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  1. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  2. Rural Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Use: A Comparison of Students in Victoria, Australia, and Washington State, United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomber, Kerri; Toumbourou, John W.; Miller, Peter; Staiger, Petra K.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There are inconsistent research findings regarding the impact of rurality on adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and illicit substance use. Therefore, the current study reports on the effect of rurality on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use among adolescents in 2 state representative samples in 2 countries, Washington State (WA) in the…

  3. Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use: Racial and Ethnic Differences among U.S. High School Seniors, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.

    2002-01-01

    Study examines differences in adolescents' use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs by racial and ethnic groups. Results show significant differences by racial and ethnic groups, and indicate that these differences have changed over time. Future research should examine these differences and seek to identify the sources and consequences of the…

  4. A General Causal Model to Guide Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Prevention: Assessing the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna D.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Friend, Karen B.

    2004-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) extract a significant health, social, and economic toll on American society. While the field of substance abuse prevention has made great strides during the past decade, two major challenges remain. First, the field has been disorganized and fragmented with respect to…

  5. The relative risks and etiologic fractions of different causes of death and disease attributable to alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug use in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Single, E; Rehm, J; Robson, L; Truong, M V

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1996 the number of deaths and admissions to hospital in Canada that could be attributed to the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs were estimated from 1992 data. In this paper we update these estimates to the year 1995. METHODS: On the basis of pooled estimates of relative risk, etiologic fractions were calculated by age, sex and province for 90 causes of disease or death attributable to alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs; the etiologic fractions were then applied to national mortality and morbidity data for 1995 to estimate the number of deaths and admissions to hospital attributable to substance abuse. RESULTS: In 1995, 6507 deaths and 82,014 admissions to hospital were attributed to alcohol, 34,728 deaths and 194,072 admissions to hospital were attributed to tobacco, and 805 deaths and 6940 admissions to hospital were due to illicit drugs. INTERPRETATION: The use and misuse of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs accounted for 20.0% of deaths, 22.2% of years of potential life lost and 9.4% of admissions to hospital in Canada in 1995. PMID:10870494

  6. Tobacco, Caffeine, Alcohol and Illicit Substance Use among Consumers of a National Psychiatric Disability Support Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Adam; Lubman, Dan I.; Cox, Merrilee

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented high rates of tobacco smoking and substance use disorders among young people with serious mental illness. However, limited studies have been conducted outside traditional clinical settings. In an attempt to address this shortfall and to better understand the needs of young people accessing its…

  7. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the "high risk" category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the "risk" category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the "high risk" category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the "risk" category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  8. Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A comparative risk assessment of drugs including alcohol and tobacco using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach was conducted. The MOE is defined as ratio between toxicological threshold (benchmark dose) and estimated human intake. Median lethal dose values from animal experiments were used to derive the benchmark dose. The human intake was calculated for individual scenarios and population-based scenarios. The MOE was calculated using probabilistic Monte Carlo simulations. The benchmark dose values ranged from 2 mg/kg bodyweight for heroin to 531 mg/kg bodyweight for alcohol (ethanol). For individual exposure the four substances alcohol, nicotine, cocaine and heroin fall into the “high risk” category with MOE < 10, the rest of the compounds except THC fall into the “risk” category with MOE < 100. On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk). PMID:25634572

  9. Policy Statement on Illicit Drugs and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint John's College, Annapolis, MD.

    This is a statement of policy on illicit drugs and alcohol for Saint John's College, Annapolis, Maryland, to be distributed to students and employees. Initially the terms individual, student, employee, and illicit drug are formally defined. The section on alcoholic beverages lists ten policies regarding individual conduct and possession by…

  10. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  11. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  12. Associations Among Excess Weight Status and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use in a Large National Sample of Early Adolescent Youth.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (< grade 9) substance use and use of some illicit substances (inhalants, cocaine, amphetamines) within the past year. Among White early smokers, OB and SO had higher odds of other substance use, whereas White OB and SO recent smokers had lower odds of other substance use. Few significant findings based on weight status were identified for Black or Hispanic youth. These findings suggest adolescent health risk behaviors co-occur uniquely for White youth, in particular those who are SO and by early adolescence. Understanding the downstream public health consequences and how risk pathways of excess weight, tobacco, and other substance use may uniquely unfold for each race/ethnicity group is imperative. PMID:26872477

  13. Empirical measurement of illicit tobacco trade in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Abola, Victor; Sy, Deborah; Denniston, Ryan; So, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smuggling reduces the price of cigarettes, thwarts youth access restrictions, reduces government revenue, and undercuts the ability of taxes to reduce consumption. The tobacco industry often opposes increases to tobacco taxes on the claim that greater taxes induce more smuggling. To date, little is known about the magnitude of smuggling in the Philippines. his information is necessary to effectively address illicit trade and to measure the impacts of tax changes and the introduction of secure tax markings on illicit trade. This study employs two gap discrepancy methods to estimate the magnitude of illicit trade in cigarettes for the Philippines between 1994 and 2009. First, domestic consumption is compared with tax-paid sales to measure the consumption of illicit cigarettes. Second, imports recorded by the Philippines are compared with exports to the Philippines by trade partners to measure smuggling. Domestic consumption fell short of tax-paid sales for all survey years. The magnitude of these differences and a comparison with a prevalence survey for 2009 suggest a high level of survey under-reporting of smoking. In the late 1990s and the mid 2000s, the Philippines experienced two sharp declines in trade discrepancies, from a high of $750 million in 1995 to a low of $133.7 million in 2008. Discrepancies composed more than one-third of the domestic market in 1995, but only 10 percent in 2009. Hong Kong, Singapore, and China together account for more than 80 percent of the cumulative discrepancies over the period and 74 percent of the discrepancy in 2009. The presence of large discrepancies supports the need to implement an effective tax marking and tobacco track and trace system to reduce illicit trade and support tax collection. The absence of a relation between tax changes and smuggling suggests that potential increases in the excise tax should not be discouraged by illicit trade. Finally, the identification of specific trade partners as primary sources

  14. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  15. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products. PMID:26020137

  16. Interventions by Students in Friends' Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Reginald G.; Stoduto, Gina

    1997-01-01

    Investigated students' (N=1,184) self-reported interventions in the alcohol-, tobacco-, illicit-drug use, and drinking-driving of their friends. Results indicate that almost one-third of students intervened in friends' illegal drug use and drinking-driving, whereas about one-half intervened with smoking. Intervenors were usually older and worked…

  17. Elemental and molecular profiling of licit, illicit, and niche tobacco.

    PubMed

    Quayle, Kim; Clemens, Graeme; Sorribes, Tamar Garcia; Kinvig, Hannah M; Stevenson, Paul G; Conlan, Xavier A; Baker, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    The recognition of differences between regulated large-scale mass manufactured products and the uncontrolled cultivation of tobaccos for illicit purposes plays a significant role within identification of provenance. This research highlights X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as useful analytical techniques for the rapid identification of tobacco samples of unknown provenance. Identification of key discriminative features within each technique allowed for the development of typical characteristic profiles for each type of tobacco. Analysis using X-ray fluorescence highlights chlorine, potassium, calcium and iron as key elemental indicators of tobacco provenance. Significant levels of chlorine seen within Snüs samples prompted attempts to visualise chlorine containing regions and structures within the sample. Scanning electron microscopy images showed crystalline structures visible within the Snüs tobacco, structures which Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy qualitatively confirmed to contain chlorine. Chloride levels within Snüs samples were quantified using ion chromatography with levels found to range between 0.87mgmL(-1) and 1.28mg. Additionally, FTIR indicated that absorbances attributed to carbonyl stretching at 1050-1150cm(-1), alkane bending at 1350-1480cm(-1) and amide I stretching at 1600-1700cm(-1) highlighting a spectral fingerprint region that allowed for the clear differentiation between different types of tobaccos using PCA analysis, but was limited by differentiation between provenance of cigarettes and hand rolled tobacco. X-ray fluorescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy yielded different information with regards tobacco discrimination and provenance, however both methods overall analysis time and cost reduced indicating usefulness as potential handheld analytical techniques in the field. PMID:27514016

  18. Tobacco industry manipulation of data on and press coverage of the illicit tobacco trade in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, A; Evans-Reeves, K; Gilmore, A B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the UK, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have been arguing that levels of illicit trade are high and increasing and will rise further if standardised packaging is implemented. This paper examines trends in and accuracy of media reporting of, and industry data on, illicit tobacco in the UK. Methods Quantification of the volume, nature and quality of press articles citing industry data on illicit tobacco in UK newspapers from March 2008 to March 2013. Examination of published TTC data on illicit, including a comparison with independent data and of TTC reporting of Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs data on illicit. Results Media stories citing industry data on illicit tobacco began in June 2011, 2 months after the Tobacco Control Plan for England, which heralded standardised packaging, was published. The majority of data cited are based on industry Empty Pack Surveys for which no methodology is available. For almost all parts of the country where repeat data were cited in press stories, they indicated an increase, often substantial, in non-domestic/illicit cigarettes that is not supported by independent data. Similarly, national data from two published industry sources show a sudden large increase in non-domestic product between 2011 and 2012. Yet the methodology of one report changes over this period and the other provides no published methodology. In contrast, independent data show steady declines in non-domestic and illicit cigarette penetration from 2006 to 2012 and either a continued decline or small increase to 2013. Conclusions Industry claims that use of Non-UK Duty Paid/illicit cigarettes in the UK is sharply increasing are inconsistent with historical trends and recent independent data. TTCs are exaggerating the threat of illicit tobacco by commissioning surveys whose methodology and validity remain uncertain, planting misleading stories and misquoting government data. Industry data on levels of illicit should be treated with extreme

  19. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  20. ILLICIT CIGARETTES AND HAND-ROLLED TOBACCO IN 18 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY

    PubMed Central

    JOOSSENS, Luk; LUGO, Alessandra; LA VECCHIA, Carlo; GILMORE, Anna B; CLANCY, Luke; GALLUS, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Objective Little evidence, other than that commissioned by the tobacco industry, exists on the size of the illicit tobacco trade. This study addresses this gap by examining the level and nature of illicit cigarettes and hand-rolled tobacco in 18 European countries. Design Face-to-face cross-sectional survey on smoking. Setting 18 European countries. Participants For each country, around 1000 subjects representative of the population aged 15 and over were enrolled. Current cigarette smokers were asked to show their latest purchased pack of cigarettes or hand-rolled tobacco. Main outcome measure A comprehensive measure called Identification of an Illicit Pack (IIP) was used to study the extent of illicit trade, defining a pack as illicit if it had at least one of the following tax evasion indicators: 1) it was bought from illicit sources, as reported by smokers, 2) it had an inappropriate tax stamp, 3) it had an inappropriate health warning, 4) its price was substantially below the known price in their market. Results Overall, the proportion of illicit packs was 6.5%. The highest prevalence of IIP was observed in Latvia (37.8%). Illicit packs were more frequent among less educated smokers and among those living in a country, which shared a land or sea border with Ukraine, Russia, Moldova or Belarus. No significant association was found with price of cigarettes. Conclusion this study indicates that IIP is less than 7% in Europe, and suggests that the supply of illicit tobacco, rather than its price, is a key factor contributing to tax evasion. PMID:23233420

  1. The early use of alcohol and tobacco: its relation to children's competence and parents' behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, C; Henriksen, L; Dickinson, D; Levine, D W

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Use of tobacco and alcohol during childhood predicts heavy use of these substances and use of illicit drugs during adolescence. This study aims to identify developmental correlates of tobacco and alcohol use among elementary-school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys were used to measure tobacco and alcohol use, multiple indicators of child competence, parenting behaviors, and parental modeling of tobacco and alcohol use in a sample of 1470 third- and fifth-grade children. Both self-report and teacher-rated assessments were obtained, which allowed collateral testing of study hypotheses. RESULTS: Children's tobacco and alcohol use was strongly related to low scores on several measures of child competence, both self-reported and teacher rated. Children's tobacco and alcohol use was also associated with less effective parenting behaviors and with parental use of tobacco and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Children's early experience with tobacco and alcohol is associated with weak competence development and exposure to socialization factors that promote risk taking. Interventions to prevent early use of tobacco and alcohol are needed. PMID:9096534

  2. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  3. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs

    PubMed Central

    Korcha, Rachael A.; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Witbrodt, Jane; Borges, Guilherme; Hejazi-Bazargan, Shahrzad; Bond, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Gmel, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs. Method Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the six hours prior to a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n=9686). Results Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) prior to the injury event while non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used (men: odds ratio [OR]=5.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6–6.3; women: OR=4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5) or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use prior to the injury (men: OR=6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR=5.7, 95% CI=2.7–12.2) compared to non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users. Conclusion The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. PMID:24261437

  4. Association between contraband tobacco and illicit drug use among high school students in Canada.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F; Hammond, David

    2015-04-01

    A particularly challenging issue to tobacco cessation efforts is the availability of contraband cigarettes. While studies have linked contraband tobacco to smoking initiation and poor cessation outcomes, little is known about its association with illicit drug use among adolescents. We examine the association between contraband tobacco and illicit drug use among adolescent students using a national representative sample of 2,136 current smoker students in grades 9-12 from the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 31 % of adolescent current smokers in grades 9-12 use contraband cigarettes. Prevalence in the use of illicit drugs ranged from 9 to 37 %, with MDMA being the most commonly used drug. Adjusted logistic regression revealed that smokers of contraband cigarettes, when compared with non-contraband cigarette smokers, were more likely to use cocaine (OR 2.14; CI 1.29-3.56), heroin (OR 7.92; CI 3.00-20.91), amphetamines (OR 4.25; CI 2.07-8.74), MDMA (OR 2.00; CI 1.25-3.19), hallucinogens (OR 2.18; CI 1.34-3.55), and ketamine (OR 3.48; CI 1.61-7.54). This paper adds to the existing evidence of the negative effects of contraband tobacco by showing that adolescent contraband smokers are more likely to use illicit drugs. Given the addictive nature of these drugs and the potential for such behavior to spill over into adulthood, more efforts should be invested in addressing this problem.

  5. Young adult smokers' perceptions of illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on purchase behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard; Joossens, Luk

    2012-04-01

    Plain (unbranded) packaging for cigarettes is at the top of the tobacco control agenda in both Australia and Europe. The evidence suggests that it will benefit public health by decreasing the appeal of tobacco products and increasing the power of the health warning. The tobacco industry instead argues that plain packaging would make it easier to counterfeit cigarettes, which would both confuse consumers and reduce price; thereby increasing consumption. Using focus group research we examined young adult smokers (N = 54) perceptions of, and ability to recognize, illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on illicit tobacco purchasing behaviour. We found that the pack has no impact on the decision to buy illicit tobacco. Smokers were easily able to identify counterfeit cigarettes, not least by the pack, and buy it knowingly and in the full expectation that it will be inferior in quality. Illicit tobacco purchase, including that for counterfeit tobacco, was instead driven by availability and price. Given the extremely low manufacturing cost, per pack, of certain types of illicit cigarettes, it is difficult to envisage how plain packaging would alter the price of illicit tobacco in any meaningful way. The findings therefore suggest that a move to plain packaging would have no impact on young adult smokers' purchase behaviour.

  6. Young adult smokers' perceptions of illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on purchase behaviour.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Crawford; Hastings, Gerard; Joossens, Luk

    2012-04-01

    Plain (unbranded) packaging for cigarettes is at the top of the tobacco control agenda in both Australia and Europe. The evidence suggests that it will benefit public health by decreasing the appeal of tobacco products and increasing the power of the health warning. The tobacco industry instead argues that plain packaging would make it easier to counterfeit cigarettes, which would both confuse consumers and reduce price; thereby increasing consumption. Using focus group research we examined young adult smokers (N = 54) perceptions of, and ability to recognize, illicit tobacco and the possible impact of plain packaging on illicit tobacco purchasing behaviour. We found that the pack has no impact on the decision to buy illicit tobacco. Smokers were easily able to identify counterfeit cigarettes, not least by the pack, and buy it knowingly and in the full expectation that it will be inferior in quality. Illicit tobacco purchase, including that for counterfeit tobacco, was instead driven by availability and price. Given the extremely low manufacturing cost, per pack, of certain types of illicit cigarettes, it is difficult to envisage how plain packaging would alter the price of illicit tobacco in any meaningful way. The findings therefore suggest that a move to plain packaging would have no impact on young adult smokers' purchase behaviour. PMID:21441554

  7. Combating counterfeit medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products: minefields in global health governance.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines two spheres of global governance in which the World Health Organization (WHO) has sought to exercise international leadership - combating "counterfeit" medicines and illicit trade in tobacco products. Medicines and tobacco products lie at polar opposite ends of the health spectrum, and are regulated for vastly different reasons and through different tools and approaches. Nevertheless, attempts to govern counterfeit trade in each of these products raise a host of somewhat similar challenges, involving normative and operational conflicts that cut across the crowded intersection of health protection and promotion, intellectual property protection, and activity to combat transnational organized crime. As negotiations of an illicit trade protocol to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control enter their final stages, lessons learned from counterfeit medicines governance need to be applied to ensure that the most appropriate governance arrangements are adopted.

  8. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements.

  9. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-01-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs’ interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  10. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    PubMed

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. PMID:26022741

  11. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  12. Botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol - Utah 2011.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne botulism is a rare, potentially fatal paralytic illness caused by eating food contaminated by Clostridium botulinum toxin. It occurs most often as a single case not linked to others by a common food source. As a result of improvements in food canning, when outbreaks do occur, they typically involve fewer than five persons. During October 2-4 2011, eight maximum security inmates at the Utah State Prison in Salt Lake County were diagnosed with foodborne botulism. An investigation by Salt Lake Valley Heath Department, Utah Department of Health, and CDC identified pruno, an illicit alcoholic brew, as the vehicle. The principal ingredients in pruno are fruit, sugar, and water. Many additional ingredients, including root vegetables, are sometimes added, depending on the availability of foods in prison. A baked potato saved from a meal served weeks earlier and added to the pruno was the suspected source of C. botulinum spores. Many of the affected inmates suffered severe morbidity, and some required prolonged hospitalizations. Knowing the link between pruno and botulism might help public health and correctional authorities prevent future outbreaks, respond quickly with appropriate health-care to inmates with acute descending paralysis and/or other symptoms, and reduce associated treatment costs to states.

  13. Countering the demand for, and supply of, illicit tobacco: an assessment of the ‘North of England Tackling Illicit Tobacco for Better Health’ Programme

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, Ann; Iringe-Koko, Belinda; Bains, Manpreet; Bauld, Linda; Siggens, Geoffrey; Russell, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit tobacco (IT) undermines the effectiveness of tobacco control strategies. We assessed the implementation and impact of a new programme designed to reduce demand for, as well as supply of, IT, in the north of England, where IT was prevalent. Methods ‘Mixed methods’ research was undertaken. Qualitative methods included stakeholder interviews (at outset and 1 year later) and ethnographic research. Indicators reflecting those supply and demand issues for which data were available were identified and monitored, including relevant items on two cross-sectional surveys carried out in 2009 and 2011 with over 4000 individuals from which a social marketing campaign was also developed. IT reports to two existing hotlines, promoted through the programme, were assessed. Results Initially, concerns abounded about the different philosophies and ways of working of local and national enforcement and health agencies, but these were much reduced at follow-up. A protocol was developed which greatly facilitated the flow of intelligence about IT supply. A social marketing campaign was developed highlighting two messages: IT makes it easier for children to start smoking and brings crime into the community, thereby avoiding misleading messages about relative harms of illicit and licit tobacco. Public and stakeholder awareness of IT increased as did calls to both hotlines. Conclusions A partnership of agencies, with competing values, was established to tackle IT, a complex public health issue and, inter alia, implemented a social marketing campaign using novel messages. This improved the flow of intelligence about the supply of IT and increased awareness of IT. PMID:23958644

  14. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  15. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  16. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  17. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  18. Is the Physical Availability of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Related to Neighborhood Rates of Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freisthler, Bridget; Needell, Barbara; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines how the availability of alcohol and illicit drugs (as measured by alcohol outlet density and police incidents of drug sales and possessions) is related to neighborhood rates of child abuse and neglect, controlling for other neighborhood demographic characteristics. Method: Data from substantiated reports of child…

  19. British American Tobacco and the “insidious impact of illicit trade” in cigarettes across Africa

    PubMed Central

    LeGresley, E; Lee, K; Muggli, M E; Patel, P; Collin, J; Hurt, R D

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the complicity of British American Tobacco (BAT) in the illicit trade of cigarettes across the African continent in terms of rationale, supply routes and scale. Methods: Analysis of internal BAT documents and industry publications. Results: BAT has relied on illegal channels to supply markets across Africa since the 1980s. Available documents suggest smuggling has been an important component of BAT’s market entry strategy in order to gain leverage in negotiating with governments for tax concessions, compete with other transnational tobacco companies, circumvent local import restrictions and unstable political and economic conditions and gain a market presence. BAT worked through distributors and local agents to exploit weak government capacity to gain substantial market share in major countries. Conclusions: Documents demonstrate that the complicity of BAT in cigarette smuggling extends to Africa, which includes many of the poorest countries in the world. This is in direct conflict with offers by the company to contribute to stronger international cooperation to tackle the illicit tobacco trade. PMID:18617598

  20. Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Browse Sections The Basics Overview When ... to your child about the dangers of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs. Knowing the facts will help your ...

  1. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  2. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  3. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  4. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  5. 19 CFR 148.43 - Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. 148.43....43 Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. (a) For personal use. Fifty cigars, or 200 cigarettes, or 2 kilograms of smoking tobacco, and not exceeding 1 liter of alcoholic beverages may be...

  6. Kansas Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    One of a series of state profiles, this report describes the dimensions of the problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in Kansas and the public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. It highlights positive developments and identifies areas to be strengthened. Demographic characteristics, state agency organization, and state…

  7. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  8. Did the tobacco industry inflate estimates of illicit cigarette consumption in Asia? An empirical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; McGhee, Sarah M; Townsend, Joy; Lam, Tai Hing; Hedley, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimates of illicit cigarette consumption are limited and the data obtained from studies funded by the tobacco industry have a tendency to inflate them. This study aimed to validate an industry-funded estimate of 35.9% for Hong Kong using a framework taken from an industry-funded report, but with more transparent data sources. Methods Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated as the difference between total cigarette consumption and the sum of legal domestic sales and legal personal imports (duty-free consumption). Reliable data from government reports and scientifically valid routine sources were used to estimate the total cigarette consumption by Hong Kong smokers and legal domestic sales in Hong Kong. Consumption by visitors and legal duty-free consumption by Hong Kong passengers were estimated under three scenarios for the assumptions to examine the uncertainty around the estimate. A two-way sensitivity analysis was conducted using different levels of possible undeclared smoking and under-reporting of self-reported daily consumption. Results Illicit cigarette consumption was estimated to be about 8.2–15.4% of the total cigarette consumption in Hong Kong in 2012 with a midpoint estimate of 11.9%, as compared with the industry-funded estimate of 35.9% of cigarette consumption. The industry-funded estimate was inflated by 133–337% of the probable true value. Only with significant levels of under-reporting of daily cigarette consumption and undeclared smoking could we approximate the value reported in the industry-funded study. Conclusions The industry-funded estimate inflates the likely levels of illicit cigarette consumption. PMID:25566812

  9. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  10. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  11. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  12. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  13. 19 CFR 191.104 - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms certificates. 191... Toilet Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.104 Alcohol... request with the regional regulatory administrator, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, in...

  14. Alliance between tobacco and alcohol industries to shape public policy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Aims The tobacco and alcohol industries share common policy goals when facing regulation, opposing policies such as tax increases and advertising restrictions. The collaboration between these two industries in the tobacco policy arena is unknown. This study explored if tobacco and alcohol companies built alliances to influence tobacco legislation, and if so, how those alliances worked. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Findings In the early 1980s, tobacco companies started efforts to build coalitions with alcohol and other industries to oppose cigarette excise taxes, clean indoor air policies, and tobacco advertising and promotion constraints. Alcohol companies were often identified as a key partner and source of financial support for the coalitions. These coalitions had variable success interfering with tobacco control policymaking. Conclusions The combined resources of tobacco and alcohol companies may have affected tobacco control legislation. These alliances helped to create the perception that there is a broader base of opposition to tobacco control. Advocates should be aware of the covert alliances between tobacco, alcohol, and other industries and expose them to correct this misperception. PMID:23587076

  15. Are homeschooled adolescents less likely to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Kremer, Kristen P.; Maynard, Brandy R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly two million school-aged children in US are currently homeschooled. This study seeks to examine homeschooled adolescents’ attitudes toward, access to, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) compared to their non-homeschooled peers. Methods The study uses data between 2002 and 2013 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for school-attending respondents aged 12–17 (n = 200,824). Participants were questioned regarding peer use of licit and illicit substances, ease of accessing illicit substances, and past 12-month substance use. Survey adjusted binary logistic regression analyses were systematically executed to compare non-homeschooled adolescents with homeschooled adolescents with respect to views toward, access to, and use of substances. Results Findings indicate that homeschooled adolescents were significantly more likely to strongly disapprove of their peers drinking (AOR = 1.23) and trying (AOR = 1.47) and routinely using (AOR = 1.59) marijuana. Homeschooled adolescents were significantly less likely to report using tobacco (AOR = 0.76), alcohol (AOR = 0.50), cannabis (AOR = 0.56) and other illicit drugs and to be diagnosed with an alcohol (AOR = 0.65) or marijuana (AOR = 0.60) use disorder. Finally, homeschooled adolescents were also less likely to report easier access to illicit drugs and to be approached by someone trying to sell drugs compared to non-homeschooled peers. Conclusions Homeschooled adolescents’ views, access, use and abuse of ATOD are uniquely different from those of non-homeschooled adolescents. Findings point to the need to more extensively examine the underlying mechanisms that may account for these differences. PMID:26338482

  16. The frequency of alcohol, illicit and licit drug consumption in the general driving population in South-East Hungary.

    PubMed

    Institóris, László; Tóth, Anita Réka; Molnár, Attila; Arok, Zsófia; Kereszty, Eva; Varga, Tibor

    2013-01-10

    In the framework of the DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) EU-6 project, a roadside survey was performed in South-East Hungary to determine the incidence of alcohol and the most frequent illicit and licit drug consumption (amphetamines, THC, illicit and medical opiates, cocaine, ketamine, benzodiazepines, zopiclone and zolpidem) in the general driving population. All 3110 drivers stopped between 01 January 2008 and 31 December 2009 were checked for alcohol, and among them 2738 persons (87.7%) participated in the further examinations, on a voluntary basis. Licit and illicit drugs were determined from their oral fluid samples by GC-MS analysis. Illicit drugs were detected in 27 cases (0.99%), licit drugs in 85 cases (3.14%), and alcohol (cut off: 0.1g/l) was found in 4 (0.13%) cases. Illicit drug consumption was the highest among men of the ages 18-34, during the spring, and on the week-end nights. With respect to licit drugs, the highest incidence was found among women over the age of 50, during the summer, and on the week-days. All alcohol positive cases were men over the age of 35. In comparison to international European averages, the alcohol and illicit drug consumption was low, but the licit drug consumption was over the European average.

  17. Media Sharp: Analyzing Tobacco and Alcohol Messages. Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This curriculum guide for educators, youth group leaders, and health professionals provides materials for teaching young people to critically evaluate the media which influences them, with particular reference to alcohol and tobacco use. Part 1, "Youth, Media, Tobacco, Alcohol," presents background facts and concepts. The relationship of youth and…

  18. HOW CAN WE USE OUR KNOWLEDGE OF ALCOHOL-TOBACCO INTERACTIONS TO REDUCE ALCOHOL USE?

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.; Weinberger, Andrea H.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, 8.5% of the US population meets criteria for alcohol use disorders, with a total cost to the US economy estimated at $234 billion per year. Alcohol and tobacco use share a high degree of co-morbidity and interact across many levels of analysis. This review begins by highlighting alcohol and tobacco co-morbidity and presenting evidence that tobacco increases the risk for alcohol misuse and likely has a causal role in this relationship. We then discuss how knowledge of alcohol and tobacco interactions can be used to reduce alcohol use focusing on whether; 1) smoking status can be used as a clinical indicator for alcohol misuse; 2) tobacco policies reduce alcohol use; and 3) nAChR medications can be used to treat alcohol use disorders. PMID:23157448

  19. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  20. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  1. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  2. Can brief alcohol interventions for youth also address concurrent illicit drug use? results from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T; Hennessy, Emily A; Lipsey, Mark W; Winters, Ken C

    2015-05-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57 % male participants and 56 % White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes.

  3. Can Brief Alcohol Interventions for Youth Also Address Concurrent Illicit Drug Use? Results from a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.; Hennessy, Emily A.; Lipsey, Mark W.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol use among youth may interrupt a possible developmental progression to more serious substance use if they can also affect the use of other illicit drugs. This meta-analysis examined the findings of recent research on the effects of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults on both alcohol and illicit drug use. Eligible studies were those using randomized or controlled quasi-experimental designs to examine the effects of brief alcohol interventions on illicit drug use outcomes among youth. A comprehensive literature search identified 30 eligible study samples that, on average, included participants age 17, with 57% male participants and 56% White youth. Three-level random-effects meta-analyses were used to estimate mean effect sizes and explore variability in effects. Overall, brief interventions targeting both alcohol and other drugs were effective in reducing both of these substances. However, the brief interventions that targeted only alcohol had no significant secondary effects on untargeted illicit drug use. The evidence from current research, therefore, shows modest beneficial effects on outcomes that are targeted by brief interventions for youth, but does not show that those effects generalize to untargeted illicit drug use outcomes. PMID:25600491

  4. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  5. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  6. Predictive factors of alcohol and tobacco use in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Aguirre, Alicia; Alonso-Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to analyze the effect of self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency on alcohol and tobacco consumption in adolescents. METHOD: a descriptive and correlational study was undertaken with 575 adolescents in 2010. The Self-Esteem Scale, the Situational Confidence Scale, the Assertiveness Questionnaire and the Resiliency Scale were used. RESULTS: the adjustment of the logistic regression model, considering age, sex, self-esteem, assertiveness, self-efficacy and resiliency, demonstrates significance in the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Age, resiliency and assertiveness predict alcohol consumption in the lifetime and assertiveness predicts alcohol consumption in the last year. Similarly, age and sex predict tobacco consumption in the lifetime and age in the last year. CONCLUSION: this study can offer important information to plan nursing interventions involving adolescent alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:25591103

  7. Young Risk Takers: Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, and Sexual Practices among a Sample of Music Festival Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Jenkinson, Rebecca; Bowring, Anna; Dietze, Paul; Hellard, Margaret; Lim, Megan S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviour are increasing among young Australians, with associated preventable health outcomes such as sexually transmissible infections (STIs) on the rise. Methods. A cross-sectional study of young people's health behaviours conducted at a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011. Results. 1365 young people aged 16–29 completed the survey; 62% were female with a mean age of 20 years. The majority (94%, n = 1287) reported drinking alcohol during the previous 12 months; among those, 32% reported “binge” drinking (6+ drinks) at least weekly. Half (52%) reported ever using illicit drugs and 25% reported past month use. One-quarter (27%) were identified as being at risk of STIs through unprotected sex with new or casual partners during the previous 12 months. Multivariable analyses found that risky sexual behaviour was associated with younger age (≤19 years), younger age of sexual debut (≤15 years), having discussed sexual health/contraception with a doctor, regular binge drinking, and recent illicit drug use. Conclusion. Substance use correlated strongly with risky sexual behaviour. Further research should explore young people's knowledge of alcohol/drug-related impairment and associated risk-taking behaviours, and campaigns should encourage appropriate STI testing among music festival attendees. PMID:26316974

  8. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  9. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  10. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  11. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  12. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  13. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  14. 27 CFR 70.75 - Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Jeopardy assessment of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms taxes. 70.75 Section 70.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES AND...

  15. 27 CFR 26.37 - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau Officers. 26.37 Section 26.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO...

  16. Patterns of alcohol and tobacco use in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Banta, Jim E; Addison, Askari; Job, Jayakaran S; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have considered whether the habitual use of tobacco in Southeast Asia is part of an established pattern of addiction that includes regular alcohol use. As part of a national survey of adult tobacco use in Cambodia (n = 13 988), we found that men who smoked were 2 times more likely to have drank alcohol in the past week (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 2.10-3.03). By age 18 to 25 years, 47% of male smokers drank alcohol, and this pattern of alcohol and tobacco use increased to >55% through the fifth decade. Women using smokeless tobacco with betel quid were more likely to be alcohol drinkers (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.98). Past week's drinking declined by late middle age and was associated with lower education and being currently married; the behavior was lower in some ethnic groups (ie, Cham). Our findings indicate an important association between alcohol and tobacco use, and raise the possibility that reducing alcohol consumption can be an important component of tobacco control.

  17. Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of door to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the bureau occupies the southern third of the building - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Policies and Practices Regarding Alcohol and Illicit Drugs among American Secondary Schools and Their Association with Student Alcohol and Marijuana Use. YES Occasional Papers. Paper 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines school policies relating to alcohol and illicit drug use, and their associations with the prevalence of alcohol and marijuana use among students. Both "punitive" and "supportive" policies are examined. Other studies examining punitive disciplinary measures--such as close monitoring of student behavior, having various security…

  19. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  20. Perceived Ease of Access to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Substances in Rural and Urban US Students

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Jacob C.; Smalley, K. Bryant; Barefoot, K. Nikki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ease of access to substances has been shown to have a direct and significant relationship with substance use for school-aged children. Previous research involving rural samples of middle and high school students reveals that perceived ease of access to substances is a significant predictor of recent use among rural adolescents; however, it is unclear if perceived access to substances varies between rural and urban areas. The purpose of the current study was to examine rural-urban differences in perceived ease of access to alcohol, smoking and chewing tobacco, marijuana, and seven other substances in order to better inform and promote future substance use prevention and programming efforts in rural areas. Methods Data were analyzed from the 2013 Georgia Student Health Survey II, administered in all public and interested private/charter schools in the state of Georgia. A total of 513,909 students (18.2% rural) indicated their perceived ease of access to 11 substances on a 4-point Likert-type scale. Rural-urban differences were investigated using chi-square analysis. Results In general, it appeared the rural-urban differences fell along legal/illicit lines. For middle school students, a significant difference in perceived ease of access was found for each substance, with rural students reporting greater access to smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, and urban students reporting greater access to alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, methamphetamine, hallucinogens, and prescription drugs. Rural high school students reported higher access to alcohol, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and steroids, with urban students reporting higher access to marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, ecstasy, and hallucinogens. Perceptions of ease of access more than doubled for each substance in both geographies between middle and high school. Conclusions In summary, the current study found multiple and fairly consistent differences between rural and urban

  1. Prevalence of alcohol, illicit drugs and psychoactive medicines in killed drivers in four European countries.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Sara-Ann; Gjerde, Hallvard; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Dias, Mario J; Gustafsson, Susanne; Ceder, Gunnel; Verstraete, Alain G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the presence of psychoactive substances in blood of drivers killed in road crashes in four European countries. Data from 1118 drivers of car and vans, killed between 2006 and 2009, were collected in Finland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden. The prevalence of any psychoactive substance ranged between 31 and 48%. Alcohol (≥ 0.1 g/L) was the most common finding, 87% had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥ .5 g/L. Benzodiazepines (1.8-13.3%) and amphetamines (0-7.4%) were the most prevalent psychoactive medicines and illicit drugs, respectively. Alcohol-drug and drug-drug combinations were rather prevalent. Differences in alcohol/drug findings seemed to reflect differences in use in the countries. More research should be done to develop preventive strategies to reduce the number of alcohol- and drug-related traffic accidents targeting at-risk groups, such as drivers with very high BACs and novice drivers. PMID:23297822

  2. Relationships between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…

  3. Sport participation and alcohol and illicit drug use in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Matthew; Bobko, Sarah; Faulkner, Guy; Donnelly, Peter; Cairney, John

    2014-03-01

    Sport participation can play an important and positive role in the health and development of children and youth. One area that has recently been receiving greater attention is the role that sport participation might play in preventing drug and alcohol use among youth. The current study is a systematic review of 17 longitudinal studies examining the relationship between sport participation and alcohol and drug use among adolescents. Results indicated that sport participation is associated with alcohol use, with 82% of the included studies (14/17) showing a significant positive relationship. Sport participation, however, appears to be related to reduced illicit drug use, especially use of non-cannabis related drugs. Eighty percent of the studies found sport participation associated with decreased illicit drug use, while 50% of the studies found negative association between sport participation and marijuana use. Further investigation revealed that participation in sports reduced the risk of overall illicit drug use, but particularly during high school; suggesting that this may be a critical period to reduce or prevent the use of drugs through sport. Future research must better understand what conditions are necessary for sport participation to have beneficial outcomes in terms of preventing alcohol and/or illicit drug use. This has been absent in the extent literature and will be central to intervention efforts in this area.

  4. Notes from the field: botulism from drinking prison-made illicit alcohol - Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    During November 24-27, 2012, the Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS) was notified that eight male inmates of prison A, a maximum security prison, had been hospitalized for treatment of an acute neurologic condition suspected to be botulism. Botulism is a serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. All eight patients reported drinking pruno, an illicitly brewed alcoholic beverage that has been associated with botulism outbreaks in prisons. This was the second outbreak of botulism in prison A during 2012; in August, four inmates were hospitalized for botulism after drinking pruno. Pinal County Health Services (PCHS), ADHS, and CDC investigated to identify the outbreak source, learn about pruno production, and provide recommendations for preventing future outbreaks of botulism in prisons.

  5. Price and Tax Measures and Illicit Trade in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: What We Know and What Research Is Required

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Article 6 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control commits Parties to use tax and price policies to reduce tobacco use, whereas Article 15 commits Parties to implement measures to eliminate the illicit trade in tobacco products. This paper identifies research gaps/needs, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, if adequately addressed, would help in implementing Articles 6 and 15. Methods: Based on a recent comprehensive review on the impact of tax and price on tobacco consumption and a summary of reviews and narratives about the illicit tobacco market, research gaps are identified. Results: Countries have highly diverse research needs, depending on the stage of the tobacco epidemic, previous research and data availability, and making a ranking of research needs infeasible. Broad issues for further research are the following: (1) monitoring tobacco consumption, prices, and taxes, (2) assessing the effectiveness of the tax structure in generating revenue and reducing tobacco use, (3) strengthening the tax administration system in order to reduce tax evasion and tax avoidance, (4) improving our understanding of the political economy of tobacco tax policy, and (5) employing a multidisciplinary approach to assessing the magnitude of illicit tobacco trade. Conclusions: At a technical level, the case for increasing excise taxes to improve public health and increase government revenue is easily made, but the political and policy environment is often not supportive. In order to effectively impact policy, the required approach would typically make use of rigorous economic techniques, and be cognizant of the political economy of raising excise taxes. PMID:22987785

  6. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses. PMID:23390804

  7. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  8. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  9. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  10. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  11. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  12. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  13. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  14. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  15. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  16. 26 CFR 601.527 - Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. 601.527 Section 601.527 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... Conference and Practice Requirements Requirements for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms Activities § 601.527 Other provisions applied to representation in alcohol, tobacco, and firearms activities. The...

  17. 26 CFR 403.2 - Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Scope of Regulations § 403.2 Personal property seized by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Regulations in 27 CFR part 72 relate to personal property seized by officers of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco... Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 403.2 Section 403.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE,...

  18. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and…

  19. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs May Harm the Unborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paddy Shannon; And Others

    This book combines in a single volume the findings of basic research and clinical studies conducted on the effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs on the fetus, the mother, and the baby after birth and through lactation. It first outlines changing perspectives on teratology (the study of causes for birth defects), as knowledge about the…

  20. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  1. Marihuana, Alcohol and Tobacco: Reassessment of a Presumed Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas; Williams, Franklin P., III

    1981-01-01

    Concludes little relationship exists between the three substances marihuana, alcohol and tobacco. Youthful subjects tend to overestimate the relationships between the three substances and cannot be generalized to other populations. Suggests an explanation of this youthful association focuses on simultaneous experimentation rather than causal…

  2. Peer Influence: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Prescription Medications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Alberto; Pritchard, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk-taking behavior (eg, alcohol abuse, tobacco usage, misuse of prescription medications) among college students is a widespread problem. This study focused not only on the frequency of risky health behaviors in college students, but also the companions with whom they engaged in such behaviors. Methods: Three hundred and twelve…

  3. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  4. Maternal prenatal cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and risk of infant leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Spector, Logan G; Heerema, Nyla A; Robison, Leslie L; Ross, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    Several case-control studies have evaluated associations between maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia. Few studies have specifically focused on infants (<1 year) with leukaemia, a group that is biologically and clinically distinct from older children. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants diagnosed with acute leukaemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] between 1996 and 2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers were queried about their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use 1 year before and throughout pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Maternal smoking (>1 cigarette/day) and illicit drug use (any amount) before and/or during pregnancy were not significantly associated with infant leukaemia. Alcohol use (>1 drink/week) during pregnancy was inversely associated with infant leukaemia overall [OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.43, 0.94], AML [OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.28, 0.87], and leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangements ('MLL+') [OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36, 0.97]. While our results agree with the fairly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking is not associated with childhood leukaemia, the data regarding alcohol and illicit drug use are not consistent with prior reports and are difficult to interpret. It is possible that unhealthy maternal behaviours during pregnancy, some of which carry potential legal consequences, may not be adequately measured using only self-report. Future case-control studies of childhood leukaemia that pursue these exposures may benefit from incorporation of validated instruments and/or biomarkers when feasible.

  5. Source and health implications of high toxic metal concentrations in illicit tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Stephens, W Edryd; Calder, Angus; Newton, Jason

    2005-01-15

    A significant flux of heavy metals, among other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. Consequently, contaminated soil is usually avoided for tobacco cultivation. Here we compare the heavy metal concentrations in tobacco from a sample of 47 counterfeit products, representative of the substantial market for these products in the U.K., with their genuine equivalents and find significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals in the counterfeits. Trace element patterns suggest that over-application of fertilizers (phosphate and/or nitrate) is the most likely cause. Nitrogen isotopes showed no significant enrichment in 15N (delta15N range from +1.1 to +4.6% in counterfeits and from +2.5 to +3.3% in genuine tobaccos) as might be expected from a sewage or manure source of nitrate, and a mineral phosphate source is considered the more likely source of metals. Stable carbon isotopes in the same tobaccos have a wide range (delta13C -18.3 to -26.4%), indicating the influence of multiple controls during cultivation and possibly post-harvesting. A review of the health effects of heavy metal transfer from tobacco via smoke to the lungs indicates that habitual smokers of counterfeits may be risking additional harm from high levels of cadmium and possibly other metals. PMID:15707047

  6. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  7. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People

    PubMed Central

    Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11–17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75–4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70–3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27428030

  8. Alcohol and Tobacco Content in UK Video Games and Their Association with Alcohol and Tobacco Use Among Young People.

    PubMed

    Cranwell, Jo; Whittamore, Kathy; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2016-07-01

    To determine the extent to which video games include alcohol and tobacco content and assess the association between playing them and alcohol and smoking behaviors in adolescent players in Great Britain. Assessment of substance in the 32 UK bestselling video games of 2012/2013; online survey of adolescent playing of 17 games with substance content; and content analysis of the five most popular games. A total of 1,094 adolescents aged 11-17 years were included as participants. Reported presence of substance content in the 32 games; estimated numbers of adolescents who had played games; self-reported substance use; semiquantitative measures of substance content by interval coding of video game cut scenes. Nonofficial sources reported substance content in 17 (44 percent) games but none was reported by the official Pan European Game Information (PEGI) system. Adolescents who had played at least one game were significantly more likely ever to have tried smoking (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.70, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] 1.75-4.17) or consumed alcohol (adjusted OR 2.35, 95 percent CI 1.70-3.23). In the five most popular game episodes of alcohol actual use, implied use and paraphernalia occurred in 31 (14 percent), 81 (37 percent), and 41 (19 percent) intervals, respectively. Tobacco actual use, implied use, and paraphernalia occurred in 32 (15 percent), 27 (12 percent), and 53 (24 percent) intervals, respectively. Alcohol and tobacco content is common in the most popular video games but not reported by the official PEGI system. Content analysis identified substantial substance content in a sample of those games. Adolescents who play these video games are more likely to have experimented with tobacco and alcohol.

  9. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  10. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  11. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  12. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  13. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  14. 5 CFR 3101.105 - Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Tobacco and Firearms employees. 3101.105 Section 3101.105 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF THE....105 Additional rules for Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms employees. The following rules apply to the employees of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and are in addition to §§...

  15. Tobacco and alcohol use among urban Malaysians in 1980.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W

    1985-01-01

    Data from 100 Chinese, 50 Malay, and 50 Indian adults resident in 1980 in the greater urban area of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, indicate a heavy use of cigarettes among males of all ethnic groups, light use among female Chinese, and none among female Malay and Indian. Consumption of other tobacco products was important only among Indian males; chewing betal quid among Indian males and also among Malay and Indian females. Alcohol use is increasing among both sexes and all ethnic groups, but Chinese and Indian groups use alcoholic drinks more frequently and in larger quantity than Malay. Beer and liquor are the most common drinks.

  16. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-06-17

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.

  17. Exposure to tobacco, alcohol and drugs of abuse during pregnancy. A study of prevalence among pregnant women in Malaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures. PMID:26132299

  18. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  19. Opium, tobacco and alcohol: the evolving legitimacy of international action.

    PubMed

    McKee, Martin

    2009-08-01

    There is a broad consensus that international trade in goods is beneficial, providing of course that it is fair. Yet not all things that are traded are goods. Some can more appropriately be considered as 'bads'. The way things are viewed can change over time. Over a century ago the U.K. fought a war with China for the right to trade in narcotics yet now interdicts such shipments on the high seas. More recently, the international community has agreed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, showing that tobacco is moving from a good to a bad. However, there are other things that are legitimately traded where restrictions may be needed, such as alcohol. Global trade is simply a means to an end. The ultimate goal must include better health for all.

  20. [Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis: Review of teratogenicity studies in animals].

    PubMed

    Spézia, F

    2006-10-01

    Despite an intensive national campaign of information, the drugs most frequently consumed by young adults undoubtedly continue to be alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. If the impact of these drugs on the health of the consumers can be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiologic data, the consequences on the embryo due to their consumption by the pregnant women can be appreciated thanks to the abundant literature describing their effects in the gravid animal. Taking into account the abundant literature available in multiple animal species, the zero drug recommendation should be widely diffused to pregnant women.

  1. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  2. The Relationship Between Editorial and Advertising Content about Tobacco and Alcohol in United States Newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Rouner, Donna; Slater, Michael; Long, Marilee; Stapel, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the relationship between amount of alcohol and tobacco advertising and related news-editorial content. This study found less tobacco and alcohol advertising in newspapers than did previous research and no relationship between coverage and number of advertisements. PMID:21499450

  3. The Role of Parenting in Alcohol and Tobacco Use among Latino Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Joshua H.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Kelley, Norma J.; Hill, Linda; Sipan, Carol L.; Schmitz, Katherine E.; Kolody, Bohdan; Chambers, Christina D.; Friedman, Lawrence S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2013-01-01

    Parents can impact adolescent substance use, but it is unclear which substances are most affected. This study compared associations between parenting behaviors and alcohol and tobacco use to see if parenting was equally related to both behaviors. Alcohol and tobacco use data were collected from 252 Latino adolescents living along the San…

  4. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  5. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  6. Lessons from the Field: Profiling State Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This document is a step-by-step guide to profiling statewide alcohol, tobacco, and other drug problems and policies. Profiles of this sort capture the complexity of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse indicators at the local level, incorporating data from a range of disciplines and making it possible to design data-driven interventions. The…

  7. Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Michael G.; Toborg, Mary A.; Denham, Sharon A.; Mande, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Context Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. PMID:18257873

  8. Liver cirrhosis, tobacco, alcohol, and cancer among blacks.

    PubMed

    Keller, A Z

    1978-08-01

    Attributes of age, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption were studied in order to elucidate their roles in the increased risks of blacks for selected neoplasms. Black cancer patients with and without liver cirrhosis were compared by cancer sites, age, tobacco usage, and alcohol consumption. Subsequently, non-cirrhotic blacks and whites with cancer were characterized on the same variables.Black males with cancer and liver cirrhosis, when compared with similar males without liver cirrhosis, were significantly younger and had more than triple the frequencies of esophageal and hepatic cancers but less than one fourth the frequencies of gastric and prostatic cancers. Cirrhotic patients were rarely nondrinkers but drank whiskey excessively. Noncirrhotic blacks, when compared with noncirrhotic whites, had very high risks of liver, stomach, and prostate cancers and smoked less heavily but drank significantly more whiskey. Hence, factors associated with patterns of smoking cigarettes and drinking, especially whiskey, if not these habits themselves, are probably related to the increased risks of blacks for stomach and liver cancers when compared with non-cirrhotic whites and for esophageal and hepatic cancers when compared with non-cirrhotic blacks.

  9. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  10. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  11. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.132 Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  12. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives § 0.132 Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  13. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  14. 28 CFR 0.132 - Delegation respecting claims against the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) of this section and by 28 CFR 0.172 to the Chief Counsel of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. 0.132 Section 0.132 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms,...

  15. Poor Response Inhibition as a Predictor of Problem Drinking and Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents at Risk for Alcoholism and Other Substance Use Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Wong, Maria M.; Martel, Michelle M.; Jester, Jennifer M.; Puttler, Leon I.; Glass, Jennifer M.; Adams, Kenneth M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the predictive power of executive functions, in particular, response inhibition, in relation to alcohol-related problems and illicit drug use in adolescence. Method: A total of 498 children from 275 families from a longitudinal high-risk study completed executive function measures in early and late adolescence and lifetime…

  16. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  17. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories.

  18. Taxes on tobacco, alcohol and sugar sweetened beverages: Linkages and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Evan

    2015-07-01

    Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to increases in obesity in both high-income and low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco and alcohol taxes have proven to be effective tools to reduce tobacco and alcohol use. Many public health advocates propose using similar taxes to reduce consumption of SSBs. South Africa is a middle-income country that is considered a leader in the area of tobacco tax policy. A case study of tobacco and alcohol taxes is used to better understand optimal tax structures for SSBs. The case study tracks aggregate data over time on taxes, prices, consumption, tax revenues, and marketing expenditures at the brand level. Tobacco and alcohol taxes are shown to be effective in reducing the demand for tobacco. Additionally, taxes on the dose of alcohol rather than the volume of the beverage may incentivize producers to reduce the volume of alcohol in beverages through the supply side. While specific taxes based on the volume of beverages are likely to reduce the demand for SSBs, policy makers should also consider taxes on alcohol and SSBs that tax the dose of the alcohol and calories in order to create supply-side incentives for producers to lower alcohol and calorie levels in existing products or promote products with lower levels of alcohol and calories. PMID:26005761

  19. Trends in marijuana and other illicit drug use among college students: results from 4 Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study surveys: 1993-2001.

    PubMed

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Lee, Jae Eun; Wechsler, Henry

    2003-01-01

    The authors examined changes in college students' illicit drug use, patterns of polydrug use, and the relationship between students' ages of initiation of substance use and later use of marijuana and other illicit drugs between 1993 and 2001. Data from 119 US colleges and universities in the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study were used in the study. They found significant increases in percentages of students' use of marijuana in the past 30 days (from 13% to 17%), past year (from 23% to 30%), and lifetime (from 41% to 47%) between 1993 and 2001, with most of the increase occurring between 1993 and 1997. Past 30-day use of other illicit drugs increased from 4% to 7% and past year use increased from 11% to 14%. More than 98% of marijuana and other illicit drug users used another substance. They also either smoked, were binge drinkers, and/or were users of another illicit drug. Drug prevention programs should emphasize heavy alcohol use and smoking and should start when students are in high school or earlier.

  20. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  1. Incapacitated, forcible, and drug/alcohol-facilitated rape in relation to binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use: a national survey.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the relation between rape and substance use problems as a function of three legally recognized forms of rape: forcible, incapacitated, and drug/alcohol facilitated rape. Data were collected via structured telephone interview within a national household sample of U.S. women aged 18-34 years (n = 1,998). Lifetime experience of incapacitated rape was associated with increased odds of past-year binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use. Lifetime history of forcible rape and drug/alcohol facilitated rape were associated with increased odds of marijuana and illicit drug use. Findings highlight the importance of including incapacitated and drug/alcohol facilitated rape in trauma history assessments, particularly among substance abusing populations, and have implications for secondary prevention and treatment of women with victimization histories.

  2. Alcohol as a Gateway Drug: A Study of US 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…

  3. Trends in Use of Alcohol and Other Substances on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bardley S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes usage of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs during two recent television seasons. Alcohol predominated, accounting for more than two-thirds of all coded substance acts. More than two acts of alcohol use were found per hour in each season. The middle class and comic characters did the heavier drinking. (Author/BEF)

  4. Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Hall, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarises data for the prevalence, correlates, and probable adverse health consequences of problem use of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. We discuss findings from systematic reviews of the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, remission from dependence, and mortality in illicit drug users, and evidence for acute and chronic effects of illicit drug use. We outline the regional and global distribution of use and estimated health burden from illicit drugs. These distributions are likely to be underestimates because they have not included all adverse outcomes of drug use and exclude those of cannabis--the mostly widely used illicit drug. In high-income countries, illicit drug use contributes less to the burden of disease than does tobacco but a substantial proportion of that due to alcohol. The major adverse health effects of cannabis use are dependence and probably psychotic disorders and other mental disorders. The health-related harms of cannabis use differ from those of amphetamine, cocaine, and opioid use, in that cannabis contributes little to mortality. Intelligent policy responses to drug problems need better data for the prevalence of different types of illicit drug use and the harms that their use causes globally. This need is especially urgent in high-income countries with substantial rates of illicit drug use and in low-income and middle-income countries close to illicit drug production areas.

  5. Tobacco smoking interferes with GABAA receptor neuroadaptations during prolonged alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; McKay, Reese; Esterlis, Irina; Kloczynski, Tracy; Perkins, Evgenia; Bois, Frederic; Pittman, Brian; Lancaster, Jack; Glahn, David C; O'Malley, Stephanie; Carson, Richard E; Krystal, John H

    2014-12-16

    Understanding the effects of tobacco smoking on neuroadaptations in GABAA receptor levels over alcohol withdrawal will provide critical insights for the treatment of comorbid alcohol and nicotine dependence. We conducted parallel studies in human subjects and nonhuman primates to investigate the differential effects of tobacco smoking and nicotine on changes in GABAA receptor availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. We report that alcohol withdrawal with or without concurrent tobacco smoking/nicotine consumption resulted in significant and robust elevations in GABAA receptor levels over the first week of withdrawal. Over prolonged withdrawal, GABAA receptors returned to control levels in alcohol-dependent nonsmokers, but alcohol-dependent smokers had significant and sustained elevations in GABAA receptors that were associated with craving for alcohol and cigarettes. In nonhuman primates, GABAA receptor levels normalized by 1 mo of abstinence in both groups--that is, those that consumed alcohol alone or the combination of alcohol and nicotine. These data suggest that constituents in tobacco smoke other than nicotine block the recovery of GABAA receptor systems during sustained alcohol abstinence, contributing to alcohol relapse and the perpetuation of smoking.

  6. Topical trends in tobacco and alcohol articles published in three dental journals, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Neff, James Alan; Gunsolley, John C; Alshatrat, Sabha Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of articles about tobacco or alcohol published from 1980 to 2010 in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), Journal of Dental Education (JDE), and Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) in an attempt to identify trends by decade in topics relevant to oral health consequences, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used to code abstracts using the keywords "tobacco" or "alcohol." The search identified 269 articles: tobacco=211 (78%), alcohol=58 (22%). This number represented 2.4% of the total articles published in these journals for the specified years. While the percentage of tobacco-related articles increased over this period (with highs in the 1990s of 4.1% in the JDE and 9% in the JPHD), the percentage of alcohol articles reached only 1% for JADA and 3.3% for the JPHD in the 2000s. The number of tobacco-related articles addressing oral health effects, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling increased in the 1990s. Although there were modest increases in the number of articles about alcohol-related oral health effects and oral cancer linkages (particularly in the JPHD in the 2000s), only two articles (in JADA in the 2000s) addressed alcohol cessation counseling. This study concluded that tobacco and alcohol have received limited, though increasing, attention in these three major journals between 1980 and 2010, with alcohol receiving less attention than tobacco. These results suggest a need for more published studies on tobacco and alcohol interventions in dental and allied dental education to prepare students to contribute to this aspect of their patients' health.

  7. Topical trends in tobacco and alcohol articles published in three dental journals, 1980-2010.

    PubMed

    Neff, James Alan; Gunsolley, John C; Alshatrat, Sabha Mahmoud

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a review of articles about tobacco or alcohol published from 1980 to 2010 in the Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA), Journal of Dental Education (JDE), and Journal of Public Health Dentistry (JPHD) in an attempt to identify trends by decade in topics relevant to oral health consequences, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling. NVivo qualitative analysis software was used to code abstracts using the keywords "tobacco" or "alcohol." The search identified 269 articles: tobacco=211 (78%), alcohol=58 (22%). This number represented 2.4% of the total articles published in these journals for the specified years. While the percentage of tobacco-related articles increased over this period (with highs in the 1990s of 4.1% in the JDE and 9% in the JPHD), the percentage of alcohol articles reached only 1% for JADA and 3.3% for the JPHD in the 2000s. The number of tobacco-related articles addressing oral health effects, oral cancer linkages, and cessation counseling increased in the 1990s. Although there were modest increases in the number of articles about alcohol-related oral health effects and oral cancer linkages (particularly in the JPHD in the 2000s), only two articles (in JADA in the 2000s) addressed alcohol cessation counseling. This study concluded that tobacco and alcohol have received limited, though increasing, attention in these three major journals between 1980 and 2010, with alcohol receiving less attention than tobacco. These results suggest a need for more published studies on tobacco and alcohol interventions in dental and allied dental education to prepare students to contribute to this aspect of their patients' health. PMID:26034032

  8. Alcohol and tobacco advertising in black and general audience newspapers: targeting with message cues?

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Caburnay, Charlene A; Rodgers, Shelly

    2011-07-01

    This study content analyzed 928 tobacco- and alcohol-related advertisements from a 3-year national sample of Black (n = 24) and general audience (n = 11) newspapers from 24 U.S. cities. The authors compared the frequency of tobacco and alcohol product and control advertising in Black versus general audience newspapers, as well as the presence of 5 message cues: model ethnicity, presence of health official, referral to resources, personal behavior mobilization, and localization. Results within health issues show that Black newspapers had more alcohol product advertising than did general audience newspapers. In contrast, Black newspapers had less alcohol and tobacco control advertising than general audience newspapers. Black newspapers' tobacco/alcohol product advertisements had more African American models than did general audience newspapers' tobacco/alcohol advertising, whereas general audience newspapers' tobacco control advertisements were significantly more likely to feature public health officials than ads in Black newspapers. Fewer message cues such as personal behavior mobilization, referral to resources, and localization were present in Black versus general audience newspapers. Results suggest that Black newspapers may have greater dependency than do general audience newspapers on these risk-related advertisements that target African American consumers. Given the current advertising environment, public health initiatives are needed to counter unhealthy alcohol product advertising messages that target vulnerable populations.

  9. Drug and Alcohol Awareness for Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexler, Nora L.

    This educational program on drugs and alcohol provides a "No-Use" message to students. The curriculum maintains that alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs are unhealthy and harmful, and that society's laws and values are to be respected. The lessons build students' resistance to influences that encourage drug abuse and they promote safe, healthy,…

  10. Drug and Alcohol Awareness for Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexler, Nora L.

    This educational program on drugs and alcohol provides a "No-Use" message to students. The curriculum maintains that alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs are unhealthy and harmful, and that society's laws and values are to be respected. The lessons build students' resistance to influences that encourage drug abuse and they promote safe, healthy,…

  11. Drug and Alcohol Awareness for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexler, Nora L.

    This educational program on drugs and alcohol provides a "No-Use" message to students. The curriculum maintains that alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs are unhealthy and harmful, and that society's laws and values are to be respected. The lessons build students' resistance to influences that encourage drug abuse and they promote safe, healthy,…

  12. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  13. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  14. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  15. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  16. 28 CFR 0.138 - Federal Bureau of Investigation, Drug Enforcement Administration, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prison Industries, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Marshals Service, Office of Justice Programs, Executive Office for Immigration Review, Executive Office for United States Attorneys... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, Bureau of Prisons, Federal Prison Industries, Immigration...

  17. A Social Operational Model of Urban Adolescents' Tobacco and Substance Use: A Mediational Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.; Mennis, Jeremy; Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with tobacco use, social network quality (level of risk or protection in a network), and substance use (alcohol and/or illicit drugs) with a sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality would mediate the effect of tobacco use, accounting for PTSD symptoms and…

  18. California Programs To Prevent and Reduce Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among In-School Youth: An Interim Report about Tobacco Use. Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Regional Lab., Los Alamitos, CA.

    This document presents an interim report about tobacco use and its prevention among students in California schools. It focuses on the efforts of the Tobacco Use Prevention Education (TUPE) program, a part of the California Department of Education's Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education (DATE) program. It is noted that TUPE programs have operated in…

  19. A Review of Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Robert; Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in genetic technologies have posed unexpected challenges to the ethical and legal framework guiding the application of the most recent advances in healthcare technologies. By and large, these challenges have been successfully met by the introduction by statutes such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). However, over the past several years, these advances in the ability to measure genetic (or heritable) contributions to medical illness have been joined by advances in epigenetic (or acquired) contributions to common medical illnesses. Unfortunately, the moral and legal framework for the use of these epigenetic technologies, which can objectively determine the presence of medical illnesses such as diabetes or the consumption of substances of abuse, is not as well developed. This communication provides an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetics and then reviews how some of the latest advances in this technology can now be used to assess the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Next, the possible mechanisms through which these tools could be employed clinically are discussed. Finally, the authors outline the potential for misuse of this technology and suggest that well-informed policy could play a critical role in shaping the optimal implementation of epigenetic technologies.

  20. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    PubMed

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  1. Prevalence and Patterns of Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Illicit Drug Use in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Michael E.; Ryan, Daniel T.; Greene, George J.; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are substantially more likely to use illicit drugs and other substances compared to their heterosexual peers. Substance use during adolescence has critical implications for long-term physical and mental health, and among YMSM may lead to HIV infection. The goal of the current study was to describe lifetime and past six month prevalence and patterns of substance use across multiple substances in a community sample of racially-diverse YMSM. Methods Participants were 450 YMSM aged 16–20 living in Chicago and surrounding areas who were recruited beginning December, 2009 using a modified form of respondent driven sampling. Analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic regression and latent class analysis (LCA). Results Prevalence of substance use was high in this sample of majority racial minority YMSM, and only 17.6% reported no substance use during the past six months. Black YMSM had lower prevalence of use of all substances except marijuana compared to White YMSM, while Latino YMSM had lower prevalence of alcohol, marijuana, and club drug use. Bisexual YMSM reported higher prevalence of cigarette smoking, stimulant use, and club drug use compared to gay/mostly gay YMSM but lower numbers of bisexual participants limited the ability to detect statistically significant differences. LCA found that YMSM fell into three general categories of substance users: alcohol and marijuana users, polysubstance users, and low marijuana users. Conclusions Analyses reveal important group differences in prevalence and patterns of substance use in YMSM that have important implications for intervention. PMID:24907774

  2. Kindergarten Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Hall, Lynne A.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Burt, April V.; Corley, Donna; Sheffel, Kristy Lea

    2000-01-01

    Assessed kindergartners' knowledge of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATODs), examining the congruence between parent ATOD use and children's knowledge. Data collected prior to an ATOD prevention trial for kindergartners and parents indicated that most students recognized cigarettes, half recognized alcoholic beverages, and 17 percent…

  3. Alcohol and tobacco cue effects on craving in non-daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Peloquin, Marcel P J; McGrath, Daniel S; Telbis, Dessislava; Barrett, Sean P

    2014-12-01

    Non-daily smokers commonly smoke cigarettes following the consumption of alcohol, yet the reason(s) for this remains poorly understood. The present study examined the impact of alcohol consumption on responses in tobacco salient cues 49 male and 50 female non-daily smokers. After the administration of an alcohol, placebo, or control beverage, participants were exposed to series neutral video clips and tobacco smoking salient video clips, and their subjective states and heart rates were monitored. The timing of the exposure to the tobacco smoking clips was randomly determined to coincide with the timing of either the ascending limb or the descending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve of the alcohol beverage condition. The tobacco smoking clips were found to increase cigarette craving regardless of beverage condition or timing of exposure (p = .002). Alcohol consumption was associated with increased ratings of intoxication (p < .001), increased heart rate across participants (p < .001), and increased cigarette craving in female participants specifically (p = .017). Alcohol did not influence responses to the smoking videos. These results suggest that smoking salient cues and alcohol may impact cigarette craving in non-daily smokers through independent processes.

  4. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  5. Laws about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs: A Guidebook for California's Parents and Educators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; Munger, Beth

    With the increasing concern over alcohol and other drug use among young people, adults must educate themselves about legal issues. This booklet is a resource for parents and educators to help them learn tobacco, alcohol, and other drug laws in California. The material is organized by type of drug with the legal codes as they apply to that drug…

  6. ILLICIT CIGARETTE TRADE IN THAILAND

    PubMed Central

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2012-01-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991–2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  7. The frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in televised sports, 1990 through 1992.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, P A; Grube, J W

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and nature of alcohol and tobacco advertising in a random sample of 166 televised sports events representing 443.7 hours of network programming broadcast from fall 1990 through summer 1992. More commercials appear for alcohol products than for any other beverage. Beer commercials predominate and include images at odds with recommendations from former Surgeon General Koop. The audience is also exposed to alcohol and tobacco advertising through the appearances of stadium signs, other on-site promotions, and verbal or visual brief product sponsorships. Moderation messages and public service announcements are rare. PMID:8296959

  8. Subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage after alcohol ingestion and illicit use of sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Antar, Veysel; Sutpideler, Neslihan; Baran, Oguz; Bitirak, Gorkem

    2015-01-01

    Sildenafil is a drug used in the treatment of male impotence. Few cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage following the use of sildenafil have been cited in the literature. A 42-year-old man was admitted to the emergency outpatient clinic of İstanbul Educational and Research Hospital after sudden loss of consciousness. He had ingested alcohol, taken 50mg sildenafil and had sexual intercourse. Non-contrast cranial tomography revealed an intracerebral hematoma with extension to the ventricles. Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme inhibitor. With the inhibition of PDE-5, the amount of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (c-GMP) in the smooth vascular muscle cells in the corpus cavernosum increases, leading to a relaxation of muscles and vasodilatation. Studies have shown that the NO-c-GMP pathway leads to cerebral vasodilatation with a similar mechanism. The literature has shown that the effect of PDE-1 and PDE-2 on cerebral bleeding control is affected by sildenafil. This increased blood flow increases the risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Although data concerning the presentation of intracerebral hematoma in connection with the combined use of alcohol ingestion and use of sildenafil is inadequate, it can nevertheless be thought that the combined use increases the risk of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and caution is in order concerning the matter. PMID:26037192

  9. Relationships Between Illicit Drug Use and Body Mass Index Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Blackstone, Sarah R; Herrmann, Lynn K

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI compared to peers who reported no drug use. There was a positive relationship between drug use and BMI as well as the number of drugs used and BMI. The results suggested that the positive relationship between the use of illicit drugs and BMI is largely due to smoking. Further research needs to ascertain whether smoking, illicit drug use, or both are among the first of many unhealthy behaviors that can subsequently lead to greater gains in BMI. Implications for health educators are discussed. PMID:25842387

  10. [Levels of evidence in drug therapy for alcohol use disorders and illicit drug use].

    PubMed

    Burucker, J; Kropp, S

    2012-12-01

    Substance-related disorders are clinically and socially very important. In Germany over a million people of varying ages are affected. Depending on the substance and stage of treatment, drugs and different treatment methods are used. Through a literature search we examined the current knowledge of what drugs and therapies are used to date, and what randomised trials have been carried out to prove the efficacy of drug therapy. The aim was to define for each drug or pharmacological therapy a specific level of evidence. For the pharmacological treatment of alcohol, cocaine and opiate withdrawal syndromes and their relapses, prophylaxis or replacement therapy drugs are found to have a high level of evidence. Efficacy has been proven scientifically for processes such as behaviour therapy, contingency management or motivational interviewing.

  11. Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Risk Behaviors in Film: How Well Do MPAA Ratings Distinguish Content?

    PubMed Central

    Tickle, Jennifer J.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline L.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of MPAA ratings for parental selection of appropriate films for children, the 100 top grossing movies each year from 1996 through 2004 (N=900) were content analyzed to measure risk behaviors in each film. More restrictive MPAA ratings (R and PG-13) were associated with increased mean seconds of portrayals of tobacco use, alcohol use, and sexual content; increased frequency of violent content; and increased salience of drug use. However, MPAA ratings did not clearly distinguish films based on tobacco or alcohol use. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 124 seconds or more of tobacco use, comparable to 26% of PG-13 and 17% of PG movies. Fifty percent of R-rated movies contained 162 seconds or more of alcohol use, comparable to 49% of PG-13 and 25% of PG movies. Because of the high degree of overlap in alcohol and tobacco content between rating categories, the MPAA rating system, as currently defined, is not adequate for parents who wish to limit their children’s exposure to tobacco or alcohol content in movies. PMID:20029709

  12. [Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Lamy, Sandrine; Delavene, Héloise; Thibaut, Florence

    2014-03-01

    Licit and illicit substance use during pregnancy is a major public health concern. Alcohol and substance (tobacco, cannabis, cocaine...) use prevalence during pregnancy remains under estimated. Some studies have reported the prevalence of alcohol or substance use in different countries worldwide but most of them were based on the mother's interview. Consumption of one or more psychoactive substances during pregnancy may have serious consequences on the pregnancy and on the child development. However, the type of consequences is still a matter of controversies. The reasons are diverse: different rating scales, potential interactions with environmental and genetic factors. Considering the negative consequences of drug use during pregnancy, preventive campaigns against the use of drugs during pregnancy are strongly recommended. PMID:24851359

  13. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor.

  14. How High Is Up? An Innovative Manual for Infusing Tobacco, Alcohol & Other Drugs Education into Middle School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krusi, Carolynne; Schellens, Dick

    Curriculum infusion makes a new topic an integral part of an existing curriculum, integrating it into subject areas throughout the curriculum over time. In a tobacco, alcohol, and other drug infusion curriculum, examples might include: discussing alcohol-related themes as they arise in literature, evaluating tobacco statistics in math, studying…

  15. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…

  16. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  17. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  18. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  19. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  20. 28 CFR 16.106 - Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF)-Limited Access. 16.106 Section 16.106 Judicial Administration... the Privacy Act § 16.106 Exemption of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  1. TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE AMONG CHRONIC DISEASE PATIENTS IN CAMBODIA, MYANMAR AND VIETNAM.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use and to determine the factors associated with tobacco and alcohol use among chronic disease patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Fifteen point five percent of those studied were current smokers, 14.5% current smokeless tobacco users, 20.7% daily tobacco users (smokers or smokeless tobacco), 9.3% problem drinkers and 4.1% both daily tobacco users and problem drinkers. Having been diagnosed with hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), liver disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with daily tobacco use; liver disease, gout and other musculoskeletal conditions, kidney disease, and dyslipidemia were positively associated with problem drinking. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, socio-demographics (being male, older age, lower education, coming from Myanmar, being single, divorced or widowed, rural residence and part-time employed), problem drinking and having two or more chronic health conditions were associated with daily tobacco use. Socio-demographics (being male, younger age, coming from Vietnam, being married or cohabiting), daily tobacco use and not having depressive symptoms were found to be associated with problem drinking. High prevalences of daily tobacco use and problem drinking were found among chronic disease patients and several socio-demographic, disease specific, and other health risk behavior factors were identified which can guide substance use intervention programs for this population. PMID:27405138

  2. Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi‐Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Design Ten‐second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12‐week period in 2013/14; on‐line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high‐content videos. Setting Great Britain. Participants A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years who completed an on‐line survey. Measurements Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Findings Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33–51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13–27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0–4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2–11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0–7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0–3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E‐Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re‐watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re‐watch the videos than boys, P < 0.001. Conclusions Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. PMID:25516167

  3. Alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence: the importance of the family mealtime environment.

    PubMed

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2010-05-01

    Despite evidence that frequent family meals are associated with low levels of substance use during adolescence, prior studies have not examined the role of how adolescents perceive mealtimes. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, perceived priority, atmosphere and structure of mealtimes as predictors of alcohol and tobacco consumption, using data from 550 adolescents (50% boys; age range 11-16). Frequent family meals were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of alcohol and tobacco use. However, this association was explained by adolescents' perception of the atmosphere at mealtimes. These findings suggest adolescents' perception of the mealtime environment contributes to family meals' protective effect.

  4. Validity of Brief Screening Instrument for Adolescent Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kirk, Arethusa; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism developed an alcohol screening instrument for youth based on epidemiologic data. This study examines the concurrent validity of this instrument, expanded to include tobacco and drugs, among pediatric patients, as well as the acceptability of its self-administration on an iPad. METHODS: Five hundred and twenty-five patients (54.5% female; 92.8% African American) aged 12 to 17 completed the Brief Screener for Tobacco, Alcohol, and other Drugs (BSTAD) via interviewer-administration or self-administration using an iPad. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition substance use disorders (SUDs) were identified using a modified Composite International Diagnostic Interview-2 Substance Abuse Module. Receiver operating characteristic curves, sensitivities, and specificities were obtained to determine optimal cut points on the BSTAD in relation to SUDs. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-nine (30.3%) adolescents reported past-year use of ≥1 substances on the BSTAD: 113 (21.5%) used alcohol, 84 (16.0%) used marijuana, and 50 (9.5%) used tobacco. Optimal cut points for past-year frequency of use items on the BSTAD to identify SUDs were ≥6 days of tobacco use (sensitivity = 0.95; specificity = 0.97); ≥2 days of alcohol use (sensitivity = 0.96; specificity = 0.85); and ≥2 days of marijuana use (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.93). iPad self-administration was preferred over interviewer administration (z = 5.8; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The BSTAD is a promising screening tool for identifying problematic tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use in pediatric settings. Even low frequency of substance use among adolescents may indicate need for intervention. PMID:24753528

  5. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students.METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool - a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire - and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years.RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo).CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  6. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  7. Availability of Tobacco and Alcohol Products in Los Angeles Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J.; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-01-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists’ Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products. PMID:21644021

  8. Effects of Youth Assets on Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana Use, and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Michael S.; Kitts, Cathy; Lewis, Sandy; Goodrow, Bruce; Scherzer, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana use, and sexual behaviors are consistently reported by high school students in the United States and can contribute to reduced quality of life. Empirical research finds that many assets may act as a protective factor for adolescent risk behaviors. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the…

  9. The Protective Influence of Spiritual-Religious Lifestyle Profiles on Tobacco Use, Alcohol Use, and Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Andereck, Kathleen; Montoya, Harry

    2007-01-01

    The costs associated with the use of addictive substances and practices underscore the need for research on protective factors that inhibit use. In this study, the protective influences of various spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and gambling frequency and expenditures are examined. Among the predominantly…

  10. Predictors of Tobacco and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy for Urban and Rural African-American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasim, Aashir; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corona, Rosalie; Townsend, Tiffany G.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contributions of individual, family, peer, and community risk and promotive factors in explaining alcohol and tobacco refusal attitudes among 227 African-American adolescents (ages 12 to 17) from urban and rural areas. Hierarchical linear regression (HLR) results revealed differences in the predictive…

  11. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  12. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  13. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  14. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  15. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  16. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  17. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart A of... - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 20226. 3. Requests for records. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(h) as to whether to grant.... Administrative appeal of initial determination to deny records. Appellate determinations under 31 CFR 1.5(i) with... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco...

  18. 31 CFR Appendix E to Subpart C of... - Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determinations under 31 CFR 1.27(e) with respect to records of the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau.... Initial determination under 31 CFR 1.26, whether to grant requests for notification and access to records... 202-453-2331. 3. Requests for amendment of record. Initial determinations under 31 CFR 1.27...

  19. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Psychoactive Drug Use among High School Students in Bogota, Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Miguel A.; Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2000-01-01

    Investigated health behaviors practiced by 10th graders in Bogota, Colombia. Data from a modified version of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey indicated that there was a high use of gateway substances (tobacco and alcohol) among respondents, but lower usage, when compared to U.S. students, of other mind-altering substances such as marijuana,…

  20. Emotional Self-Efficacy and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Teoli, Dac A.; Valois, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and alcohol and tobacco use in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n?=?2,566). The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression analyses indicated the presence of any significant race by…

  1. Schools and the Community Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Environment: Opportunities for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Schools have long been central to community-based alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) prevention programs. Yet research consistently shows that school programs have only a marginal effect on student substance use and community ATOD problems. Schools are only one of the many influences on young people, and even the best curriculum will fail if…

  2. The Save-Your-Life Glossary of Alcohol, AIDS, Drug, & Tobacco Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adcock, Deborah

    This document presents the Save-Your-Life Glossary, which consists of four parts: (1) the glossary itself, which defines alcohol, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), drug, and tobacco-related terms; (2) the alerts sections, which focus on popular drugs or issues that concern young people; (3) the focus sections, which categorize and…

  3. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  4. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  5. [Frequency of smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and using drugs by the junior high school youth].

    PubMed

    Rzeńicki, Adam; Kowalska, Alina; Krakowiak, Jan; Chowański, Kamil; Stelmach, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    There is systematic decrease in the age of tobacco, alcohol and drug initiation in Poland among children and adolescents. Education concerning damage caused by smoking tobacco drinking alcohol and taking drugs, if started in due course, is of essence when it comes to the inhibition of these unfavourable phenomena. The aim of this work was to recognise the participation of smokers, people who drink alcohol and take drugs among students of junior high school as well as checking the dependency between early tobacco initiation and taking to drugs and alcohol among the youth. In March 2014, 288 students of 1-3 grades were included in the study of some selected junior high schools from the Moniecki region in Podlaskie voivodeship. While collecting empirical material, anonymous survey was carried out including 35 questions. Students were asked to fill it in freely during a lesson. In order to elaborate the collected data, descriptive meth, ods were used as well as methods of statistical interference. 163 women (56.6%) and 125 men (43.4%) were included in the survey. The most numerous group consisted of respondents at the age of 15 (40.1%) In the surveyed group, 100 students (34.7%) admitted to smoking at least one cigarette in their life. 6.3% of the respondents (18 people) smoked daily, whereas 9.0% (26 people) claimed they smoked occasionally. Majority of the surveyed people (51%, 147 people) answered that they had already drunk alcohol. 2.4% of the respondents (7 people) declared drinking daily whereas 18.4% (53 people) claimed to be drinking occasionally. Every tenth junior high school student stated the had used drugs at least once in their life (10.1%, 29 people). Despite the law in Poland prohibiting drug possession and trade as well as alcohol and tobacco purchase and consumption among minors, frequency of drinking alcohol, smoking cigarette, and using drugs was high among the junior high school students.

  6. Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence of alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use over time in a cohort of young Hispanic adolescents in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Khoury, E L; Warheit, G J; Zimmerman, R S; Vega, W A; Gil, A G

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of substance use among young Hispanic adolescents of Cuban and Central/South American heritage, many of whom are recent immigrants to the U.S. At present there are very little epidemiologic data on these Hispanic ethnic subgroups, particularly for girls. A cohort of 848 middle school boys and girls in Miami, Florida completed questionnaires in 7th, 8th, and 9th grades concerning their use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other illicit drugs. African Americans and White non-Hispanics were used as comparison groups. In general, White non-Hispanics and U.S.-born Hispanics had the highest lifetime and past year prevalence rates of substance use. While no statistically significant gender differences were found for any of the racial/ethnic groups, the use of substances among Hispanic girls often exceeded that of their male counterparts. A progressive increase in use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, and other illicit drugs was evident over the two and one-half year duration of the study for both gender groups. PMID:8883369

  7. The Long Arm of Adolescence: School Health Behavioral Environments, Tobacco and Alcohol Co-Use, and the 5HTTLPR Gene

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Jonathan; Boardman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Although sociologists, demographers, and others have thoroughly studied contextual and life-course influences on tobacco and alcohol use in adolescence and young adulthood, far less attention has been paid to the determinants of tobacco and alcohol co-use. This is important to remedy because co-use has non-additive effect on long-term health. In this paper, we use nationally representative, longitudinal data from adolescence to young adulthood to examine patterns of joint tobacco and alcohol use behaviors across the life course. Importantly, we describe how these trajectories are linked to their high school's joint profile of tobacco and alcohol use, measured two ways: the proportion of tobacco and alcohol co-users, and as the ‘excess proportion’ above that expected based on the marginal probabilities of smoking and drinking in that school. Joint tobacco and alcohol use is associated with both measures, emphasizing the ‘long arm’ of adolescent contexts. Furthermore, we extend previous research to assess whether there is a gene-environment interaction between this school-level measure, 5HTTLPR, and tobacco and alcohol co-use, as suggested by recent work analyzing drinking and smoking separately. We find evidence of such a pattern, but conclude that it is likely to be due to population stratification or other forms of confounding. PMID:25343362

  8. [Perceived norms among Honduran university students about peers and tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use].

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Syntia Dinora Santos; Cunningham, John; Strike, Carol; Brands, Bruna; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the difference between perceived norms and peers' drug use among sophomore and junior university students (from the field of education) aged 18 to 24 years. The Social Norms Theory was used as the theoretical framework. In total, 286 students participated in the study, 67% of which reported having consumed alcohol at least once in a lifetime and 28% stated being daily users. Students perceived that 62% of their peers used tobacco and 63% used alcohol. The perceived norm for drug use was slightly higher in women than in men. In conclusion, there is an overestimation between the perceived norm and use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine.

  9. Tobacco Smoking and Its Association with Illicit Drug Use among Young Men Aged 15-24 Years Living in Urban Slums of Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Goh, Kim-Leng; Kamal, Sunny Mohammad Mostafa; Khan, Md. Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking (TS) and illicit drug use (IDU) are of public health concerns especially in developing countries, including Bangladesh. This paper aims to (i) identify the determinants of TS and IDU, and (ii) examine the association of TS with IDU among young slum dwellers in Bangladesh. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on a total of 1,576 young slum dwellers aged 15–24 years were extracted for analysis from the 2006 Urban Health Survey (UHS), which covered a nationally representative sample of 13,819 adult men aged 15–59 years from slums, non-slums and district municipalities of six administrative regions in Bangladesh. Methods used include frequency run, Chi-square test of association and multivariable logistic regression. The overall prevalence of TS in the target group was 42.3%, of which 41.4% smoked cigarettes and 3.1% smoked bidis. The regression model for TS showed that age, marital status, education, duration of living in slums, and those with sexually transmitted infections were significantly (p<0.001 to p<0.05) associated with TS. The overall prevalence of IDU was 9.1%, dominated by those who had drug injections (3.2%), and smoked ganja (2.8%) and tari (1.6%). In the regression model for IDU, the significant (p<0.01 to p<0.10) predictors were education, duration of living in slums, and whether infected by sexually transmitted diseases. The multivariable logistic regression (controlling for other variables) revealed significantly (p<0.001) higher likelihood of IDU (OR = 9.59, 95% CI = 5.81–15.82) among users of any form of TS. The likelihood of IDU increased significantly (p<0.001) with increased use of cigarettes. Conclusions/Significance Certain groups of youth are more vulnerable to TS and IDU. Therefore, tobacco and drug control efforts should target these groups to reduce the consequences of risky lifestyles through information, education and communication (IEC) programs. PMID:23935885

  10. Employment experience in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and betel nut use among youth in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuan-Yu; Chen, Wen-Chun; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin; Lee, Ching-Mei; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Duan-Rung; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Lin, Chaucer C H; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lai, Te-Jen; Chen, Wei J

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the association linking employment experience with alcohol, tobacco, and betel nut involvement among youth in Taiwan. In 2004, an outreach program was conducted during weekdays to recruit youth sample in seven major geographic regions. A total of 5886 youth aged 12-18 years drawn from 26 cities or towns were assessed by a two-page anonymous self-administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic characteristics, employment-, development-, and drug-related experiences. In Taiwan, youthful experience of alcohol, tobacco, and polydrug use varies by employment status, work intensity, and job type. Holding a full-time job and working in certain settings (e.g., grocery, restaurants) were found associated with an excess of drug-using behaviors. With taking age, male gender, family context, disposable allowance, and school attendance into account, working youths were two to four times as likely to have recent drug involvement than their non-working counterparts, especially for tobacco and polydrug (OR=3.32, 95% CI: 2.58-4.27, p<0.001; OR=3.76, 95% CI: 2.76-5.13, p<0.001). Youths in the labor force emerge as a subgroup experiencing greater use of alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and polydrug. Future prevention programs may target this high-risk group to reduce possible drug-related negative consequences in developmental and health domains in Taiwan. PMID:16600528

  11. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  12. Target marketing of tobacco and alcohol-related products to ethnic minority groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.

  13. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  14. Tobacco and alcohol use in the context of adolescent pregnancy and postpartum: a scoping review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents' use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls' substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use.

  15. Do Brief Alcohol Interventions Reduce Tobacco Use among Adolescents and Young Adults? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Emily A.; Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesizes studies of brief interventions (BIs) that targeted alcohol consumption and reported both alcohol and tobacco outcomes. It examines whether BIs reduce alcohol and tobacco use for adolescents and young adults among interventions that (1) directly targeted tobacco and alcohol use, or (2) did not target tobacco use but measured it as a secondary outcome. Multiple databases and grey literature sources were searched (1980–2012) resulting in the identification of 18 randomized or controlled quasi-experimental studies (5949 participants). Analyses were conducted using random effects inverse-variance weighted three-level models. BIs were associated with a significant reduction in alcohol consumption relative to control groups (ḡ = 0.11, 95% CI [0.04, 0.17]) but not with a significant decrease in tobacco use (ḡ = 0.07, 95% CI [−0.01, 0.16]). Directly addressing tobacco was not a significant moderator affecting tobacco use outcomes. Post-hoc exploratory analysis revealed potential questions to address with future research. PMID:26130030

  16. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals.

  17. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  18. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit.

  19. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit. PMID:27037188

  20. Ethical Issues Raised by Epigenetic Testing for Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetic testing is one of the most significant new technologies to provide insight into the behavioral and environmental factors that influence the development and reconfiguration of the human genetic code. This technology allows us to identify structural changes in the genome that occur due to exposure to a wide variety of substances including alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis. The information gained can be used to promote health but it also raises a variety of ethical, legal, and social issues. As society progresses in understanding the epigenetic mechanisms of substance use and addiction, there is an opportunity to use these use this knowledge to enable medical, behavioral, and environmental interventions to alleviate the burden of addiction. This article describes the ethical issues associated with use of epigenetic testing for alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis and the implications of this technology. A further review of the scientific basis for the relevance of epigenetics is found in the accompanying article by Philibert and Erwin in this issue.

  1. Methodology for the estimation of use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Belmonte Cortés, Susana; Serrano Zarceño, Carmen; Granado de la Orden, Susana

    2015-02-26

    The objective of this article is to revise the methods used for the assessment of the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Analysing the advantages of using one method or the other, as well as the most frequent methodological difficulties and problems in medication and classification of each one of these indicators. The main sources of information available from European, National and Madrid Autonomous Community levels have been consulted to estimate the most relevant aspects of these forms of substance abuse.

  2. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  3. National Survey of Oral/Dental Conditions Related to Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo; Hernández-Cruz, Pedro; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Oral diseases are a major burden on individuals and health systems. The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of tobacco and alcohol were associated with the prevalence of oral/dental problems in Mexican adults. Using data from the National Performance Evaluation Survey 2003, a cross-sectional study part of the World Health Survey, dental information from a representative sample of Mexico (n = 22,229, N = 51,155,740) was used to document self-reported oral/dental problems in the 12 months prior to the survey. Questionnaires were used to collect information related to sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors. Three models were generated for each age group (18–30, 31–45 and 46–98 years). The prevalence of oral/dental conditions was 25.7%. Adjusting for sex, schooling, socioeconomic position, diabetes, and self-reported health, those who used tobacco (sometimes or daily) (OR = 1.15, p = 0.070; OR = 1.24, p < 0.01; and OR = 1.16, p < 0.05, for each age group respectively) or alcohol (moderate or high) (OR = 1.26, p < 0.001; OR = 1.18, p < 0.01 and OR = 1.30, p < 0.001, for each age group respectively) had a higher risk of reporting oral/dental problems. Because tobacco and alcohol use were associated with self-reported oral/dental problems in one out of four adults, it appears advisable to ascertain how direct is such link; more direct effects would lend greater weight to adopting measures to reduce consumption of tobacco and alcohol for the specific purpose of improving oral health. PMID:24642844

  4. The relationship of perceived age and sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage customers.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Stanford, E J; Lindsay, G B; Neiger, B L

    2000-10-01

    The ability of store clerks to estimate the age of their customers is critical in preventing illegal sales of tobacco and alcohol to underage individuals. To avoid illegal sales of tobacco products to minors, the Food and Drug Administration created a policy in 1997 requiring store clerks to request identification of anyone perceived to be underage 27. A similar age standard has not been implemented for alcohol. The purpose of this article is to assess whether age 27 is adequate for minimizing tobacco sales to those under age 18 and whether this age is also a useful standard for minimizing illegal alcohol sales to those under age 21. The analysis is based on age estimates from 49 gas station and convenience store clerks. Each clerk estimated ages of 45 people filmed on video whose actual ages ranged from 15 to 29. T-tests, analysis of variance, contingency tables and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Store clerks found it more difficult to estimate ages of female customers than male customers. In addition, the store clerks significantly underestimated age of male customers under 18 and of female customers under 21. In contrast, the clerks significantly overestimated age of customers 21 years and older. Among underage customers, the store clerks' age, gender, work experience, education, and training in requesting identification had no influence on ability to judge age, nor did it have a strong influence on whether an underage customer was considered 18 or older or 21 or older. The results suggest that age 27 is adequate for minimizing illegal tobacco sales. Adoption of a similar or slightly older age may be appropriate for minimizing illegal alcohol sales. PMID:10982013

  5. A common public health-oriented policy framework for cannabis, alcohol and tobacco in Canada?

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Kolar, Kat; Chaiton, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Emerson, Brian; Hyshka, Elaine; Jesseman, Rebecca; Lucas, Philippe; Solomon, Robert; Thomas, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Support for a public health approach to cannabis policy as an alternative to prohibition and criminalization is gaining momentum. Recent drug policy changes in the United States suggest growing political feasibility for legal regulation of cannabis in other North American jurisdictions. This commentary discusses the outcomes of an interdisciplinary policy meeting with Canadian experts and knowledge users in the area of substance use interventions. The meeting explored possibilities for applying cross-substance learning on policy interventions for alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, towards the goal of advancing a public health framework for reducing harms associated with substance use in Canada. The meeting also explored how the shift in approach to cannabis policy can provide an opportunity to explore potential changes in substance use policy more generally, especially in relation to tobacco and alcohol as legally regulated substances associated with a heavy burden of illness. Drawing from the contributions and debates arising from the policy meeting, this commentary identifies underlying principles and opportunities for learning from policy interventions across tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, as well as research gaps that need to be addressed before a public health framework can be effectively pursued across these substances. PMID:26986906

  6. A common public health-oriented policy framework for cannabis, alcohol and tobacco in Canada?

    PubMed

    Kirst, Maritt; Kolar, Kat; Chaiton, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Emerson, Brian; Hyshka, Elaine; Jesseman, Rebecca; Lucas, Philippe; Solomon, Robert; Thomas, Gerald

    2016-03-16

    Support for a public health approach to cannabis policy as an alternative to prohibition and criminalization is gaining momentum. Recent drug policy changes in the United States suggest growing political feasibility for legal regulation of cannabis in other North American jurisdictions. This commentary discusses the outcomes of an interdisciplinary policy meeting with Canadian experts and knowledge users in the area of substance use interventions. The meeting explored possibilities for applying cross-substance learning on policy interventions for alcohol, tobacco and cannabis, towards the goal of advancing a public health framework for reducing harms associated with substance use in Canada. The meeting also explored how the shift in approach to cannabis policy can provide an opportunity to explore potential changes in substance use policy more generally, especially in relation to tobacco and alcohol as legally regulated substances associated with a heavy burden of illness. Drawing from the contributions and debates arising from the policy meeting, this commentary identifies underlying principles and opportunities for learning from policy interventions across tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, as well as research gaps that need to be addressed before a public health framework can be effectively pursued across these substances.

  7. The influence of protective and risk factors in individual, peer and school domains on Thai adolescents' alcohol and illicit drug use: a survey.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates risk and protective factors for substance abuse in a sample of 1778 students attending technical colleges in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces of Thailand using a self-report questionnaire modified from the Communities That Care youth survey. Low school commitment was strongly associated with illicit drug use, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.84 (glue sniffing) to 10.06 (ecstasy). Having friends using drugs, and friends with delinquent behaviors increased the risk of using alcohol and illegal drugs, with adjusted odds ratios of 6.84 and 6.72 respectively for marijuana use. For protective factors, approximately 40-60% of students with high levels of moral belief, participation in religious activities, and social skills were less likely to use alcohol. It is concluded that peer influence is a significant contributor to Thai adolescents' participation in substance abuse and that engaging in religiosity may assist adolescents to internalize negative aspects of harmful drugs into positive perceptions and encourage them to avoid alcohol and illegal drugs.

  8. The influence of protective and risk factors in individual, peer and school domains on Thai adolescents' alcohol and illicit drug use: a survey.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates risk and protective factors for substance abuse in a sample of 1778 students attending technical colleges in Bangkok and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces of Thailand using a self-report questionnaire modified from the Communities That Care youth survey. Low school commitment was strongly associated with illicit drug use, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 2.84 (glue sniffing) to 10.06 (ecstasy). Having friends using drugs, and friends with delinquent behaviors increased the risk of using alcohol and illegal drugs, with adjusted odds ratios of 6.84 and 6.72 respectively for marijuana use. For protective factors, approximately 40-60% of students with high levels of moral belief, participation in religious activities, and social skills were less likely to use alcohol. It is concluded that peer influence is a significant contributor to Thai adolescents' participation in substance abuse and that engaging in religiosity may assist adolescents to internalize negative aspects of harmful drugs into positive perceptions and encourage them to avoid alcohol and illegal drugs. PMID:24930052

  9. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment: Effect on Daily Process Measures of Alcohol Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Sevarino, Kevin A.; Levy, Lucienne; Kranitz, Linda S.; Sackler, Helen; Cooney, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of alcohol treatment along with concurrent smoking treatment or delayed smoking treatment on process measures related to alcohol relapse risk. Method Alcohol dependent smokers (N = 151) who were enrolled in an intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program and were interested in smoking cessation were randomized to a concurrent smoking cessation (CSC) intervention or to a waiting list for delayed smoking cessation (DSC) intervention scheduled to begin three months later. Daily assessments of relapse process measures were obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for 12 weeks after the onset of smoking treatment in the CSC condition, and before beginning smoking treatment in the DSC condition. Smoking outcomes were assessed at 2 and 13 weeks after starting treatment. Results Seven-day CO-verified smoking abstinence in the CSC condition was 50.5% at 2 weeks and 19.0% at 13 weeks compared to 2.2% abstinence at two weeks and 0% abstinence at 13 weeks for those in the DSC condition. Drinking outcomes were not significantly different for CSC vs. DSC treatment conditions. On daily IVR assessments, CSC participants had significantly lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies relative to DSC participants. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses of within-person effects across the 12 weeks of daily monitoring showed that daily smoking abstinence was significantly associated with same day reports of lower alcohol consumption, lower urge to drink, lower negative affect, lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies, greater alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, greater alcohol abstinence readiness to change, and greater perceived self-control demands. Conclusions; Analyses of process measures provide support for recommending smoking intervention concurrent with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. Public Health Significance Statement Study results support conveying a message to alcohol dependent smokers that

  10. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  11. Parenting Programmes for Preventing Tobacco, Alcohol or Drugs Misuse in Children Less than 18: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Jane; Bunn, Frances; Byrne, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of controlled studies of parenting programmes to prevent tobacco, alcohol or drug abuse in children less than 18. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, specialized Register of Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group, Pub Med, psych INFO, CINALH and SIGLE. Two reviewers independently screened studies,…

  12. Roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Kwon, Oh Sang; Song, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic heavy alcohol exposure is a major risk factor for HCC, which is the most frequent type of liver cancer. Alcohol ingestion may initiate and or promote the development of HCC by: 1) acetaldehyde-DNA adduct formation; 2) cytochrome P4502E1-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and conversion of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens; 3) iron accumulation that leads to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and initiation of inflammatory cascade via nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-kB) activation; 4) glutathione depletion leading to oxidative stress; 5) s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) depletion and associated DNA hypomethylation of oncogenes ; 6) retinoic acid depletion and resultant hepatocyte proliferation via up-regulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1); 7) initiating an inflammatory cascade through increased transfer of endotoxin from intestine to liver, Kupffer cell activation via CD14/toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), oxidative stress, NF-kB or early growth response-1(Egr-1) activation, and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; 8) induction of liver fibrosis; and 9) decreasing the number and/or function of Natural Killer cells. Tobacco exposure is also a risk factor for HCC. It may contribute to the initiation and promotion of HCC due the presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds as well as by causing oxidative stress due to generation of ROS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Simultaneous exposure to alcohol and tobacco is expected to promote the development of HCC in an additive and/or synergistic manner. PMID:23123447

  13. Alcohol and Marijuana Use in the Context of Tobacco Dependence Treatment: Impact on Outcome and Mediation of Effect

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Humfleet, Gary L.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used substances together with tobacco worldwide, but their relationship to smoking cessation is unclear. Although alcohol use decreases the likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, mechanisms of this effect have not been identified. Moreover, a small literature has yielded inconsistent findings regarding the effect of marijuana use on tobacco dependence treatment outcome. The aims of this study were to test increased positive-reinforcement smoking urge as a mediator of the relationship between alcohol and cigarette use and evaluate the impact of marijuana use on abstinence from tobacco. Methods: Participants were adult cigarette smokers (N = 739) from 3 randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation treatment. Alcohol consumption and marijuana use were assessed at pretreatment and postcessation. Biochemically verified, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was determined at Weeks 12, 24, 36, and 52, as were urges to smoke as measured by the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges. Results: Increased positive-reinforcement urge mediated the effect of postcessation alcohol use on smoking abstinence. Although pretreatment alcohol use was associated with a decreased likelihood of abstinence from tobacco, increased positive-reinforcement urge did not account for this relationship. Marijuana use was not associated with abstinence from tobacco. Conclusions: Smoking cessation treatments should provide those who drink during a quit attempt techniques designed to mitigate positive-reinforcement urge to smoke. Additional research is needed to determine how pretreatment alcohol consumption exerts its effect on cigarette use. Modifying the use of marijuana might not be critical to the success of tobacco interventions. PMID:22259148

  14. Predictors of alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy in the US: the role of maternal stressors.

    PubMed

    Witt, Whitney P; Mandell, Kara C; Wisk, Lauren E; Cheng, Erika R; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the association between stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) and women's alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy, and the continuation of such use through pregnancy. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child, divorce or marital separation, or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the 3 months prior to and in the final 3 months of pregnancy. Weighted regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on alcohol and tobacco use at each time point and on the continuation of use, adjusting for confounders. Experiencing any PSLE increased the odds of tobacco use prior to (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.87) and during pregnancy (AOR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.19-2.07). Women exposed to PSLEs smoked nearly five additional packs of cigarettes in the 3 months prior to pregnancy (97 cigarettes, p = 0.011) and consumed 0.31 additional alcoholic drinks during the last 3 months of pregnancy than unexposed women. PSLEs are associated with tobacco use before pregnancy and alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. Alcohol and tobacco screening and cessation services should be implemented prior to and during pregnancy, especially for women who have experienced PSLEs.

  15. The crowding-out effects of tobacco and alcohol where expenditure shares are low: analyzing expenditure data for Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Pu, Cheng-yun; Lan, Virginia; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Lan, Chung-fu

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, we used data from the 2004 Survey of Family Income & Expenditure of Taiwan to show that the problem of the crowding-out effects of tobacco and alcohol in a country with low expenditure can still be serious. Most studies that have investigated this issue have focused on developing countries with a high expenditure share on tobacco or alcohol, and have often overlooked the effects in countries with a low expenditure on such goods. After controlling for the endogeneity of tobacco and alcohol expenditure, and the possibility that households with a zero expenditure on tobacco and alcohol may result from a corner solution rather than abstention, we found that the lowest income households are still most vulnerable to tobacco and alcohol expenditures despite an overall low expenditure in Taiwan. Even higher income households may suffer a lower standard of living due to such expenditure. In addition, some goods and services may be perceived differently by households with different levels of income and this may be caused by the difference in composition across broad expenditure categories. Our results suggest that the government ought to tackle the problem of smoking and drinking outside the realm of health, since these expenditures may harm the country's standard of living even when there is high income.

  16. Adolescent Initiation of Licit and Illicit Substance Use: Impact of Intrauterine Exposures and Post-natal Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Crooks, Denise; Cabral, Howard J.; Gerteis, Jessie; Hacker, Karen A.; Martin, Brett; Weinstein, Zohar B.; Heeren, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Whether intrauterine exposures to alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine predispose offspring to substance use in adolescence has not been established. We followed a sample of 149 primarily African American/African Caribbean, urban adolescents recruited at term birth until age 16 to investigate intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE). We found that in Kaplan-Meier analyses higher levels of IUCE were associated with a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance (licit or illicit), as well as marijuana and alcohol specifically. Adolescent initiation of other illicit drugs and cigarettes were analyzed only in the “any” summary variable since they were used too infrequently to analyze as individual outcomes. In Cox proportional hazard models controlling for intrauterine exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana and demographic and postnatal covariates, those who experienced heavier IUCE had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance, and those with lighter intrauterine marijuana exposure had a greater likelihood of initiation of any substance as well as of marijuana specifically. Time-dependent higher levels of exposure to violence between ages of 8 and 16 were also robustly associated with initiation of any licit or illicit substance, and of marijuana, and alcohol particularly. PMID:20600847

  17. Developing Public Health Regulations for Marijuana: Lessons From Alcohol and Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Kilmer, Beau; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Until November 2012, no modern jurisdiction had removed the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and sale of marijuana for nonmedical purposes—not even the Netherlands. Government agencies in Colorado and Washington are now charged with granting production and processing licenses and developing regulations for legal marijuana, and other states and countries may follow. Our goal is not to address whether marijuana legalization is a good or bad idea but, rather, to help policymakers understand the decisions they face and some lessons learned from research on public health approaches to regulating alcohol and tobacco over the past century. PMID:24825201

  18. The effects of parental divorce on adult tobacco and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wolfinger, N H

    1998-09-01

    I use data from the 1977-1994 National Opinion Research Council General Social Survey to examine the impact of parental divorce on the alcohol and tobacco consumption of adult offspring. Divorce greatly increases the likelihood of being a smoker and, for men, a problem drinker. Parental remarriage completely offsets the effects of parental divorce on men's drinking but does not substantially affect cigarette use. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics accounted for a portion of the relationship between parental divorce and smoking but did not affect rates of problem drinking. Social control and psychosocial adjustment--two established explanations for the effects of parental divorce--could not adequately explain my findings.

  19. Independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on the risk of esophageal cancer in men and women.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, X; Muñoz, N; De Stefani, E; Victora, C G; Castelletto, R; Rolón, P A; Quintana, M J

    1999-08-27

    To estimate the independent and joint effects of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, we analyzed data from a series of 5 hospital-based case-control studies of squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus conducted in high-risk areas in South America. A total of 830 case subjects and 1779 control subjects were included in the pooled analysis. All exposure characteristics of amount, duration, cessation and type of alcohol and tobacco consumed were strongly related to esophageal-cancer risk in both sexes. Women had the same exposure profile as men, but the magnitudes of the associations were lower than were those among men. Black-tobacco smoking was associated with a 2-fold increased risk as compared with the smoking of blond or mixed tobacco. Quitting either of the 2 habits significantly reduced esophageal-cancer risk. Alcohol and tobacco alone were strongly related to the risk of esophageal cancer, even in the absence of the other exposure. A history of simultaneous exposure to cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had a strong multiplicative effect on risk. Concomitant exposure to heavy alcohol drinking and black-tobacco smoking identified the group with the highest risk for developing esophageal cancer (odds ratio = 107). A synergistic interaction was found between the 2 habits, particularly in women and in moderately exposed men. Moderate cigarette smoking without drinking and moderate alcohol drinking without smoking had a negligible effect on esophageal-cancer risk. However, simultaneous exposure to the same moderate amounts increased the risk 12- to 19-fold in men and in women respectively. The overall public-health implications of these findings are obvious for a tumor that depends on preventive strategies for its control.

  20. Alcohol, Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Performance Enhancers: A Comparison of Use by College Student Athletes and Nonathletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the prevalence and pattern of substance use in undergraduate student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Participants: Authors collected data from male (n = 418) and female (n = 475) student athletes and nonathletes from 2005-2006. Methods: The authors administered self-report questionnaires to assess…

  1. Who Is Using What in the Public Schools: The Interrelationships among Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use by Adolescents in New Brunswick Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobe, Cary; Campbell, Elaine

    1990-01-01

    Attempted to discover patterns of alcohol, drug, and tobacco use among public school children in New Brunswick using Provincial School Drug Survey (PSDS), an existing large-scale assessment. Recoded variables in PSDS dataset to derive profiles of typical tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol users. Found increase in predictive accuracy of regression…

  2. The influence of a family program on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use.

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, K E; Foshee, V A; Ennett, S T; Pemberton, M; Hicks, K A; King, T S; Koch, G G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined a family-directed program's effectiveness in preventing adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in a general population. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12 to 14 years and their families were identified by random-digit dialing throughout the contiguous United States. After providing baseline data by telephone interviews, they were randomly allocated to receive or not receive a family-directed program featuring mailed booklets and telephone contacts by health educators. Follow-up telephone interviews were conducted 3 and 12 months after program completion. RESULTS: The findings suggested that smoking onset was reduced by 16.4% at 1 year, with a 25.0% reduction for non-Hispanic Whites but no statistically significant program effect for other races/ethnicities. There were no statistically significant program effects for smokeless tobacco or alcohol use onset. CONCLUSIONS: The family-directed program was associated with reduced smoking onset for non-Hispanic Whites, suggesting that it is worthy of further application, development, and evaluation. PMID:11291373

  3. Screening for use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis in pregnancy using self-report tools.

    PubMed

    Hotham, E; White, J; Ali, R; Robinson, J

    2012-08-01

    The World Health Organization has identified substance use in the top 20 risk factors for ill health. Risks in pregnancy are compounded, with risk to the woman's health, to pregnancy progression and on both the foetus and the newborn. Intrauterine exposure can result in negative influences on offspring development, sometimes into adulthood. With effectively two patients, there is a clear need for antenatal screening. Biomarker reliability is limited and research efforts have been directed to self-report tools, often attempting to address potential lack of veracity if women feel guilty about substance use and worried about possible stigmatization. Tools, which assume the behaviour, are likely to elicit more honest responses; querying pre-pregnancy use would likely have the same effect. Although veracity is heightened if substance use questions are embedded within health and social functioning questionnaires, such tools may be too lengthy clinically. It has been proposed that screening only for alcohol and tobacco, with focus on the month pre-pregnancy, could enable identification of all other substances. Alternatively, the Revised Fagerstrom Questionnaire could be used initially, tobacco being highly indicative of substance use generally. The ASSIST V.3.0 is readily administered and covers all substances, although the pregnancy 'risk level' cut-off for tobacco is not established. Alcohol tools - the 4Ps, TLFB and 'drug' CAGE (with E: query of use to avoid withdrawal) - have been studied with other substances and could be used. General psychosocial distress and mental ill-health often co-exist with substance use and identification of substance use needs to become legitimate practice for obstetric clinicians.

  4. Effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of alcohol metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marselos, M; Vasiliou, V; Malamas, M; Alikaridis, F; Kefalas, T

    1991-01-01

    The effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of ethanol metabolism were studied in the Wistar rat. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH) were measured in the liver and the brain, after treatment with an extract of cannabis resin, with an extract of tobacco leaves, or with nicotine. A condensate of cannabis resin extract was collected in a smoking machine, using a tobacco cigarette as the vehicle. Unsmoked or smoked cannabis extracts were dissolved in olive oil and were given i.p. (twice daily, for 7 days). In both cases, a similar dose level was used in terms of starting material (raw cannabis resin), estimated at about 100 mg/kg body weight. Control animals were treated either with olive oil, or with the same amount of smoked condensate obtained from a reference cigarette. Nicotine was dissolved in olive oil and it was given i.p. (10 micrograms/kg, twice daily for 7 days). An extract of unsmoked tobacco was dissolved in olive oil and was given with the same schedule, at a dose which was estimated to correspond to about 10 micrograms nicotine/kg b.w. All groups of animals received an additional i.p. injection on day 8, one hour before sacrifice. Our results showed that unsmoked cannabis inhibited the hepatic activities of the microchondrial AlDH (low-Km and high-Km), the hepatic low-Km cytosolic AlDH (p less than 0.001), and the low-Km mitochondrial AlDH of the brain (p less than 0.001). Administration of smoked cannabis to the animals inhibited the hepatic mitochondrial low-Km AlDH (p less than 0.001), but it did not influence the brain enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Alcohol and Other Substance Use among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Barbara A.; Streja, Leanne; Guthmann, Debra S.

    2010-01-01

    Little research has focused on alcohol and illicit drug use among deaf and hard of hearing youth. Findings are reported from survey data collected among high school students at two phases of a program of research primarily focusing on tobacco use [Phase 1: (1999/2000) n = 226, Phase 2: (2004) n = 618). Evidence of considerable ever (lifetime)…

  6. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-04-01

    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences.

  7. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  8. Syringyl Lignin Is Unaltered by Severe Sinapyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Suppression in Tobacco[W

    PubMed Central

    Barakate, Abdellah; Stephens, Jennifer; Goldie, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Marshall, David; Hancock, Robert D.; Lapierre, Catherine; Morreel, Kris; Boerjan, Wout; Halpin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The manipulation of lignin could, in principle, facilitate efficient biofuel production from plant biomass. Despite intensive study of the lignin pathway, uncertainty exists about the enzyme catalyzing the last step in syringyl (S) monolignol biosynthesis, the reduction of sinapaldehyde to sinapyl alcohol. Traditional schemes of the pathway suggested that both guaiacyl (G) and S monolignols are produced by a single substrate-versatile enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). This was challenged by the discovery of a novel sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that preferentially uses sinapaldehyde as a substrate and that was claimed to regulate S lignin biosynthesis in angiosperms. Consequently, most pathway schemes now show SAD (or SAD and CAD) at the sinapaldehyde reduction step, although functional evidence is lacking. We cloned SAD from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and suppressed it in transgenic plants using RNA interference–inducing vectors. Characterization of lignin in the woody stems shows no change to content, composition, or structure, and S lignin is normal. By contrast, plants additionally suppressed in CAD have changes to lignin structure and S:G ratio and have increased sinapaldehyde in lignin, similar to plants suppressed in CAD alone. These data demonstrate that CAD, not SAD, is the enzyme responsible for S lignin biosynthesis in woody angiosperm xylem. PMID:22158465

  9. The Role of Gender in Adolescents' Social Networks and Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…

  10. It is pleasant and heavy: convergence of visual contents in tobacco, alcohol and food marketing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viacava, Keitiline R; Weydmann, Gibson J; de Vasconcelos, Mailton F; Jaboinski, Juliana; Batista, Graziele D; de Almeida, Rosa Maria M; Bizarro, Lisiane

    2016-09-01

    The tactical use of visuoperceptual content in marketing may encourage impulsive consumption of unhealthy products. In this study, the application of visuoperceptual content was compared in advertisements used by industries of tobacco, alcohol and food. The aim was to ascertain whether similarities exist in the strategies used as variables for the selection of commercial stimuli, such as color, position and size. Scion Image and Corel Draw Graphics Suite software were used to analyze the content of a non-probabilistic sample of advertising images (N = 150). Differences were identified in the use of the colors green (p = 0.04) and red (p = 0.01), but not in the use of the color blue (p = 0.64), suggesting that induction of feelings of pleasantness resulting from the use of the color blue may be associated with the advertising in the alcohol and tobacco industries. Regarding the position of the commercial stimuli, a predominance of the use of quadrants 'C' (p = 0.00) and 'D' (p = 0.01) was found in all three industries, indicating a similar use of areas perceived as being 'heavier'. As to the size, 78% of advertisements placed the commercial stimuli within a range of 0-25% of the total image. The results showed some similarities in the use of visuoperceptual content in advertisements for tobacco, alcohol and food, especially between tobacco and alcohol. The article offers a convergence analysis of these three industries altogether, providing additional subsidies for the formulation of protection policies. PMID:26069295

  11. Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence.

  12. Does Family Structure Matter in the Relationships between Youth Assets and Youth Alcohol, Drug and Tobacco Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Tolma, Eleni; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated significant relationships between youth assets and youth alcohol, tobacco, and drug use that differ according to family structure (one- or two-parent households). Data were collected from a randomly sampled inner-city population (n=1,256 teenagers and 1,256 parents of the teenagers) using in-home, in-person interviews.…

  13. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  14. Indonesian Muslim Adolescents' Use of Tobacco and Alcohol: Associations with Use by Friends and Network Affiliates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Doran C.; Purwono, Urip; Rodkin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this longitudinal study were to predict the tobacco and alcohol use of Indonesian Muslim adolescents from their religiosity and the substance use of friends and network affiliates. At Year 1, there were 996 participants from eighth grade (n = 507, age = 13.4 years) and 10th grade (n = 489, age = 15.4); 875 were followed into the…

  15. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  16. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  17. Decreasing Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on a College Campus: Exploring Potential Factors Related to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Erin M.; Shutt, Michael D.; Oswalt, Sara B.

    2009-01-01

    High-risk alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use has been a persistent problem on college campuses despite decades of prevention programming. However, some universities may begin to experience a lower prevalence of high-risk behaviors, not because of education efforts, but because of generational changes in the incoming student population.…

  18. Using the Rural-Urban Continuum to Explore Adolescent Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Carl L.; Novilla, M. Lelinneth L. B.; Barnes, Michael D.; Eggett, Dennis; McKell, Chelsea; Reichman, Peter; Havens, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare 30-day prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among twelfth-grade students in Montana across a rural-urban continuum during 2000, 2002, and 2004. The methods include an analysis of the Montana Prevention Needs Assessment (N = 15,372) using multivariable logistic regression adjusting for risk…

  19. Santa Clara County Survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Norm; And Others

    This report presents findings from the Santa Clara County (California) survey of Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among Students in Grades 5, 7, 9, and 11 administered during the spring of 1991 to 5,180 students in 51 randomly selected county schools. An executive summary discusses sampling error, sample demographics, and findings on drug use…

  20. Outbreak of Botulism After Consumption of Illicit Prison-Brewed Alcohol in a Maximum Security Prison--Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Seema; Adams, Laura; Briggs, Graham; Weiss, Joli; Bisgard, Kris; Anderson, Shoana; Tsang, Clarisse; Henke, Evan; Vasiq, Muhammad; Komatsu, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The authors investigated the second botulism outbreak to occur in a maximum security prison in Arizona within a 4-month period. Botulism was confirmed in eight men aged 20 to 35 years who reported sharing a single batch of pruno made with potatoes. Initial symptoms included blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness, ptosis, and dysphagia. All patients received heptavalent botulinum antitoxin, seven required mechanical ventilation, and all survived. The median incubation period was 29 hours. Sera from all patients and leftover pruno tested positive for botulinum toxin type A. Botulism should be considered among prisoners with cranial nerve palsies and descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis. Prison-brewed alcohol, particularly when made with potatoes, can be a vehicle for botulism and is associated with outbreaks of botulism in prisons.

  1. Outbreak of Botulism After Consumption of Illicit Prison-Brewed Alcohol in a Maximum Security Prison--Arizona, 2012.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Seema; Adams, Laura; Briggs, Graham; Weiss, Joli; Bisgard, Kris; Anderson, Shoana; Tsang, Clarisse; Henke, Evan; Vasiq, Muhammad; Komatsu, Ken

    2015-10-01

    The authors investigated the second botulism outbreak to occur in a maximum security prison in Arizona within a 4-month period. Botulism was confirmed in eight men aged 20 to 35 years who reported sharing a single batch of pruno made with potatoes. Initial symptoms included blurred vision, slurred speech, muscle weakness, ptosis, and dysphagia. All patients received heptavalent botulinum antitoxin, seven required mechanical ventilation, and all survived. The median incubation period was 29 hours. Sera from all patients and leftover pruno tested positive for botulinum toxin type A. Botulism should be considered among prisoners with cranial nerve palsies and descending, symmetric flaccid paralysis. Prison-brewed alcohol, particularly when made with potatoes, can be a vehicle for botulism and is associated with outbreaks of botulism in prisons. PMID:26377381

  2. Opportunities and risks of the proposed FCTC protocol on illicit trade.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Jonathan; Blecher, Evan; Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Burke, Fishburn

    2011-11-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products presents a threat to public health because it undermines the use of tax and price policies, which are among the most effective mechanisms for reducing tobacco consumption. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are in the final stages of negotiating a protocol aimed at strengthening international cooperation in the fight against illicit tobacco trade. While an effective multilateral response to illicit tobacco trade would make a significant contribution to global tobacco control, achieving this through the FCTC forum is challenging. First, while illicit tobacco trade is a health problem, the expertise, experience and capacity needed to combat illicit trade are not traditionally found in health agencies. The development of links with other agencies, both domestic and international, is critical to ensure both an effective response and an efficient use of limited governmental and non-governmental resources. Second, in many parts of the world, the tobacco industry cooperates closely with governments in the combating of illicit trade. This cooperation poses risks for tobacco control, particularly if relationships and norms of cooperation spill over into other areas of FCTC implementation. An examination of the industry's positioning suggests that it sees an opportunity to portray itself as 'legitimate' and 'responsible', a friend of governments, and a way to integrate itself into FCTC processes. This paper makes suggestions for moving forward in this challenging area towards ensuring that the approach taken actually reduces illicit tobacco trade, strengthens tobacco tax policies and does not operate to undermine the FCTC. PMID:21821819

  3. Opportunities and risks of the proposed FCTC protocol on illicit trade.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Jonathan; Blecher, Evan; Carbajales, Alejandro Ramos; Burke, Fishburn

    2011-11-01

    Illicit trade in tobacco products presents a threat to public health because it undermines the use of tax and price policies, which are among the most effective mechanisms for reducing tobacco consumption. Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are in the final stages of negotiating a protocol aimed at strengthening international cooperation in the fight against illicit tobacco trade. While an effective multilateral response to illicit tobacco trade would make a significant contribution to global tobacco control, achieving this through the FCTC forum is challenging. First, while illicit tobacco trade is a health problem, the expertise, experience and capacity needed to combat illicit trade are not traditionally found in health agencies. The development of links with other agencies, both domestic and international, is critical to ensure both an effective response and an efficient use of limited governmental and non-governmental resources. Second, in many parts of the world, the tobacco industry cooperates closely with governments in the combating of illicit trade. This cooperation poses risks for tobacco control, particularly if relationships and norms of cooperation spill over into other areas of FCTC implementation. An examination of the industry's positioning suggests that it sees an opportunity to portray itself as 'legitimate' and 'responsible', a friend of governments, and a way to integrate itself into FCTC processes. This paper makes suggestions for moving forward in this challenging area towards ensuring that the approach taken actually reduces illicit tobacco trade, strengthens tobacco tax policies and does not operate to undermine the FCTC.

  4. Tobacco and Alcohol in Relation to Male Breast Cancer: An Analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Michael B.; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Michels, Karin B.; Casagrande, John T.; Cooke, Rosie; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Ewertz, Marianne; Falk, Roni T.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Gkiokas, George; Habel, Laurel A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Johnson, Kenneth; Kolonel, Laurence N.; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lynge, Elsebeth; Lubin, Jay H.; McCormack, Valerie A.; Negri, Eva; Olsson, Håkan; Parisi, Dominick; Petridou, Eleni Th.; Riboli, Elio; Sesso, Howard D.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Thomas, David B.; Willett, Walter C.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. Methods The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium provided 2,378 cases and 51,959 controls for analysis from 10 case-control and 10 cohort studies. Individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate study design-specific (case-control/cohort) odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), which were then combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. Results Cigarette smoking status, smoking pack-years, duration, intensity, and age at initiation were not associated with male breast cancer risk. Relations with cigar and pipe smoking, tobacco chewing, and snuff use were also null. Recent alcohol consumption and average grams of alcohol consumed per day were also not associated with risk; only one sub-analysis of very high recent alcohol consumption (>60 grams/day) was tentatively associated with male breast cancer (ORunexposed referent=1.29, 95%CI:0.97–1.71; OR>0–<7 g/day referent=1.36, 95%CI:1.04–1.77). Specific alcoholic beverage types were not associated with male breast cancer. Relations were not altered when stratified by age or body mass index. Conclusions In this analysis of the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project we found little evidence that tobacco and alcohol exposures were associated with risk of male breast cancer. Impact Tobacco and alcohol do not appear to be carcinogenic for male breast cancer. Future studies should aim to assess these exposures in relation to subtypes of male breast cancer. PMID:25515550

  5. Harm reduction services as a point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs often have end-of-life care needs that go unmet due to barriers that they face to accessing end-of-life care services. Many homeless and marginally housed persons who use these substances must therefore rely upon alternate sources of end-of-life care and support. This article explores the role of harm reduction services in end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Methods A qualitative case study design was used to explore end-of-life care services delivery to homeless and marginally housed persons in six Canadian cities. A key objective was to explore the role of harm reduction services. 54 health and social services professionals participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews. All participants reported that they provided care and support to this population at end-of-life. Results Harm reduction services (e.g., syringe exchange programs, managed alcohol programs, etc.) were identified as a critical point-of-entry to and source of end-of-life care and support for homeless and marginally housed persons who use alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Where possible, harm reduction services facilitated referrals to end-of-life care services for this population. Harm reduction services also provided end-of-life care and support when members of this population were unable or unwilling to access end-of-life care services, thereby improving quality-of-life and increasing self-determination regarding place-of-death. Conclusions While partnerships between harm reduction programs and end-of-life care services are identified as one way to improve access, it is noted that more comprehensive harm reduction services might be needed in end-of-life care settings if they are to engage this underserved population. PMID:22545586

  6. ‘It will harm business and increase illicit trade’: an evaluation of the relevance, quality and transparency of evidence submitted by transnational tobacco companies to the UK consultation on standardised packaging 2012

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Reeves, K A; Hatchard, J L; Gilmore, A B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) submitted evidence to the 2012 UK Consultation on standardised packaging (SP) to argue the policy will have detrimental economic impacts and increase illicit tobacco trade. Methods A content analysis of the four TTC submissions to the consultation assessed the relevance and quality of evidence TTCs cited to support their arguments. Investigative research was used to determine whether the cited evidence was industry connected. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the relevance and quality of industry-connected and independent from the industry evidence. The extent to which TTCs disclosed financial conflicts of interest (COI) when citing evidence was examined. Results We obtained 74 pieces of TTC-cited evidence. The quality of the evidence was poor. TTCs cited no independent, peer-reviewed evidence that supported their arguments. Nearly half of the evidence was industry-connected (47%, 35/74). None of this industry-connected evidence was published in peer-reviewed journals (0/35) and 66% (23/35) of it was opinion only. Industry-connected evidence was of significantly poorer quality than independent evidence (p<0.001). COIs were not disclosed by TTCs in 91% (32/35) of cases. Conclusions In the absence of peer-reviewed research to support their arguments, TTCs relied on evidence they commissioned and the opinions of TTC-connected third-parties. Such connections were not disclosed by TTCs when citing this evidence and were time consuming to uncover. In line with Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and broader transparency initiatives, TTCs should be required to disclose their funding of all third-parties and any COIs when citing evidence. PMID:25472733

  7. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  8. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  9. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Overeating and harmful alcohol and tobacco use have been linked to the aetiology of various non-communicable diseases, which are among the leading global causes of morbidity and premature mortality. As people are repeatedly exposed to varying sizes and shapes of food, alcohol and tobacco products in environments such as shops, restaurants, bars and homes, this has stimulated public health policy interest in product size and shape as potential targets for intervention. Objectives 1) To assess the effects of interventions involving exposure to different sizes or sets of physical dimensions of a portion, package, individual unit or item of tableware on unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco products in adults and children. 2) To assess the extent to which these effects may be modified by study, intervention and participant characteristics. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, eight other published or grey literature databases, trial registries and key websites up to November 2012, followed by citation searches and contacts with study authors. This original search identified eligible studies published up to July 2013, which are fully incorporated into the review. We conducted an updated search up to 30 January 2015 but further eligible studies are not yet fully incorporated due to their minimal potential to change the conclusions. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials with between-subjects (parallel-group) or within-subjects (cross-over) designs, conducted in laboratory or field settings, in adults or children. Eligible studies compared at least two groups of participants, each exposed to a different size or shape of a portion of a food (including non-alcoholic beverages), alcohol or tobacco product, its package or individual unit size, or of an item of tableware used to consume it, and included a measure of unregulated selection or consumption of food, alcohol or tobacco. Data collection and

  10. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  11. The association between delusional-like experiences, and tobacco, alcohol or cannabis use: a nationwide population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous population-based studies have found that delusional-like experiences (DLE) are prevalent in the community, and are associated with a wide range of mental health disorders including substance use. The aim of the study was to explore the association between DLE and three commonly used substances - tobacco, alcohol and cannabis. Methods Subjects were drawn from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify DLE, common psychiatric disorders, and substance use. We examined the relationship between the variables of interest using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Of 8 773 participants, 8.4% (n = 776) subjects endorsed one or more DLE. With respect to tobacco use, compared to nonusers, DLE were more common in those who (a) had daily use, (b) commenced usage aged 15 years or less, and (c) those who smoked heavily (23 or more cigarettes per day). Participants with cannabis use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE; this association was most prominent in those with an onset of 16 years or younger. In contrast, the pattern of association between DLE versus alcohol use or dependence was less consistent, however those with early onset alcohol use disorders were more likely to endorse DLE probe items. Conclusions While cannabis use disorders have been previously linked with DLE, our findings linking alcohol and tobacco use and DLE suggest that the influence of these substances on psychosis-related outcomes warrants closer scrutiny in longitudinal prospective studies. PMID:22204498

  12. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  13. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  14. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  15. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  16. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  17. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  18. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  19. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  20. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  1. Psychographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol use in a sample of young adults on the U.S./México border.

    PubMed

    Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon

    2016-12-01

    Few studies using psychographic segmentation have been conducted; even fewer in minority samples. Study aims were to identify psychographic clusters and their relation to tobacco and alcohol use within a predominantly Hispanic (87%) young adult (ages 18-25) sample. Participants (N=754; 72.5% female; Mage=20.7 [2.2]) completed the following measures online: sociodemographics, tobacco use history, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985), a social activities scale, a psychographic survey, a music preference item, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, & Donohew, 2002), and the Mini-International Personality Item Pool (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006). Two step cluster analysis identified two groups. 'Popular Extroverts' (49.3% of sample) reported higher: extroversion scores F(1, 652)=40.03, sensation seeking scores F(1, 652)=20.38, alcohol use (greater number of drinks per week [F(1, 652)=9.69]; and past month binge drinking [χ² (1)=12.80]), and lifetime tobacco use (χ² [1]=10.61) (all ps≤0.002). 'Mainstream/Conventionals' (50.7% of sample) reported greater intentions to smoke in the next month F(1, 284)=11.81, p=0.001. 'Popular Extroverts' may benefit from prevention/cessation messaging promoting peer support and intensity-oriented activities. For 'Mainstream/Conventionals,' messaging communicating negative attitudes toward smoking and the tobacco industry may be effective. Future directions include testing targeted messages which may be incorporated into mass media tobacco and alcohol interventions for young adults on the U.S./México border.

  2. Psychographic characteristics, tobacco, and alcohol use in a sample of young adults on the U.S./México border.

    PubMed

    Cabriales, José Alonso; Cooper, Theodore V; Hernandez, Nora; Law, Jon

    2016-12-01

    Few studies using psychographic segmentation have been conducted; even fewer in minority samples. Study aims were to identify psychographic clusters and their relation to tobacco and alcohol use within a predominantly Hispanic (87%) young adult (ages 18-25) sample. Participants (N=754; 72.5% female; Mage=20.7 [2.2]) completed the following measures online: sociodemographics, tobacco use history, the Daily Drinking Questionnaire (Collins, Parks, & Marlatt, 1985), a social activities scale, a psychographic survey, a music preference item, the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, & Donohew, 2002), and the Mini-International Personality Item Pool (Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006). Two step cluster analysis identified two groups. 'Popular Extroverts' (49.3% of sample) reported higher: extroversion scores F(1, 652)=40.03, sensation seeking scores F(1, 652)=20.38, alcohol use (greater number of drinks per week [F(1, 652)=9.69]; and past month binge drinking [χ² (1)=12.80]), and lifetime tobacco use (χ² [1]=10.61) (all ps≤0.002). 'Mainstream/Conventionals' (50.7% of sample) reported greater intentions to smoke in the next month F(1, 284)=11.81, p=0.001. 'Popular Extroverts' may benefit from prevention/cessation messaging promoting peer support and intensity-oriented activities. For 'Mainstream/Conventionals,' messaging communicating negative attitudes toward smoking and the tobacco industry may be effective. Future directions include testing targeted messages which may be incorporated into mass media tobacco and alcohol interventions for young adults on the U.S./México border. PMID:27393933

  3. Using Internet to recruit immigrants with language and culture barriers for tobacco and alcohol use screening: a study among Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Beatriz H; Safioti, Luciana; Rue, Tessa C; Miles, Lyndsay

    2015-04-01

    Limited English proficient (LEP) individuals face disparities in accessing substance abuse treatment, but little is known on how to reach this population. This study aimed to test online recruitment methods for tobacco and alcohol screening among LEP Portuguese speakers. The study was advertised in Portuguese using Facebook, Google, online newsletters and E-mail. Participants clicked ads to consent and access a screening for tobacco and alcohol dependence. Ads yielded 690 screening responses in 90 days. Respondents had a mean age of 42.7 (SD 12), with a higher proportion of women than men, 95% born in Brazil with high levels of LEP and low levels of acculturation. Facebook ads yielded 41.4% of responses, and were the lowest cost recruitment channel ($8.9, $31.10 and $20.40 per respondent, hazardous drinker and smoker, respectively). Online recruitment of LEP populations is feasible. Future studies should test similar strategies in other LEP groups. PMID:24563138

  4. Association between opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) gene polymorphisms and tobacco and alcohol consumption in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Francés, Francesc; Portolés, Olga; Castelló, Ana; Costa, José Antonio; Verdú, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Evidence gained from animals and humans suggests that the encephalic opioid system might be involved in the development of drug addiction through its role in reward. Our aim is to assess the influence of genetic variations in the opioid receptor mu 1 on alcohol and tobacco consumption in a Spanish population. 763 unrelated individuals (465 women, 298 men) aged 18-85 years were recruited between October 2011 and April 2012. Participants were requested to answer a 35-item questionnaire on tobacco and alcohol consumption, as well as to complete the AUDIT and Fagerström tests. Individuals were genotyped for three polymorphisms in the opioid receptor mu 1 (OPRM1) gene, using a TaqMan® protocol. In males, the rs10485057 polymorphism was associated with total pure ethanol intake and with the risk of being an alcohol consumer. Also, this polymorphism was significantly associated with higher Fagerström scores. Rs1799971 had a different influence on adaptive and maladaptive patterns of alcohol use. Despite the limited sample size, our study might enrich current knowledge on patterns of alcohol use, because it encompasses both extreme and adaptive phenotypes, providing thus a wider perspective on this subject. PMID:26042510

  5. Risk of pancreatic cancer in relation to medical history and the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee.

    PubMed

    Farrow, D C; Davis, S

    1990-05-15

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between certain medical conditions, the use of tobacco, alcohol and coffee, and the incidence of pancreatic cancer. Cases (N = 148) were married men ages 20 through 74 years diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from July 1982 through June 1986. Controls (N = 188) were identified by random digit dialing. Wives, responding as surrogates for both cases and controls, were interviewed by telephone and completed, alone, a food frequency questionnaire. The risk of pancreatic cancer was increased in individuals with a history of diabetes or pancreatitis, and decreased in those with a history of tonsillectomy. Individuals who had ever smoked cigarettes were at elevated risk of disease. This excess risk was confined to current smokers, in whom the odds ratio was 3.2 (95% CI 1.8-5.7); the risk among former smokers resembled that in those who had never smoked. There was no excess risk of pancreatic cancer among those who had ever used other forms of tobacco, including pipe tobacco, cigars and chewing tobacco. After adjustment for demographic and dietary characteristics, there was no association between pancreatic cancer risk and the intake of coffee, beer, red wine, hard liquor or all alcohol combined; a slight reduction in risk was seen among those consuming white wine daily. PMID:2335385

  6. Peer‐led interventions to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11–21 years: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sean, Harrison; Deborah M., Caldwell; Matthew, Hickman; Rona, Campbell

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Peer‐led interventions may offer a beneficial approach in preventing substance use, but their impact has not yet been quantified. We conducted a systematic review to investigate and quantify the effect of peer‐led interventions that sought to prevent tobacco, alcohol and/or drug use among young people aged 11–21 years. Methods Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to July 2015 without language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials only. Screening and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and data from eligible studies were pooled in a random effects meta‐analysis. Results We identified 17 eligible studies, approximately half of which were school‐based studies targeting tobacco use among adolescents. Ten studies targeting tobacco use could be pooled, representing 13 706 young people in 220 schools. Meta‐analysis demonstrated that the odds of smoking were lower among those receiving the peer‐led intervention compared with control [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.62–0.99, P = 0.040]. There was evidence of heterogeneity (I 2 = 41%, χ2 15.17, P = 0.086). Pooling of six studies representing 1699 individuals in 66 schools demonstrated that peer‐led interventions were also associated with benefit in relation to alcohol use (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65–0.99, P = 0.036), while three studies (n = 976 students in 38 schools) suggested an association with lower odds of cannabis use (OR = 0.70, 0.50–0.97, P = 0.034). No studies were found that targeted other illicit drug use. Conclusions Peer interventions may be effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol and possibly cannabis use among adolescents, although the evidence base is limited overall, and is characterized mainly by small studies of low quality. PMID:26518976

  7. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  8. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  9. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  10. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  11. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  12. Risk for Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on the Route to and from School: The Role of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Despite the national push encouraging children to walk to school, little work has been done to examine what hazards children encounter on the route to school. This study examined the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on children’s route to school and perceived safety on the route to school as well as exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Data come from a community-based epidemiological study of 394 urban elementary school students. Participants’ residential address, school location, and alcohol outlet data were geocoded and the route to school was mapped. The route to school layer and the geocoded alcohol outlet data were joined to determine the number of alcohol outlets children pass on the route to school. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on the route to school, alcohol and drug exposure, and self-reported safety. Children with an alcohol outlet on the route to school were more likely to be offered ATOD (OR= 2.20, p=.02) as well as be exposed to drug selling (OR=1.72, p=.02) and seeing people using drugs (OR=1.93, p=.02). After adjusting for individual-level variables the relationship between presence of alcohol outlets and being offered ATOD and seeing people using drugs remained significant. However, after adjusting for individual-level control variables and a proxy for the larger neighborhood context, the association between the presence of alcohol outlets and exposure to ATOD was no longer significant. As national campaigns are encouraging children to walk to school it is essential to consider what children are exposed to on the route to school. PMID:23408286

  13. Screening and Treatment for Alcohol, Tobacco and Opioid Use Disorders: A Survey of Family Physicians across Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Loheswaran, Genane; Soklaridis, Sophie; Selby, Peter; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As a primary point of contact within the health care system, family physicians are able to play a vital role in identifying individuals with substance use disorders and connecting them to the appropriate treatment. However, there is very little data available on whether family physicians are actively screening for and treating substance use disorders. The objective of the current survey was to assess whether family physicians in Ontario are screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco use disorders, using validated tools and providing treatment. Methods An online survey consisting of a series of 38 primarily close-ended questions was circulated to family physicians in Ontario. Rates of screening for alcohol, opioid and tobacco dependence, use of validated tools for screening, providing treatment for dependent individuals and the current barriers to the prescription of pharmacotherapies for these drug dependences were assessed. Results The use of validated screening tools was limited for all three substances. Screening by family physicians for the substance use disorders among adolescents was much lower than screening among adults. Pharmacotherapy was more commonly used as an intervention for tobacco dependence than for alcohol and opioid dependence. This was explained by the lack of knowledge among family physicians on the pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid dependence. Conclusions Findings from the current study suggest there is a need for family physicians to integrate screening for substance use disorders using validated tools into their standard medical practice. Furthermore, there is a need for increased knowledge on pharmacotherapies for alcohol and opioid use disorders. It is important to note that the low response rate is a major limitation to this study. One possible reason for this low response rate may be a lack of interest and awareness among family physicians on the importance of screening and treatment of substance use disorders in

  14. Ecodevelopmental Predictors of Early Initiation of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use Among Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Estrada, Yannine; Huang, Shi; Martínez, Marcos; Sardinas, Krystal; Prado, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test the transactional relationships of risk and protective factors that influence initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and drug use among Hispanic youth. Ecodevelopmental theory was used to identify factors at multiple ecological levels with a focus on four school-level characteristics (i.e. school socioeconomic status, school climate, school acculturation, and school ethnic composition). A sample of 741 Hispanic adolescents (M age =13.9, SD =.67) and their caregivers were recruited from 18 participating middle schools in Miami-Dade County, FL. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized ecodevelopmental model of early substance use, accounting for school clustering effects. Results provided strong support for the model (CFI = .95; RMSEA =.03). School SES was indirectly related to the likelihood of starting to use substances through perceived peer use norms (β =.03, p <.02). Similarly, school climate had an indirect effect on substance use initiation through family functioning and perceptions of peer use norms (β = −.03, p < .01). Neither school ethnic composition nor school acculturation had indirect effects on initiation of substance use. Results highlight the importance of the interplay of risk and protective factors at multiple ecological levels that impact early substance use initiation. Further, findings underscore the key role of school level characteristics on initiation of substance use and present opportunities for intervention. PMID:26054814

  15. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  16. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan; Geetha, Seema; Mohanan Nair, Jagathnath Krishna Kumara Pillai; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86-8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25-6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem. PMID:27630784

  17. Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Impact of School Based Antitobacco Education for Knowledge Enhancement among Adolescent Students of Rural Kerala, India

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, Seema; Thomas, Gigi; Sebastian, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Limited information is available on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use in rural Kerala, the southernmost state in India. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among adolescent school students and further to understand the extent of knowledge pertaining to tobacco before and after conducting awareness programmes in schools. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 government schools of rural Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala state based on a multistaged sampling design. Using a pretested semistructured questionnaire, prevalence and patterns of tobacco use by students and their households, as well as students' knowledge on tobacco hazards before and after delivering antitobacco messages, were collected. Results. The overall prevalence of self-reported ever users of tobacco in the current academic year was 7.4% (95% CI 5.86–8.94), while that of ever alcohol users was 5.6% (95% CI 4.25–6.95). Knowledge assessment scores revealed a significant increase in the mean knowledge scores after posttraining evaluation (mean score = 10.34) when compared to pretraining evaluation (mean score = 9.26) (p < 0.0001). Conclusion. Apart from antitobacco awareness programmes, strict monitoring of trade of tobacco and alcohol products near educational institutions has to be conducted consistently to curb the problem.

  18. Trends from 1987 to 1991 in Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug (ATOD) Use among Adolescents Exposed to a School District-Wide Prevention Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younoszai, Tina M.; Lorhmann, David K.; Seefeldt, Carol A.; Greene, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based prevention program initiated to reduce alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use among adolescents. Investigates changes in reported ATOD use from 1987 to 1991. Significant decreases were found for use of most drugs with the exception of alcohol. Involvement in problem behaviors was the most salient risk factor whereas…

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking by College Students in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Reboussin, Beth A.; Wagoner, Kimberly G.; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background Known most commonly in the U.S. as “hookah,” waterpipe tobacco smoking appears to be growing among college students. Despite beliefs that waterpipe use is safer than cigarette smoking, research to date (albeit limited) has found health risks of waterpipe smoking are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, including lung cancer, respiratory illness, and periodontal disease. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of use among a large, multi-institution sample of college students and identify correlates of waterpipe use, including other health-risk behaviors (i.e., cigarette smoking, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use) and availability of commercial waterpipe tobacco smoking venues. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3,770 college students from eight universities in North Carolina completed a web-based survey in fall 2008. Results Forty percent of the sample reported ever having smoked tobacco from a waterpipe, and 17% reported current (past 30-day) waterpipe tobacco smoking. Correlates associated with current waterpipe use included demographic factors (male gender, freshman class); other health-risk behaviors (daily and nondaily cigarette smoking, alcohol use, marijuana use, other illicit drug use); perceiving waterpipe tobacco smoking as less harmful than regular cigarettes; and having a commercial waterpipe venue near campus. Conclusions The results highlight the popularity of waterpipe tobacco smoking among college students and underscore the need for more research to assess the public health implications of this growing trend. PMID:21353750

  20. The synergy of tobacco and alcohol and glutathione S-transferase θ 1 gene deletion and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    D’ Mello, Sarah; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Paremala, K; Makarla, Soumya; Sudhakara, M; Bhatt, Madhura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the leading cancer among males in India. It is related to tobacco habits and alcohol consumption as well as the individual susceptibility for xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms. Glutathione S-transferase θ 1 (GSTT1) is a Phase II metabolic enzyme which is directly involved in catalyzing chemicals to mutagenic intermediates. This gene is characterized by genetic polymorphism resulting in complete gene deletion and subsequent absence of the enzyme, which ultimately dictates the risk of cancer development. Scraping buccal mucosa to obtain DNA from the cells is a simple, readily acceptable and rapid method to detect and assess the gene. Aim: To assess GSTT1 gene deletion in individuals giving a history of tobacco smoking and/or chewing and alcohol consumption and absence of clinically detectable lesions; and in OSCC cases to gauge if GSTT1 gene deletion confers protection to an individual and whether it can be used as a “single” marker to arrive at this conclusion. To validate the use of buccal scrape for determining the genotype of an individual by assessing the polymorphism at GSTT1 gene locus (22q11.2). Materials and Methods: Fifty-two cases were evaluated using buccal mucosal scrapes of tobacco habituates for 8 or more years, without clinically evident lesion (Group I) and from mucosa of tobacco habituates with clinically evident and histopathologically confirmed OSCC (Group II). DNA extraction and genotype at GSTT1 gene locus was determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: 90.66% of subjects had GSTT1 null genotype in Group I subjects. In Group II, subjects with both clinically and histopathologically diagnosed oral cancer, about 76.96% had GSTT1 null genotype. Conclusion: GSTT1 null genotype confers protection to individuals with tobacco habits and alcohol consumption, predominantly to those who used

  1. Gastric cancer risk in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in Kerala, India - Karunagappally cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jayalekshmi, Padmavathy Amma; Hassani, Soroush; Nandakumar, Athira; Koriyama, Chihaya; Sebastian, Paul; Akiba, Suminori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to tobacco use and alcohol drinking in the Karunagappally cohort in Kerala, South India. METHODS: This study examined the association of tobacco use and alcohol drinking with GC incidence among 65553 men aged 30-84 in the Karunagappally cohort. During the period from 1990-2009, 116 GC cases in the cohort were identified as incident cancers. These cases were identified from the population-based cancer registry. Information regarding risk factors such as socioeconomic factors and tobacco and alcohol habits of cohort members were collected from the database of the baseline survey conducted during 1990-1997. The relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for tobacco use were obtained from Poisson regression analysis of grouped survival data, considering age, follow-up period, occupation and education. RESULTS: Bidi smoking was associated with GC risk (P = 0.042). The RR comparing current versus never smokers was 1.6 (95%CI: 1.0-2.5). GC risk was associated with the number of bidis smoked daily (P = 0.012) and with the duration of bidi smoking (P = 0.036). Those who started bidi smoking at younger ages were at an elevated GC risk; the RRs for those starting bidi smoking under the age of 18 and ages 18-22 were 2.0 (95%CI: 1.0-3.9) and 1.8 (95%CI: 1.1-2.9), respectively, when their risks were compared with lifetime non-smokers of bidis. Bidi smoking increased the risk of GC among never cigarette smokers more evidently (RR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-4.0). GC risk increased with the cumulative amount of bidi smoking, which was calculated as the number of bidis smoked per day x years of smoking (bidi-year; P = 0.017). Cigarette smoking, tobacco chewing or alcohol drinking was not significantly associated with GC risk. CONCLUSION: Among a male cohort in South India, gastric cancer risk increased with the number and duration of bidi smoking. PMID:26640345

  2. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-06-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (+/-2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05-2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21-3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50-3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk.

  3. Opium, tobacco, and alcohol use in relation to oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a high-risk area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nasrollahzadeh, D; Kamangar, F; Aghcheli, K; Sotoudeh, M; Islami, F; Abnet, C C; Shakeri, R; Pourshams, A; Marjani, H A; Nouraie, M; Khatibian, M; Semnani, S; Ye, W; Boffetta, P; Dawsey, S M; Malekzadeh, R

    2008-01-01

    The very high incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in Golestan Province in northeastern Iran was suggested by studies in the 1970s as partly due to opium use, which is not uncommon in this area, but based on limited numbers. From December 2003 to June 2007, we administered a validated structured questionnaire to 300 ESCC cases and 571 controls, matched on neighbourhood of residence, age (±2 years), and sex. We used conditional logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Compared with those who used neither tobacco nor opium, risk of ESCC was increased in those who used tobacco only (OR, 95% CI: 1.70, 1.05–2.73), in those who used opium only (2.12, 1.21–3.74), and in those who used both tobacco and opium (2.35, 1.50–3.67). All forms of tobacco use (cigarettes, hookah, and nass) were associated with higher ESCC risk. Similarly, use of both crude opium and other forms of opium were associated with higher risk. Alcohol consumption was seen in only 2% of the cases and 2% of the controls, and was not associated with ESCC risk. PMID:18475303

  4. Content Analysis of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs in Popular Music

    PubMed Central

    Primack, Brian A.; Dalton, Madeline A.; Carroll, Mary V.; Agarwal, Aaron A.; Fine, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To perform a comprehensive content analysis of substance use in contemporary popular music. Design We analyzed the 279 most popular songs of 2005 according to Billboard magazine. Two coders working independently used a standardized data collection instrument to code portrayals of substance use. Outcome Measures Presence and explicit use of substances and motivations for, associations with, and consequences of substance use. Results Of the 279 songs, 93 (33.3%) portrayed substance use, with an average of 35.2 substance references per song-hour. Portrayal of substance use varied significantly (P<.001) by genre, with 1 or more references in 3 of 35 pop songs (9%), 9 of 66 rock songs (14%), 11 of 55 R&B/hip-hop songs (20%), 22 of 61 country songs (36%), and 48 of 62 rap songs (77%). While only 2.9% of the 279 songs portrayed tobacco use, 23.7% depicted alcohol use, 13.6% depicted marijuana use, and 11.5% depicted other or unspecified substance use. In the 93 songs with substance use, it was most often motivated by peer/social pressure (45 [48%]) or sex (28 [30%]); use was commonly associated with partying (50 [54%]), sex (43 [46%]), violence (27 [29%]), and/or humor (22 [24%]). Only 4 songs (4%) contained explicit antiuse messages, and none portrayed substance refusal. Most songs with substance use (63 [68%]) portrayed more positive than negative consequences; these positive consequences were most commonly social, sexual, financial, or emotional. Conclusions The average adolescent is exposed to approximately 84 references to explicit substance use daily in popular songs, and this exposure varies widely by musical genre. The substance use depicted in popular music is frequently motivated by peer acceptance and sex, and it has highly positive associations and consequences. PMID:18250243

  5. Tobacco, alcohol, asbestos, and nickel in the etiology of cancer of the larynx: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.D.; Howe, G.R.; Miller, A.B.; Semenciw, R.

    1981-12-01

    A case-control study of laryngeal cancer was conducted in southern Ontario between 1977 and 1979 with 204 subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and 204 controls, individually matched by sex, age, and residence. Tobacco products and alcohol showed strong associations with cancer of the larynx for males, with relative risks (RR) for users of cigarettes, cigars or cigarillos, pipes, and alcohol of 6.1, 2.9, 1.6, and 5.2, respectively. The population attributable risk percent for males using tobacco products and alcohol together was estimated to be 94%. Cigarette smoking was also an important risk factor for females, although the small number of female pairs (20) precluded any meaningful detailed analysis of other possible risk factors. The RR for males for exposure to asbestos after the effects of cigarette smoking were controlled was 2.3, and the effects seemed restricted to cigarette smokers. The findings on asbestos were based on small numbers of cases and controls exposed and consequently were subject to large sampling errors. The estimate was consistent, however, with that from other studies and supported a causal role for asbestos exposure and cancer of the larynx. The RR for males for exposure to nickel was 0.9.

  6. Ten Years and 1 Master Settlement Agreement Later: The Nature and Frequency of Alcohol and Tobacco Promotion in Televised Sports, 2000 Through 2002

    PubMed Central

    Zwarun, Lara

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. I sought to identify what kinds of promotion for alcohol and tobacco products are found in televised sports programming, as well as how frequently they occur. I compared my findings with data from 5 and 10 years earlier to examine the effects of the Master Settlement Agreement and detect industry trends. Method. A content analysis of more than 83 hours of televised sports programming from 2000 through 2002 was conducted. Composite week sampling was used to ensure results were representative of the overall population of television sports programs. Programs were examined for traditional advertising (commercials) and nontraditional advertising (stadium signs, announcer voiceovers, etc.). Results. Rates of certain types of alcohol advertising have decreased, but what remains is strategically chosen to increase the likelihood of audience exposure. Despite the Master Settlement Agreement, tobacco advertising remains prevalent in many sports. A new trend of placing alcohol and tobacco brand names in commercials for other products is evident. Conclusions. Alcohol and tobacco marketers appear able to cleverly adapt to advertising challenges, such as digital video recorders and legislation. Alcohol and tobacco brands remain visible on sports programming. PMID:16809598

  7. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  8. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  9. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing.

  10. Reducing the Role of the Food, Tobacco, and Alcohol Industries in Noncommunicable Disease Risk in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and food corporations in promoting NCD risk and unhealthy lifestyles in South Africa and in exacerbating inequities in NCD distribution among populations. Through their business practices such as product design, marketing, retail distribution, and pricing and their business practices such as lobbying, public relations, philanthropy, and sponsored research, national and transnational corporations in South Africa shape the social and physical environments that structure opportunities for NCD risk behavior. Since the election of a democratic government in 1994, the South African government and civil society groups have used regulation, public education, health services, and community mobilization to modify corporate practices that increase NCD risk. By expanding the practice of health education to include activities that seek to modify the practices of corporations as well as individuals, South Africa can reduce the growing burden of NCDs. PMID:27037150

  11. The role of drug use sequencing pattern in further problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and other drugs

    PubMed Central

    Castaldelli-Maia, João Maurício; Martins, Silvia S.; de Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Nicastri, Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been considerable debate regarding what typically occurs after experimentation with drugs throughout the life of young people who used various drugs. Aims To evaluate the clinical importance of the most common sequence for the first use of a drug by two models(the ‘gateway model’ and the ‘alternative model’, which is the most popular sequence for Brazilian university students according to a previous study) regarding the problematic use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illegal drugs, assessed by ASSIST. Method People who had already experimented with three or more drugs across different stages of the two models were selected from a representative sample of university students from 27 Brazilian capitals(n=12, 711). Findings There were no differences regarding the problematic use of the most consumed drugs in Brazil(alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) between the models. Multiple drug seekers and violators had more problematic use of illegal drugs other than cannabis than individuals in the model sequence. However, in the case of violators, this was only evident in the alternative model. Conclusions Multiple drug seekers and violators deserve special attention due to their increased risk of problematic use of other illegal drugs. Declaration of interest None. PMID:25188583

  12. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, A; Johnson, B D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Much research has documented that youthful substance use typically follows a sequence starting with use of alcohol or tobacco or both and potentially proceeding to marijuana and then hard drug use. This study explicitly examined the probabilities of progression through each stage and their covariates. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1979-1997) was conducted with particular sensitivity to the nature of substance use progression, sampling procedures, and reliability of self-report data. RESULTS: Progression to marijuana and hard drug use was uncommon among persons born before World War II. The stages phenomenon essentially emerged with the baby boom and rose to a peak among persons born around 1960. Subsequently, progression risks at each stage declined. Progression risks were also higher among younger initiators of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in youthful marijuana use has been offset by lower rates of progression to hard drug use among youths born in the 1970s. Dire predictions of future hard drug abuse by youths who came of age in the 1990s may be greatly overstated. PMID:11211630

  13. Preventing illegal tobacco and alcohol sales to minors through electronic age-verification devices: a field effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Brad; Capitman, John A; Oblak, Leslie; Cannon, Joanna B; Ruwe, Mathilda

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to prohibit the sales of tobacco and alcohol products to minors are widespread. Electronic Age Verification (EAV) devices are one possible means to improve compliance with sales to minors laws. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of EAV devices in terms of the frequency and accuracy of age verification, as well as to examine the impact of EAV's on the retailer environment. Two study locations were selected: Tallahassee, Florida and Iowa City, Iowa. Retail stores were invited to participate in the study, producing a self-selected experimental group. Stores that did not elect to test the EAV's comprised the comparison group. The data sources included: 1) mystery shopper inspections: two pre- and five post-EAV installation mystery shopper inspections of tobacco and alcohol retailers; 2) retail clerk and manager interviews; and 3) customer interviews. The study found that installing EAV devices with minimal training and encouragement did not increase age verification and underage sales refusal. Surveyed clerks reported positive experiences using the electronic ID readers and customers reported almost no discomfort about being asked to swipe their IDs. Observations from this study support the need for a more comprehensive system for responsible retailing. PMID:15015859

  14. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  15. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  16. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  17. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  18. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  19. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  20. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  1. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  7. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  8. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  9. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  11. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  13. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  15. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  18. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  19. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  1. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  8. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  11. 27 CFR 40.183 - Record of tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of tobacco products. 40.183 Section 40.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  12. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  13. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  14. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  16. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  17. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  18. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  2. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  3. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  6. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  9. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  10. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  11. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  14. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  15. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  16. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.213 - Tobacco products labeled for export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tobacco products labeled for export. 40.213 Section 40.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  18. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  20. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  1. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  5. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, and 44 [Docket No. TTB-2013-0006; Notice No... Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade...

  7. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  8. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  9. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  10. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  11. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. 40.25a Section 40.25a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE...

  12. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend <0.001). Consumption of 50 g salted meat per week was related to an increased risk by 18% (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-1.23). Salted meat in combination with either alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  13. Attributions for Abstinence from Illicit Drugs by University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Harold; Baylen, Chelsea; Murray, Shanna; Phillips, Kristina; Tisak, Marie S.; Versland, Amelia; Pristas, Erica

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess college students' attributions for abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs. Method: We recruited 125 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 41 listed reasons influenced their abstention from six specific substances (alcohol, MDMA/ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens). Findings: Internal consistency…

  14. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  15. Effective Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Intervention and Prevention Using Online Game-Based, E-Learning: An Evidence-Informed Program That Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Heidi; Hayslett, Carrianne; Bansal, Naveen; Ronco, Sharron; Schafer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The host of costly individual and societal consequences of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) use underscores the importance of ATOD prevention education. "It's Up 2U" is an evidence-informed, game-based, e-learning ATOD prevention program developed by Children's Health Education Center (CHEC) targeting middle…

  16. Mapping Self-Confidence Levels of Nurses in Their Provision of Nursing Care to Others with Alcohol and Tobacco Dependence, Using Rasch Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Ian; de Crespigny, Charlotte; Parker, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This study seeks to identify factors that influence the perceived complexity of providing nursing care to others (who are dependent on alcohol and tobacco) and the confidence of undergraduate student nurses to carry out this care. The research project is designed to explore whether there is a difference between the perceived complexities of 57…

  17. California Programs To Prevent and Reduce Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Use among In-School Youth: 1992-93 Annual Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Frank; And Others

    The program implementation and cost data, along with the student substance use and program exposure data, of the Drug, Alcohol, and Tobacco Education (DATE) Program are presented. The data came from a random sample of California public school districts. This evaluation concentrates on five components of the DATE Program: (1) Curriculum delivery;…

  18. Tobacco carcinogen (NNK) induces both lung cancer and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas in ferrets which can be attenuated by lycopene supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early epidemiologic studies have reported that tobacco smoking, which is causally associated with liver cancer, is an independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Lycopene from tomatoes has been shown to be a potential preventive agent against NAFLD and hepatocellular carc...

  19. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  20. Restrictions on tobacco and alcohol use in Australian work-places.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R; Heather, N; Holt, P

    1996-12-01

    In a telephone survey of 455 of the top 600 companies in Australia, around three-quarters reported the existence of restrictions on both smoking and alcohol in the workplace. Forty-six percent of companies had a total ban on smoking at work, 31% had designated limited areas where employees were permitted to smoke, and 23% had no policy on smoking. Seventy-seven percent of companies encouraged a total alcohol-free work environment. The larger the company, the more likely it was to have restrictions on smoking in the work-place, but there was no relationship between the size of the company and alcohol restrictions. Government organizations were more likely to have restrictions on smoking than non-government organizations, but this difference was not apparent for alcohol restrictions. The major reasons given for smoking restrictions were related to health and comfort, while those for alcohol were related to work productivity and safety.

  1. Evaluation of a Tobacco and Alcohol Abuse Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; And Others

    Programs which have been somewhat effective in reducing the rates of onset of regular tobacco use have featured such components as peer pressure resistance training, correction of normative expectations, inoculation against mass media messages, information about parental influences, information about consequences of use, public commitments, or…

  2. Treatment models for targeting tobacco use during treatment for cannabis use disorder: case series.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dustin C; Budney, Alan J; Brunette, Mary F; Hughes, John R; Etter, Jean-Francois; Stanger, Catherine

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 50% of individuals seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD) also smoke tobacco, and tobacco smoking is a predictor of poor outcomes for those in treatment for CUD. Quitting tobacco is associated with long-term abstinence from alcohol and illicit drugs, yet there are no established treatments for CUD that also target tobacco smoking. This report highlights issues related to cannabis and tobacco co-use and discusses potential treatment approaches targeting both substances. Data is shared from the first six participants enrolled in an intervention designed to simultaneously target tobacco use in individuals seeking treatment for CUD. The twelve-week program comprised computer-assisted delivery of Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Contingency Management, i.e., abstinence-based incentives for CUD. In addition, participants were encouraged to complete an optional tobacco intervention consisting of nicotine-replacement therapy and computer-assisted delivery of a behavioral treatment tailored for tobacco and cannabis users. All participants completed the cannabis intervention and at least a portion of the tobacco intervention: all completed at least one tobacco computer module (mean=2.5 modules) and 50% initiated nicotine replacement therapy. Five of six participants achieved abstinence from cannabis. The number of tobacco quit attempts was lower than expected, however all participants attempted to reduce tobacco use during treatment. Simultaneously targeting tobacco during treatment for CUD did not negatively impact cannabis outcomes. Participation in the tobacco intervention was high, but cessation outcomes were poor suggesting that alternative strategies might be needed to more effectively prompt quit attempts and enhance quit rates.

  3. Adult and adolescent exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in contemporary YouTube music videos in Great Britain: a population estimate

    PubMed Central

    Cranwell, Jo; Opazo-Breton, Magdalena; Britton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background We estimate exposure of British adults and adolescents to tobacco and alcohol content from a sample of popular YouTube music videos. Methods British viewing figures were generated from 2 representative online national surveys of adult and adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular videos containing content. 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years (1010 boys, 1058 girls), and 2232 adults aged 19+years (1052 male, 1180 female) completed the surveys. We used the number of 10 s intervals in the 32 most popular videos containing content to estimate the number of impressions. We extrapolated gross and per capita impressions for the British population from census data and estimated numbers of adults and adolescents who had ever watched the sampled videos. Results From video release to the point of survey, the videos delivered an estimated 1006 million gross impressions of alcohol (95% CI 748 to 1264 million), and 203 million of tobacco (95% CI 151 to 255 million), to the British population. Per capita exposure was around 5 times higher for alcohol than for tobacco, and nearly 4 times higher in adolescents, who were exposed to an average of 52.1 (95% CI 43.4 to 60.9) and 10.5 (95% CI 8.8 to 12.3) alcohol and tobacco impressions, respectively, than in adults (14.1 (95% CI 10.2 to 18.1) and 2.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 3.6)). Exposure rates were higher in girls than in boys. Conclusions YouTube music videos deliver millions of gross impressions of alcohol and tobacco content. Adolescents are exposed much more than adults. Music videos are a major global medium of exposure to such content. PMID:26767404

  4. 16mm Films on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Abuse. Product Information Supplement No.6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educ Prod Rep, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Sixty-two films on drug abuse, 33 on smoking abuse, and 28 on alcohol abuse are listed showing title, distributor, suggested grade level, technical information, description of content, cost, and availability. (MLF)

  5. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with chronic daily headaches at childhood: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Marco Antônio; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Albuquerque, Regina Célia Ajeje Pires de; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The influence of prenatal events on the development of headaches at childhood has not been investigated and is the scope of our study. Of 2,173 children identified as the target sample, consents and analyzable data were provided by 1,440 (77%). Parents responded to a standardized questionnaire with a validated headache module and specific questions about prenatal exposures. Odds of chronic daily headache (CDH) were significantly higher when maternal tabagism was reported. When active and passive smoking were reported, odds ratio (OR) of CDH were 2.29 [95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.6 vs. 3.6)]; for active tabagism, OR=4.2 (95% CI=2.1-8.5). Alcohol use more than doubled the chance of CDH (24% vs. 11%, OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.7). In multivariate analyses, adjustments did not substantially change the smoking/CDH association. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with increased rates of CDH onset in preadolescent children. PMID:21359419

  6. Area Under the Curve as a Novel Metric of Behavioral Economic Demand for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N.; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances including alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC – which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices - as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42–.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs. PMID:25895013

  7. Area under the curve as a novel metric of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy-drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC--which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices--as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42-.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity, and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs.

  8. Area under the curve as a novel metric of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Yurasek, Ali; McCarty, Kayleigh N; MacKillop, James; Murphy, James G

    2015-06-01

    Behavioral economic purchase tasks can be readily used to assess demand for a number of addictive substances, including alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs. However, several methodological limitations associated with the techniques used to quantify demand may reduce the utility of demand measures. In the present study, we sought to introduce area under the curve (AUC), commonly used to quantify degree of delay discounting, as a novel index of demand. A sample of 207 heavy-drinking college students completed a standard alcohol purchase task and provided information about typical weekly drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Level of alcohol demand was quantified using AUC--which reflects the entire amount of consumption across all drink prices--as well as the standard demand indices (e.g., intensity, breakpoint, Omax, Pmax, and elasticity). Results indicated that AUC was significantly correlated with each of the other demand indices (rs = .42-.92), with particularly strong associations with Omax (r = .92). In regression models, AUC and intensity were significant predictors of weekly drinking quantity, and AUC uniquely predicted alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for drinking level. In a parallel set of analyses, Omax also predicted drinking quantity and alcohol problems, although Omax was not a unique predictor of the latter. These results offer initial support for using AUC as an index of alcohol demand. Additional research is necessary to further validate this approach and to examine its utility in quantifying demand for other addictive substances such as tobacco and illicit drugs. PMID:25895013

  9. Toward a Global View of Alcohol, Tobacco, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C; Anthony, James C; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, José; Stein, Dan J; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization's (WHO's) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative. Methods and Findings Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People's Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex–cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male–female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use. Conclusions Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user-level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent

  10. Effect of tobacco and alcohol consumption on the Langerhans cell population of human lingual epithelium determined using a monoclonal antibody against HLADR.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Williams, D M; Scott, J

    1991-02-01

    Tobacco and alcohol consumption are known predisposing factors to the development of oral cancer, though the mechanism by which they act is unclear. The density of Langerhans cells (LC) has been shown to decrease in the uterine cervix of smokers, possibly indicating reduced immune surveillance and increased risk of malignant change. This study examined biopsies of normal human lateral border of tongue taken from 41 necropsies whose histories of tobacco and alcohol consumption were known. LC were identified in fixed, wax-embedded sections using a monoclonal antibody to HLADR and an immunoperoxidase technique. The mean density of LC in smokers of the equivalent of 11 or more cigarettes daily was significantly higher than moderate and non-smokers when counts were expressed per mm epithelial surface and basement membrane length. There were no significant differences in LC numbers in relation to alcohol consumption, age or sex, but there was a significant interaction between tobacco and alcohol. The results suggest that either human oral LC respond to external toxins, or that physical changes in the epithelial barrier induced by such toxins necessitate the presence of more LC to maintain the integrity of the epithelium.

  11. Prospective Effects of Adolescent Indicators of Behavioral Disinhibition on DSM-IV Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Hopfer, Christian J.; Corley, Robin C.; Young, Susan E.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hewitt, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify robust predictors of drug dependence. Methods This longitudinal study included 2361 male and female twins from an ongoing longitudinal study at the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence (CADD) at the University of Colorado Boulder and Denver campuses. Twins were recruited for the CADD project while they were between the ages of 12 and 18. Participants in the current study were on average approximately 15 years of age during the first wave of assessment and approximately 20 years of age at the second wave of assessment. The average time between assessments was five years. A structured interview was administered at each assessment to determine patterns of substance use and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; Fourth Edition) attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and drug dependence symptoms. Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was also used to assess novelty seeking tendencies (NS). At the second wave of assessment, DSM-IV dependence symptoms were reassessed using the same interview. Path analyses were used to examine direct and indirect mechanisms linking psychopathology and drug outcomes. Results Adolescent substance use, CD, and NS predicted young adult substance dependence, whereas the predictive effects of ADHD were few and inconsistent. Furthermore, CD and NS effects were partially mediated by adolescent substance use. Conclusions Adolescent conduct problems, novelty seeking, and drug use are important indices of future drug problems. The strongest predictor was novelty seeking. PMID:23685327

  12. Early Detection of Illicit Drug Use in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Mouton, Charles P.; Jabeen, Shagufta; Ofoemezie, Ejike Kingsley; Bailey, Rhan K.; Shahid, Madiha; Zeng, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The illicit use of drugs, including alcohol, by teenagers has been extensively studied and documented. It is not uncommon for teenagers to be involved in illicit drug use before exhibiting signs and symptoms of drug use. Unsuspecting parents may be unaware of drug use in their children. The authors’ objective in this article is to review the literature on illicit drug use in teenagers and highlight the risk factors for teen involvement. The authors also review the warning signs that a teen is using illicit drugs. The aim of this article is to assist parents and healthcare workers involved in substance use intervention programs to be more aware of these risk factors and warning signs in order to adopt early screening and intervention measures. PMID:22247815

  13. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  14. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  15. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  16. 27 CFR 46.166 - Dealing in tobacco products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealing in tobacco products. 46.166 Section 46.166 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS RELATING TO...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  18. Joint and independent effects of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on oral cancer: a large case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval -95CI, 2.76-4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86-4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89-20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02-1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48-1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09-31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent effect of smoking

  19. Tobacco use among georgian schoolchildren; pilot study following criteria of European school project on alcohol and other drug.

    PubMed

    Baramidze, L; Sturua, L; Gamkrelidze, A

    2009-11-01

    The main purpose of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) is to collect comparable data on substance use among 15-16 year-old European students in order to monitor trends within as well as between countries. This summary presents key results from the Tobacco Use in Georgian Students, pilot study rigorously following Criteria of European School Project on Alcohol and Other Drug (ESPAD). The survey was conducted according to a standardized methodology and with a standardized questionnaire. Data were collected during February 2009 and the target population was Tbilisi students in the 10-th grade (93% born in 1992), with a mean age of 16.1 years at the time of data collection. Data were collected by group-administered questionnaires. The students answered the questionnaires anonymously in the classroom with researchers. On average, in our survey, about half of the surveyed students reported having tried smoking cigarettes at least once and 16% had used cigarettes during the past 30 days. 1.1% of all students had smoked at least a packet of cigarettes per day during the last 30 days. On average 60% of surveyed students replied that they find it fairly or very easy to get cigarettes if they want to. On average, 30% (10% - 9 years old or less) of the students said that they had been smoking cigarettes on a daily basis at the age of 13 or younger. The proportion of students who smoked on a daily basis at the age of 13 or younger is 4.3%. Adolescent's tobacco use is a great public health concern in Georgia. Smoking is quite prevalent among Georgian adult population which on one hand reflects their children's habits and on the other hand reflects not only their, but their families and broader community's health. The consumption level among adults and their attitudes towards the substance in question can be one factor that affects use among teenagers. So may the magnitude of information and preventive efforts. Availability, not only in physical

  20. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies.

  1. A Latent Class Analysis of Smokeless Tobacco Use in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Vaughn, Michael G

    2016-08-01

    While there has been an escalating trend in the number of smokeless tobacco uses, mainly snuff, in the United States, it is unclear whether smokeless tobacco users are a homogenous class. The present investigation examines this question and identifies subtypes of smokeless tobacco users in order to better understand the characteristics of these individuals and guide appropriate intervention. Data on smokeless tobacco users (N = 2504) derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was employed. A range of antisocial behaviors, from reflecting non-violent deviant acts, irresponsibility, and a disengaged lifestyle, to aggression and violence were used to estimate the number of subtypes of smokeless tobacco users using latent class analysis. Four latent classes emerged: Normative Class (50.2 %), Deviant Class (21.9 %), Disengaging Class (17.2 %), and Antisocial Class (10.5 %). Logistic regression shows that major depression, alcohol use disorder, and marijuana use disorder were associated with Deviant Class (OR's from 2.0 to 10.5). The same array of psychiatric disorders and general anxiety disorder were associated with greater odds of membership in the Disengaging Class (OR's from 2.6 to 7.4). Aforementioned psychiatric disorders and illicit drug use disorder were associated with the Antisocial Class (OR's from 3.8 to 38.1). Findings indicate that smokeless tobacco users are a heterogeneous population that may benefit from differential intervention strategies. PMID:26864269

  2. Triple Comorbid Trajectories of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Among Urban Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W.; Finch, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods. We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study, a psychosocial investigation, at 4 time waves (mean ages = 19, 24, 29, and 32 years). We used Mplus to obtain the 3 variable trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from time 2 to time 5 and then conducted logistic regression analyses. Results. A 5-trajectory group model, ranging from the use of all 3 substances (23%) to a nonuse group (9%), best fit the data. Membership in the trajectory group that used all 3 substances was associated with an increased likelihood of both ASPD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.83; 95% CI = 1.14, 40.74; P < .05) and GAD (AOR = 4.35; 95% CI = 1.63, 11.63; P < .001) in adulthood, as compared with the nonuse group, with control for earlier proxies of these conditions. Conclusions. Adults with comorbid tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use should be evaluated for use of other substances and for ASPD, GAD, and other psychiatric disorders. Treatment programs should address the use of all 3 substances to decrease the likelihood of comorbid psychopathology. PMID:24922120

  3. Molecular Links between Alcohol and Tobacco Induced DNA Damage, Gene Polymorphisms and Patho-physiological Consequences: A Systematic Review of Hepatic Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Abdul Anvesh; Jain, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse plays a crucial role in the development of different liver associated disorders. Intake promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species within hepatic cells exposing their DNA to continuous oxidative stress which finally leads to DNA damage. However in response to such damage an entangled protective repair machinery comprising different repair proteins like ATM, ATR, H2AX, MRN complex becomes activated. Under abnormal conditions the excessive reactive oxygen species generation results in genetic predisposition of various genes (as ADH, ALDH, CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1) involved in xenobiotic metabolic pathways, associated with susceptibility to different liver related diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is increasing evidence that the inflammatory process is inherently associated with many different cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The generated reactive oxygen species can also activate or repress epigenetic elements such as chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNAs (micro-RNAs), DNA (de) methylation and histone modification that affect gene expression, hence leading to various disorders. The present review provides comprehensive knowledge of different molecular mechanisms involved in gene polymorphism and their possible association with alcohol and tobacco consumption. The article also showcases the necessity of identifying novel diagnostic biomarkers for early cancer risk assessment among alcohol and tobacco users. PMID:26163595

  4. Molecular Links between Alcohol and Tobacco Induced DNA Damage, Gene Polymorphisms and Patho-physiological Consequences: A Systematic Review of Hepatic Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Abdul Anvesh; Jain, Subodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse plays a crucial role in the development of different liver associated disorders. Intake promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species within hepatic cells exposing their DNA to continuous oxidative stress which finally leads to DNA damage. However in response to such damage an entangled protective repair machinery comprising different repair proteins like ATM, ATR, H2AX, MRN complex becomes activated. Under abnormal conditions the excessive reactive oxygen species generation results in genetic predisposition of various genes (as ADH, ALDH, CYP2E1, GSTT1, GSTP1 and GSTM1) involved in xenobiotic metabolic pathways, associated with susceptibility to different liver related diseases such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is increasing evidence that the inflammatory process is inherently associated with many different cancer types, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The generated reactive oxygen species can also activate or repress epigenetic elements such as chromatin remodeling, non-coding RNAs (micro-RNAs), DNA (de) methylation and histone modification that affect gene expression, hence leading to various disorders. The present review provides comprehensive knowledge of different molecular mechanisms involved in gene polymorphism and their possible association with alcohol and tobacco consumption. The article also showcases the necessity of identifying novel diagnostic biomarkers for early cancer risk assessment among alcohol and tobacco users.

  5. Trends in medical student use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs in an Irish university, 1973-2002.

    PubMed

    Boland, M; Fitzpatrick, P; Scallan, E; Daly, L; Herity, B; Horgan, J; Bourke, G

    2006-11-01

    Questionnaire surveys of medical students in an Irish university were carried out in 1973 (n=765), 1990 (n=522) and 2002 (n=537), with differentiation of western students (e.g., from the Republic of Ireland, the UK, or Australia) and non-western students (e.g., Malaysia). We report on changes in tobacco smoking, drinking and drug-taking over three decades, and we note that, among western students, estimated prevalence of being a current smoker has declined overall from 28.8% in 1973 to 15.3% in 1990 to 9.2% in 2002 (p<0.001), falling in both males (p<0.001) and females (p<0.01). Ex-smokers rose from 5.9% to 15.1% between 1990 and 2002, corresponding with the decline in current smokers. The prevalence of current drinkers has risen over the period, to 82.5% among western students in 2002 (p<0.05); female drinking has increased steadily since 1973 (p<0.001), and the overall proportion of CAGE-positive drinkers has risen since 1990 (p<0.001). The mean weekly alcohol consumption has risen in both sexes since 1990 (males 14.3 units to 19.4, p<0.01; females 6.0 to 9.5, p<0.001). There was an increase in the proportion of students ever offered drugs between 1973 and 2002 (p<0.001). Although smoking rates have fallen, our findings show a marked increase in alcohol and drug consumption between 1973 and 2002. Personal misuse of addictive substances by doctors may mean that doctors will fail to take misuse by patients seriously. A need for preventative and ameliorative action during the medical school years is clear. PMID:16735098

  6. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  7. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  8. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...

  9. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  10. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  11. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  12. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...

  14. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. A Study of Motives for Tobacco and Alcohol Use Among High School Students in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Szabolcs; Wills, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Motives may be an important influence for substance use among youth. The goal of this research was to study the relation of social, self-enhancement, boredom relief and affect regulation motives to smoking and drinking in a sample of Eastern European high school students and to examine variation in the effects of these motives by gender. Our sample involved 500 students (ages 14–20 years) from three high schools in a large city in Hungary. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined the relation between motives and substance user status. Social motives were significantly related to both smoking and drinking (except for boys’ smoking). Affect regulation motives were a significant predictor of smoking; in addition, boredom relief was a significant motive for smoking among boys. Mother’s educational level was inversely related to youth substance use, whereas father’s education was positively related to alcohol use among girls. School-based prevention programs should include cognitive education and social skills training to counter perceived benefits of substance use. Further research is needed to clarify the relation of alcohol use to parental education. PMID:25637430

  16. Lifetime suicide attempt history, quality of life, and objective functioning among HIV/AIDS patients with alcohol and illicit substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-05-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts in 170 HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and the impact of suicide attempt history on subjective indices of quality of life and objective indices of cognitive and physical functioning. All patients met the diagnostic criteria for past-year cocaine or opioid use disorders and 27% of patients also had co-occurring alcohol use disorders. Compared to their counterparts without a history of a suicide attempt, patients with a history of a suicide attempt (n = 60, 35.3%) had significantly poorer emotional and cognitive quality of life scores (ps < .05), but not physical, social, or functional/global quality-of-life scores. Lifetime suicide attempt status was unrelated to objective indices of cognitive functioning, but there was a non-significant trend (p = .07) toward lower viral loads in those with a lifetime suicide attempt relative to those without. The findings indicate that suicide attempt histories are prevalent among HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders and relate to poorer perceived emotional and cognitive quality of life, but not objective functioning. HIV/AIDS patients with substance use disorders should be screened for lifetime histories of suicide attempts and offered assistance to improve perceived emotional and cognitive functioning.

  17. Does maternal tobacco smoking modify the effect of alcohol on fetal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Pereira, A da C; Olsen, S F

    1991-01-01

    Smoking and drinking habits were registered by a self-administered questionnaire in 36th week of gestation in 11,698 pregnant women, more than 80 percent of all such women in two Danish cities 1984-87. Alcohol consumption of 120 g/week or more was associated with a greater reduction in the average birthweight in the babies of smokers than of non-smokers (about 40 grams for the non-smokers and about 200 grams for the smokers). This is particularly striking considering that the average birthweight for smokers is lower than for non-smokers. A birthweight difference of more than 500 grams was found between babies of mothers who neither smoked nor drank and mothers who smoked and drank heavily. Our data suggest that women's smoking habits should be taken into consideration when giving pregnant women advice about drinking. PMID:1983919

  18. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  1. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  2. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  4. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use formula. 20.114 Section 20.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco...

  5. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use formula. 20.114 Section 20.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco...

  6. 27 CFR 40.252 - Reduction of tobacco products to materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of tobacco products to materials. 40.252 Section 40.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  7. 27 CFR 40.252 - Reduction of tobacco products to materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reduction of tobacco products to materials. 40.252 Section 40.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  8. 27 CFR 40.252 - Reduction of tobacco products to materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reduction of tobacco products to materials. 40.252 Section 40.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  9. 27 CFR 40.252 - Reduction of tobacco products to materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction of tobacco products to materials. 40.252 Section 40.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  10. 27 CFR 40.313 - Disposition of tobacco products and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and schedule. 40.313 Section 40.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  11. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  12. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 40.252 - Reduction of tobacco products to materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Reduction of tobacco products to materials. 40.252 Section 40.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  14. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use formula. 20.114 Section 20.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco...

  15. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  16. 27 CFR 40.313 - Disposition of tobacco products and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and schedule. 40.313 Section 40.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  17. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  19. 27 CFR 40.313 - Disposition of tobacco products and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and schedule. 40.313 Section 40.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  20. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use formula. 20.114 Section 20.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco...

  1. 27 CFR 40.313 - Disposition of tobacco products and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of tobacco products and schedule. 40.313 Section 40.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  2. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  3. 27 CFR 40.313 - Disposition of tobacco products and schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposition of tobacco products and schedule. 40.313 Section 40.313 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO...

  4. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  5. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 20.114 - Tobacco flavor general-use formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco flavor general-use formula. 20.114 Section 20.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.114 Tobacco flavor general-use formula. Tobacco...

  7. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  8. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  9. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  10. The empirical analysis of cigarette tax avoidance and illicit trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  11. The Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Tax Avoidance and Illicit Trade in Vietnam, 1998-2010

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Minh Thac; Denniston, Ryan; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Hoang, Tuan Anh; Ross, Hana; So, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    Illicit trade carries the potential to magnify existing tobacco-related health care costs through increased availability of untaxed and inexpensive cigarettes. What is known with respect to the magnitude of illicit trade for Vietnam is produced primarily by the industry, and methodologies are typically opaque. Independent assessment of the illicit cigarette trade in Vietnam is vital to tobacco control policy. This paper measures the magnitude of illicit cigarette trade for Vietnam between 1998 and 2010 using two methods, discrepancies between legitimate domestic cigarette sales and domestic tobacco consumption estimated from surveys, and trade discrepancies as recorded by Vietnam and trade partners. The results indicate that Vietnam likely experienced net smuggling in during the period studied. With the inclusion of adjustments for survey respondent under-reporting, inward illicit trade likely occurred in three of the four years for which surveys were available. Discrepancies in trade records indicate that the value of smuggled cigarettes into Vietnam ranges from $100 million to $300 million between 2000 and 2010 and that these cigarettes primarily originate in Singapore, Hong Kong, Macao, Malaysia, and Australia. Notable differences in trends over time exist between the two methods, but by comparison, the industry estimates consistently place the magnitude of illicit trade at the upper bounds of what this study shows. The unavailability of annual, survey-based estimates of consumption may obscure the true, annual trend over time. Second, as surveys changed over time, estimates relying on them may be inconsistent with one another. Finally, these two methods measure different components of illicit trade, specifically consumption of illicit cigarettes regardless of origin and smuggling of cigarettes into a particular market. However, absent a gold standard, comparisons of different approaches to illicit trade measurement serve efforts to refine and improve

  12. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  14. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  15. Personal and environmental characteristics related to epithelial ovarian cancer. II. Exposures to talcum powder, tobacco, alcohol, and coffee.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, A S; Wu, M L; Paffenbarger, R S; Sarles, D L; Kampert, J B; Grosser, S; Jung, D L; Ballon, S; Hendrickson, M

    1988-12-01

    Vaginal exposures to talc and other particulates may play an etiologic role in epithelial ovarian cancer. Surgical sterilization may protect against ovarian cancer by blocking entry of such particulates into the peritoneal cavity. The authors assessed histories of talcum powder use, tubal sterilization, and hysterectomy with ovarian conservation in 188 women in the San Francisco Bay Area with epithelial ovarian cancers diagnosed in 1983-1985 and in 539 control women. To investigate the roles of blood-borne environmental exposures on ovarian cancer risk, they assessed lifetime consumption of coffee, tobacco, and alcohol in these women. Of the 539 controls, 280 were hospitalized women without overt cancer, and 259 were chosen from the general population by random digit telephone dialing. Ninety-seven (52%) of the cancer patients habitually used talcum powder on the perineum, compared with 247 (46%) of the controls. Adjusted for parity, the relative risk (RR) = 1.40, p = 0.06. There were no statistically significant trends with increasing frequency or duration of talc use, and patients did not differ from controls in use of talc on sanitary pads and/or contraceptive diaphragms. Fewer ovarian cancer patients (7%) than controls (13%) reported prior fallopian tube ligation (RR, adjusted for parity, = 0.56, p = 0.06), and fewer patients (20%) than controls (28%) reported prior hysterectomy (RR = 0.66, p = 0.05). The protective effect of hysterectomy was confined to those who underwent this surgery 10 or more years prior to interview and to those who had not undergone prior tubal sterilization. Consumption of cigarettes and alcohol did not differ between cases and controls. By contrast, 11 (6%) cases never regularly consumed coffee, compared with 31 (11%) hospital controls and 26 (10%) population controls (RR, adjusted for smoking, = 2.2, p = 0.03, for the comparison using all controls). Overall, ovarian cancer risk among women who had drunk coffee for more than 40 years

  16. Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use among youth of Mexican heritage.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Matsunaga, Masaki; Hecht, Michael L; Ndiaye, Khadidiatou

    2009-03-01

    This study examined the applicability of extending the theory of planned behavior to explain the normative processes in substance use among Mexican-heritage youth. The theory identifies norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control as predictors of intentions, which in turn, predict behaviors. To date, the theory had a limited conceptualization of norms and had not been extended to youth of Mexican descent, one of the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population and one at particular risk for alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Based on norm focus theory, it was hypothesized that norms are multidimensional, consisting of parental injunctive, peer injunctive, descriptive, and personal substance use norms. Second, it was hypothesized that parental injunctive, peer injunctive, and descriptive norms indirectly affect substance use intentions through attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control. The third hypothesis postulated that the model would operate differently based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin. Mexican-heritage youth (N = 1,499) from 30 elementary schools in Phoenix, AZ completed questionnaires in three waves over 18 months as part of a larger study. The findings supported the first hypothesis, showing the multidimensionality of norms. The second hypothesis was partially supported by findings from a multi-group multilevel path analysis using Mplus. Descriptive norms' association with intentions was partially mediated by attitudes, personal norms, and perceived behavioral control, while parental and peer injunctive norms were fully mediated, partially supporting the second hypothesis. Contrary to the third hypothesis, the mediation model did not differ based on Mexican-heritage youths' country of origin.

  17. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E.; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = −0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001). These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  18. Influence of Parental Monitoring, Sensation Seeking, Expected Social Benefits, and Refusal Efficacy on Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jincong; Wu, Qingfeng; Yang, Chengwu; Vrana, Kent E; Zhou, Li; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Yan, Dong; Li, Jiang; Teng, Shiwei; Gong, Jie; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    The relationships between parental monitoring (PM), sensation seeking (SS), expected social benefits (ESB), refusal efficacy (RE), and tobacco and alcohol use (TAU) have been well documented among adolescents. However, the mechanisms by which these 4 determinants affect TAU remain unclear. Based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, this study aimed to explore how PM, SS, ESB, and RE simultaneously influenced TAU in Chinese adolescents. From September 2013 to June 2014, we used multistage cluster sampling to select 6269 students from 179 classes of 7 vocational high schools in 3 cities of China. Each student completed a battery of 5 measures: PM, SS, ESB, RE, and TAU. Then, we used structural equation modeling techniques and mediation analyses to investigate the relationships among these 5 measures, with TAU as the final dependent variable. Results demonstrated that the relationship between PM and TAU was fully mediated by ESB and RE (b = -0.18, P < 0.001), that SS influenced TAU directly (b = 0.10, P < 0.001) and indirectly through ESB and RE (b = 0.15, P < 0.001), and that ESB influenced TAU directly (b = 0.09, P < 0.001) and indirectly through RE (b = 0.28, P < 0.001).These findings indicate that the link between PM and SS to TAU among Chinese adolescents can be explained by ESB and RE. These 4 precursory determinants can play an important role in TAU prevention among adolescents in China. PMID:26986098

  19. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  1. Negative Treatment by Family as a Predictor of Depressive Symptoms, Life Satisfaction, Suicidality, and Tobacco/Alcohol Use in Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women

    PubMed Central

    Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam T.T.; Bass, Judith K.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research linking family rejection and health outcomes in sexual minority people is mostly limited to North America. We assessed the associations between negative treatment by family members and depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use in sexual minority women (SMW) in Viet Nam. Methods: Data were from an anonymous internet survey (n = 1936). Latent class analysis characterized patterns of negative treatment by family members experienced by respondents. Latent class with distal outcome modeling was used to regress depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, suicidality, and tobacco/alcohol use on family treatment class, controlling for predictors of family treatment and for two other types of sexual prejudice. Results: Five latent family treatment classes were extracted, including four negative classes representing varying patterns of negative family treatment. Overall, more than one negative class predicted lower life satisfaction, more depressive symptoms, and higher odds of attempted suicide (relative to the non-negative class), supporting the minority stress hypothesis that negative family treatment is predictive of poorer outcomes. Only the most negative class had elevated alcohol use. The association between family treatment and smoking status was not statistically significant. The most negative class, unexpectedly, did not have the highest odds of having attempted suicide, raising a question about survivor bias. Conclusion: This population requires public health attention, with emphasis placed on interventions targeting the family to promote acceptance and to prevent negative treatment, and interventions supporting those SMW who encounter the worst types of negative family treatment. PMID:27219025

  2. Perceived Implementation of the Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) Tobacco-Free Regulation in NY State and Clinical Practice Behaviors to Support Tobacco Cessation: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Tormes Eby, Lillian T.; Laschober, Tanja C.

    2013-01-01

    This study measured substance use disorder clinicians’ perceptions regarding the implementation extensiveness of the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse Services (OASAS) tobacco-free regulation, passed in New York State in July of 2008, at three time-points and across organizations with varying characteristics. Repeated cross-sectional data were collected from clinicians approximately 4 months pre-regulation (Time 0, N = 362), 10–12 months postregulation (Time 1, N = 462), and 20–24 months post-regulation (Time 2, N = 509). Clinician perceptions of implementation extensiveness (number of required policies in effect), use of tobacco cessation-related intake procedures, and use of guideline recommended counseling for treating tobacco dependence are significantly greater at Time 1 and Time 2 compared to Time 0. Additionally, differences are found in perceived implementation extensiveness based on hospital-based status, profit status, and level of care offered, although the pattern of effects differed some over the three time-points under investigation. PMID:23375360

  3. 27 CFR 70.421 - Alcohol dealer registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol dealer registration. 70.421 Section 70.421 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedural Rules Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to...

  4. 27 CFR 70.421 - Alcohol dealer registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol dealer registration. 70.421 Section 70.421 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedural Rules Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to...

  5. 27 CFR 70.421 - Alcohol dealer registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol dealer registration. 70.421 Section 70.421 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedural Rules Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to...

  6. 27 CFR 70.421 - Alcohol dealer registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Alcohol dealer registration. 70.421 Section 70.421 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to Distilled Spirits, Wines,...

  7. 27 CFR 70.421 - Alcohol dealer registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol dealer registration. 70.421 Section 70.421 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Procedural Rules Relating to Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Provisions Relating to...

  8. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption among 11- to 17-year-old adolescents: results of the KiGGS study: first follow-up (KiGGS Wave 1)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Kuntz, B

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, tobacco and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Germany was analyzed. In addition to the current situation, we report temporal developments and trends. Data were obtained from the first follow-up of the KiGGS study (KiGGS Wave 1) conducted from 2009 to 2012. All girls and boys aged 11-17 years (n = 5,258) were included. The results show that currently 12.0% of 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany smoke, 5.4% of them on a daily basis. At-risk drinking (AUDIT-C total score) was prevalent among 15.8% of adolescents, heavy episodic drinking (six or more alcoholic standard drinks on a single occasion at least once a month) among 11.5%. No significant gender differences were found for most indicators. However, among adolescents aged 14-17 years, boys revealed a greater inclination toward heavy episodic drinking than girls did (23.1 vs. 16.5 %, p < 0.01). Regarding smoking, distinct socioeconomic differences were observed. For example, adolescents from families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke significantly more often on a regular or daily basis compared with their peers from high-SES families (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.16-3.27 and OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 2.05-6.69, respectively). The relationship between SES and alcohol consumption is rather weak. Significant differences emerged only regarding lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption, and indicate lower consumption rates among low-SES compared with high-SES adolescents (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33-0.68). Consideration of the KiGGS baseline study data (2003-2006) shows that smoking prevalence has dropped almost by half from 20.4 to 12.0%. The percentage of adolescents who have ever drunk alcohol has decreased from 62.8 to 54.4%. These results are consistent with the findings of other studies on adolescent tobacco and alcohol consumption and should be considered in the context of preventive efforts that have been strengthened in recent years, especially regarding

  9. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  10. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  11. 27 CFR 5.37 - Alcohol content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling Requirements...

  12. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  14. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  15. 27 CFR 21.116 - Methyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  16. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  17. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  18. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  19. 27 CFR 19.398 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.398 Section 19.398 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.398 Alcohol. (a) Containers. Subject to...

  20. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Smokeless Tobacco KidsHealth > For Teens > Smokeless Tobacco Print A A ... thing as a "safe" tobacco product. What Is Smokeless Tobacco? Smokeless tobacco is also called spit tobacco, chewing ...