levels of alcohol use. The results lend support for brief interventions targeting positive alcohol expectancies, particularly for individuals high in trait disinhibition. PMID:21683042

  4. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  5. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  6. 10 CFR 26.97 - Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of oral fluids. 26.97 Section 26.97 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.97 Conducting an initial test for alcohol using a specimen of...

  7. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  8. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01). PMID:18173101

  9. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  10. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  11. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.

    PubMed

    Oei, T P; Burrow, T

    2000-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.

  12. [Alcohol and crime].

    PubMed

    Lévay, Boglárka

    2006-01-01

    The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.

  13. Breath alcohol test precision: an in vivo vs. in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gullberg, R G

    1989-12-01

    Random error is associated with breath alcohol measurements, as with all analytical methods. The total random uncertainty of a group of n measurements is typically determined by computing the standard deviation and requiring it to be less than some appropriate level (i.e., +/- 0.0042 g/210 l). The total random uncertainty has two primary sources; the instrumental method and the sample source. These are typically inseparable values. In breath alcohol testing the two primary sample sources are simulators and human breath. The present study evaluates ten groups of simulator samples consisting of ten measurements each on BAC Verifier Datamaster instruments. The data also includes ten breath alcohol measurements from each of 21 individuals following alcohol consumption. The range of standard deviations for the simulator samples was 0.0003-0.0022 g/210 l. The range of standard deviations for the human breath samples was 0.0015-0.0089 g/210 l. Two statistics that test for homogeneity for variances were applied. The simulator samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.5000 and an Fmax test of 48.9. The human breath samples resulted in a Cochran's C test of 0.1519 and an Fmax test of 27.3. All were significant at P less than 0.001. The statistical tests demonstrated that the intragroup variability among the human subjects was comparable to the intragroup variability among the simulator samples. The data also demonstrates that the sample source (simulator or human) is probably the largest contributor to total random uncertainty. Therefore, when duplicate breath alcohol testing from individuals shows variability in the second decimal place the cause is differences in breath samples provided and not instrumental imprecision.

  14. Health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens

    PubMed Central

    Chisolm, Deena J.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Kelleher, Kelly J.; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Alcohol expectancies are developed, in part, through exposure to health messages, the understanding of which may be influenced by health literacy. This study explores the relationships among health literacy, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use behaviors in teens. Methods We studied alcohol use behaviors in the past six months in youths aged 14–19 recruited from two adolescent medicine clinics. We assessed covariate-adjusted bivariate relationships between HL, expectancies, and four measures of alcohol use and tested health literacy as a moderator of the relationship between expectancies and use. Results Of the 293 study teens, 45 percent reported use of alcohol in the past six months. Use behaviors were positively associated with higher health literacy and positive expectancies. Our moderation model suggested that health literacy moderates the relationship between expectancies and use, with the expectancy/use relationship being significantly stronger in higher literacy teens. Conclusion Findings suggest that health literacy can influence alcohol expectancies and behaviors. Practice implications: Health literacy should be explicitly considered in the design of alcohol prevention messages. PMID:25085549

  15. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  16. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  17. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites? 40.223 Section 40.223 Transportation Office of the Secretary of..., Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.223 What steps must be taken to protect the security...

  18. 49 CFR 40.223 - What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What steps must be taken to protect the security of alcohol testing sites? 40.223 Section 40.223 Transportation Office of the Secretary of..., Equipment and Supplies Used in Alcohol Testing § 40.223 What steps must be taken to protect the security...

  19. 49 CFR 40.15 - May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT... Responsibilities § 40.15 May an employer use a service agent to meet DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements? (a... DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations, consistent with the requirements of Subpart Q...

  20. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  4. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  5. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  6. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  7. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 40 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... May Transmit to Employers F Appendix F to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Pt. 40, App. F Appendix F to Part 40—Drug and Alcohol Testing Information that C/TPAs May Transmit to Employers 1. If...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the Secretary..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS)...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 40 - DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., App. H Appendix H to Part 40—DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT Drug and Alcohol Testing Management Information System (MIS) Data Collection Form H Appendix H to Part 40 Transportation Office of the...

  13. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  14. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  15. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  16. 49 CFR 219.611 - Test result indicating prohibited alcohol concentration; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... concentration; procedures. 219.611 Section 219.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... concentration; procedures. Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event an employee's confirmation test indicates an alcohol concentration of .04 or greater are set forth in § 219.104....

  17. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  18. 76 FR 18072 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs CFR Correction In Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1 to 99, revised as...

  19. 75 FR 8524 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... for illegal drugs. As we discussed in the preamble to this IFR (73 FR 33735, June 13, 2008), the... which was published at 73 FR 33735 on June 13, 2008 is adopted as a final rule without change. BILLING... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule; response to comments...

  20. 75 FR 8526 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... 9, 2001 [65 FR 41944], part 40 was amended to read, ``You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL... Interim Final Rule amending 49 CFR part 40 which was published at 72 FR 1298 on January 11, ] 2007 is... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This...

  1. 75 FR 13009 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN OST 2105-AD84 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs Correction In rule document 2010-3731 beginning on page 8528 in the issue...

  2. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  3. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Maintenance Inspector, that you will comply with this part and 49 CFR part 40. (3) You are required to obtain... employees. (vi) A signed statement indicating that: Your company will comply with this part and 49 CFR part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing...

  4. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing program. 120.225 Section 120.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  5. 14 CFR 120.225 - How to implement an alcohol testing program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false How to implement an alcohol testing program. 120.225 Section 120.225 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Medicine, Drug Abatement Division (AAM-800), 800 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20591. (4) A...

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  7. Performance of American Indian Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on the Test of Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Laura J.; Chermak, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven American Indian children (ages 4-12), 10 with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and 17 normally developing control subjects, were administered the Test of Language Development. FAS children exhibited depressed performance on most subtests. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits whereas the younger FAS subjects presented more…

  8. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  9. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  10. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  11. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  12. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  13. [Alcohol and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Maillot, F; Farad, S; Lamisse, F

    2001-11-01

    Alcoholism and alcohol-associated organ injury is one of the major health problems worldwide. Alcohol may lead to an alteration in intermediary metabolism and the relation between alcohol intake and body weight is a paradox. The effect of alcohol intake on resting metabolic rate, assessed by indirect calorimetry, and lipid oxidation, is still controversial. Small quantities of ethanol seem to have no effect on body weight. Ingestion of moderate amounts may lead to an increase in body weight, via a lipid-oxidizing suppressive effect. Chronic intake of excessive amounts in alcoholics leads to a decrease in body weight, probably via increased lipid oxidation and energy expenditure. Chronic ethanol abuse alters lipid-soluble (vitamins A, D and E) and water-soluble (B-complex vitamins, vitamin C) vitamins status, and some trace elements status such as magnesium, selenium or zinc.

  14. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Torok, Natalie J

    2015-11-02

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.

  15. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  16. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  17. Pilot test of twelve-step linkage for alcohol abusing women in leaving jail

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E.; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Background More than a million U.S. women are detained in jails each year; many have alcohol use disorders (AUD). AUD intervention with pretrial jail detainees presents a logistical challenge due to limited jail stays and lack of resources for post release treatment. The availability, no-cost entry, and promise of anonymity of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) make it a highly accessible resource for underserved populations. However, the outreach of AA volunteers into jails (as opposed to prisons) has been limited, and incarcerated women are unlikely to seek out strangers for help after release. This study pilot tested an enhanced referral approach introducing a twelve-step volunteer to a woman in jail who would attend a meeting with her after release. Methods Participants were 14 unsentenced female pretrial jail detainees with AUD. Intervention consisted of introducing participants detained in jail to female AA volunteers who could accompany them to an AA meeting after release. Assessments took place at baseline and one month after release. This uncontrolled pilot study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of this enhanced referral approach. We also report pre-post alcohol use, drug use, alcohol problems, and AA attendance. Results Enhanced referral was feasible and acceptable. Many (57%) of the 14 participants who met with AA volunteers in jail were in contact with those volunteers after release from jail. Participants had significantly fewer drinking days, heavy drinking days, alcohol problems, and drug-using days during the post-release follow-up than they did before jail detention. Conclusions Providing linkage between women in jail and female AA volunteers who can accompany them to post-release a meeting is achievable, and may be a disseminable and low-cost method to improve alcohol outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:24588287

  18. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  19. [The concept of alcohol craving].

    PubMed

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Olajossy, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional - motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive - behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR) and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ).

  20. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  2. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  3. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  4. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm.

  5. [Alcohol and criminal behavior].

    PubMed

    Arzt, G

    1990-05-01

    The topic 'alcohol and crime' has several aspects. This article shows how drug administration is based on a complex network of legal provisions and is enforced by criminal law sanctions. As to crimes influenced by alcohol, drunken driving is by far the most important and best researched field. Next, the article turns to the role of alcohol with regard to severe common crimes such as murder or child abuse. Finally, the issue of drunkenness as a defence is raised and the treatment of alcoholics as a criminal law sanction discussed.

  6. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  7. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  8. Microwave alcohol fuel sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, K.; Endo, A.; Morozumi, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-06-05

    A microwave alcohol fuel sensor comprises a microwave oscillator, a microwave receiver, and a microwave transmission circuit connected to the oscillator and the receiver. The microwave transmission circuit comprises a dielectric substrate and, a strip line mounted on the substrate so that microwaves leak from the substrate to an alcohol gasoline fuel, and the microwaves attenuate by alcohol dielectric loss, whereby output voltage from the receiver corresponds to alcohol content rate. The dielectric substrate is formed tubular so that a constant amount of the fuel is fed the sensor.

  9. Alcohol and drug testing of health professionals following preventable adverse events: a bad idea.

    PubMed

    Banja, John

    2014-01-01

    Various kinds of alcohol and drug testing, such as preemployment, routine, and for-cause testing, are commonly performed by employers. While healthcare organizations usually require preemployment drug testing, they vary on whether personnel will be subjected to further testing. Recently, a call has gone out for postincident testing among physicians who are involved in serious, preventable events, especially ones leading to a patient's death. This article will offer a number of counterarguments to that proposal and discuss an alternate approach: that health institutions can better improve patient safety and employees' well-being by implementing an organizational policy of "speaking up" when system operators notice work behaviors or environmental factors that threaten harm or peril. The article will conclude with a description of various strategies that facilitate speaking up, and why the practice constitutes a superior alternative to mandatory alcohol and drug testing in the wake of serious, harm-causing medical error. PMID:25369412

  10. Curing of Furfuryl Alcohol-Impregnated Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, J. W.; Brayden, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    Delamination problem in reinforced carbon/carbon parts impregnated with oxalic acid-catalyzed furfuryl alcohol overcome by instituting two additional quality-control tests on alcohol and by changing curing conditions.

  11. [Validity evidence of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in Chile].

    PubMed

    Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo; Portilla Huidobro, Rodrigo; Huepe Artigas, David; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Escobar, María Josefina; Salas Guzmán, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Ibáñez, Agustín; Martínez Guzmán, Claudio; Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to psychometrically validate the Chilean version of the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test ASSIST. Specifically, this study is interested in evaluating the reliability, consistency and concurrent and discriminant validity of this instrument. The sample was composed for a total of 400 people from four different settings: treatment centers (residential and ambulatories), primary health care, police stations and companies. The reliability of the ASSIST was high (α = .86 for Alcohol, α = .84 for marijuana and α = .90 for cocaine). The intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) with test-retest comparison was statistically significant for Alcohol (ICC = .66), marijuana (ICC = .74) and cocaine (ICC = .80). There were statistically significant correlations between the ASSIST and the AUDIT score (Pearson’s r = .85), the ASSIST and the ASI-Lite score (r between .66 and .83 for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine), and the ASSIST and the SDS score (r = .65). The original cutoff point for high risk detection was 27 points, however, in order to have a better balance between sensitivity and specificity the cut was changed to 21 points. The ASSIST presents good psychometric properties and therefore is a reliable and valid instrument to be used as a mechanism to detect risk levels of substance use in the Chilean population.

  12. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  13. Executive Function Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Measured Using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. R.; Mihic, A. M.; Nikkel, S. M.; Stade, B. C.; Rasmussen, C.; Munoz, D. P.; Reynolds, J. N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic prenatal alcohol exposure causes a spectrum of deleterious effects in offspring, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and deficits in executive function are prevalent in FASD. The goal of this research was to test the hypothesis that children with FASD exhibit performance deficits in tasks that assess…

  14. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  15. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  16. Circulating Cytokines as Biomarkers of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Achur, Rajeshwara N.; Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    There are currently no consistent objective biochemical markers of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Development of reliable diagnostic biomarkers that permit accurate assessment of alcohol intake and patterns of drinking is of prime importance to treatment and research fields. Diagnostic biomarker development in other diseases has demonstrated the utility of both open, systems biology, screening for biomarkers and more rational focused efforts on specific biomolecules or families of biomolecules. Long term alcohol consumption leads to altered inflammatory cell and adaptive immune responses with associated pathologies and increased incidence of infections. This has led researchers to focus attention on identifying cytokine biomarkers in models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol is known to alter cytokine levels in plasma and a variety of tissues including lung, liver, and very importantly brain. A number of cytokine biomarker candidates have been identified, including: TNF alpha, IL1-alpha, IL1-beta, IL6, IL8, IL12 and MCP-1. This is an emerging and potentially exciting avenue of research in that circulating cytokines may contribute to diagnostic biomarker panels and a combination of multiple biomarkers may significantly increase the sensitivity and specificity of the biochemical tests aiding reliable and accurate detection of excessive alcohol intake. PMID:20020329

  17. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  18. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.

  19. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  20. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  1. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  3. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  4. Alcohol and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Ruth; And Others

    Prepared in response to a request from members of the United Methodist Church, this guide can be used with high school students generally, if the theological orientation is recognized. The guide provides opportunities, in four lesson outlines, to share experiences concerning alcohol use, to present information regarding the effect of alcohol on…

  5. 14 CFR 61.16 - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 61.16 Section 61.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND...

  6. 14 CFR 63.12a - Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refusal to submit to an alcohol test or to furnish test results. 63.12a Section 63.12a Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS...

  7. Ethyl glucuronide in hair - A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-05-10

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared to only 2% (92 out of 4248 samples) in urine in the same time period. Additionally 50% of the samples positive for EtG in hair had EtG values greater than 30pg/mg hair, indicating chronic alcohol consumption in the last three months. This study shows that four EtG tests in 3cm hair lengths reveal a significantly higher percentage of drink driving offenders who fail to be sober in the rehabilitation period, than do six random EtG tests in urine. Presumably, the hair test is more adequate to monitor long term alcohol abstinence than the urine test as defined by the new driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) in Germany. PMID:22019393

  8. [Alcohol and working].

    PubMed

    Mangili, A

    2004-01-01

    Due to its negative impact on both health and productivity, alcohol misuse is a serious concern in the workplace. Some occupations (e.g. employees of the catering and hotel trade, seamen, sales representatives, brewers and distillers, journalists, physicians, lawyers) are associated with a high rate of alcohol abuse. Alcohol intake can modify worker's behaviour (impaired judgement and vigilance, dulled reflexes) causing reduced performance, mistakes during operating procedures, accidents and injuries. Moreover it can affect the toxicokinetic and toxicodinamic properties of several substances in the workplace, inducing a more complex evaluation of exposure assessment and diagnostic procedures of occupational diseases. The occupational physician, during health surveillance program, can face several alcohol related issues. These entail diagnostic evaluation of alcoholism, job fitness evaluation, in heavy drinkers, advise of rehabilitation and health promotion program.

  9. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  10. Alcohol and sex.

    PubMed

    Vijayasenan, M E

    1981-01-14

    Diminished sexual functioning among individuals dependent upon alcohol has been assessed. Ninety-seven male patients entered the study, all inpatients as the unit for treatment of alcoholism and drug addiction (Villa 6) in Porirua Hospital, Porirua. The sexual ability of these patients before the development of alcoholism was also rated for the same items and this rating was used as a control. Of the 97 patients, 69 (71 percent) suffered from sexual dysfunction for a period more than 12 months prior to admission to hospital. The disturbances noted were diminished sexual desire (58 percent of patients), erectile impotence (16 percent), premature ejaculation (4 percent), ejaculatory in competence (22 percent). A high proportion of the alcoholics showed signs of sexual deviation-19 percent having performed sexual crimes and a further 28 percent having repeated thought of sexual crimes. The possible causes of alcohol induced sexual dysfunction are discussed.

  11. Multiple retinoid dehydrogenases in testes cytosol from alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice.

    PubMed

    Posch, K C; Napoli, J L

    1992-05-28

    Retinoic acid syntheses from retinol by cytosol from testes of alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice were similar in specific activity and in their insensitivity to 1 M ethanol or 100 mM 4-methylpyrazole. Anion-exchange followed by size-exclusion chromatography revealed multiple and similarly migrating peaks in each cytosol that had both retinol and retinal dehydrogenase activities. Thus, the effects of ethanol on testes cannot be caused by direct inhibition of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis because retinoid dehydrogenases distinct from mouse class A2 alcohol dehydrogenases, which corresponds to human class I, occurred in testes and they were not inhibited by ethanol. These data also demonstrate the occurrence of multiple cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis activities and indicate that the two reactions of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis, retinol and retinal dehydrogenation, may be catalyzed by enzymes that occur as complexes. PMID:1599517

  12. A Test of the DSM-5 Severity Scale for Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fazzino, Tera L.; Rose, Gail L.; Burt, Keith B.; Helzer, John E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND For the DSM-5-defined alcohol use disorder (AUD) diagnosis, a tricategorized scale that designates mild, moderate, and severe AUD was selected over a fully dimensional scale to represent AUD severity. The purpose of this study was to test whether the DSM-5-defined AUD severity measure was as proficient a predictor of alcohol use following a brief intervention, compared to a fully dimensional scale. METHODS Heavy drinking primary care patients (N=246) received a physician-delivered brief intervention (BI), and then reported daily alcohol consumption for six months using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. The dimensional AUD measure we constructed was a summation of all AUD criteria met at baseline (mean = 6.5; SD = 2.5). A multi-model inference technique was used to determine whether the DSM-5 tri-categorized severity measure or a dimensional approach would provide a more precise prediction of change in weekly alcohol consumption following a BI. RESULTS The Akaike information criterion (AIC) for the dimensional AUD model (AIC=7623.88) was four points lower than the tri-categorized model (AIC=7627.88) and weight of evidence calculations indicated there was 88% likelihood the dimensional model was the better approximating model. The dimensional model significantly predicted change in alcohol consumption (p =.04) whereas the DSM-5 tri-categorized model did not. CONCLUSION A dimensional AUD measure was superior, detecting treatment effects that were not apparent with tri-categorized severity model as defined by the DSM-5. We recommend using a dimensional measure for determining AUD severity. PMID:24893979

  13. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  14. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  15. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  16. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  17. 49 CFR 382.201 - Alcohol concentration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol concentration. 382.201 Section 382.201... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Prohibitions § 382.201 Alcohol concentration. No driver shall report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of safety-sensitive functions while having an...

  18. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders.

  19. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  20. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  1. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  2. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  3. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  4. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  5. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  6. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  7. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  8. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  9. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  10. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  11. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  13. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  14. 49 CFR 40.25 - Must an employer check on the drug and alcohol testing record of employees it is intending to use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL... agency drug and alcohol testing regulations; and (5) With respect to any employee who violated a DOT...

  15. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue.

  16. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Determination. SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System... alcohol program data taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator.... DATES: This notice is effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen,...

  17. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    .... SUMMARY: Using data from Management Information System annual reports, FRA has determined that the 2009... taken from FRA's Management Information System. Based on this data, the Administrator publishes a... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program...

  18. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standards contained in 29 CFR 1904.7, and subsequent amendments thereto, and results in death, days away... CFR Part 40 and subsequent amendments thereto. (f) Testing of urine specimens for drugs and validity... test specimens for marijuana metabolite, cocaine metabolite, opiates (codeine, morphine,...

  19. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms.

  20. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  1. Alcoholic Relatives and Their Impact on Alcohol-Related Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.; And Others

    Although research on children of alcoholics indicates that they are at high risk for later problem drinking, the etiological dynamics associated with this heightened risk status are not yet understood. This study compared the alcohol-related beliefs of subjects who possessed close relatives with alcohol problems with alcohol-related beliefs of…

  2. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  3. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  4. [Genetic predisposition for alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Agarwal-Kozlowski, K; Agarwal, D P

    2000-04-01

    A number of socio-economic, cultural, biobehavioral factors and ethnic/gender differences are among the strongest determinants of drinking patterns in a society. Both epidemiological and clinical studies have implicated the excessive use of alcohol in the risk of developing a variety of organ, neuronal and metabolic disorders. Alcohol abuse related metabolic derangements affect almost all body organs and their functions. Race and gender differences in drinking patterns may play an important role in the development of medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse. The incidence of alcoholism in a community is influenced by per capita alcohol consumption and covariates with the relative price and availability of alcoholic drinks. The majority of the family, twin and adoption studies suggest that alcoholism is familial, a significant proportion of which can be attributed to genetic factors. The question is how much of the variance is explained by genetic factors and to what degree is this genetically mediated disorder moderated by personal characteristics. Among the most salient personal characteristics moderating, the genetic vulnerability may be factors such as age, ethnicity, and presence of psychiatric co morbidity. Cultural factors and familial environmental factors are most likely predictors as well.

  5. [Driving fitness of apprehended alcoholics--fitness test and remedial psychological traffic education].

    PubMed

    Zabel, G; Zabel, U

    1991-03-01

    1) No Therapy Without Screening: According to the prevailing opinion of jurists and psychologists) who are occupied with problems concerning post-schooling and of the traffic authorities in charge of issuing driving licences screening is absolutely necessary with regard to traffic-psychological post-schoolings as characteristical maladjustments of either reparable or irreparable nature can only be detected at such screening). Only medical and psychological screening can help to achieve the necessary clarification.) Screening is frequently connected with counselling for therapy, as it is for example stressed in the names of the institutions concerned in the länder of Rhineland-Palatine, North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony). 2) Exclusion of Drink-Drivers: Screening is particularly essential to exclude the so called drink-drivers who are alcoholics from post-schooling. The necessity of such an exclusion is stressed by Müller's) latest investigation of traffic--accident data in correlation to the blood-alcohol concentration, and it must be assumed that the percentage of undetected drink-drivers with a medium blood-alcohol concentration is extremely high. One has to agree with Himmelreich) that models for post-schooling must not exclude alcoholics and criminal offenders. In this case one has to differentiate between the problem drinker) who can be post-schooled and the drink-driver described by Winkler.) Bode) and Scherer) with rigid drinking habits, a raised disposition for risk) and a reduced responsibility according to sections 20, 21 of the German Criminal Law (StGB) to such an extend that a consciousness of guilt can be ruled out). Already after the preliminary examination of such alcoholics) it has to be assumed that an immediate traffic-psychological post-schooling will hardly be successful because of the lack or considerably reduced ability of responsibility. Post-schoolings do not have compensatory effects when regular alcohol abuse (drink-driver) is

  6. Management of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Anthony P

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews the spectrum of alcohol use disorders. The pharmacologic properties of ethanol and its metabolism, and the historical, physical, and laboratory elements that may help diagnose an alcohol use disorder are examined. The concepts of motivational interviewing and stages of change are mentioned, along with the American Society of Addiction Medicine patient placement criteria, to determine the best level of treatment for alcoholism. Various therapeutic management options are reviewed, including psychological, pharmacologic, and complementary/alternative choices. This article provides a basic understanding of available tools to diagnose and treat this cunning and baffling brain and multisystem disease.

  7. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  8. A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussong, Andrea M.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; DuRant, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    We tested biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in grades 6 and 8. Models including the biological and contextual variables and their interactions explained significantly more variance in adolescent cigarette and alcohol involvement than did models including only the main effects of the biological and contextual variables. Post-hoc analyses of significant interactions suggested that, in most case, moderation occurred in the hypothesized direction. Consistent with dual hazards models of adolescent antisocial behaviors, the relationships between the biological and substance use variables became positive and stronger as the context became more harmful. Considerations of adolescent substance use, and perhaps other problem behaviors, should recognize the possible role of biological variables and how their influence may vary by social context. PMID:24415825

  9. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amount of saliva or breath for any alcohol test required by this part or DOT agency regulations; Provided, That an employee who does not provide an adequate amount of breath or saliva because he or she has...

  10. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... amount of saliva or breath for any alcohol test required by this part or DOT agency regulations; Provided, That an employee who does not provide an adequate amount of breath or saliva because he or she has...

  11. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... amount of saliva or breath for any alcohol test required by this part or DOT agency regulations; Provided, That an employee who does not provide an adequate amount of breath or saliva because he or she has...

  12. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amount of saliva or breath for any alcohol test required by this part or DOT agency regulations; Provided, That an employee who does not provide an adequate amount of breath or saliva because he or she has...

  13. 49 CFR 40.261 - What is a refusal to take an alcohol test, and what are the consequences?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... amount of saliva or breath for any alcohol test required by this part or DOT agency regulations; Provided, That an employee who does not provide an adequate amount of breath or saliva because he or she has...

  14. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  15. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  16. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  17. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  18. Bone Changes in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Raymond O.

    1979-01-01

    Man has consumed alcohol for its euphoric and sedative effect down through the ages. Attention in the medical literature has been primarily focused on the effects of alcohol on the nervous system and liver. In the past few years, isolated reports have appeared in the medical literature concerning the effects of alcohol on the bony skeleton. The purpose of this paper is to classify these lesions, discuss their pathophysiology, and briefly review their clinical course. The lesions discussed include osteoporosis, hip fractures, aseptic necrosis of the hip, and fat embolism. For the purpose of this discussion these lesions are divided into two groups. Group I includes the battered alcoholic syndrome. Group II includes fat embolism, both acute and chronic, and aseptic necrosis of the hip. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:522187

  19. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  20. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    PubMed

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube. PMID:12068260

  1. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  2. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  3. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  4. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  5. Alcohol and masculinity.

    PubMed

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  6. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  7. Alcohol: Pleasures and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Lawson, Jane

    This student booklet is to be used in conjunction with the Teacher Manual and films of the DIAL A-L-C-O-H-O-L series. It presents facts and illustrations on the use of alcohol, and is intended to aid young people in deciding whether or not to drink. This booklet is divided into the following parts: (1) Introduction; (2) The Enjoyment of Drinking;…

  8. Fatty alcohols production by oleaginous yeast.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Gibert, Jordi; Suárez, Beatriz; Lara, Armando; Ronchel, Carmen; Adrio, José L

    2015-11-01

    We have engineered Rhodosporidium toruloides to produce fatty alcohols by expressing a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8. Production of fatty alcohols in flasks was achieved in different fermentation media at titers ranging from 0.2 to 2 g/L. In many of the conditions tested, more than 80 % of fatty alcohols were secreted into the cultivation broth. Through fed-batch fermentation in 7 L bioreactors, over 8 g/L of C(16)-C(18) fatty alcohols were produced using sucrose as the substrate. This is the highest titer ever reported on microbial production of fatty alcohols to date.

  9. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  10. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  11. Collective Efficacy, Alcohol Outlet Density, and Young Men's Alcohol Use in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Hannah H; Ahern, Jennifer; Pettifor, Audrey E.; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Lippman, Sheri A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use contributes to morbidity and mortality in developing countries by increasing the risk of trauma and disease, including alcohol dependence. Limited research addresses determinants of alcohol use beyond the individual level in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the association of community collective efficacy and alcohol outlet density with young men's drinking in a cross-sectional, locally representative survey conducted in rural northeast South Africa. Informal social control and cohesion show protective associations with men's heavy drinking, while alcohol outlet density is associated with more potential problem drinking. These findings provide initial support for intervening at the community level to promote alcohol reduction. PMID:26071651

  12. Paracetamol, alcohol and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Laurie F

    2000-01-01

    where it is alleged that paracetamol hepatotoxicity was enhanced in chronic alcoholics, the reverse should have been the case because alcohol was actually taken at the same time as the paracetamol. Chronic alcoholics are likely to be most vulnerable to the toxic effects of paracetamol during the first few days of withdrawal but maximum therapeutic doses given at this time have no adverse effect on liver function tests. Although the possibility remains that chronic consumption of alcohol does increase the risk of paracetamol hepatotoxicity in man (perhaps by impairing glutathione synthesis), there is insufficient evidence to support the alleged major toxic interaction. It is astonishing that clinicians and others have unquestion-ingly accepted this supposed interaction in man for so long with such scant regard for scientific objectivity. PMID:10759684

  13. Applicability of the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) in Korsakoff’s syndrome and chronic alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Wester, Arie J; van Herten, Judith C; Egger, Jos IM; Kessels, Roy PC

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the applicability of the newly developed Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test – Third Edition (RBMT-3) as an ecologically-valid memory test in patients with alcohol-related cognitive disorders. Patients and methods An authorized Dutch translation of the RBMT-3 was developed, equivalent to the UK version, and administered to a total of 151 participants – 49 patients with amnesia due to alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, 49 patients with cognitive impairment and a history of chronic alcoholism, not fulfilling the Korsakoff criteria, and 53 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons were made at subtest level, and the test’s diagnostic accuracy was determined. Results Korsakoff patients performed worse than controls on all RBMT-3 subtests (all P-values < 0.0005). The alcoholism group performed worse than controls on most (all P-values < 0.02), but not all RBMT-3 subtests. Largest effects were found between the Korsakoff patients and the controls after delayed testing. The RBMT-3 had good sensitivity and adequate specificity. Conclusion The RBMT-3 is a valid test battery to demonstrate everyday memory deficits in Korsakoff patients and non-Korsakoff patients with alcohol abuse disorder. Korsakoff patients showed an impaired performance on subtests relying on orientation, contextual memory and delayed testing. Our findings provide valuable information for treatment planning and adjustment in patients with alcohol-related cognitive impairments. PMID:23818787

  14. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  15. Intervening to decrease the probability of alcohol-impaired driving: Impact of novel field sobriety tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.

  16. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  17. ALCOHOL-RELATED CUES POTENTIATE ALCOHOL IMPAIRMENT OF BEHAVIORAL CONTROL IN DRINKERS

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N=40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counter-balanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or ‘loss of control’ drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol-cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual’s control over ongoing alcohol consumption. PMID:25134023

  18. Mesler entrainment in alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J. R.; Sundberg, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    When a drop impacts a flat surface of the same liquid at an intermediate velocity, the impact can result in the formation of a very large number of very small bubbles. At lower velocities, drops bounce or float, and at larger velocities a single bubble forms, or there is a splash. The formation of large numbers of small bubbles during intermediate velocity impacts is termed Mesler entrainment and its controlling mechanism is poorly understood. Existing research has shown that Mesler entrainment is highly irreproducible when water is the working fluid, and very reproducible when silicone oil is the working fluid. Whether this is because water is problematic, or silicone oil is uniquely well-suited, is unclear. To answer this question, experiments were conducted using three different alcohols. The results of these experiments were very reproducible for all alcohols tested, suggesting that there is something unique about water which accounts for its lack of reproducibility. The data from these experiments were also used to develop a dimensionless group that quantifies the conditions under which Mesler entrainment occurs. This dimensionless group is used to provide insight into the mechanism of this unique method of bubble formation.

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  20. The Influence of Alcohol-specific Communication on Adolescent Alcohol Use and Alcohol-related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  1. Workplace drug testing and alcohol policy in Italy; there is still a long way to go.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Gian Luca; Perotto, Massimo; Feola, Mauro; Caramella, Michele

    2014-09-01

    The effectiveness of workplace drug testing (WDT) in Italy has recently been questioned, while very little is known about the real consumption of alcoholic beverages among workers performing hazardous jobs, such as professional drivers (PDs). The aim of this study is to investigate the modality and frequency of WDT execution and of alcohol consumption in the above category. Anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information. Four hundred and ninety-seven questionnaires were collected; 50.1% declared that they know well in advance when they will be subjected to screening tests for drugs, while 19.5% claimed they have never been subjected to such a test. The greater the number of employees in a company, the greater the likelihood that the tests are performed with a genuinely surprise effect [odds ratio (OR) 2.41, 5.39 and 9.07, respectively, for businesses with 5-14 employees, 15-50 and more than 50, compared with companies with less than 5 employees, p < 0.01]. Twenty-one point four percent declared they drink alcoholic beverages during working hours or work breaks. This attitude is positively correlated with driver seniority [OR 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.11 p < 0.01] and is more common in those who operate on mainly international routes (OR 3.34 CI 1.30-8.59 p < 0.01) and only occasionally consume meals in restaurants (OR 4.27, CI 1.19-15.42 p < 0.05). Fifteen percent of the participants have an AUDIT C score ≥ 5. In conclusion WDT is largely ineffective, particularly in small businesses. The high percentage of PDs who claim to drink during working hours and who are hazardous drinkers requires a further strengthening of prevention strategies in this area.

  2. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  3. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time.

  4. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  5. Mutagenicity of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Takahashi, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Sugimura, T

    1981-02-01

    The mutagenicities of evaporated residues of alcoholic beverages were tested by the Ames method with the modification of pre-incubation, by using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA98. 12 of 13 brands of whisky were mutagenic to TA100 without S9 mix. Addition of S9 mix decreased or abolished these mutagenicities. 5 brands of brandy and 1 apple brandy were tested, and all showed a similar type of mutagenicity to that of whisky. A fraction of brand-K whisky, containing a major mutagen(s), eluted from XAD-2 column with water, gave 3800 revertants of TA100 per plate at a dose equivalent to 10 ml of whisky. PMID:7012607

  6. [Clinical concept of alcoholic dementia].

    PubMed

    Kato, N

    1991-06-01

    Intellectual deterioration, changing in behavior and affect are often seen in association with long continued and heavy alcohol ingestion and such deteriorated states of patients are called alcoholic dementia. A large number of investigators have attempted to designate clinical concept of alcoholic dementia throughout the centuries and many kinds of term like as alcoholic pseudo-paralysis, alcoholic mental deficiency and alcoholic deterioration, etc, have been submitted since the beginning of 19th century. Numerous psychometric studies have indicated cognitive impairment and memory disturbance in chronic alcohol abusers and moreover brain PEG and CT-scan studies have shown sulcal widening and enlarged ventricles to be common in alcoholics. However, alcoholic dementia is hard to classify as a distinct disorder caused by alcoholic ingestion. The reason is lack of specific findings, both clinical and histopathological, like as Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and other nutritional disorders in alcoholics. Victor, M. describes in his work the majority of patients who have come to autopsy with the clinical diagnosis of primary alcoholic dementia have shown the lesions of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and he postulates alcoholic dementia is heavily contaminated with burned-out Wernicke-Korsakoff disease. The clinical and pathological observations presented by this time represent alcoholic dementia is a residual category for cases in which there are severe impairment of intelligence with marked deterioration of personality following prolonged and heavy drinking.

  7. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  8. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  9. Invertebrate models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.

  10. Alcoholic myopathy and acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Victor R; Crabb, David W; Farrés, Jaume; Emery, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic myopathy is characterized by biochemical and morphological lesions within muscle, ranging from impairment of muscle strength and loss of lean tissue to cellular disturbances and altered gene expression. The chronic form of the disease is five times more common than cirrhosis and is characterized by selective atrophy of type 11 (anaerobic) fibres: type I (aerobic) fibres are relatively protected. Although the causative agent is known (i.e. ethanol), the intervening steps between alcohol ingestion and the development of symptoms and lesions are poorly understood. However, acetaldehyde appears to have an important role in the aetiology of the disease. For example, alcohol is a potent perturbant of muscle protein synthesis in vivo, and this effect is exacerbated by cyanamide pre-dosage, which raises acetaldehyde concentrations. Acetaldehyde alone also reduces muscle protein synthesis in vivo and proteolytic activity in vitro. The formation of acetaldehyde protein adducts is another mechanism of putative importance in alcoholic myopathy. These adducts are formed within muscle in response to either acute or chronic alcohol exposure and the adducts are located preferentially within the sarcolemmal and sub-sarcolemmal regions. However, the significance of protein adduct formation is unclear since we do not currently know the identity of the adducted muscle proteins nor whether adduction alters the biochemical or functional properties of skeletal muscle proteins.

  11. Genetics of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.

  12. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  13. Alcohol Craving and Demand Mediate the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Teeters, Jenni B.; Pickover, Alison; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. Method We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol problems. Results Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI = .01 – .10), demand intensity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .0009 – .17), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .006 – .03) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 – .19). Conclusions Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  14. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption.

  15. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.

  16. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence.

  17. Testing the effects of peer socialization versus selection on alcohol and marijuana use among treated adolescents.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sara J; Curry, John F

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the relative influence of peer socialization and selection on alcohol and marijuana use among 106 adolescents who received a brief intervention. Adolescents were recruited between 2003 and 2007 and followed for 12 months as part of a SAMHSA-funded study. Cross-lagged panel models using four assessment points examined the longitudinal relationship between adolescent substance use and peer substance involvement separately for alcohol and marijuana. Consistent with community studies, there was evidence of both peer socialization and peer selection for alcohol use, and only evidence of peer selection for marijuana use. Implications for research and intervention are discussed.

  18. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  19. Diagnosis of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273

  20. New Zealand's breath and blood alcohol testing programs: further data analysis and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Stowell, A R; Gainsford, A R; Gullberg, R G

    2008-07-01

    Paired blood and breath alcohol concentrations (BAC, in g/dL, and BrAC, in g/210 L), were determined for 11,837 drivers apprehended by the New Zealand Police. For each driver, duplicate BAC measurements were made using headspace gas chromatography and duplicate BrAC measurements were made with either Intoxilyzer 5000, Seres 679T or Seres 679ENZ Ethylometre infrared analysers. The variability of differences between duplicate results is described in detail, as well as the variability of differences between the paired BrAC and BAC results. The mean delay between breath and blood sampling was 0.73 h, ranging from 0.17 to 3.1 8h. BAC values at the time of breath testing were estimated by adjusting BAC results using an assumed blood alcohol clearance rate. The paired BrAC and time-adjusted BAC results were analysed with the aim of estimating the proportion of false-positive BrAC results, using the time-adjusted BAC results as references. When BAC results were not time-adjusted, the false-positive rate (BrAC>BAC) was 31.3% but after time-adjustment using 0.019 g/dL/h as the blood alcohol clearance rate, the false-positive rate was only 2.8%. However, harmful false-positives (defined as cases where BrAC>0.1 g/210L, while BAC< or =0.1g/dL) occurred at a rate of only 0.14%. When the lower of duplicate breath test results were used as the evidential results instead of the means, the harmful false-positive rate dropped to 0.04%.

  1. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  2. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  3. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  4. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.

  5. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  6. Cardiac effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Gould, L; Reddy, C V; Singh, B K; Zen, B

    1980-11-01

    There is little information on the echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular performance after the ingestion of alcohol. Therefore, we obtained echocardiograms and systolic time intervals in 9 normal subjects before and after a cocktail party. These subjects drank 5-6 ounces of 87 proof whiskey during the party. An additional 19 normal subjects drank 3 ounces of 87 proof whiskey and had similar studies performed. The results of the study with 5-6 ounces of alcohol are in Table 3. The 19 subjects who drank 3 ounces of alcohol showed no statistical changes except that the systolic ejection time fell from a control of 0.31 +/- 03 (see formula in text) to 0.30 +/- 0.4 (P less than 0.05). These data indicate that 5-6 ounces of whiskey can depress left ventricular function in normal subjects.

  7. Advances in Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014

  8. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  9. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing. PMID:9706236

  10. Testing a new alcohol-free hand sanitizer to combat infection.

    PubMed

    Dyer, D L; Gerenraich, K B; Wadhams, P S

    1998-08-01

    Universal precautions require that perioperative health care personnel wash their hand before and after all patient contact. Time constraints, however, can make adhering to universal precautions, including proper hand washing, difficult. Some perioperative health care workers, therefore, routinely use rise-free hand sanitizers to supplement normal hand washing. This study evaluated immediate and persistent antimicrobial effectiveness of two alcohol--containing hand sanitizers and a novel surfactant, allantoin, benzalkonium chloride (SAB) hand sanitizer using a federally approved effectiveness protocol. Results indicate that all three products were equally effective after a single application. After repeated use, the alcohol-containing sanitizers did not meet federal performance standards, and the alcohol-free sanitizer did. These properties and others illustrated in this article indicate that the nonflammable, alcohol-free SAB hand sanitizer is the most favorable of the rise-free hand sanitizer formulas for normal hand washing.

  11. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  12. ALCOHOL AND THE SOLDIER

    PubMed Central

    Saldanka, D.; Goel, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted during a two year period in a zonal referral hospital were studied. Vie majority of the subject were between the age of 30 to 50 years and had more than 10 year's history of alcohol abuse. 19.26% of the subjects had to be invalided out of service. 66.09% remained under various categories of observation after the treatment. At the end of two year′s follow-up only 12% of them had recovered completely. Preventive measures in the light of state policies are discussed. PMID:21776144

  13. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  14. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:21999498

  15. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  16. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  17. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  20. Alcoholism: Devastation for Indians. 36 Lessons on Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, William A.

    In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…

  1. Predictors of Alcohol Drinking among African-American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine; And Others

    This study sought to investigate the factors that predict alcohol drinking among African-American children of alcoholics (COA). The instruments used were: (1) the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (J. Jones, 1981); (2) the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (J. Mayer and W. Filstead, 1979); and (3) the New York Self-Esteem Scale (M.…

  2. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  3. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  4. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  5. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  6. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  7. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  8. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  9. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  10. 49 CFR 199.202 - Alcohol misuse plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol misuse plan. 199.202 Section 199.202... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.202 Alcohol misuse plan. Each operator must maintain and follow a written...

  11. 49 CFR 199.237 - Other alcohol-related conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other alcohol-related conduct. 199.237 Section 199... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.237 Other alcohol-related conduct. (a) No operator...

  12. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  13. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. ... drinking include: distorted vision, hearing, and coordination altered perceptions and emotions impaired judgment, which can lead to ...

  14. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  15. Alcohol-medical drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Bankole A; Seneviratne, Chamindi

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of alcohol and medications may lead to potentially serious medical conditions. Increasing prescription medication abuse in today's society necessitates a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in alcohol-medication interactions in order to help prevent adverse events. Interactions of medications with alcohol result in altered bioavailability of the medication or alcohol (pharmacokinetic interactions) or modification of the effects at receptor or ion channel sites to alter behavioral or physical outcome (pharmacodynamic interactions). The nature of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions involved in alcohol-medication interactions may differ between acute and chronic alcohol use and be influenced by race, gender, or environmental or genetic factors. This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between alcohol and medications and provides examples for such interactions from replicated research studies. In conclusion, further translational research is needed to address several gaps in our current knowledge of alcohol-medication interactions, including those under various pathologic conditions.

  16. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  17. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  18. A Test of Whether Coping Styles Moderate the Effect of PTSD Symptoms on Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Justine A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Dolan, Sara; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). We hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping would interact, such that veterans high on PTSD symptoms and avoidant coping and low on action-oriented coping would report more negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking a greater number of drinks per week compared to veterans without all three risk factors. The sample (N = 128) of veterans (85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment and self-report measures assessing PTSD, alcohol use disorders, coping styles, and alcohol outcomes. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a three-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction. In addition, post-hoc descriptive analyses indicated that Veterans with a current PTSD diagnosis, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with Veterans with two or fewer risk factors. These findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. PMID:25158641

  19. Useful method to monitor the physiological effects of alcohol ingestion by combination of micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter and arm-raising test.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Ito, Hiroki; Gotanda, Takeshi; Peng, Yao; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2012-10-01

    Alcohol has a variety of effects on the human body, affecting both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. We examined the peripheral blood flow of alcohol drinkers using a micro-integrated laser Doppler blood flow meter (micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor). An increased heart rate and blood flow was recorded at the earlobe after alcohol ingestion, and we observed strong correlation between blood flow, heart rate, and breath alcohol content in light drinkers; but not heavy drinkers. We also found that the amplitude of pulse waves measured at the fingertip during an arm-raising test significantly decreased on alcohol consumption, regardless of the individual's alcohol tolerance. Our micro-electromechanical system blood flow sensor successfully detected various physiological changes in peripheral blood circulation induced by alcohol consumption.

  20. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793